WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual volatile contents

  1. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  2. Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.

  3. [Analysis of residual volatiles in recycled polyethylene terephthalate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkado, Yuka; Kawamura, Yoko; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-02-01

    The residual volatiles in recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were analyzed using headspace/GC/MS. Recycled PET samples were made from PET bottles used for beverages, alcohol and soy sauce, and they were recycled in physical recycling plants, chemical recycling plants and superclean-like recycling trials. The physically recycled PET flakes contained small amounts of volatiles such as ethanol, limonene, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, acetone, octanal and nonanal. Most of them originated from foods packed in bottles, and only 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane was derived from polymer impurities. In contrast, the superclean-like or chemically recycled PET contained no detectable volatiles, like new PET pellets. The PET sheets shaped from physically recycled PET had no detectable volatiles. Not only the chemically and superclean-like recycled PET, but also the physically recycled PET contained no hazardous volatiles. It was concluded that there is no safety concern about volatiles in recycled PET, for the present use.

  4. The predictive content of CBOE crude oil volatility index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Li; Li, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    Volatility forecasting is an important issue in the area of econophysics. The information content of implied volatility for financial return volatility has been well documented in the literature but very few studies focus on oil volatility. In this paper, we show that the CBOE crude oil volatility index (OVX) has predictive ability for spot volatility of WTI and Brent oil returns, from both in-sample and out-of-sample perspectives. Including OVX-based implied volatility in GARCH-type volatility models can improve forecasting accuracy most of time. The predictability from OVX to spot volatility is also found for longer forecasting horizons of 5 days and 20 days. The simple GARCH(1,1) and fractionally integrated GARCH with OVX performs significantly better than the other OVX models and all 6 univariate GARCH-type models without OVX. Robustness test results suggest that OVX provides different information from as short-term interest rate.

  5. Measurements of volatile compound contents in resins using a moisture analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Nagano, Futami; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki

    2010-02-01

    The contents of volatile adhesive compounds, such as water, solvents, and residual unpolymerized monomers, affect the integrity and durability of adhesive bonding. However, there is no method available that can be used to rapidly assess the residual solvent or water contents of adhesive resins. This study examined the effectiveness of a digital moisture analyzer to measure the volatile compound contents of resins. Five self-etching adhesives and seven experimental light-cured resins prepared with different contents (0, 10, and 20% by weight) of water or solvents (acetone and ethanol) were examined in this study. The resins were prepared using different methods (with and without air blast or light-curing) to simulate the clinical conditions of adhesive application. Resin weight changes (% of weight loss) were determined as the residual volatile compound contents, using the moisture analyzer. After the measurements, the resin films were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The weight changes of the resins were found to depend on the amount of water or solvents evaporating from the resin. Water and solvents were evaporated by air blast or light-curing, but some of the water and solvents remained in the cured resin. The moisture analyzer is easy to operate and is a useful instrument for using to measure the residual volatile compound contents of adhesive resin.

  6. Volatile contents of grape marcs in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. Luz; Malcata, F. Xavier; Revel, G. de

    1996-01-01

    The present study reports on the composition of volatiles of most grape marcs (bagaceiras) commercially available in Portugal. These spirits, which are a valuable by-product of the winemaking industry, are obtained via steam-distillation of grape pomace after storage under anaerobic conditions for a given period of time. An impetus for this research is the increasingly strict European legal standards pertaining to the levels of health hazard volatile compounds (e.g., methanol) and the lack of...

  7. Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming.4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process.El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno est

  8. Size-dependence of volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon content in phytoplankton cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRuiz-Halpern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC and SOC, measured as exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC, was quantified in 9 phytoplanktonic species that spanned 4 orders of magnitude in cell volume, by disrupting the cells and quantifying the gaseous organic carbon released. EDOC content varied 4 orders of magnitude, from 0.0015 to 14.12 pg C cell-1 in the species studied and increased linearly with increasing phytoplankton cell volume following the equation EDOC (pg C cell-1 = -2.35 x cellular volume (CV, µm3 cell-1 0.90 (± 0.3, with a slope (0.90 not different from 1 indicating a constant increase in volatile carbon as the cell size of phytoplankton increased. The percentage of EDOC relative to total cellular carbon was small but varied 20 fold from 0.28 % to 5.17 %, and no obvious taxonomic pattern in the content of EDOC was appreciable for the species tested. The cell release rate of EDOC is small compared to the amount of carbon in the cell and difficult to capture. Nonetheless, the results point to a potential flux of volatile and semivolatile phytoplankton-derived organic carbon to the atmosphere that has been largely underestimated and deserves further attention in the future.

  9. Volatile element content of the heterogeneous upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Saal, A. E.; Hauri, E. H.; Forsyth, D. W.; Kamenetsky, V. S.; Niu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The physical properties of the asthenosphere (e.g., seismic velocity, viscosity, electrical conductivity) have been attributed to either mineral properties at relevant temperature, pressure, and water content or to the presence of a low melt fraction. We resort to the geochemical studies of MORB to unravel the composition of the asthenosphere. It is important to determine to what extent the geochemical variations in axial MORB do represent a homogeneous mantle composition and variations in the physical conditions of magma generation and transport; or alternatively, they represent mixing of melts from a heterogeneous upper mantle. Lavas from intra-transform faults and off-axis seamounts share a common mantle source with axial MORB, but experience less differentiation and homogenization. Therefore they provide better estimates for the end-member volatile budget of the heterogeneous upper mantle. We present major, trace, and volatile element data (H2O, CO2, Cl, F, S) as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions [1, 2] of basaltic glasses (MgO > 6.0 wt%) from the NEPR seamounts, Quebrada-Discovery-Gofar transform fault system, and Macquarie Island. The samples range from incompatible trace element (ITE) depleted (DMORB: Th/La0.07) spanning the entire range of EPR MORB. The isotopic composition of the samples correlates with the degree of trace element enrichment indicating long-lived mantle heterogeneity. Once shallow-level processes (degassing, crystallization, and crustal assimilation) have been considered, we conducted a two-component (DMORB- and EMORB-) mantle melting-mixing model. Our model reproduces the major, trace and volatile element contents and isotopic composition of our samples and suggests that (1) 90% of the upper mantle is highly depleted in ITE (DMORB source) with only 10% of an enriched component (EMORB source), (2) the EMORB source is peridotitic rather than pyroxenitic, and (3) NMORB do not represent an actual mantle source, but the product of

  10. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril processing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%, followed by ketones (26%, alcohols (18%, aldehydes (9%, acids (3% and other compounds (9%. Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  11. High litter moisture content suppresses litter ammonia volatilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D M; Rowe, D E; Cathcart, T C

    2011-07-01

    With global food demand expected to increase by 100% in the next 50 yr, urgency to combine comprehensive strategies for sustainable, efficacious, and environmentally sensible agronomic practices has never been greater. One effort for US meat bird management is to reduce NH(3) volatilization from litter to create a better growing environment for the birds, improve production efficiency, retain N in litter for fertilizer value, and negate the detrimental environmental impacts of NH(3) loss to the air. To derive the fundamental effects of temperature and moisture on litter NH(3) volatilization over the range of conditions found in commercial houses, experiments were conducted using commercial broiler litter that had moisture contents of approximately 20 to 55% while controlling temperatures ranging from 18.3 to 40.6°C. Litter samples (100 g) were placed in 1-L containers that received humidified air at approximately 113 mL/min. Volatilized NH(3) in exhaust air was captured in H(3)BO(3) traps. Ammonia loss (log(10) transformation) was modeled via an equation using linear coefficients for temperature and moisture, an interaction term for temperature × moisture, and a quadratic term for moisture. The surface responses resembled parabolic cylinders, indicating a critical moisture level at which NH(3) no longer increases but is diminished as moisture continues to increase. The critical moisture level lies between 37.4 and 51.1% litter moisture, depending on the temperature. An increase in temperature consistently increased NH(3) generation. When the temperature extremes were compared, the maximum NH(3) was up to 7 times greater at 40.6 vs. 18.3°C. The upper moisture limit at which NH(3) release is maximized and subsequently arrested as moisture continues to increase had not been defined previously for commercial broiler litter. The poultry industry and researchers can use these results as a decision tool to enable management strategies that limit NH(3) production.

  12. Volatility Spillovers Across User-Generated Content and Stock Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dieijen (Myrthe); A. Borah (Abhishek); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVolatility is an important metric of financial performance, indicating uncertainty or risk. So, predicting and managing volatility is of interest to both company managers and investors. This study investigates whether volatility in user-generated content (UGC) can spill over to

  13. Methods for Reducing Volatile Organic Content in Fabric Waterproof Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keohan, Francis

    1994-01-01

    .... Regulatory pressure for environmental protection and worker safety has become a potent driving force in eliminating volatile organic solvents and toxic additives from commercial coating products...

  14. Earth’s volatile contents established by melting and vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, C. Ashley; Wood, Bernard J.

    2017-09-01

    The silicate Earth is strongly depleted in moderately volatile elements (such as lead, zinc, indium and alkali elements) relative to CI chondrites, the meteorites that compositionally most closely resemble the Sun. This depletion may be explained qualitatively by accretion of 10 to 20 per cent of a volatile-rich body to a reduced volatile-free proto-Earth, followed by partial extraction of some elements to the core. However, there are several unanswered questions regarding the sources of Earth’s volatiles, notably the overabundance of indium in the silicate Earth. Here we examine the melting processes that occurred during accretion on Earth and precursor bodies and report vaporization experiments under conditions of fixed temperature and oxygen fugacity. We find that the pattern of volatile element depletion in the silicate Earth is consistent with partial melting and vaporization rather than with simple accretion of a volatile-rich chondrite-like body. We argue that melting and vaporization on precursor bodies and possibly during the giant Moon-forming impact were responsible for establishing the observed abundances of moderately volatile elements in Earth.

  15. Analysis of lead content in automotive shredder residue (ASR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Oscar; Pessanha, Sofia; Queralt, Ignacio; Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR) is a very heterogeneous waste, which could have a very high metal content on finest fractions φ -1 in the fraction -1 in the fraction between 2 and 6 mm) and that such type of instrumentation enables a fast measurement with a limit of detection of 1.1 mg kg -1 for 1000 s measurement).

  16. The Information Content of Corridor Volatility Measures During Calm and Turmoil Periods

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    Elyas Elyasiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of volatility is of paramount importance in finance because of the effects on risk measurement and risk management. Corridor implied volatility measures allow us to disentangle the volatility of positive returns from that of negative returns, providing investors with additional information beyond standard market volatility. The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to propose different types of corridor implied volatility and some combinations of them as risk indicators, in order to provide useful information about investors’ sentiment and future market returns. Second, to investigate their usefulness in prediction of market returns under different market conditions (with a particular focus on the subprime crisis and the European debt crisis. The data set consists of daily index options traded on the Italian market and covers the 2005–2014 period. We find that upside corridor implied volatility measure embeds the highest information content about contemporaneous market returns, claiming the superiority of call options in measuring current sentiment in the market. Moreover, both upside and downside volatilities can be considered as barometers of investors’ fear. The volatility measures proposed have forecasting power on future returns only during high volatility periods and in particular during the European debt crisis. The explanatory power on future market returns improves when two of the proposed volatility measures are combined together in the same model.

  17. Laboratory measurements of emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from biomass burning in Chinese crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; PAN, X.; Taketani, F.; Komazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency by the laboratory experiments. The VOCs including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Two samples, wheat straw and rape plant, were burned in dry conditions and for some experiments wheat straw was burned under wet conditions. We compared the present data to the field data reported by Kudo et al. [2014]. The agreement between the field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics for relatively more smoldering data of dry samples but the field data were slightly underestimated compared with the laboratory data for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and acetonitrile. When the EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the underestimations for OVOCs and acetonitrile were improved compared with the data of dry samples. It may be a property of the burning of crop residue in the region of high temperature and high humidity that some inside parts of piled crop residue and/or the crop residue facing on the ground are still wet. But the ratios for acetic acid/glycolaldehyde was still lower than 1. This may suggest that strong loss processes of acetic acid/glycolaldehyde are present in the fresh plume.Kudo S., H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Saito, X. L. Pan, Y. Kanaya, F. Taketani, Z. F. Wang, H. Chen, H. Dong, M. Zhang, and K. Yamaji (2014), Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 7684-7698, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021044.

  18. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from maize residue open burning in the northern region of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirithian, Duanpen; Thepanondh, Sarawut; Sattler, Melanie L.; Laowagul, Wanna

    2018-03-01

    Emission factors for speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from maize residue burning were determined in this study based on chamber experiments. Thirty-six VOC species were identified by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). They were classified into six groups, including alkanes, alkenes, oxygenated VOCs, halogenated VOCs, aromatics and other. The emission factor for total VOCs was estimated as about 148 mg kg-1 dry mass burned. About 68.4% of the compounds were aromatics. Field samplings of maize residues were conducted to acquire the information of fuel characteristics including fuel loading, fraction of maize residues that were actually burned as well as proximate and elemental analysis of maize residues. The emission factors were then applied to estimate speciated VOC emissions from maize residue open burning at the provincial level in the upper-northern region of Thailand for the year 2014. Total burned area of maize covered an area of about 500,000 ha which was about 4.7% of the total area of upper-northern region of the country. It was found that total VOC emissions released during the burning season (January-April) was about 79.4 tons. Ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, acetaldehyde and o-xylene were the major contributors, accounting for more than 65% of total speciated VOC emissions.

  19. Monitoring volatilization products using Residual Gas Analyzers during MeV ion beam irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Kriewaldt, K.; Taylor, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2018-03-01

    The use of Residual Gas Analyzers (RGAs) during irradiation experiments can provide valuable information when incorporated into experimental end-stations. The instruments can track the volatilization products of beam-sensitive materials, which may ultimately aid researchers in selecting appropriate flux values for conducting experiments. Furthermore, the type of gaseous species released during an irradiation can be monitored directly, which may lead to new insights into the radiolysis and/or heating mechanisms responsible for gas evolution. A survey of several classes of materials exposed to extremes in particle flux is presented to show how RGA instrumentation can be incorporated to qualitatively assess ion-solid interactions in a variety of fields.

  20. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various

  1. Short communication. Nitrogen content of residual alfalfa taproots under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. residues can provide significant amounts of N to subsequent crops, but most of the data on this subject has been obtained from 1-2 year old alfalfa stands. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass of alfalfa taproots and their N content in irrigated alfalfa stands that are more than 2 years old. Twenty-two commercial irrigated alfalfa fields were evaluated in the Ebro Valley (Northeast Spain from 2006 to 2010. The taproot biomass in the arable layer (0 to 30 cm depth ranged from 1.8 to 10.1 Mg ha-1 and averaged 4.8 Mg ha-1. In contrast, the N concentration in alfalfa taproots was constant among fields and averaged 24.6 g N kg-1. The total amount of N contained in alfalfa taproots (0-30 cm depth ranged from 47 to 96 kg N ha-1 in 55% of the fields, ranged from 97 to 200 kg N ha-1 in 22% of the fields, and exceeded 200 kg N ha-1 in 23% of the fields. The N content of the irrigated alfalfa taproots studied here is in the upper range previously reported in other areas, mainly with younger alfalfa stands. Based on the current finding, a classification of the quality of irrigated alfalfa stands is proposed to improve the estimates of the residual-N effects of alfalfa on subsequent crops.

  2. Detection Of Volatile Oil Content Of Single-Grainzanthoxylum Seed Based on Nir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Wang, Yiming; Wu, Jingzhu; Zhu, Shiping

    A NIR model was established to predict the volatile oil content of single particle red Zanthoxylum seed in this paper. With the characteristic of irregular surface, A single Zanthoxylum seed will reflect the great difference in response to spectrum signals the entire spectrum detection and exceptional sample rejection method were employed before model optimization. As a result, the NIR model for predicting the content of volatile oil were built up by 74 red Zanthoxylum seed and results indicated: the NIR model of the single grain Zanthoxylum seed had good stability and predictability (RSD3). Results of this paper suggested that NIR could be used as a quick and convenient method for predicting the volatile oil content of Zanthoxylum seed, which is useful for breeding and the quality evaluation of it.

  3. Constraining pre-eruptive volatile contents and degassing histories in submarine lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.; Soule, S. A.; Liao, Y.; Le Roux, V.; Brodsky, H.; Kurz, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Vesicle textures in submarine lavas have been used to calculate total (pre-eruption) volatile concentrations in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), which provide constraints on upper mantle volatile contents and CO2 fluxes along the global MOR. In this study, we evaluate vesicle size distributions and volatile contents in a suite of 20 MORB samples, which span the range of typical vesicularities and bubble number densities observed in global MORB. We demonstrate that 2D imaging coupled with traditional stereological methods closely reproduces vesicle size distributions and vesicularities measured using 3D x-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT). We further demonstrate that x-ray μ-CT provides additional information about bubble deformation and clustering that are linked to bubble nucleation and lava emplacement dynamics. The validation of vesicularity measurements allows us to evaluate the methods for calculating total CO2 concentrations in MORB using dissolved volatile content (SIMS), vesicularity, vesicle gas density, and equations of state. We model bubble and melt contraction during lava quenching and show that the melt viscosity prevents bubbles from reaching equilibrium at the glass transition temperature. Thus, we suggest that higher temperatures should be used to calculate exsolved volatile concentrations based on observed vesicularities. Our revised method reconciles discrepancies between exsolved volatile contents measured by gas manometry and calculated from vesicularity. In addition, our revised method suggests that some previous studies may have overestimated MORB volatile concentrations by up to a factor of two, with the greatest differences in samples with the highest vesicularities (e.g., `popping rock' 2πD43). These new results have important implications for CO2/Nb of `undegassed' MORB and global ridge CO2 fluxes. Lastly, our revised method yields constant total CO2 concentrations in sample suites from individual MOR eruptions that experienced syn

  4. Extraction of plutonium from lean residues by room temperature fluoride volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.M.; Foropoulos, J.; Kennedy, R.C.; Dye, B.A.; Behrens, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of dioxygen difluoride (FOOF) and KrF 2 for the recovery of Pu from lean residues by conversion to gaseous PuF 6 is being investigated. The greater stability of PuF 6 at room temperature allows much more extensive removal of Pu from contaminated wastes, when compared to the high temperature fluoride volatility process. The process also requires fewer additive chemicals than aqueous processes, thus minimizing the amount of material that must be disposed of as radioactive waste. The transportability of gaseous PuF 6 allows much of the process to be automated, reducing operator exposure to radiation. Removal of PuF 6 decomposition product is easily facilitated by the use of these fluorinating agents. 9 refs., 8 figs

  5. Shrinkage Behavior of Polystyrene-based Foam Molded Parts Depending on Volatile Matter Content and Other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafafian, Carineh

    Polymer foam materials play a large role in the modern world. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) bead foam is a lightweight, low density, and good thermal and acoustic insulating material whose properties make it attractive for a number of applications, especially as building insulation. However, EPS also experiences post-molding shrinkage; it shrinks dimensionally from its molded size after processing. This means parts must be stored in warehouses until they are considered stable by the industry standard, DIN EN 1603. This often takes 11--18 weeks and is thus very timely and expensive. This study aims to decrease the post-molding shrinkage time of EPS foam by understanding the mechanisms of shrinkage behavior. Samples were split into two groups based on their amount of initial volatile matter content and storage conditions, then compared to a control group. Based on thermogravimetric analysis and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, the volatile matter content and composition was found to not be the sole contributor to EPS foam dimensional stability. Residual stress testing was done with the hole drilling method and Raman spectroscopy. As this type of testing has not been done with polymer foams before, the aim was to see if either method could reliably produce residual stress values. Both methods measured residual stress values with unknown accuracy. All samples stored at a higher temperature (60°C) reached dimensional stability by the end of this study. Thus, air diffusion into EPS foam, encouraged by the high temperature storage, was found to play a significant role in post-molding shrinkage.

  6. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  7. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam M; Likens, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for 'edit wars' surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically "controversial" (such as evolution and global warming) experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider "noncontroversial" (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism). For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD) 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans.

  8. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wilson

    Full Text Available Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for 'edit wars' surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically "controversial" (such as evolution and global warming experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider "noncontroversial" (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism. For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans.

  9. Safety aspects of targets for ADTT: Activity, volatile products, residual heat release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, E.V.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.; Shubin, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    Safety aspects of heavy metal liquid targets for the accelerator driven systems connected with the activity accumulation and residual energy release due to the irradiation with high energy proton beam are discussed. The results obtained for the lead-bismuth target that are under construction in IPPE now in the frame of ISTC Project No. 559 are briefly presented. The calculations and the analysis of the accumulation of the spallation reaction products, activity and energy release at various moments after the accelerator shutdown are presented. The concentrations of the reaction products, the total and partial activities, the activities of volatile products are determined. The contributions of the short-lived nuclides important for the prediction of the facility behaviour in regimes with the accelerator beam trips. The calculations and analysis of the residual energy release due to different decay type have been performed. The conclusions are as follows. The obtained results showed that long lived radioactivity accumulates mainly due to primary nuclear reactions. Secondary reactions are responsible for the production of small number of long-lived isotopes Bi-207, Po-210 and some others, being generated by radiative capture of low energy neutrons. It is possible to make a conclusion that neutrons in the energy range 20 - 800 MeV and protons with energy above 100 MeV give main contribution to the total activity generation although these parts of spectra inside the target give comparatively small contribution to the total flux. The correct consideration of short-lived nuclides contribution is the main problem in the analysis of the target behaviour in the case of short accelerator shutdowns. They make the determining contribution to the both activity and the heat release at the first moments after the accelerator shutdown, creating the intermediate links and additional channels for the long-lived nuclides accumulation chains. The strong dependence of calculated

  10. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  11. Collisional Mass Loss and Change of Volatile Content in Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindl, Thomas I.; Haghighipour, Nader; Burger, Christoph; Bancelin, David; Schaefer, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    It is widely accepted that the majority of Earth’s water was delivered to it by water carrying planetesimals and planetary embryos from the outer part of the asteroid belt. Modern planet formation simulations show this process with high resolution, but typically still treat embryo growth and water delivery in a rudimentary way: perfect merging is assumed whenever a collision occurs. This neglects collisional loss of material - especially volatiles - and hence leads to planetary water contents that are far too high. Faced with the challenge of estimating planetary embryo growth and their water content with increased accuracy, we study typical collision scenarios from our previous n-body simulations. These scenarios differ in the masses of the involved planetary embryos, their water contents, the impact angles, and the collision speeds. We perform several suites of detailed simulations with our smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) collision code covering part of the mentioned parameter space. We thrive for deriving a reasonable analytic estimate for collisional mass loss and volatile transfer that can (a) be included efficiently in planet formation simulations and (b) be used as a post-formation means to estimate realistic water budgets of terrestrial planets. While more extensive parameter studies are needed for deriving such a relation, we present first results valid for the simulated range of masses, velocities, and collision angles and discuss their implications for models of terrestrial planet formation.

  12. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  13. Chemometric discrimination of different tomato cultivars based on their volatile fingerprint in relation to lycopene and total phenolics content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socaci, Sonia A; Socaciu, Carmen; Mureşan, Crina; Fărcaş, Anca; Tofană, Maria; Vicaş, Simona; Pintea, Adela

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic flavour of tomato is given by a complex mixture of sugars, acids, amino acids, minerals and volatile metabolites. Of these, volatile compounds are considered to greatly influence the flavour of tomato fruits. The volatile aroma compounds and phytochemical content of tomatoes are dependent on genotype, environmental conditions and cultural practices, and can thus be used for cultivar discrimination. To assess the possibility of using the volatile profile of tomato to fingerprint and discriminate different tomato cultivars based on an 'in-tube extraction' technique coupled to gas chromatography, combined with mass spectrometry (ITEX/GC-MS) and a chemometric approach. Using the ITEX/GC-MS technique, 61 volatiles were analysed and separated from tomato cultivars, with 58 being identified. The main volatiles identified in all tomato cultivars were: hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-pentanone, 3-methylbutanol, 2-methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanal and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The lycopene content and total phenolic compound content of the tomato cultivars varied between 36.78 and 73.18 mg/kg fresh weight (fw) and from 119.4 to 253.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per kilogram fresh weight, respectively. Volatile fingerprint and phytochemical composition led to a good differentiation between tomato cultivars, with the first two principal components explaining 89% of the variance in the data. The tomato cultivars studied were easily discriminated based on their characteristic volatile profile that was obtained using the reliable ITEX/GC-MS technique. Principal component analysis revealed, in addition to volatile compounds, the important role played by the total phenolic content in tomato cultivar discrimination, which is highly correlated with phenotypic and biochemical differences between tomato cultivars. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of organic residues and urea on Marandu palisadegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Vanin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure ammonia volatilization from surface application of pig slurry, poultry litter, urea and no fertilization. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in plots repeated over time, with four treatments and four replications. The fertilizers tested were: mineral fertilizer (70 kg ha-1 N, 100 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 30 kg ha-1 of K2O, as urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride, respectively, pig slurry (200 m³ ha-1 applied in November 2008 and 200 m³ ha-1 applied in April 2009 and poultry litter (10 t ha-1 applied in November 2008 and 10 t ha-1 applied in April 2009. Five evaluations were performed with 24-hour intervals. Foams were used with glycerin and sulfuric acid, internally fixed in PET bottles for collecting ammonia. After collected, the samples were sent to the laboratory to determine volatilized ammonia levels by the semi-micro Kjedahl distillation method. Fertilization with chicken litter had lower ammonia volatilization in relation to urea and pig slurry. Most of the ammonia volatilization from pig slurry occurred within 48 hours after application, totaling losses of 630 g kg-1 of a total of 8.25 kg ha-1 of volatilized ammonia. The biggest loss by ammonia volatilization was from fertilization with urea, totaling approximately 80 g kg-1 of N applied.

  15. On quantification of residual ink content and deinking efficiency in recycling of mixed office waste paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Li; Gaosheng Wang; Kefu Chen; David W. Vahey; Junyong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Although (flotation) deinking has been a common industry practice for several decades, true residual ink content and deinking efficiency have never been quantified. Paper brightness and ERIC (Effective Residual Ink Concentration), based on measurements of the absorption coefficient of deinked pulp, have been used to determine performance of flotation deinking processes...

  16. Analyses of volatile organic compounds and refractory organic residues coming from the heating of interstellar ice analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danger Grégoire

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We use Very High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for analyses of the soluble fraction of yellow stuff produced in laboratory. Their analyses show that they are composed of molecules with high molecular weight (m/z>4000. Fragmentations suggest that grafted molecules constitute a part of them. Hexamethylenetetramine derivatives have also been detected. First results and further analytical developments will be presented to facilitate the understanding of the residue composition and of its chemical evolution. Furthermore, we present for the first time the concept of the VAHIIA project which concerns the analysis of volatiles coming from the heating of interstellar ice analogues.

  17. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  18. The Information Content of Treasury Bond Options Concerning Future Volatility and Price Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We study the relation between realized and implied volatility in the bond market. Realizedvolatility is constructed from high-frequency (5-minute) returns on 30 year Treasury bond futures.Implied volatility is backed out from prices of associated bond options. Recent nonparametric statisticaltech......We study the relation between realized and implied volatility in the bond market. Realizedvolatility is constructed from high-frequency (5-minute) returns on 30 year Treasury bond futures.Implied volatility is backed out from prices of associated bond options. Recent nonparametric...... components. We also introduce a new vector HAR (VecHAR) modelfor the resulting simultaneous system, controlling for possible endogeneity of implied volatility inthe forecasting equations. We show that implied volatility is a biased and inefficient forecast in thebond market. However, implied volatility does...

  19. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter Pounds...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  2. Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, T.; Deenik, J. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Campbell, S.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil—first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with high VM content (20-35%), with and without fertilizer supplements, whereas low VM charcoal (6-9%) increased plant growth when combined with fertilizer. We conducted two laboratory studies to characterize the VM content of charcoals derived from two feedstocks (corncob and kiawe) and relate observed differences to key aspects of soil fertility. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total phenol content (using a Prussian blue colorimetric assay), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the VM content of charcoal primarily consisted of alkanes, oxygen-substituted alkanes, and phenolic compounds. However, the GC-MS data indicated that charcoals can differ vastly in their extractable fraction, depending upon both VM content and feedstock. In a second set of experiments, we examined the effect of VM content and feedstock on soil microbial activity, available nitrogen (N), and soluble carbon (C). High VM corncob charcoals significantly enhanced microbial activity, coupled with net reduction in available N and soluble C. For a given feedstock, the extent of this effect was dependent upon VM content. However, the overall effect of VM content on microbial dynamics was apparently related to the composition of the acetone-extractable fraction, which was particularly important when comparing two charcoals derived from different feedstocks but with the equivalent VM contents. Removing the acetone-extractable fraction from the 23% VM corncob charcoal significantly reduced the enhancement of

  3. The MESERAN Method: Rapid Quantification of Non-Volatile Organic Residue (NVOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovich, M.G.

    2002-06-13

    The precision analytical technique known as MESERAN Analysis permits quantitative measurement of the level of preexisting nonvolatile organic residue (NVOR) on a substrate from <1 nanogram (ng)/cm{sup 2} to > 100 micrograms ({micro}g)/cm{sup 2} in 2 minutes. MESERAN Analysis is also applicable to determining NVOR in solvents and solvent extracts. The MESERAN method is able to quantify organic contamination levels down to and below 1 ng by depositing as little as 10 microliters ({micro}L) of solvent containing a known amount of contamination on a clean substrate, allowing it to evaporate, and measuring the evaporated residue. The method will be described in detail and NVOR measurements determined from MESERAN data will be presented.

  4. High residue contents indebted by platinum and silica synergistic action during the pyrolysis of silicone formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delebecq, Etienne; Hamdani-Devarennes, Siska; Raeke, Julia; Lopez Cuesta, José-Marie; Ganachaud, François

    2011-03-01

    The synergistic role of platinum and silica as a way to increase the final residue of pyrolized silicone was investigated and explained, giving new interpretations. Conditions were first set to study the thermal degradation of silicones in the presence of platinum based on the simplest silicone/silica/platinum formulation. Numerous parameters, e.g., platinum and silica content or silica surface modifications, were varied to track their influences on the final residues. A thorough DSC study, together with SEM/EDX and Pyrolysis/GC-MS analyses, led us to propose a three-stage process. The key parameter governing thermal stability and final content of the residue is the conjugated actions of immobilizing/cross-linking PDMS chains. Silica particles tether silicone chains through physical interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonding, facilitating a platinum radically catalyzed cross-linking reaction. Practical implications and possible improvements on LSR formulations are finally given.

  5. Partitioning of U, Th and K Between Metal, Sulfide and Silicate, Insights into the Volatile-Content of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Rapp, J.; Righter, M.; Pando, K.; Ross, D. K.; Andreasen, R.; Chidester, B.

    2016-01-01

    During the early stages of the Solar System formation, especially during the T-Tauri phase, the Sun emitted strong solar winds, which are thought to have expelled a portion of the volatile elements from the inner solar system. It is therefore usually believed that the volatile depletion of a planet is correlated with its proximity to the Sun. This trend was supported by the K/Th and K/U ratios of Venus, the Earth, and Mars. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, it was expected that Mercury is the most volatile-depleted planet. However, the Gamma Ray Spectrometer of MESSENGER spacecraft revealed elevated K/U and K/Th ratios for the surface of Mercury, much higher than previous expectations. It is possible that the K/Th and K/U ratios on the surface are not a reliable gauge of the bulk volatile content of Mercury. Mercury is enriched in sulfur and is the most reduced of the terrestrial planets, with oxygen fugacity (fO2) between IW-6.3 and IW-2.6 log units. At these particular compositions, U, Th and K behave differently and can become more siderophile or chalcophile. If significant amounts of U and Th are sequestered in the core, the apparent K/U and K/Th ratios measured on the surface may not represent the volatile budget of the whole planet. An accurate determination of the partitioning of these elements between silicate, metal, and sulfide phases under Mercurian conditions is therefore essential to better constrain Mercury's volatile content and assess planetary formation models.

  6. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline Content, GABA Content and Volatile Compounds of Germinated Rice (Thai Upland Rice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansenya, Sompong; Hua, Yanling; Chumanee, Saowapa; Phasai, Kannika; Sricheewin, Chanun

    2017-05-10

    Aroma intensity in rice is related to the level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The accumulation of 2AP in rice has been synthesized via l-proline metabolism by inactive betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme (BADH2), which activates 2AP accumulation. Meanwhile, active BADH2 inhibits 2AP accumulation but activates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation. The improvement of 2AP content in rice has been reported under certain conditions, such as high salinity, water treatment, and reduction of high intensity solar exposure. In this study, we conducted the effects of gamma irradiation on 2AP content, GABA content and volatile compounds of germinated rice (Thai upland rice). Our results showed that the GABA content was highest when rice seeds germinated within a 24-h. The 2AP content of irradiated rice (germinated within a 24-h duration) was higher than non-irradiated rice for all gamma doses, particularly at 20 Gy, which showed a 23-fold higher level of 2AP than non-irradiated rice. On the other hand, the reduction of the GABA content of irradiated rice was caused by an increase in the gamma dose. At 300 Gy, irradiated rice had a GABA content approximately 2.6-fold lower than non-irradiated rice. Moreover, we observed that a reduction of volatile compounds occurred when increasing gamma dose. However, some volatile compounds appeared in the irradiated rice at gamma doses of 60 Gy, 80 Gy, 100 Gy and 300 Gy. Furthermore, we observed that the level of Octanal, which is the compound most related to aroma intensity, of irradiated rice was stronger than that of non-irradiated rice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 2AP and GABA contents are sensitive to gamma irradiation conditions. Moreover, the results indicate that the gamma irradiation technique can be used to improve the aroma intensity of rice.

  7. Comparative study of anthocyanin and volatile compounds content of four varieties of Mexican roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) by multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, G A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Jiménez-Aparicio, A R; Vanegas-Espinoza, P E; Paredes-López, O; Del Villar-Martínez, A A

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of water-soluble pigments that provide red, purple or blue color to the leaves, flowers, and fruits. In addition, benefits have been attributed to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This study compared the content of total anthocyanins and volatile compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of four varieties of Mexican roselle, with different levels of pigmentation. The multivariable analysis of categorical data demonstrated that ethanol was the best solvent for the extraction of both anthocyanins and volatile compounds. The concentration of anthocyanin in pigmented varieties ranged from 17.3 to 32.2 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside/g dry weight, while volatile compounds analysis showed that geraniol was the main compound in extracts from the four varieties. The principal component analysis (PCA) allowed description of results with 77.38% of variance establishing a clear grouping for each variety in addition to similarities among some of these varieties. These results were validated by the confusion matrix obtained in the classification by the factorial discriminate analysis (FDA); it can be useful for roselle varieties classification. Small differences in anthocyanin and volatile compounds content could be detected, and it may be of interest for the food industry in order to classify a new individual into one of several groups using different variables at once.

  8. Residual monomer content determination in some acrylic denture base materials and possibilities of its reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Polymethyl methacrylate is used for producing a denture basis. It is a material made by the polymerization process of methyl methacrylate. Despite of the polymerization type, there is a certain amount of free methyl methacrylate (residual monomer incorporated in the denture, which can cause irritation of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of residual monomer in four different denture base acrylic resins by liquid chromatography and the possibility of its reduction. Methods. After the polymerization, a postpolymerization treatment was performed in three different ways: in boiling water for thirty minutes, with 500 W microwaves for three minutes and in steam bath at 22º C for one to thirty days. Results. The obtained results showed that the amount of residual monomer is significantly higher in cold polymerizing acrylates (9.1-11%. The amount of residual monomer after hot polymerization was in the tolerance range (0.59- 0.86%. Conclusion. The obtained results denote a low content of residual monomer in the samples which have undergone postpolymerization treatment. A lower percent of residual monomer is established in samples undergone a hot polymerization.

  9. Rapid microwave pyrolysis of coal: methodology and examination of the residual and volatile phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsef-Mirzai, P.; Ravindran, M.; McWhinnie, W.R.; Burchill, P. (Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1995-01-01

    Substances such as CuO, Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] and even metallurgical coke (termed 'receptors') heat rapidly in a microwave oven at 2.45 GHz. The receptor, when mixed with Creswell coal and subjected to microwave radiation, induces rapid pyrolysis of the coal. Condensable tar yields of 20 wt% are obtained with coke, 27 wt% with Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] and as high as 49 wt% in some experiments with CuO. Despite the high final temperature (1200-1300[degree]C after 3 min), analyses suggest that the volatiles are released in the lower part of the temperature regime but that some secondary cracking does occur. The tars are similar in composition, although with coke the proportion of aromatic hydrogen is greater than with CuO and Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that both pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen are present in the tars and chars, and that the dominant form of tar sulfur is thiophenic. There is evidence that mineral sulfur is immobilized when CuO in particular is the receptor. The chars formed show a degree of graphitization and are themselves excellent microwave receptors. In the presence of oxide receptors, char-oxide redox reactions occur, with loss of char, reduction of oxide and enhanced yields of CO and CO[sub 2]. Of the lighter hydrocarbons identified in the gas phase, methane predominates. The data obtained are compared with those for other pyrolysis methods. 22 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  10. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  11. A partial least squares model for non-volatile residue quantification using diffuse reflectance infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Amylynn; Moision, Robert M.

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, quantification of non-volatile residue (NVR) on surfaces relevant to space systems has been performed using solvent wipes for NVR removal followed by gravimetric analysis. In this approach the detectable levels of NVR are ultimately determined by the mass sensitivity of the analytical balance employed. Unfortunately, for routine samples, gravimetric measurement requires large sampling areas, on the order of a square foot, in order to clearly distinguish sample and background levels. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is one possible alternative to gravimetric analysis for NVR measurement. DRIFTS is an analytical technique used for the identification and quantification of organic compounds that has two primary advantages relative to gravimetric based methods: increased sensitivity and the ability to identify classes of organic species present. However, the use of DRIFTS is not without drawbacks, most notably repeatability of sample preparation and the additive quantification uncertainty arising from overlapping infrared signatures. This can result in traditional calibration methods greatly overestimating the concentration of species in mixtures. In this work, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is shown to be an effective method for removing the over prediction error of a three component mixture of common contaminant species.

  12. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Study of volatile oil and lipid content of Jasonia montana (vahl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oils, prepared by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of three patches of Jasonia montana (vahl.) collected in May, August and November were subjected separately to GC/Ms analysis. Camphor, endoborneol, endobornyl acetate, intermedeol, 1, 8-cineole, 1-α-terpineol, and α-pinene, represented the major ...

  14. A feasibility quantification study of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in duck meat for freshness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lu; Tang, Xiuying; Dong, Jun

    2017-12-15

    Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content is one of the core indicators for evaluating freshness of duck meat. Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was implemented in this study to determine the TVB-N content in duck breast meat. Quantitative calibration models were built by partial least square regression (PLSR) between the spectral data and the measured TVB-N values. The different spectral pre-processing methods were employed and synergy interval partial least squares and principal component analysis methods were used to select important wavelengths. In comparison, the prediction model with full spectra after multiplicative scatter correction pre-processing yielded optimum results with a root mean squared error for the prediction set (RMSEP) of 1.060mg/100g and a correlation coefficient (R P ) of 0.859. The results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of the quantification method for total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in duck meat based on Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique as an objective tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  16. Changes in the volatile compound production of fermentations made from musts with increasing grape content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K

    2010-01-27

    Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice. Model must systems have proven to be ideal for studies into the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To clarify the contribution of grape juice to the production of wine volatiles, we have employed a model must system spiked with increasing amounts of grape juice (Riesling or Cabernet Sauvignon). The resulting fermented wines were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and the data obtained grouped using ANOVA and cluster analyses to reveal those compounds that varied in concentration with reproducible trends relative to juice concentration. Such grouping highlights those compounds that are grape-dependent or for which production is modulated by grape composition. In some cases, increasing the proportion of grape juice in the fermentations stimulated the production of certain esters to levels between 2- and 140-fold higher than those seen in fermentations made with model grape juice media alone. The identification of the grape components responsible for the increased production of these wine volatiles will have implications for the impact of grape production and enology on wine flavor and aroma.

  17. Volatile Compounds and Inositol Hexakisphosphate (IP6) Content in Wholemeal Wheat Bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd Noor, Nor Qhairul Izzreen B

    In paper I and II, the influence of different fermentation temperature (8°C, 16°C and 32°C) and yeast level (2%, 4% and 6%) on the formation of volatile compounds in wholemeal wheat bread were investigated. The fermentation times were regulated to optimum bread height for each treatment. The vola......In paper I and II, the influence of different fermentation temperature (8°C, 16°C and 32°C) and yeast level (2%, 4% and 6%) on the formation of volatile compounds in wholemeal wheat bread were investigated. The fermentation times were regulated to optimum bread height for each treatment......-methylbutanol. Fermentation with low yeast level (2%) resulted in bread with higher relative areas of 2- and 3-methylbutanal as well as (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal as important lipid oxidation compound in bread. Contrary, fermentation of bread with 6% yeast resulted in higher relative area...... of the important fermentation product 2-phenylethanol. High yeast concentration (6%) was able to reduce the relative areas of important lipid oxidation products. In paper II, 28 volatile compounds out of 58 compounds were identified and the other 30 compounds were tentatively identified in the crust. Higher...

  18. High-risk residual gastric content in fasted patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: a prospective cohort study of prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S; Liang, S S; Formaz-Preston, A; Stewart, P A

    2015-11-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we examined the residual gastric contents of 255 fasted patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. The volume and pH of residual gastric contents collected by suction under direct visualisation during gastroscopy were accurately quantified. All patients completed the minimum two-hour fast for clear fluids and 97.2% of patients completed the minimum six-hour fast for solids. High-risk residual gastric content, defined as volume >25 ml and pH fasting, males presenting for endoscopy are more likely to have high-risk gastric content than females, and that the incidence appears to be reduced with increasing age, and by the use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine type 2 receptor antagonists, we were unable to confirm or exclude an effect of body mass index, peptic pathology, diabetes or other clinical or demographic factors in our study population.

  19. A history of violence: Insights into post-accretionary heating in carbonaceous chondrites from volatile element abundances, Zn isotopes and water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Brandon; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Pringle, Emily A.; Siebert, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) may have been the carriers of water, volatile and moderately volatile elements to Earth. Investigating the abundances of these elements, their relative volatility, and isotopes of state-change tracer elements such as Zn, and linking these observations to water contents, provide vital information on the processes that govern the abundances and isotopic signatures of these species in CCs and other planetary bodies. Here we report Zn isotopic data for 28 CCs (20 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), as well as trace element data for Zn, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi in 16 samples (8 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), that display a range of elemental abundances from case-normative to intensely depleted. We use these data, water content data from literature and Zn isotopes to investigate volatile depletions and to discern between closed and open system heating. Trace element data have been used to construct relative volatility scales among the elements for the CM and CR chondrites. From least volatile to most, the scale in CM chondrites is Pb-Sn-Bi-In-Zn-Tl, and for CR chondrites it is Tl-Zn-Sn-Pb-Bi-In. These observations suggest that heated CM and CR chondrites underwent volatile loss under different conditions to one another and to that of the solar nebula, e.g. differing oxygen fugacities. Furthermore, the most water and volatile depleted samples are highly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Zn. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly indicate that heated CM and CR chondrites incurred open system heating, stripping them of water and volatiles concomitantly, during post-accretionary shock impact(s).

  20. Differentiation of Wines Treated with Wood Chips Based on Their Phenolic Content, Volatile Composition, and Sensory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Chira, Kleopatra; Tzanakouli, Eleni; Ligas, Ioannis; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2015-12-01

    The effects of both wood chips addition and contact time on phenolic content, volatile composition, color parameters, and organoleptic character of red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko) were evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak, and Acacia were added in the wine after fermentation. A mixture consisting of 50% French and 50% Americal oak chips was also evaluated. In an attempt to categorize wine samples, various chemical parameters of wines and sensory parameters were studied after 1, 2, and 3 mo of contact time with chips. The results showed that regardless of the type of wood chips added in the wines, it was possible to differentiate the samples according to the contact time based on their phenolic composition and color parameters. In addition, wood-extracted volatile compounds seem to be the critical parameter that could separate the samples according to the wood type. The wines that were in contact with Acacia and Slavonia chips could be separated from the rest mainly due to their distinct sensory characters. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Effects of gasoline aromatic content on emissions of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes from a four-stroke motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng

    2013-01-01

    A new four-stroke carburettor motorcycle engine without any engine adjustments was used to study the impact of fuel aromatic content on the exhaust emissions of organic air pollutants (volatile organic compounds and carbonyls). Three levels of aromatic content, i.e. 15, 25, and 50% (vol.) aromatics mixed with gasoline were tested. The emissions of aromatic fuel were compared with those of commercial unleaded gasoline. The results indicated that the A 15 (15 vol% aromatics in gasoline) fuel exhibited the greatest total organic emission improvement among these three aromatic fuels as compared with commercial gasoline, reaching 59%. The highest emission factors of alkanes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups appeared in the reference fuel (RF) among all of the test fuels. A 15 showed the highest emission reduction in alkanes (73%), aromatics (36%), and carbonyls (28%), as compared to those of the RF. The highest emission reduction ofalkenes was observed when using A25 as fuel. A reduction in fuel aromatic content from 50 to 25 and 15 vol% in gasoline decreased benzene and toluene emissions, but increased the aldehyde emissions. In general, the results showed that the highest emission reductions for the most of measured organic pollutants appeared when using A 15 as the fuel.

  2. Gas chromatographic determination of electron capture sensitive volatile industrial chemical residues in foods, using AOAC pesticide multiresidue extraction and cleanup procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurawecz, M P; Puma, B J

    1986-01-01

    Electron capture (EC) gas chromatographic (GC) parameters have been developed for determining some of the more volatile industrial chemicals that can be determined by the AOAC multiresidue method for organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides with modified GC operating conditions. Retention times relative to pentachlorobenzene are reported for 143 industrial chemicals, pesticides, and related compounds on OV-101 GC columns at 130 degrees C. Also reported for most of the compounds are recoveries from fortified samples carried through the AOAC extraction and cleanup procedures for fatty and/or nonfatty foods, Florisil elution characteristics, and GC relative retention times on mixed OV-101 + OV-210 columns at 130 degrees C. Our laboratory has used the modified EC/GC parameters with the AOAC multiresidue extraction/cleanup procedures to determine many volatile halogenated industrial chemical contaminants in foods, chiefly in samples of fresh-water fish. Other modifications of the AOAC method are described to improve the tentative identification and quantitative measurement of these volatile residues.

  3. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  4. Effect of residual Al content on microstructure and mechanical properties of Grade B+Steel for castings for locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaifeng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The bogie made of Grade B+ steel is one of the most important parts of heavy haul trains. Some accidents were found to be the result of fracture failure of the bogies. It is very important to find the reason why the fracture failure occurred. Because Al was added for the final deoxidation during the smelting process of the Grade B+Steel, residual Al existed to some extent in the castings. High residual Al content in the bogie casting was presumed to be the reason for the fracture. In this work, the influence of residual Al content in the range of 0.015wt.% to 0.3wt.% on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Grade B+ Steel was studied. The experimental results showed that when the residual Al content is between 0.02wt.% and 0.20wt.%, the mechanical properties of the steel meet the requirements of technical specification for heavy haul train parts, and the fracture is typical plastic fractures. If the residual Al content is less than 0.02wt.%, the microstructures are coarse, and the mechanical properties can not meet the demand of bogie steel castings. When the residual Al content is more than 0.2wt.%, the elongation, reduction of area, and low-temperature impact energy markedly deteriorate. The fracture mode then changes from plastic fracture to cleavage brittle fracture. Therefore, the amount of Al addition for the final deoxidation during the smelting process must be strictly controlled. The optimum addition amount needs to be controlled within the range of 0.02wt.% to 0.20wt.% for the Grade B+Steel.

  5. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Padmakar S; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Mandokar, Rashmi B

    2009-01-01

    Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner). A total of 70 specimens (64 Chi 10 Chi 3.3 mm) were polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10). Control group specimens were not subjected to any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W) and time (3, 4, and 5 min) settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance. For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min) by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  6. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Padmakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. Objectives : This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner. Materials and Methods : A total of 70 specimens (64 Χ 10 Χ 3.3 mm were polymerized according to the manufacturer′s instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10. Control group specimens were not subjectedto any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W and time (3, 4, and 5 min settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results : For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Conclusion : Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  7. Determination of Volatile Organic Content in Water-Based Paints by Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    acrylic modified alkyd resin . ,2" q7 :o 4 " ,- 0 10 20 30 4.0 50 MINUTES Figure 4. Analysis of a latex, alkyd - resin paint. iki ,...2 4 mI +.- ’-I...chromatographic tglc) method for volIatile organic content in water- hased painits antd paint resins is presented. Sample preparation pirior to injection into the...mu ., l o N 1 -0N I 4 Sarmple Preparartion. .\\eeuratcliy weigh appro~r na ely 0).2 gram ot thti resin (q. lOnn ) aia pa int) illtIo a1 3-i tic I by

  8. Origin of Lava-Hyaloclastite Sequences in South Iceland as Revealed by Volatile Contents in Magmatic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Tenley; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Miller, Calvin; Furbish, David; Wallace, Paul; Bacon, Charles

    2013-04-01

    In the Síða District of south Iceland, Pleistocene basaltic lava forms flame-like apophyses, dikes, and disaggregation structures (cf. Bergh and Sigvaldason, 1991; Smellie, 2008) that invade overlying hyaloclastite. These features are exposed in valley walls composed of at least 14 (Bergh and Sigvaldason, 1991) paired basalt-hyaloclastite +/- diamictite depositional units. These units are dominated by hyaloclastite deposits that reach over 100 m in thickness, with underlying lava up to 50 m thick. Apophyses as well as underlying lavas show cube jointing, indicating rapid cooling due to formation in a wet environment and suggesting that hyaloclastite and lava were emplaced almost concurrently, while hyaloclastite was wet and weak. Dissolved volatile concentrations in glass give an indication of ambient pressure on quenching and cessation of degassing. FTIR analysis of basaltic glasses from chilled lava margins and hyaloclastite glasses indicate total H2O from below detection to 0.49 wt% with only one sample above 0.15 wt%; CO32- is below detection in all samples. These concentrations suggest extensive degassing at or near atmospheric conditions. S and Cl contents in both glass types were also below or near their respective detection limits by electron microprobe (70%. These data support an eruption that occurred under significantly lower-pressure conditions than previously proposed (Smellie, 2008). The presence of a large volume of hyaloclastite suggests the presence of ice or external water, which is consistent with results of prior studies (Smellie, 2008). Based on the volatile data presented here, the Síða deposits were likely erupted under near-atmospheric pressure and in the presence of significant water. In order to account for the required environmental conditions and volatile data, one possible scenario is that a subglacial eruption near the edge of a glacier may have produced hyaloclastite that was incorporated into a meltwater lake-draining j

  9. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, Ildikó [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Soran, Maria-Loredana, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Niinemets, Ülo [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Street, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Copolovici, Lucian [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Street, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Institute of Technical and Natural Sciences Research-Development of “Aurel Vlaicu” University, 2 Elena Drăgoi Street, Arad 310330 (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, > 17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation represents a stress for the plants. • Microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles. • O. basilicum irradiation with microwaves increases the essential oil content. • Microwave pollution can constitute a threat to the

  10. Effect of Drying Medium on Residual Moisture Content and Viability of Freeze-Dried Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valdez, Graciela F.; de Giori, Graciela S.; de Ruiz Holgado, Aida P.; Oliver, Guillermo

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various substances on the relationship between residual moisture content and the viability of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria has been studied. Compounds such as polymers, which display considerable ability in displacing water, showed no protective action during freeze-drying. Adonitol, on the other hand, produced the smallest change in water content at various times during drying and allowed the highest rate of survival. PMID:16346728

  11. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  12. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaricha, Leyla; Henni, Ahmed Djafar; Lancelot, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand) with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°), and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%).

  13. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaricha Leyla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°, and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%.

  14. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were observed two main mass losses for all samples. Results suggest hydrolysis carried out using enzyme is less effective in order to convert total starch content in cassava bagasse. However, using sulfuric acid, fibers are affected by analyses conditions.As frações nutricionais bem como as propriedades térmicas e outras análises são essenciais para a indústria de alimentos e suas aplicações O bagaço de mandioca é um importante resíduo agroindustrial e seu teor de amido foi avaliado por dois métodos alternativos. A caracterização por análise térmica e microscopia ajudou na compreensão de como a hidrólise digere a fração amilácea do bagaço de mandioca, O ponto de fusão foi de 170ºC, a análise termogravimétrica (TG mostrou após a perda de umidade do material, duas principais perdas de massa em todas as amostras analisadas. Os resultados sugerem que a hidrólise enzimática é menos eficiente na conversão total de amido no bagaço de mandioca. No entanto, o uso de ácido sulfúrico degradou até mesmo a parcela fibrosa do material, afetando as condições de análise.

  15. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mageed, Magda A. Abd

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milk was manufactured to Domiati cheese with different fat content in the cheese milk (1%, 3.5% and 7%. Results obtained during the ripening period revealed that the low fat cheese (Karish is not able to long period storage, while half cream cheese had a good quality and flavour along the ripening period. The full cream cheese did not exceed the first month of ripening, then it deteriorated. The main components found were acrolein (propenal, heptanal, acetone, butan-2 one, ethanol, butan-2 ol, 2-methylpropan- 1-ol, 3-methyl butan-1-ol, ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, pentane and octane. Methyl mercaptan, methyl thiopropionate, and dimethyl trisulfide together with propyl butyrate, were existed in the samples which are characterized as bad cheese samples. Most of the previous compounds were developed after 1 month of ripening period.

    La leche de búfalo fue procesada para obtener queso Domiati con diferente contenido graso en la cuajada (1%, 3.5% y 7%. Los resultados obtenidos durante el período de maduración revelaron que el queso con bajo contenido en grasa (Karish no permite un largo período de almacenamiento, mientras que el queso con un contenido medio en grasa tuvo una buena calidad y flavor durante el período de maduración. El queso con alto contenido graso no duró más que el primer mes de maduración, deteriorándose posteriormente. Los principales componentes encontrados fueron acroleína (propenal, heptanal, acetona, butan-2-ona, etanol, butan-2-ol, 2- metil-propan-1-ol, 3 metil butan-1-ol, propionato de etilo, propionate de propilo, pentano y octano. Metil mercaptol, tiopropionato de metilo y trisulfuro de dimetilo Junto con butirato de propilo se encontraron en muestras que fueron caracterizadas como muestras de quesos malos. La mayoría de los compuestos anteriores se produjeron después de un mes de período de maduración.

  16. Content of the essential and other elements in residues left over after fermentation in a biogas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešić Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the residues left over after fermentation in a biogas plant depended on the source material that was used. The dry matter content in the liquid residue ranged from 4.83 to 6.82%, pH from 7.80 to 8.20, whereas the content of organic matter in the dry matter of the liquid residue varied from 72.33 to 80.30%. Ash content varied from 19.70 to 27.67%, nitrogen from 2.84 to 3.92%, phosphorus from 0.51 to 0.62%, potassium from 5.07 to 6.86%, calcium from 1.77 to 2.35%, and magnesium from 0.26 to 0.30%. Concentrations of essential micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Ni and Cd and Pb varied within the limits laid out to dry matter of manure. Concentrations of heavy metals were significantly lower than the MAC in the dry matter of fertilizers. Based on the above it can be concluded that the residue left over after fermentation in a biogas plant is, by its chemical properties, suitable organic fertilizer that may be used not only in conventional but also in organic crop production.

  17. Effect of residual Al content on microstructure and mechanical properties of Grade B+Steel for castings for locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Kaifeng; Guo Erjun; Cao Guojian

    2013-01-01

    The bogie made of Grade B+ steel is one of the most important parts of heavy haul trains. Some accidents were found to be the result of fracture failure of the bogies. It is very important to find the reason why the fracture failure occurred. Because Al was added for the final deoxidation during the smelting process of the Grade B+Steel, residual Al existed to some extent in the castings. High residual Al content in the bogie casting was presumed to be the reason for the fracture. In this wor...

  18. Content Of 2,4-D-14C Herbicide Residue In Water And Soil Of Irrigated Rice Field System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairul, Sofnie M.; Djabir, Elida; Magdalena, Nelly

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of 2,4-D exp.-14C herbicide residue in water and soil of irrigated rice field system was carried out. Rice plant and weeds (Monochoria vaginalis Burn. F. Presl) were planted in 101 buckets using two kinds of soil condition, I.e. normal soil and 30 % above normal compact soil. After one week planting, the plants were sprayed with 1 u Ci of 2,4-D exp.-14C and 0,4 mg non labeled 2,4-D. The herbicide residue content was determined 0, 2, 4, 8 and 10 weeks after spraying with 2,4-D herbicide. The analysis was done using Combustion Biological Oxidizer merk Harvey ox-400, and counted with Liquid Scintillation Counter merk Beckman model LS-1801. The results indicates that the herbicide contents in water and soil decrease from the first spraying with herbicide until harvest herbicide Residue content in water after harvest was 0.87 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil normal condition, and 0.59 x 10 exp.-6 pm for the soil 30 % up normal condition, while herbicide content in soil was 1.54 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil normal condition and 1.48 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil 30 % up normal. 2,4-D herbicide residue content in rice after harvest was 0.27 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for normal soil condition and 0.25 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for the soil 30 % up normal. 2,4-D herbicide residue content in roots and leaves of weeds after harvest were respectively 0.29 x 10 exp.-6 ppm and 0.18 x 10 exp.-6 for normal soil condition, while for 30 % up normal soil were 0.25 x 10 exp.-5 ppm and 0.63 x 10 exp.-7 ppm. This result indicates that there is no effect pollution to surrounding area, because the herbicide content is still bellow the allowed detection limit, 0.05 ppm

  19. The chemical composition and the content of volatile oil: potential factors that can contribute to the oxidative stability of Nigella sativa L. crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E

    2011-03-01

    The crude oil of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) has well-known nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties. The oil is prone to rapid oxidative deterioration because of its high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. In the current investigation, different cold-pressed crude oils of N. sativa were examined for their composition of fatty acids and oxidative stability. The data obtained were correlated with the chemical composition and content of volatile oils, which correspond to each crude oil. Results indicated that different crude oils have the same fatty acid composition, and linoleic acid was the major constituent (60.0-61.7%). Though, the oxidative stability index of the crude oils was different ranging from 2.5 hr to 26.9 hr, as revealed by the Rancimate test at 100°C and airflow rate of 20 ml/min. The results showed that there is a straightforward correlation between the volatile oil content and the oxidative stability of the corresponding parent crude oil. In addition, high γ-terpinene content in the constitution of volatile oil can also be another contributing factor for enhancing the oxidative stability of the crude oil. The data presented here draw attention to some important factors that may guide the nutraceutical and food supplement processors in their screening for the highest quality of Nigella crude oils with maximum health benefits.

  20. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  1. A method of obtaining signal components of residual carrier signal with their power content and computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1993-01-01

    A novel algorithm to obtain all signal components of a residual carrier signal with any number of channels is presented. The phase modulation type may be NRZ-L or split phase (Manchester). The algorithm also provides a simple way to obtain the power contents of the signal components. Steps to recognize the signal components that influence the carrier tracking loop and the data tracking loop at the receiver are given. A computer program for numerical computation is also provided.

  2. The information content of implied volatilities of options on eurodeposit futures traded on the LIFFE: is there long memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cifarelli, giulio

    2002-01-01

    Under rather general conditions Black - Scholes implied volatilities from at-the-money options appropriately quantify, in each period, the market expectations of the average volatility of the return of the underlying asset until contract expiration. The efficiency of these expectation estimates is investigated here, for options on two major short term interest rate futures contracts traded at the LIFFE, using a long memory framework. Over the 1993 – 1997 time interval the performance of im...

  3. Analysis and antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents from Quercus leucotrichophora (Fagaceae) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O P; Biswas, D; Chauhan, B S

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile extract (yield ≈ 0.13%, v/w) from the bark of Quercus leucotrichophora (Fagaceae) was analysed for the first time by GC-MS. Twenty-three constituents, amounting to 93.0% of the total detected contents of the volatile extract, were identified. The volatile extract contained approximately 86.36% monoterpenoids, 6.53% sesquiterpenoids and 0.11% aliphatic aldehydes. 1,8-Cineol (40.359%) followed by γ-terpinene (16.369%) were the major monoterpene constituents of the volatile extract. The residue of volatile extract (0.00025-250 µg  mL(-1)) exhibited a potent antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615. This study concludes that residues of the volatile extract of Q. leucotrichophora could serve as an important bioresource for the extraction and isolation of monoterpenoids exhibiting antimicrobial activity, and thus has good potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Influence of digestion methods on the recovery of Iron, Zinc, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium and Lead contents in 11 organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are currently many devices and techniques to quantify trace elements (TEs in various matrices, but their efficacy is dependent on the digestion methods (DMs employed in the opening of such matrices which, although "organic", present inorganic components which are difficult to solubilize. This study was carried out to evaluate the recovery of Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb contents in samples of composts and cattle, horse, chicken, quail, and swine manures, as well as in sewage sludges and peat. The DMs employed were acid digestion in microwaves with HNO3 (EPA 3051A; nitric-perchloric digestion with HNO3 + HClO4 in a digestion block (NP; dry ashing in a muffle furnace and solubilization of residual ash in nitric acid (MDA; digestion by using aqua regia solution (HCl:HNO3 in the digestion block (AR; and acid digestion with HCl and HNO3 + H2O2 (EPA 3050. The dry ashing method led to the greatest recovery of Cd in organic residues, but the EPA 3050 protocol can be an alternative method for the same purpose. The dry ashing should not be employed to determine the concentration of Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the residues. Higher Cr and Fe contents are recovered when NP and EPA 3050 are employed in the opening of organic matrices. For most of the residues analyzed, AR is the most effective method for recovering Ni. Microwave-assisted digestion methods (EPA3051 and 3050 led to the highest recovery of Pb. The choice of the DM that provides maximum recovery of Zn depends on the organic residue and trace element analyzed.

  5. Gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry of Pinot Noir wine volatile compounds (δ13C) and solid residues (δ13C, δ15N) for the reassessment of vineyard water-status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Vogiatzaki, Maria; Zufferey, Vivian

    2017-09-29

    This paper describes a novel approach to reassess the water status in vineyards based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of wine volatile organic compounds (δ 13 C VOC/VPDB ) and bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and the C/N molar ratios of the wine solid residues (δ 13 C SR/VPDB , δ 15 N SR/Air-N2 ). These analyses link gas chromatography/combustion and elemental analysis to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS, EA/IRMS). Field-grown cultivars of Pinot Noir grapevines were exposed during six growing seasons (2009-2014) to controlled soil water availability, while maintaining identical the other environmental variables and agricultural techniques. Wines were produced from the grapes by the same oenological protocol. This permitted for the assessment of the effects in the biochemistry of wines solely induced by the changes in the plant-soil water status. This mimicked the more recurrent and prolonged periods of soil water deficiency due to climate changes. Water stress in grapevine was assessed by the measurement of the predawn leaf water potential (Ψ pd ) and the stable carbon isotope composition of the berry sugars during harvest (must sugars). For quantitation purposes and the normalization of the measured stable carbon isotope ratios of the VOCs, the wine samples were spiked with three standard compounds with known concentration and δ 13 C VPDB values. VOCs were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and GC/C/IRMS. δ 13 C values were obtained for eighteen VOCs. The solid residues were obtained by freeze-drying wine aliquots and were analyzed for their C and N content and isotope composition by EA/IRMS. All the isotopic ratios (δ 13 C SR , δ 15 N SR , δ 13 C VOC ) are highly correlated with the Ψ pd values, indicating that the proposed gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach is a useful tool to

  6. Regulations and decisions in environmental impact assessment of residues radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance of natural radionuclides in the environment did not have high priority over many years compared to that of man-made radioactivity. There is, however, an increasing interest in such measurements since enhanced exposure to natural radioactivity is receiving the same legal weight as any other radiation exposure. In this context the surveillance of technologically enhanced naturally occurring materials, called TENORM becomes important. In Brazil, the industries of processing and chemical compounds production were developed based on mining, milling, transformation and manufacture of ores from sedimentary origin, ignea or metamorphic, which must determine the radioactive composition of the generated solid wastes and residues. Many solids residues stored in the environment has been of environmental concern facing the industries and environmentalists in Brazil as it presents a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to individuals occupationally exposed. Radiation protection regulations have not been applied yet to these industries, as the Brazilian regulatory agency (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN) has only recently published a regulatory guide concerning mining and milling of naturally occurring radioactive materials, which may generate enhanced concentrations of radionuclides. With respect to external and internal exposure to natural radionuclides from the solid residues storage, the nuclides of 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U decay chains are relevant, due to the exposure of workers as well as of members of the public. Radionuclides released from a source can be present as ions, molecules, complexes, mononuclear or polynuclear species, colloids, pseudocolloids, particles or fragments varying in size (nominal molecular mass), structure, morphology, density, valence and charge properties. One of the main points in environmental impact assessment is to identify whether the chemical availability is under influence of these speciation

  7. Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M E; Pederson, E D; Cohen, M E; Ragain, J C; Karaway, R S; Auxer, R A; Saluta, A R

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to carry out residual mercury (Hg) determinations and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis of used amalgam capsules. For residual Hg analysis, 25 capsules (20 capsules for one brand) from each of 10 different brands of amalgam were analyzed. Total residual Hg levels per capsule were determined using United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 7471. For TCLP analysis, 25 amalgam capsules for each of 10 brands were extracted using a modification of USEPA Method 1311. Hg analysis of the TCLP extracts was done with USEPA Method 7470A. Analysis of silver (Ag) concentrations in the TCLP extract was done with USEPA Method 6010B. Analysis of the residual Hg data resulted in the segregation of brands into three groups: Dispersalloy capsules, Group A, retained the most Hg (1.225 mg/capsule). These capsules were the only ones to include a pestle. Group B capsules, Valliant PhD, Optaloy II, Megalloy and Valliant Snap Set, retained the next highest amount of Hg (0.534-0.770 mg/capsule), and were characterized by a groove in the inside of the capsule. Group C, Tytin regular set double-spill, Tytin FC, Contour, Sybraloy regular set, and Tytin regular set single-spill retained the least amount of Hg (0.125-0.266 mg/capsule). TCLP analysis of the triturated capsules showed Sybraloy and Contour leached Hg at greater than the 0.2 mg/l Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit. This study demonstrated that residual mercury may be related to capsule design features and that TCLP extracts from these capsules could, in some brands, exceed RCRA Hg limits, making their disposal problematic. At current RCRA limits, the leaching of Ag is not a problem.

  8. (210)Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ("black-powder") and its correlation with the chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, José Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the (210)Pb content in "black-powder" found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with (210)Pb concentration evaluated. Typical "black-powder" generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide ( approximately 81%) and residual organic matter ( approximately 9%). The (210)Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04k Bqkg(-1) and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, (226)Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. (228)Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest (226)Ra content.

  9. Comparison of Volatile Contents In Melt Inclusions and Glasses at Mid-Ocean Ridges with Variable Spreading Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, V.; Shaw, A. M.; Behn, M. D.; Soule, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Here we use volatile concentrations of basaltic glasses and naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions from four different mid-ocean ridges to investigate how crustal accretion, magma storage, and crystallization depths vary with spreading rate. Our study sites include the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise, intermediate-spreading Juan de Fuca Ridge, slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge. Vapor-saturation pressures are calculated from equilibrium CO2-H2O concentrations and converted to depths below the seafloor. At spreading centers with a seismically imaged melt lens, the maximum saturation pressures in basaltic glasses coincide with the depth of the melt lens and there is no evidence of saturation pressures that extend beyond this depth. This suggests that magmas equilibrate in the shallow melt lens (when present) prior to erupting on the seafloor and then ascend rapidly from the melt lens to the seafloor, preserving equilibration pressures consistent with melt lens storage depths. In the absence of a melt lens (i.e., slow to ultraslow spreading ridges), saturation pressures in glasses typically correspond to seafloor depths, suggesting that there is no long-term shallow storage reservoir in the crust and that eruption rates are slow enough to allow for melts to equilibrate during their ascent through the lithosphere. Relative to basaltic glasses from the same segment, melt inclusions typically record greater vapor-saturation pressures, with olivine crystallization occurring from the seafloor down to the upper mantle (~9-10 km) at all four ridges investigated. The deeper end of this spectrum may reflect either (1) the maximum depth from which olivine can be transported without re-equilibration, (2) the maximum depth of olivine crystallization beneath ridges, or (3) the maximum CO2 content in the mid-ocean ridge mantle source. While the overall range in crystallization depths is similar, the distribution of crystallization

  10. Testing of residual monomer content reduction possibility on acrilic resins quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA is material widely used in dentistry. Despite the various methods used to initiate the polymerization of acrylic resins, the conversion of monomer to polymer is not complete thus leaving some unreacted methyl methacrylate (MMA, known as residual monomer (RM, in denture structure. RM in dental acrylic resins has deleterious effects on their mechanical properties and their biocompatibility. The objective of the work was to test the residual monomer reduction possibility by applying the appropriate postpolymerization treatment as well as to determine the effects of this reduction on pressure yields stress and surface structure characteristics of the acrylic resins. Postpolymerization treatments and water storage induced reduction of RM amount in cold-polymerized acrylic resins improved their mechanical properties and the homogenized surface structure. After the polymerization of heat-polymerized acrylic resins the post-polymerization treatments for improving the quality of this material type are not necessary.

  11. Determination of residual volatile organic compounds migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food simulant by headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Ling, Susie Lu; Zalilah Nasir; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Abu Naim, Ahmedy

    2008-01-01

    The residual styrene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the polystyrene food packaging are of concern as these compounds have the potential to migrate into the food in contact. This work describes a method for quantitative determination of VOCs, namely styrene, toluene, ethyl benzene, iso-propylbenzene and n-propylbenzene that have migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food stimulant by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) technique was applied for migration test using water as food stimulant. The effects of extraction variables including sample volume, eluotropic strength, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sample agitation, and salt addition on the amounts of the extracted analyses were studied to obtain the optimal HS-SPME conditions. The optimized method was applied to test the VOCs migrated from polystyrene bowls and cups at storage temperatures ranging from 24 to 80 degree Celsius for 30 min. Styrene and ethyl benzene were found to migrate from the samples into the food stimulant. The migration of analyze was found to be strongly dependent upon the storage temperature. The HS-SPME is useful as an alternative method to determine the migration of VOCs from food packaging material into food stimulant. (author)

  12. In-situ studies on volatile jet exhaust particle emissions - impacts of fuel sulfur content and environmental conditions on nuclei-mode aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F.; Baumann, R.; Petzold, A.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Fiebig, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Brock, C.A. [Denver Univ., CO (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2000-02-01

    In-situ measurements of ultrafine aerosol particle emissions were performed at cruise altitudes behind the DLR ATTAS research jet (RR M45H M501 engines) and a B737-300 aircraft (CFM56-3B1 engines). Measurements were made 0.15-20 seconds after emission as the source aircraft burned fuel with sulfur contents (FSC) of 2.6, 56 or 118 mg kg{sup -1}. Particle size distributions of from 3 to 60 nm diameter were determined using CN-counters with varying lower size detection limits. Volatile particle concentrations in the aircraft plumes strongly increased as diameter decreased toward the sizes of large molecular clusters, illustrating that apparent particle emissions are extremely sensitive to the smallest particle size detectable by the instrument used. Environmental conditions and plume age alone could influence the number of detected ultrafine (volatile) aerosols within an order of magnitude, as well. The observed volatile particle emissions decreased nonlinearly as FSC decreased to 60 mg kg{sup -1}, reaching minimum values of about 2 x 10{sup 17} kg{sup -1} and 2 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1} for particles >3 nm and >5 nm, respectively. Volatile particle emissions did not change significantly as FSCs were further reduced below 60 mg kg{sup -1}. Volatile particle emissions did not differ significantly between the two studied engine types. In contrast, soot particle emissions from the modern CFM56-3B1 engines were 4-5 times less (4 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}) than from the older RR M45H M501 engines (1.8 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1}). Contrail processing has been identified as an efficient sink/quenching parameter for ultrafine particles and reduces the remaining interstitial aerosol by factors 2-10 depending on particle size.

  13. Seed Production, Herbage Residue and Crude Protein Content of Centro (Centrosema pubescens) in the Year of Establishment at Shika, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omokanye, AT.

    2001-01-01

    A field trial was carried out on seed production pattern of centro (Centrosema pubescens,) in the year of establishment in a sub humid environment of Nigeria as influenced by sowing date and phosphorus application levels. The herbage residue and its crude protein content were also determined after pod harvest. The variation in seeds per pod for plantings between June 21 to August 2 was from 16.5 to 14.5, while for unfertilized and fertilized plots seeds number varied between 12.6 and 16.2/pod...

  14. Seed Production, Herbage Residue and Crude Protein Content of Centro (Centrosema pubescens in the Year of Establishment at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out on seed production pattern of centro (Centrosema pubescens, in the year of establishment in a sub humid environment of Nigeria as influenced by sowing date and phosphorus application levels. The herbage residue and its crude protein content were also determined after pod harvest. The variation in seeds per pod for plantings between June 21 to August 2 was from 16.5 to 14.5, while for unfertilized and fertilized plots seeds number varied between 12.6 and 16.2/pod. The weight of 1000 seeds decreased with delayed planting. Phosphorus application improved seed weight. Seed yield was highest (1000 kg/ha for July 5 sowing with phosphorus application of 60 kg/ha P205 combination. The variation in mean seed yield for planting between June 21 and August 2 was 782.0 to 360.3 kg/ha. The application of 0 to 60 kg/ha P205 resulted in mean seed yields of 405.7 to 776.8 kg/ha. Herbage residue was favoured more by June 21 sowing and the application of 60 kg/ha P205. The crude protein content was better with August sowing and 60 kg/ha P205.

  15. Effect of proteolysis index level on instrumental adhesiveness, free amino acids content and volatile compounds profile of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Santaescolástica, C; Carballo, J; Fulladosa, E; Garcia-Perez, José V; Benedito, J; Lorenzo, J M

    2018-05-01

    Defective textures in dry-cured ham are a common problem that causes important economic losses in the ham industry. An increase of proteolysis during the dry-cured ham processing may lead to high adhesiveness and consumer rejection of the product. Therefore, the influence of proteolysis index (PI) on instrumental adhesiveness, free amino acids and volatile profile of dry-cured ham was assessed. Two hundred Spanish dry-cured ham units were firstly classified according to their PI: low PI (36%). Instrumental adhesiveness was affected by PI, showing the lowest values in the batch with low PI. Significant differences (P < 0.05) among groups were found in six amino acids: serine, taurine, cysteine, methionine, isoleucine and leucine. The content of leucine, serine, methionine, and isoleucine significantly (P < 0.05) increased as the proteolysis index rose. However, taurine and cysteine content showed an opposite behaviour, reaching the highest values in the dry-cured hams with low PI. Significant differences (P < 0.001) in the total content of volatile compounds among ham groups were observed, with the highest concentration in the batch with low PI, and decreasing the concentration as the PI increased. Regarding the different chemical families of volatiles, the hydrocarbons (the main family), alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and acids were more abundant in the hams showing the lowest PI. Esters did not show significant differences among the three batches of hams studied. The present study demonstrated that, apart from the effect on the adhesiveness, an excessive proteolysis seems to be associated with negative effects on the taste and aroma of the dry-cured ham. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...

  17. Efeito do conteúdo e da natureza da lignina residual na eficiência e na seletividade do branqueamento com ozônio Effect of residual lignin content and nature on the efficiency and selectivity of ozone bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Pereira Maia

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliados os efeitos do conteúdo e da natureza da lignina residual na eficiência e na seletividade do branqueamento com ozônio de polpa kraft convencional (kraft e pré-deslignificada com oxigênio (kraft-O. Constatou-se que a eficiência do branqueamento com ozônio se eleva com o aumento do conteúdo de lignina residual da polpa. O tratamento com ozônio é mais seletivo para polpas kraft-O, mas para um mesmo tipo de polpa a seletividade de branqueamento com ozônio se eleva com o aumento de lignina residual. A eficiência do branqueamento com ozônio aumenta com o teor de lignina fenólica na polpa, entretanto a seletividade é negativamente afetada pela presença destas estruturas.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of residual lignin content and nature on the efficiency and selectivity of ozone bleaching of conventional (kraft and oxygen delignified (kraft-O pulps. Ozone bleaching efficiency was found to be enhanced by increasing pulp residual lignin content. Ozone treatment is more selective for kraft-O pulps, but for a given type of pulp (kraft or kraft-O, ozone bleaching selectivity increases with increasing pulp lignin content. Ozone bleaching efficiency increases with increasing pulp lignin phenolic hydroxyl content whereas selectivity is negatively affected by these structures.

  18. Experimental design to monitor the influence of crop residue management on the dynamics of soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chélin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard; Degré, Aurore; Nguyen, Frédéric; Garré, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Choices related to crop residue management affecting soil structure determine spatio-temporal dynamics of water content and eventually crop yields. In this contribution, we will discuss the experimental design we adopted to study the influence of agricultural management strategies (tillage and residue management) on the soil water dynamics under maize in a Cutanic Siltic Luvisol in Gembloux, Belgium. Three different treatments will be studied: a conventional ploughing realized either in December 2014 or just before sowing in April 2015, and a strip tillage in April 2015. A bare soil under conventional ploughing will also be monitored in order to better understand the influence of the plant over the growing season. In order to limit soil disturbance, we opted for the use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and we use the bulk electrical conductivity as a proxy for soil moisture content. ERT will be collected every week on a surface of two square meters corresponding to three rows of seven maize plants through surface stainless steel electrodes. Five additional sticks with stainless steel electrodes will be vertically inserted into the soil up to 1.50 m to get more detailed information near to the central maize row. In each of the monitoring plots, two time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes will be installed for data validation. In order to calibrate the relationship between electrical resistivity and soil water content under highly variable field conditions (changes in soil structure, variable weather conditions, plant growth, fertilization), a trench will be dug, in which a set of four electrodes, one TDR probe and one temperature sensor will be placed at four different depths. In addition, two suction cups will be installed in each of the plots to quantify changes in ion composition and electrical conductivity of the soil solution at two different depths. Within the framework of the multidisciplinary research platform AgricultureIsLife, regular assessment

  19. Decomposição, liberação e volatilização de nitrogênio em resíduos culturais de mucuna-cinza (Mucuna cinerea Decomposition, release and volatilization of nitrogen from velvet bean (Mucuna cinerea residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gustavo Teixeira Ribas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas possibilitam a incorporação biológica de nitrogênio aos sistemas de produção. Contudo, existe pouco conhecimento sobre a decomposição, liberação e volatilização de nitrogênioassociados à diferentes doses de seus resíduos. Objetivouse, neste trabalho avaliar a decomposição, a liberação e a volatilização de nitrogênio de diferentes doses de mucuna-cinza (Mucuna cinerea Piper & Tracy. O experimento constou de tratamentos com 12 (C12 ou 25 (C25 Mg ha-1 de composto orgânico: C12AV0 (sem leguminosa; C12AV4 (4 Mg ha-1 de resíduo; C12AV8 (8 Mg ha-1; C12AV12 (12 Mg ha-1; C25; AV12 (12 Mg ha-1 e testemunha absoluta. Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados e cinco repetições. Foram determinadas as taxas de decomposição do adubo verde e liberação de N, o teor de N-mineral no solo e a volatilização de N-NH3. A liberação de N (t½=28 dias foi mais rápida que a decomposição do resíduo (t½=38 dias. Essa liberação de N eleva rapidamente os teores de N-mineral do solo e resulta também em maior elevação da volatilização de N-NH3. O incremento das doses de 8 para 12 Mg ha-1 de mucuna resultou em aumento mais que proporcional da volatilização acumulada de N-NH3, atingindo 30 kg ha-1 após 30 dias.The use of leguminous species allows the biological incorporation of nitrogen into cropping systems. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about the decomposition, release and volatilization of nitrogen associated with the decomposition of different quantities of residues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the decomposition of the biomass, the release and volatilization of nitrogen from different doses of velvet bean (Mucuna cinerea Piper & Tracy residues. The treatments were established either with 12 (C12 or 25 (C25 Mg ha-1 of organic compost: C12AV0 (without residue; C12AV4 (4 Mg ha-1 of residue; C12AV8 (8 Mg ha-1; C12AV12 (12 Mg ha-1; C25; AV12 (12 Mg ha-1 and a control. The randomized

  20. Determination of the Volatile Fatty Acid Content in the Rumen Liquid: Comparison of Gas Chromatography and Capillary Isotachophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Filípek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two analytical procedures for determining volatile fatty acids in the rumen liquid were compared: capillary isotachophoresis (ITP and gas chromatography. Acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric and valeric acids were determined. No significant differences (n = 53, P ≥ 0.05 have been identified in the amounts of acetic and propionic acids and the results are highly consistent. For butyric acid, the method of gas chromatography yielded higher results with a constant error of approximately 0.5 mmol/l in the whole range of concentration. In terms of diagnostics, however, this size of error is non-significant. In the case of valeric acid a proportional error was found. Gas chromatography yielded higher values, the difference being greater for the low values while for the higher values the results are almost identical. However, valeric acid is a minor acid and its determination is of secondary significance to rumen fermentation assessment. The gas chromatography method is able to clearly differentiate between n and iso forms in the case of butyric and valeric acids. It can be stated that the two analytical methods yield comparable results and both can be used for the needs of practical diagnostics.

  1. Application of titration methods for measuring the contents of ammonium nitrogen and volatile fatty acids in agricultural biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, Michał; Lisowski, Aleksander; Lisowska, Barbara

    2017-12-20

    The aim of our research was to assess a relatively new method of estimating ammonium nitrogen concentration in anaerobic digestion of plant substrates. We analysed our own data, received from the anaerobic digestion of maize silage (PM), as well as data published by Purser et al. (2014) who measured energy crops and slurry (ECS), and food waste (FW). In our study, the process was monitored for VFA content that was determined by gas chromatography, and for the content of ammonium nitrogen determined using the HACH LANGE LCK 303 cuvette test. We created polynomial regression models that bind the content of ammonium nitrogen with the volume of H 2 SO 4 used to titrate the sample from initial pH to pH 5. To estimate parameters of model, the PM dataset was used. The obtained models were positively validated using ECS and FW datasets. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of the Purser et al. method with an average absolute error of less than 223mgl -1 of the VFA concentration, which was approximately 20-times less than the level that caused inhibition. In conclusion, we can affirm the suitability of using titration methods to assess the ammonium nitrogen content of bioreactors with a stable composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Eco-geochemical peculiarities of mercury content in solid residue of snow in the industrial enterprises impacted areas of Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonenko, E. A.; Lyapina, E. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Parygina, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Snow, as short-term consignation Wednesday, has several properties that lead to its widespread use in ecologicalgeochemical and geological research. By studying the chemical composition of the dust fallout you can indirectly assess the condition of atmospheric air.1-2. Determining the content of mercury in snow cover, you can define its contribution for the longest period of the year in our region, with the most intensive use of various types of fuel (coal, gas, firewood), that puts a strain on urban ecosystems in terms of ecology.3-4. In addition, snow cleans the atmosphere of mercury, but it accumulates in the snow, and during the spring melting of snow hits the ground and rivers, polluting them. Part of the mercury back into the atmosphere. It should also be note the special nature of the circulation of air masses over the city in winter, creating a heat CAP, which contributes to air pollution of the city. 5-6-7. The high load areas of industrial impact were detected during the eco-geochemical investigations of mercury load index in the impacted areas of enterprises of Tomsk. It was found out, that aerosol particles of industrial emissions in Tomsk contain mercury. The contamination transfer character of mercury sources and occurrence modes of pollutants in snow solid residue were detected during the researches of industrial impact.

  3. Effect of zinc binding residues in growth hormone (GH) and altered intracellular zinc content on regulated GH secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Vibor; Miletta, Maria Consolata; Eblé, Andrée; Iliev, Daniel I; Binder, Gerhard; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus E

    2013-11-01

    Endocrine cells store hormones in concentrated forms (aggregates) in dense-core secretory granules that are released upon appropriate stimulation. Zn(2+) binding to GH through amino acid residues His18, His21, and Glu174 are essential for GH dimerization and might mediate its aggregation and storage in secretory granules. To investigate whether GH-1 gene mutations at these positions interfere with this process, GH secretion and intracellular production were analyzed in GC cells (rat pituitary cell line) transiently expressing wt-GH and/or GH Zn mutant (GH-H18A-H21A-E174A) in forskolin-stimulated vs nonstimulated conditions. Reduced secretion of the mutant variant (alone or coexpressed with wt-GH) compared with wt-GH after forskolin stimulation was observed, whereas an increased intracellular accumulation of GH Zn mutant vs wt-GH correlates with its altered extracellular secretion. Depleting Zn(2+) from culture medium using N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylemethyl)ethylenediamine, a high-affinity Zn(2+) chelator, led to a significant reduction of the stimulated wt-GH secretion. Furthermore, externally added Zn(2+) to culture medium increased intracellular free Zn(2+) levels and recovered wt-GH secretion, suggesting its direct dependence on free Zn(2+) levels after forskolin stimulation. Confocal microscopy analysis of the intracellular secretory pathway of wt-GH and GH Zn mutant indicated that both variants pass through the regulated secretory pathway in a similar manner. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that loss of affinity of GH to Zn(2+) as well as altering intracellular free Zn(2+) content may interfere with normal GH dimerization (aggregation) and storage of the mutant variant (alone or with wt-GH), which could possibly explain impaired GH secretion.

  4. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeem Abbasi, M.; Tahir, M. Mahmood; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2015-02-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in soil-plant systems. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water-filled pore space) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues, i.e., the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata, incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed a wide variation in total N, C, lignin, polyphenols and C / N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of Glycine max and the shoot and root of Trifolium repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% recovery of N that had been released from these added resources. The roots of Glycine max and Zea mays and the shoot of Zea mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation. After an initial immobilization, leaves of Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively, and representing a 16, 32 and 33% N recovery, respectively. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C / N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin / N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol / N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and (lignin + polyphenol) : N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating a

  5. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  6. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......, is subordinating content to methods as seen in modern didactics, hereby transforming content to a medium for achievement of learning-to-learn skills rather than something valuable in its own right. At the level of general didactics quite few attempts have been made to formulate criteria and categories...... secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...

  7. A geochemical study of lithospheric mantle beneath Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica): main evidences from volatile content in ultramafic xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Alessandra; Pelorosso, Beatrice; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Coltorti, Massimo; Italiano, Francesco; Bonadiman, Costanza

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical study of ultramafic xenoliths from Northern Victoria Land (Green Point, GP and Handler Ridge, HR), is carried out in order to investigate the features of the lithosphere mantle beneath the Western Antarctic Ridge System (WARS). The majority of samples is spinel anhydrous lherzolite with rare presence of secondary phases (secondary cpx and glass). Geothermobarometric calculations, based on the Fe/Mg distribution among the peridotite minerals reveal that Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) beneath Handler Ridge records temperatures and redox conditions higher then Greene Point (P fixed at 15 Kbar). Moreover, geochemical models evidence that, GP mantle domain represents a residuum after ˜7 to 21 % of partial melting in the spinel stability field, which was variably affected by interaction with infiltrating melts, acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic (Pelorosso et al., 2016). Fluid inclusions (FI) entrapped in olivine and pyroxene crystals were investigated for elemental and isotopic contents of both, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) and CO2. He, Ar and Ne concentrations range from 1.52×10-14 to 1.07×10-12, from 4.09×10-13 to 3.47×10-11and from 2.84×10-16 to 7.57×10-14 mol/g, respectively, while the CO2amounts are between 7.08×10-10 and 8.12×10-7 mol/g. The 3He/4He varies between 5.95 and 20.18 Ra (where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air), being the lowest and the highest values measured in the He-poorer samples. Post-eruptive input of cosmogenic 3He and radiogenic 4He seems to influence mainly the samples associated to a lower He concentrations, increasing and decreasing respectively their primordial 3He/4He values, that for all the other samples range between 6.76 and 7.45 Ra. This range reasonably reflects the isotope signature of mantle beneath the investigated areas. The 4He/40Ar* ratio corrected for atmospheric-derived contamination ranges between 0.004 and 0.39. The lowest 4He/40Ar* values (4He/40Ar*Land lithospheric

  8. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  9. Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations

  10. Volatility in GARCH Models of Business Tendency Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Dwi A. S.; Wage, Sutarman; Hartono, Ateng

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to obtain a model of business tendency index by considering volatility factor. Volatility factor detected by ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity). The ARCH checking was performed using the Lagrange multiplier test. The modeling is Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) are able to overcome volatility problems by incorporating past residual elements and residual variants.

  11. Efficiency of urease and nitrification inhibitors in reducing ammonia volatilization from diverse nitrogen fertilizers applied to different soil types and wheat straw mulching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco, Sara; Urrutia, Oscar; Martin, Vincent; Peristeropoulos, Angelos; Garcia-Mina, Jose Maria

    2011-07-01

    Some authors suggest that the absence of tillage in agricultural soils might have an influence on the efficiency of nitrogen applied in the soil surface. In this study we investigate the influence of no-tillage and soil characteristics on the efficiency of a urease inhibitor (N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide, NBPT) and a nitrification inhibitor (diciandiamide, DCD) in decreasing ammonia volatilization from urea and ammonium nitrate (AN), respectively. The results indicate that ammonia volatilization in soils amended with urea was significantly higher than in those fertilized with AN. Likewise, the main soil factors affecting ammonia volatilization from urea are clay and sand soil contents. While clay impedes ammonia volatilization, sand favours it. The presence of organic residues on soil surface (no-tillage) tends to increase ammonia volatilization from urea, although this fact depended on soil type. The presence of NBPT in urea fertilizer significantly reduced soil ammonia volatilization. This action of NBPT was negatively affected by acid soil pH and favoured by soil clay content. The presence of organic residues on soil surface amended with urea increased ammonia volatilization, and was particularly high in sandy compared with clay soils. Application of NBPT reduced ammonia volatilization although its efficiency is reduced in acid soils. Concerning AN fertilization, there were no differences in ammonia volatilization with or without DCD in no-tillage soils. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Characterization of briquettes produced with agroforestry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present was to characterize the quality of briquettes produced with fines of vegetable coal and bamboo residues, under different formulations. Specific gravity density, bulk density mass, moisture content and speed or rate of thermic degradation were evaluated. Compressive strength and rotation test were applied to the briquettes. Superior and inferior calorific values from briquettes were estimate by adjusted equations. Briquettes produced with the highest percentages of vegetable coal fines presented higher specific gravity, bulk density, ash content and fixed carbon. It also presented resistance to fall and abrasion. Briquettes with higher bamboo residues content presented faster degradation, higher compressive strength, beyond higher volatile matters and calorific value.

  13. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  14. Variation of the chemical contents and morphology of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting pistol as a potential contribution to a shooting incidence reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2011-07-15

    A study of the chemical contents and sizes of gunshot residue originating from 9×18mm PM ammunition, depositing in the vicinity of the shooting person was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Samples of the residue were collected from targets placed at various distances in the range 0-100cm as well as from hands and clothing of the shooting person. Targets were covered by fragments of white cotton fabric or black bovine leather. In the case of cotton targets microtraces were collected from circles of 5 and 10cm in radius. Results of the examinations in the form of numbers of particles, proportions of their chemical classes and dimensions revealed a dependence on the distance from the gun muzzle, both in the direction of shooting and in the opposite one, i.e., on the shooting person. The parameters describing gunshot residue differed also depending on the kind of the target substrate. The kind of obtained information gives rise to understanding the general rules of the dispersion of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting gun. Thus, it may be utilised in the reconstruction of shooting incidences, especially in establishing the mutual positions of the shooter and other participants of the incident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chalcophile elements in Martian meteorites indicate low sulfur content in the Martian interior and a volatile element-depleted late veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaicong; Becker, Harry

    2017-04-01

    It is generally believed that the Martian mantle and core are rich in sulfur and that shergottites originated from sulfide-saturated magma. However, recent work suggests that the high FeO contents would require very high S concentrations in shergottite parent magmas at sulfide saturation. Here we combine new and published data on chalcophile elements in shergottites, nakhlites and ALH84001 to constrain the sulfide saturation state of the parent magmas and the chalcophile element concentrations in their mantle sources. Regardless of the MgO content and the long-term depletion history of incompatible lithophile elements as indicated by initial ε143Nd, different groups of shergottites display limited variations in ratios of Pt, Pd, Re, Cu, S, Se and Te. The emplacement of most shergottites within the crust and limited variations of ratios of chalcophile elements with substantial differences in volatility during eruption (e.g., Cu/S, Cu/Se and Pt/Re) indicate little degassing losses of S, Se, Te and Re from shergottites. Limited variations in ratios of elements with very different sulfide-silicate melt partition coefficients and negative correlations of chalcophile elements with MgO require a sulfide-undersaturated evolution of the parent magmas from mantle source to emplacement in the crust, consistent with the FeO-based argument. Sulfide petrography and the komatiite-like fractionation of platinum group elements (PGE) in shergottites also support this conclusion. The absence of accumulated sulfides in the ancient Martian cumulate ALH84001 results in very low contents of PGE, Re, Cu, Se and Te in this meteorite, hinting that sulfide-undersaturated magmas may have occurred throughout the Martian geological history. The negative correlation of Cu and MgO contents in shergottites suggests approximately 2 ± 0.4 (1s) μg/g Cu in the Martian mantle. The ratios of Cu, S, Se and Te indicate 360 ± 120 μg/g (1s) S, 100 ± 27 ng/g (1s) Se and 0.50 ± 0.25 ng/g (1s) Te in the

  16. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  17. EBER - development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Voelzke, H.

    1995-01-01

    Containers which are manufactured using recycled metallic residual materials from decommissioned nuclear facilities must be designed in accordance with the requirements of transport, interim and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. When metallic residual materials are added to the melt in the manufacture of containers made of cast iron with nodular graphite (GGG 40), how the effect on and characteristics of materials are to be observed as well as the permissible limits. The influence on charcteristics of relevance to safety, such as fracture toughness and the types and magnitudes of defects in construction components are the most important factors. In BAM's 'EBER' project presented here, the studies concentrate on design-based safety against the mechanical effects of accidents. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Evidence of non-extractable florfenicol residues: development and validation of a confirmatory method for total florfenicol content in kidney by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Dermot; Cantley, Margaret; Walker, Matthew; Crooks, Steven; Kennedy, David; Elliott, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The parent compound florfenicol (FF) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound licensed in the UK for use in cattle, pigs and the aquaculture industry. The analysis of porcine tissues in this study demonstrates that significant amounts of solvent non-extractable FF-related residues are present in incurred tissues (kidney and muscle) from treated animals. The results indicate that methods based on solvent extraction alone may carry a significant risk of reporting false-negative results. The use of a strong acid hydrolysis step prior to solvent extraction of tissue samples is necessary for an accurate estimate of the total tissue FF content. A robust and sensitive method for the determination of total FF residue content in kidney samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. This method covers the synthetic amphenicol drug FF and its metabolites, measured as the marker residue florfenicol amine (FFA) as per Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010. Non-extractable and intermediate metabolites are converted to the hydrolysis product FFA, and then partitioned into ethyl acetate. Extracts are solvent exchanged prior to a dispersive solid-phase extraction step, then analysed using an alkaline reverse-phase gradient separation by UPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated around the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set out in Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010 for bovine kidney in accordance with Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The following method performance characteristics were assessed during a single laboratory validation study: selectivity, specificity, sensitivity, linearity, matrix effects, accuracy and precision (decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were determined).

  19. Volatile composition and sensory characteristics of onion powders prepared by convective drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, So Mang; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2017-09-15

    Volatile composition and sensory characteristics of onion powders prepared by convective drying at different temperatures (50, 70, and 90°C) were investigated. Dipropyl disulfide was the major volatile compound in fresh onion (77.70% of total volatile compounds). However it was considerably lost during drying, reaching 6.93-32.25µg/g solids. Dipropyl disulfide showed a positive correlation with green sensory attribute perceived by descriptive sensory analysis. Thiophenes, which were responsible for caramel and sweet attributes, were produced by drying especially when the drying temperature was high. Aldehydes, another type of volatile compound found in fresh onion, showed a positive correlation with humidity. The aldehyde content in dried onion was the highest at the lowest drying temperature, possibly because the aldehydes were produced by the residual enzymes in fresh onion. Using a low temperature for drying was ideal to retain the aroma of fresh onion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  1. Decay resistance of out-of-service utility poles as related to the distribution of residual creosote content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Roliadi; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Todd F. Shupe

    2000-01-01

    Decay resistance of out-of-service poles was investigated to evaluate their effectiveness against biodegradation for possible recycling of these poles for composite products. Decay resistance was related to creosote content and creosote distribution in poles with service durations of 5 and 25 years and also freshly treated poles. Weathering of the poles had caused...

  2. Evaluation of dose due to the liberation of the radioactive content present in systems of final disposal of radioactive residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Lopez, F.

    2006-01-01

    The disposal systems of radioactive residuals well-known as repositories near to the surface, are used to dispose residuals that can contain high concentrations of radionuclides of period of short semi disintegration, which they would decay at levels radiologically insignificant in some few decades or in some centuries: and acceptably low concentrations of radionuclides of period of long semi disintegration. The dose that would receive the critic group due to these systems it could be increased by cause of discreet events that affect the foreseen retard time, or by the gradual degradation of the barriers. To this last case it contributes the presence of water, because it implies leaching and dissolution that can give place to radionuclide concentrations in the underground water greater to the prospective ones. The dosimetric evaluation is important because it offers useful objective information to decide if a given repository is adjusted to the purposes of its design and it fulfills the regulatory requirements. In this work a simplified evaluation of the dose that would receive the critic group due to the liberation of contained radionuclides in a hypothetical system of final disposition of radioactive residuals is presented. For it, they are considered representative values of the usually contained activities in this type of systems and they are carried out some approaches of the source term. The study is developed in two stages. In the first one, by means of the Radionuclide pollutant scattering pattern in phreatic aquifers (DRAF) it is considered the scattering of the pollutants in the phreatic aquifer, until the discharge point in the course of the nearest surface water. This model, developed originally in the regulatory branch of the National Commission of Argentine Atomic Energy (CNEA); it solves the transport equation of solutes in porous means in three dimensions, by the finite differences method having in account the soil retention and the radioactive

  3. Enhancing Nutritional Contents ofLentinus sajor-cajuUsing Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg -1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase ( p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  4. Enhancing Nutritional Contents of Lentinus sajor-caju Using Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS. PMID:27790187

  5. Enhancing nutritional contents of Lentinus sajor-caju using residual biogas slurry waste of detoxified mahua cake mixed with wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residual biogas slurries (BGS of detoxified mahua cake (DMC and cow dung (CD were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS. Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p≤0.05 in protein content (29.6-38.9%, sugars (29.1-32.3% and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%, lignin (%, celluloses (% and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%, hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1% and lignin (27.4-39.23% in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  6. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffie, D.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  7. Effect of phenotypic residual feed intake and dietary forage content on the rumen microbial community of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Ciara A; Kenny, David A; Han, Sukkyan; McCabe, Matthew S; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-07-01

    Feed-efficient animals have lower production costs and reduced environmental impact. Given that rumen microbial fermentation plays a pivotal role in host nutrition, the premise that rumen microbiota may contribute to host feed efficiency is gaining momentum. Since diet is a major factor in determining rumen community structure and fermentation patterns, we investigated the effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal community structure of beef cattle across two contrasting diets. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed to profile the rumen bacterial population and to quantify the ruminal populations of Entodinium spp., protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Prevotella brevis, the genus Prevotella, and fungi in 14 low (efficient)- and 14 high (inefficient)-RFI animals offered a low-energy, high-forage diet, followed by a high-energy, low-forage diet. Canonical correspondence and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations between physiological variables and rumen microbial structure and specific microbial populations, respectively. The effect of RFI on bacterial profiles was influenced by diet, with the association between RFI group and PCR-DGGE profiles stronger for the higher forage diet. qPCR showed that Prevotella abundance was higher (P diet. Thus, differences in the ruminal microflora may contribute to host feed efficiency, although this effect may also be modulated by the diet offered.

  8. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The residual monomer content and mechanical properties of CAD\\CAM resins used in the fabrication of complete dentures as compared to heat cured resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayman, Al-Dharrab

    2017-07-01

    The utilization of computer-assisted designing and computer-assisted milling CAD\\CAM resins in the fabrication of removable prostheses is a modern-day concept that offers many advantages over the use of the traditional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). This study instigated some of the mechanical properties of CAD\\CAM denture base resin including the amount of residual monomer. This study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University from October 2016 to February 2017. A total of seventy rectangular specimens were fabricated (group A: 35 heat-cured PMMA and group B: 35 CAD/CAM pre-polymerized acrylic resin blocks). The flexural strength and surface hardness were tested while the residual monomer content at baseline, two-day and seven-day intervals was estimated using gas chromatography (GC). Means and standard deviations were determined for each group as well as independent-samples t-test and ANOVA with repeated measures for comparison between the groups and subgroups of varying time intervals. Heat cured PMMA (A), displayed higher flexural strength and low value flexural modulus compared to CAD/CAM acrylic resin denture base material (B). Student t-test indicated highly significant differences (pCAD/CAM resin may be considered suitable for use in the construction of denture bases.

  10. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  11. Analysis of the relation between the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content and the thermal behavior of residual biomass from olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Maraver, A; Salvachúa, D; Martínez, M J; Diaz, L F; Zamorano, M

    2013-11-01

    The heterogeneity of biomass makes it difficult if not impossible to make sweeping generalizations concerning thermochemical treatment systems and the optimal equipment to be used in them. Chemical differences in the structural components of the biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) have a direct impact on its chemical reactivity. The aim of this research was to study the influence of the organic components of the raw material from olive trees (leaves, pruning residues, and wood) in the combustion behavior of this biomass, as well as to find the component responsible for the higher ash content of olive leaves. Accordingly, the study used a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor the different states and complex transitions that occurred in the biomass as the temperature varied. The decomposition rates of the different samples were analyzed in order to establish a link between each combustion phase and the composition of the raw materials. Two methods were used to determine the hemicellulose and cellulose contents of biomass from olive trees. Significant differences among the results obtained by the different methods were observed, as well as important variations regarding the chemical composition and consequently the thermal behavior of the raw materials tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Methane from Sisal Leaf Residue and Palash Leaf Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisutha, S.; Baredar, P.; Deshpande, D. M.; Suresh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate methane production from sisal leaf residue and palash leaf litter mixed with different bulky materials such as vegetable market waste, hostel kitchen waste and digested biogas slurry in a laboratory scale anaerobic reactor. The mixture was prepared with 1:1 proportion. Maximum methane content of 320 ml/day was observed in the case of sisal leaf residue mixed with vegetable market waste as the feed. Methane content was minimum (47 ml/day), when palash leaf litter was used as feed. This was due to the increased content of lignin and polyphenol in the feedstock which were of complex structure and did not get degraded directly by microorganisms. Sisal leaf residue mixtures also showed highest content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as compared to palash leaf litter mixtures. It was observed that VFA concentration in the digester first increased, reached maximum (when pH was minimum) and then decreased.

  13. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.

    2011-01-01

    , propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB...

  14. Macroeconomic Volatility and Stock Market Volatility, Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Francis X. Diebold; Kamil Yilmaz

    2008-01-01

    Notwithstanding its impressive contributions to empirical financial economics, there remains a significant gap in the volatility literature, namely its relative neglect of the connection between macroeconomic fundamentals and asset return volatility. We progress by analyzing a broad international cross section of stock markets covering approximately forty countries. We find a clear link between macroeconomic fundamentals and stock market volatilities, with volatile fundamentals translating in...

  15. Influence of soil organic C content on the greenhouse gas emission potential after application of biogas residues or cattle slurry - Results from a pot experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Gawan

    2017-04-01

    Influence of soil organic C content on the greenhouse gas emission potential after application of biogas residues or cattle slurry - Results from a pot experiment Gawan Heintze1,2, Tim Eickenscheidt1, Urs Schmidthalter2 and Matthias Drösler1 1University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Chair of Vegetation Ecology, Weihenstephaner Berg 4, 85354 Freising, Germany 2Technische Universität München, Chair of Plant Nutrition, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany The European Union Renewable Energy Directive, which sets a binding target of a final energy consumption of 20% from renewable sources by 2020, has markedly promoted the increase of biogas plants, particularly in Germany. As a consequence, a large amount of biogas residue remains as a by-product of the fermentative process. These residues are now widely used instead of mineral fertilizers or animal slurries to maintain soil fertility and productivity. However, to date, the effect of the application of biogas residue on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, compared to that of other organic fertilizers, is contradictory in literature, not having been completely understood. It is often stated that GHG fluxes are closely related to the quality of the raw material, particularly the type of soil to which the digestates are applied. This study addresses the questions (a) to what extent are the applications of biogas digestate and cattle slurry different in terms of their GHG emission (CO2, CH4 and N2O) potential, and (b) how do different soil organic carbon contents (SOCs) influence the rate of GHG exchange. We hypothesize that, i) cattle slurry application enhances the CO2 and N2O fluxes compared to the biogas digestate due to the overall higher C and N input, and ii) that with increasing SOC and N content, higher emissions of CO2 and N2O can be expected. The study was conducted as a pot experiment. Biogas digestate and cattle slurry were applied to and incorporated into three different soil types with

  16. Importance of the content and localization of tyrosine residues for thyroxine formation within the N-terminal part of human thyroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, M. T.; Sijmons, C. C.; Bakker, O.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Thyroxine (T4) is formed by coupling of iodinated tyrosine residues within thyroglobulin (TG). In mature TG, some iodinated tyrosine residues are involved preferentially in T4 formation. In order to investigate the specific role of various tyrosine residues in T4 formation, N-terminal TG fragments

  17. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  18. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-10-31

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples.

  19. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  20. Potential Contribution of Fish Feed and Phytoplankton to the Content of Volatile Terpenes in Cultured Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podduturi, Raju; Petersen, Mikael A; Mahmud, Sultan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Jørgensen, Niels O G

    2017-05-10

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are the most recognized off-flavors in freshwater fish, but terpenes may also contribute off-flavor in fish. We identified six monoterpenes, 11 sesquiterpenes, and three terpene-related compounds in pangasius and tilapia from aquaculture farms in Bangladesh. The concentrations of most of the volatiles were below published odor thresholds, except for α-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and β-ionone in tilapia, and limonene and β-ionone in pangasius. To identify sources of the terpenes, terpene profiles of fish feed and phytoplankton in the ponds were analyzed. In feed and mustard cake (feed ingredient), five monoterpenes and two sesquiterpenes were identified, and five of these compounds were also detected in the fish. In phytoplankton, 11 monoterpenes were found and three also occurred in the fish. The higher number of terpenes common to both fish and feed, than to fish and phytoplankton, suggests that feed was a more abundant source of odor-active terpenes in the fish than phytoplankton.

  1. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  2. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  3. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan

    2017-03-06

    Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration ( X ₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time ( X ₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature ( X ₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC 50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve

  4. Assessment of a design to monitor the influence of crop residue management on the dynamics of soil water content with ERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Hermans, Thomas; Binley, Andrew; Garre, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Choices related to crop residue management affect the soil structure. As a consequence, they may determine the spatio-temporal dynamics of water content and eventually the crop yields. In order to better understand the influence of these strategies on hydraulic processes occurring at the plot scale, we opted for the use electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). This approach presents the advantage to limit soil disturbance but is still faced to important challenges when applied in an agricultural field context. Especially changing soil-electrode contact has to be considered, as it can lead to bad quality data, especially for setups with small electrodes and small inter-electrode distance. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of a high-resolution 3-D field measurement design to properly assess the dynamics of soil water content. ERT measurements were conducted in a Cutanic Siltic Luvisol in Gembloux, Belgium, on two plots of 2m2 ploughed in Oct 2014 at a depth of 25 cm and sown with maize in April 2015. The plants were removed on one of the plots in order to obtain a bare soil reference. A grid of 98 surface stainless steel electrodes was layed-out on each plot and four sticks supporting each eight stainless steel electrodes were vertically inserted into the soil up to 1.20 m to get more detailed information in depth. The experiments were performed between Jul and Oct 2015, in order to get measurements both in dry and wet periods. For surface and borehole monitoring, a dipole-dipole array configuration including in-line and cross-line measurements was adopted. Normal and reciprocal measurements were performed systematically to assess the data quality: only the datasets with a mean reciprocal error lower than 3% were considered for the data inversion. This contribution will show the first inverted results showing the complexity of experimental design and data analysis for high-resolution, timelapse ERT in field conditions. Based on these results, we

  5. Influence of four single fresh forages on volatile organic compound (VOC content and profile and sensory properties of goat Caciotta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fedele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of fresh single-species herbage on the VOC and sensory properties of cheese, in order to individuate specific descriptors linked to the use of fresh herbage in pureness. Two groups of Siriana housed goats were fed alternately with 2 grasses: Avena sativa (AS and Lolium perenne (LP and 2 legumes: Medicago sativa (MS and Trifolium incarnatum (TI in pureness. The milk was processed as Caciotta cheese and ripened for 20 days. The VOC analyses (by GC-MS showed the highest VOC total content in AS cheeses (226.55a.u., where alcohols was the dominant class; the lowest value (79.96a.u. was found in TI cheeses, and the dominant class was hydrocarbons. The panel test (for colour, odour, taste and final acceptability showed that cheeses from grasses’ groups were described with astringent and blue taste, those from legumes with acidic, bitter and light goaty taste. All cheeses showed goaty taste, except LP cheeses. Grasses’ cheeses showed higher final acceptability than those from legumes. The results showed that each meadow’s species, with its specific content of secondary metabolites, at specific phenological stage, was able to characterise the derived cheese products at sensorial level.

  6. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  7. Volatilization of selenium from agricultural evaporation pond sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, U; Frankenberger, W T

    1990-03-01

    Microbial volatilization of Se was evaluated as a means of detoxifying Se-contaminated sediments. Sediment samples containing 60.7 (Kesterson Reservoir) and 9.0 mg Se kg-1 (Peck ponds) were incubated for 273 days in closed systems located in the greenhouse. Volatile Se was collected from a continuous air-exchange stream using activated carbon. Various economical and readily available organic and inorganic amendments were tested for their capacity to enhance the microbial process, including Citrus (orange) peel, Vitis (grape) pomace, feedlot manure, barley straw, chitin, pectin, ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4, and an inoculum of Acremonium falciforme (an active Se methylating fungus). With the Kesterson sediment, the highest Se removal (44.0%) resulted from the combined application of citrus peel and ZnSO4, followed by citrus peal alone (39.6%), and citrus peel combined with ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4 and A. falciforme (30.1%). Manure (19.5%), pectin (16.4%), chitin (9.8%) and straw plus N (8.8%) had less pronounced effects. Without the amendments, cumulative Se volatilization was 6.1% of the initial inventory. Grape pomace (3.0%) inhibited the process. With the Peck sediment, the highest amount of Se removed was observed with chitin (28.6%), manure (28.5%), and citrus peel alone (27.3%). Without amendments, 14.0% of the native Se was volatilized in 273 days. Cumulative Se volatilization was 24.7% with citrus plus Zn and N, 17.2% with citrus plus Zn, and 18.8% with citrus plus Zn, N and A. falciforme. Pectin (15.2%), straw plus N (16.4%), and grape pomace (7.3%) were among the less effective amendments for the Peck sediment. The differences in the effectiveness of each treatment between the two seleniferous soils may be a result of the residual N content of the sediments. With the Kesterson sediment, which was high in organic C and N, added N inhibited volatilization of Se, while with Peck sediments (low in organic C and N) N-rich materials tended to accelerate Se volatilization

  8. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  9. Modelling pesticide volatilization after soil application using the mechanistic model Volt'Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedos, Carole; Génermont, Sophie; Le Cadre, Edith; Garcia, Lucas; Barriuso, Enrique; Cellier, Pierre

    Volatilization of pesticides participates in atmospheric contamination and affects environmental ecosystems including human welfare. Modelling at relevant time and spatial scales is needed to better understand the complex processes involved in pesticide volatilization. Volt'Air-Pesticides has been developed following a two-step procedure to study pesticide volatilization at the field scale and at a quarter time step. Firstly, Volt'Air-NH 3 was adapted by extending the initial transfer of solutes to pesticides and by adding specific calculations for physico-chemical equilibriums as well as for the degradation of pesticides in soil. Secondly, the model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on bare soil (atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. A sensitivity analysis confirmed the relevance of tuning to K h. Then, using Volt'Air-Pesticides, environmental conditions and emission fluxes of the pesticides were compared to fluxes measured under 2 environmental conditions. The model fairly well described water temporal dynamics, soil surface temperature, and energy budget. Overall, Volt'Air-Pesticides estimates of the order of magnitude of the volatilization flux of all three compounds were in good agreement with the field measurements. The model also satisfactorily simulated the decrease in the volatilization rate of the three pesticides during night-time as well as the decrease in the soil surface residue of trifluralin before and after incorporation. However, the timing of the maximum flux rate during the day was not correctly described, thought to be linked to an increased adsorption under dry soil conditions. Thanks to Volt'Air's capacity to deal with pedo-climatic conditions, several existing parameterizations describing adsorption as a function of soil water content could be tested. However, this point requires further investigation. Practically speaking, Volt'Air-Pesticides can be a useful tool to make

  10. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard management of stubble and crop residues in the maintenance of adequate contents of soil organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies carried out on the effects of stubble and crop residue incorporation have shown positive effects on chemical-physical soil characteristics. However, not all studies agree on the extent of soil organic matter increase which derives from this process, as this effect is strongly affected by other factors: the pedo-climatic features of the area in which the study is carried out, the type of crop residue incorporation and the agronomical management adopted to improve the decomposition of the incorporated fresh organic material. The burning of stubble and straw is common in the areas where cereals are traditionally grown. The adoption of this method is based on different technical and work-related factors, which become less important when taking into account the impact on the local environment and soil. A research is currently carried out at the CRA-SCA experimental farm in Foggia (Southern Italy on the effects of either residues incorporation or burning on the chemical-physical characteristics of the soil and on the wheat yield performance since 1977. This experiment allows for a comparison among the effects of burning, the simple incorporation of stubble and crop residues and incorporation carried out with some agronomical techniques (such as the distribution of increasing amounts of nitrogen on crop residue before incorporation and the simulation of rain (50 mm on the decomposition of organic material. The objective of the study was to understand the effect of the different residues management practices on soil chemical properties after 32 years of experimentation. The simple incorporation of straw and stubble showed a slight increase in organic soil matter of 0.7% with respect to burning. The best results for soil organic carbon and soil quality were obtained when residual incorporation included a treatment with additional mineral nitrogen.

  11. Thermogravimetric study of the pyrolysis of biomass residues from tomato processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangut, V.; Sabio, E.; Ganan, J.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Department of Chemical and Energy Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    There is an increasing concern with the environmental problems associated with the increasing CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions resulting from the rising use of fossil fuels. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, can contribute to reduce the fossil fuels consumption. Biomass is a renewable resource with a widespread world distribution. Tomato processing industry produces a high amount of biomass residue (peel and seeds) that could be used for thermal energy and electricity. A characterization and thermogravimetric study has been carried out. The residue has a high HHV and volatile content, and a low ash, and S contents. A kinetic model has been developed based on the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and oil that describe the pyrolysis of peel, seeds and peel and seeds residues. (author)

  12. Efeitos da temperatura e do tipo de iniciador na redução do teor de monômero residual durante reações de copolimerização em emulsão Effects of temperature and type of initiators on the reduction of residual monomer content in emulsion copolymerization reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson H. Hirota

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduzir o teor de monômero residual é uma preocupação de qualquer produtor de polímeros, pois produtos sem, ou com teores muito baixos de monômero residual, apresentam um apelo comercial diferenciado. Neste trabalho são apresentadas e testadas experimentalmente diversas estratégias para reduzir o teor de monômero residual de copolímeros estireno/acrilato de butila produzidos em reações semicontínuas de polimerização em emulsão, que são amplamente utilizados nas indústrias de papel e tintas. Estas estratégias envolvem a adição contínua de iniciador e/ou o aumento da temperatura do reator durante a última etapa da reação, além da adição de um agente redutor e/ou de um iniciador solúvel na fase orgânica. Verificou-se que a combinação adequada de diferentes técnicas pode levar a uma redução significativa no teor residual de monômeros no látex.Reducing the residual monomer content is a major concern of every polymer producer, as products with no, or very low levels of residual monomer have a marked commercial appeal. Styrene / butyl acrylate copolymers produced in emulsion polymerization reactions are widely applied in paper and paint industries. In this work, several strategies to reduce the residual monomer content of styrene and butyl acrylate copolymers produced in semicontinuous emulsion polymerization reactions are presented and tested. These strategies involve the continuous addition of initiator, increasing the reaction temperature during the last stage of the reaction, and adding a reducing agent or an initiator that is soluble in the organic phase at this last stage. The adequate combination of some of these techniques may result in a significant reduction of the residual monomer content in the final latex.

  13. Variações no teor e na composição volátil de Hyptis marrubioides EPL: cultivada no campo e em casa de vegetação Variation in the content and volatile composition of Hyptis marrubioides EPL: cultivated in field and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira Botrel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition of the volatile oil of Hyptis marrubioides cultivated in field and greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, with ten replications for each type of cultivation. The volatile oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The highest content of volatile oil was found for plants grown in field. The highest percentage of the compounds present in oils was observed in samples grown in the field, such as germacra-4(15,5,10(14-trien-1-α-ol (16.34%, β-caryophyllene (10.42%, γ-muurolene (12.83% and trans-thujone (9.98%. However, some compounds were found only in plants grown in a greenhouse, such as cis-muurol-5-en-4α-ol (10.84%, α-cadinol (3.06% and eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1β-ol (6.82%.

  14. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  15. Fate and possible nutritional and toxicological significance of methylbromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies on foreign chemical residues in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-03-01

    Methyl bromide residues in cocoa as a result of fumigation under practical conditions have been studied. Cocoa beans were exposed to 14 C-labelled CH 3 Br for 24 hours at 20-32degC and dosage 23.5 to 28mg/1 of fumigants (moisture content of 6-7%). Whole unroasted beans and their shells and nibs as well as shells and nibs of roasted (105degC for 30 min) beans were extracted separately with toluene (for free CH 3 Br) and the dried residues wet combusted. 14 C-activities were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Total methyl bromide (bound and free) was equivalent 83-98ppm in whole unroasted beans 35 hours after treatment and aeration, and 31, 15 and 10ppm after 7, 42 and 70 days respectively in one set of experiments and 37, 53 and 42ppm after 76, 60 and 51 days in another set. Approximately 80% of the residue occurred in the shells which constitute only 12 to 13% of unroasted beans. 99% of the total residues appeared to be in chemically-bound form. Roasting reduced the total residues by 32 to 62% in nibs and 3.6 to 14% in shells. A striking effect of roasting was the occurrence in roasted nibs of residues as (extractable) carbon-14 (62-82% of the total residues compared to 16.5 - 27% in unroasted nibs). The bound residues behaved as methylated derivatives whilst the volatile fraction behaved as volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard type reactions from the 14 C-labelled amino acides and sugars

  16. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  17. Analysis of residual crosslinking agent content in UV cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide hydrogels for dermatological application by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Shet Hui Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acrylates have been widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceutical polymers. The quantitation of residual acrylate monomers is vital as they are strong irritants and allergens, but after polymerization, are relatively inert, causing no irritation and allergies. Poly(ethylene oxide (PEO hydrogels were prepared using pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETRA as UV crosslinking agent. A simple, accurate, and robust quantitation method was developed based on gas chromatographic techniques (GC, which is suitable for routine analysis of residual PETRA monomers in these hydrogels. Unreacted PETRA was initially identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The quantitation of analyte was performed and validated using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC–FID. A linear relationship was obtained over the range of 0.0002%–0.0450% (m/m with a correlation coefficient (r2 greater than 0.99. The recovery (>90%, intra-day precision (%RSD <0.67, inter-day precision (%RSD <2.5%, and robustness (%RSD <1.62% of the method were within the acceptable values. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ were 0.0001% (m/m and 0.0002% (m/m, respectively. This assay provides a simple and quick way of screening for residual acrylate monomer in hydrogels.

  18. Measurements of non-volatile aerosols with a VTDMA and their correlations with carbonaceous aerosols in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Heidi H. Y.; Tan, Haobo; Xu, Hanbing; Li, Fei; Wu, Cheng; Yu, Jian Z.; Chan, Chak K.

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters were conducted at a suburban site in Guangzhou, China, in February and March 2014 using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) and an organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC / EC) analyzer. Low volatility (LV) particles, with a volatility shrink factor (VSF) at 300 °C exceeding 0.9, contributed 5 % of number concentrations of the 40 nm particles and 11-15 % of the 80-300 nm particles. They were composed of non-volatile material externally mixed with volatile material, and therefore did not evaporate significantly at 300 °C. Non-volatile material mixed internally with the volatile material was referred to as medium volatility (MV, 0.4 transported at low altitudes (below 1500 m) for over 40 h before arrival. Further comparison with the diurnal variations in the mass fractions of EC and the non-volatile OC in PM2.5 suggests that the non-volatile residuals may be related to both EC and non-volatile OC in the afternoon, during which the concentration of aged organics increased. A closure analysis of the total mass of LV and MV residuals and the mass of EC or the sum of EC and non-volatile OC was conducted. It suggests that non-volatile OC, in addition to EC, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.

  19. Volatile organic carbon/air separation test using gas membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.V.; Kaschemekat, J.

    1993-08-01

    An estimated 900 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were discharged to soil columns during the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operations at the Hanford Site. The largest percentage of this volatile organic compound was found in the vadose region of the 200 West Area. Using a Vacuum Extraction System, the volatile organic compound was drawn from the soil in an air mixture at a concentration of about 1,000 parts per million. The volatile organic compounds were absorbed from the air stream using granulated activated carbon canisters. A gas membrane separation system, developed by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., was tested at the Vacuum Extraction System site to determine if the volatile organic compound load on the granulated activated carbon could be reduced. The Vacuum Extraction System condensed most of the volatile organic compound into liquid carbon tetrachloride and vented the residual gas stream into the granulated activated carbon. This system reduced the cost of operation about $5/kilogram of volatile organic compound removed

  20. Comment on the treatment of residual water content in “A consistent set of parametric models for the two-phase flow of immiscible fluids in the subsurface” by L. Luckner et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Luckner et al. [1989] (hereinafter LVN) present a clear summary and generalization of popular formulations used for convenient representation of porous media fluid flow characteristics, including water content (θ) related to suction (h) and hydraulic conductivity (K) related to θ or h. One essential but problematic element in the LVN models is the concept of residual water content (θr; in LVN, θw,r). Most studies using θr determine its value as a fitted parameter and make the assumption that liquid flow processes are negligible at θ values less than θr. While the LVN paper contributes a valuable discussion of the nature of θr, it leaves several problems unresolved, including fundamental difficulties in associating a definite physical condition with θr, practical inadequacies of the models at low θ values, and difficulties in designating a main wetting curve.

  1. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  2. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of [3H]cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time

  3. Volatile profile of wine Teran PTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teran PTP is a protected wine with a recognized traditional denomination produced from a grapevine variety ‘Refošk’ in winegrowing district Kras in Slovenia (European Union, 2009; Pravilnik, 2008. The aromatic profile of 82 Teran PTP wines produced in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 was monitored. Intotal the content of 16 volatile compounds was determined. The volatile compounds from wine were extracted following the liquid-liquid extraction and determined with a GC-MS method. The odour activity values and relative odour contributions were calculated for each volatile compound identified. Among sensorial important volatiles the highest odour activity values were determined for ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl butyrate. Other research papers also showed, that all red wines investigated except one contained ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl butyrate above sensory thresholds.

  4. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  5. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  6. Anaerobic digestion of cider apple residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, A. (E.T.S.I.I., U.N.E.D., Madrid (Spain). Dept. Quimica Applicada a la Ingenieria); Lopez Bobo, R. (E.T.S. Ingeneiros Industriales, Asturias (Spain). Dept. de Energia)

    1992-12-01

    Apple residue from the cider industry is used here for anaerobic fermentation. The effect of retention time and volatile solids concentration on the production of biogas and methane was investigated by using continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with a working volume of 1 1. The maximum proportions of biogas and methane obtained were 430 1 biogas/kg per day (12 days' retention time and 3% of volatile solids) and 281 1 of methane per day (a retention time of 30 days and 2% of volatile solids), respectively. (author)

  7. Antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia taurica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PERFECT XP SP3

    2014-01-20

    Jan 20, 2014 ... In this study, the antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from the earth parts of the Artemisia taurica Willd. and Salvia kronenburgii Rech. Fil. plants and their effects on xanthine oxidase enzyme were studied. The chemical contents of each volatile oil were determined by applying gas.

  8. Antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia taurica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from the earth parts of the Artemisia taurica Willd. and Salvia kronenburgii Rech. Fil. plants and their effects on xanthine oxidase enzyme were studied. The chemical contents of each volatile oil were determined by applying gas chromatograpghy-mass ...

  9. The Forecast Performance of Competing Implied Volatility Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiaras, Leonidas

    This study examines the information content of alternative implied volatility measures for the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index from 1996 until 2007. Along with the popular Black-Scholes and "model-free" implied volatility expectations, the recently proposed corridor implied...

  10. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  11. Teor de clorofila e perfil de sais minerais de Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual Chlorophyll content and minerals profile in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de microalgas representa uma potencial fonte de biomassa rica em clorofila e sais minerais como: fósforo, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, magnésio e cálcio. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a composição de minerais, bem como determinar o teor de clorofila a e b da microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual em três diferentes concentrações comparadas com um cultivo controle. Os resultados mostraram que os teores de clorofila a e b da microalga não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os cultivos. Com relação à composição dos sais minerais, a Chlorella cultivada na solução residual mais concentrada apresentou valores superiores quando comparada com a cultivada nos demais cultivos. Dessa forma, a biomassa da Chlorella vulgaris demonstrou ser uma potencial fonte de clorofila e de sais minerais, quando cultivada em solução hidropônica residual, possibilitando a utilização desse resíduo de forma sustentável.The microalgaes cultive represents a potential source of biomass rich in chlorophyll and minerals as: P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg and Ca. This research was aimed at evaluating the composition of minerals, as well as, determining the content of chlorophyll a and b from the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater in three different concentrations compared with the control cultive. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll a and b of the microalgae did not show significant difference between the cultives. In relation to the composition of the minerals, the Chlorella cultivated in the most concentrated wastewater, showed higher values when compared with the one cultivated in the others cultures. In this manner, the Chlorella vulgaris biomass demonstrated to be a potential source of chlorophyll and minerals, when cultivated in hydroponic wastewater, allowing the use of this residue in a sustainable way.

  12. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

  13. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  14. The volatility of HOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of HOI has been measured using a mass spectrometer to analyze the gas phase above an aqueous solution. The HOI in solution was generated continuously in a flow reactor that combined I/sup -/ and OCl/sup -/ solutions. The analysis has resulted in a lower limit of 6X10/sup 3/ mol . dm/sup -3/ . atm/sup -1/ for the equilibrium constant for the reaction HOI(g)/equilibrium/HOI(aq). This value is a factor 30 greater than the best previous estimate. This new limit for HOI volatility results in higher total iodine partition coefficients, particularly for solutions with pH>8. The upper limit for the equilibrium constant is consistent with essentially zero volatility for HOI. The effect of HOI volatility on total iodine volatility is briefly discussed as a function of solution chemistry and kinetics

  15. Lunar apatite with terrestrial volatile abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R; Guan, Yunbin; Eiler, John M; Stolper, Edward M; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2010-07-22

    The Moon is thought to be depleted relative to the Earth in volatile elements such as H, Cl and the alkalis. Nevertheless, evidence for lunar explosive volcanism has been used to infer that some lunar magmas exsolved a CO-rich and CO(2)-rich vapour phase before or during eruption. Although there is also evidence for other volatile species on glass spherules, until recently there had been no unambiguous reports of indigenous H in lunar rocks. Here we report quantitative ion microprobe measurements of late-stage apatite from lunar basalt 14053 that document concentrations of H, Cl and S that are indistinguishable from apatites in common terrestrial igneous rocks. These volatile contents could reflect post-magmatic metamorphic volatile addition or growth from a late-stage, interstitial, sulphide-saturated melt that contained approximately 1,600 parts per million H(2)O and approximately 3,500 parts per million Cl. Both metamorphic and igneous models of apatite formation suggest a volatile inventory for at least some lunar materials that is similar to comparable terrestrial materials. One possible implication is that portions of the lunar mantle or crust are more volatile-rich than previously thought.

  16. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  17. Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Nuno; Vandensteendam, Colette; Baronnet, Jean Marie

    2006-01-01

    Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium…) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization.

  18. Ammonia volatilization from sows on grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S. G.; Søgaard, H. T.; Møller, H. B.; Morsing, S.

    According to regulations, sows with piglets on organic farms must graze on pastures. Volatilization of ammonia (NH 3) from urine patches may represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) loss from these farms. Inputs of N are low on organic farms and losses may reduce crop production. This study examined spatial variations in NH 3 volatilization using a movable dynamic chamber, and the pH and total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in the topsoil of pastures with grazing sows was measured during five periods between June 1998 and May 1999. Gross NH 3 volatilization from the pastures was also measured with an atmospheric mass balance technique during seven periods from September 1997 until June 1999. The dynamic chamber study showed a high variation in NH 3 volatilization because of the distribution of urine; losses were between 0 and 2.8 g NH 3-N m -2 day -1. Volatilization was highest near the feeding area and the huts, where the sows tended to urinate. Ammonia volatilization rate was linearly related to the product of NH 3 concentration in the boundary layer and wind speed. The NH 3 in the boundary layer was in equilibrium with NH 3 in soil solution. Gross NH 3 volatilization was in the range 0.07-2.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1 day -1 from a pasture with 24 sows ha -1. Ammonia volatilization was related to the amount of feed given to the sows, incident solar radiation and air temperature during measuring periods, and also to temperature, incident solar radiation and rain 1-2 days before measurements. Annual ammonia loss was 4.8 kg NH 3-N sow -1.

  19. Characterization of volatiles from cultured dairy spreads during storage by dynamic headspace GC/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    C) resulted in an increase in the content of most of the volatiles after 40 days of storage. The profiles obtained were subjected to multivariate data analysis to determine the volatiles potentially responsible for oxidized off-flavors in dairy spread. The volatiles were divided into three groups: one...

  20. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  1. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  2. Modelling oil price volatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [Deakin University, Melbourne (Australia). Faulty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance; Narayan, Seema [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia). School of Economics, Finance and Marketing

    2007-12-15

    In this paper, we examine the volatility of crude oil price using daily data for the period 1991-2006. Our main innovation is that we examine volatility in various sub-samples in order to judge the robustness of our results. Our main findings can be summarised as follows: (1) across the various sub-samples, there is inconsistent evidence of asymmetry and persistence of shocks; and (2) over the full sample period, evidence suggests that shocks have permanent effects, and asymmetric effects, on volatility. These findings imply that the behaviour of oil prices tends to change over short periods of time. (author)

  3. [Analysis of the volatile constituents from Loranthus delavayi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng-Ying; Lu, Pan-Fang

    2013-08-01

    To study the volatile constituents of Loranthus delavayi. The volatile constituents were extracted by steam distillation and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, and the chemical compositions were analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Sixty-one peaks were separated and 41 of them were identified, accounting for 81.15% of the total content from the extracts of steam distillation; Ninty-tuo peaks were separated from the extracts of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, and 46 of them were identified, accounting for 63.31% of the total content. There are great differences between the chemical compositions of the volatile constituents extracted by steam distillation and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction.

  4. Macroeconomic Volatility and Stock Market Volatility, World-Wide

    OpenAIRE

    Francis X. Diebold; Kamil Yilmaz

    2008-01-01

    Notwithstanding its impressive contributions to empirical financial economics, there remains a significant gap in the volatility literature, namely its relative neglect of the connection between macroeconomic fundamentals and asset return volatility. We progress by analyzing a broad international cross section of stock markets covering approximately forty countries. We find a clear link between macroeconomic fundamentals and stock market volatilities, with volatile fundamentals translating in...

  5. Volatile Composition and Enantioselective Analysis of Chiral Terpenoids of Nine Fruit and Vegetable Fibres Resulting from Juice Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Marsol-Vall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable fibres resulting as by-products of the fruit juice industry have won popularity because they can be valorised as food ingredients. In this regard, bioactive compounds have already been studied but little attention has been paid to their remaining volatiles. Considering all the samples, 57 volatiles were identified. Composition greatly differed between citrus and noncitrus fibres. The former presented over 90% of terpenoids, with limonene being the most abundant and ranging from 52.7% in lemon to 94.0% in tangerine flesh. Noncitrus fibres showed more variable compositions, with the predominant classes being aldehydes in apple (57.5% and peach (69.7%, esters (54.0% in pear, and terpenoids (35.3% in carrot fibres. In addition, enantioselective analysis of some of the chiral terpenoids present in the fibre revealed that the enantiomeric ratio for selected compounds was similar to the corresponding volatile composition of raw fruits and vegetables and some derivatives, with the exception of terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, which showed variation, probably due to the drying process. The processing to which fruit residues were submitted produced fibres with low volatile content for noncitrus products. Otherwise, citrus fibres analysed still presented a high volatile composition when compared with noncitrus ones.

  6. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....

  7. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  8. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  9. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  10. Modeling volatility using state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, J; Weigend, A S

    1997-08-01

    In time series problems, noise can be divided into two categories: dynamic noise which drives the process, and observational noise which is added in the measurement process, but does not influence future values of the system. In this framework, we show that empirical volatilities (the squared relative returns of prices) exhibit a significant amount of observational noise. To model and predict their time evolution adequately, we estimate state space models that explicitly include observational noise. We obtain relaxation times for shocks in the logarithm of volatility ranging from three weeks (for foreign exchange) to three to five months (for stock indices). In most cases, a two-dimensional hidden state is required to yield residuals that are consistent with white noise. We compare these results with ordinary autoregressive models (without a hidden state) and find that autoregressive models underestimate the relaxation times by about two orders of magnitude since they do not distinguish between observational and dynamic noise. This new interpretation of the dynamics of volatility in terms of relaxators in a state space model carries over to stochastic volatility models and to GARCH models, and is useful for several problems in finance, including risk management and the pricing of derivative securities. Data sets used: Olsen & Associates high frequency DEM/USD foreign exchange rates (8 years). Nikkei 225 index (40 years). Dow Jones Industrial Average (25 years).

  11. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  12. Evaluation of an Anaerobic Digestion System for Processing CELSS Crop Residues for Resource Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw/day) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO2 and "volatile fatty acids" (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH4(+)-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH4(+) volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH4(+)-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH4(+)-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  13. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  14. Measurement of volatiles, semi-volatiles and heavy metals in an oil burn test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.; Caron, T.; Landriault, M.; Pare, J.R.J.; Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    Tests involving meso-scale burning of Louisiana crude oil were conducted, and during each burn, extensive samples were taken from the oil, residue, and the smoke plume. The detailed analytical work employed to obtain and analyze the burn samples is outlined and discussed. The analytical parameters included volatiles and semi-volatiles of environmental interests as well as heavy metals typically contained in the starting crude oil. Because the smoke plume did not always impinge on the samplers, the ground samplers did not collect sufficient samples for a definitive analysis. Crude/residue analyses showed the burn resulted in a significant reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the original oil. Most of the reduction was thought to be simply evaporation or destruction from combustion. The residue did not have the degree of enrichment of the higher molecular weight PAHs as was the case in bench-scale burn experiments. Volatile organic compound and dioxin/furan measurements likewise did not show high levels of contamination from the burn itself. Most of the elevated levels of contaminants could probably be due to evaporation of the oil itself. Insufficient sampling was conducted to investigate the background levels from the weathering process. A novel means of sampling using a small remote controlled helicopter was attempted and sufficiently interesting results were obtained to indicate the potential of this passive sampling device for future work. 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  16. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  17. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  18. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  19. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...... are self-contained and can be read independently. There is however a common thread in the themes covered as all essays focus on the understanding of interest rate volatility, its time-variation and main determinants....

  20. Changes in the volatile compounds and in the chemical and physical properties of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Cv. Pondoh during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi; Suhardi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoshida, Koichi; Muto, Tokie; Fujita, Akira; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2002-12-18

    During the maturation of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Pondoh, the contents of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and volatile compounds changed drastically. The glucose, fructose, and volatile compounds contents showed their maximum levels at the end of maturation; however, the sucrose content decreased. During maturation, the flesh firmness tended to increase; however, at the end of maturation (6 months), the flesh became soft. The major volatile aroma in solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solvent extracts were identified to be methyl esters of butanoic acids, 2-methylbutanoic acids, hexanoic acids, pentanoic acids, and the corresponding carboxylic acids. Furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) was also identified as a minor aroma constituent in the SAFE residue. The methyl esters were found to increase dramatically during stages 4-6 (5-6 months after the pollination) to exceed the amounts of carboxylic acids, whereas the acid amount increased gradually until stage 5 (5.5 months after the pollination) to reach the maximum at stage 6 (6 months after the pollination).

  1. VOLATILE LEAF OIL CONSTITUENTS OF OCIMUM AMERICANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum americanum L. growing in Western Kenya were analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 36 compounds, representing a total of 88.51% of the total oil, were identified. The oil was classified as terpinen-4-ol-type according to the terpinen-4-ol content (43.21%). To the best ...

  2. Volatile congeners in strong alcoholic fruit spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Memeti, Shaban; Bauer, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify and quantitatively analyze alcohol volatile congeners in different types of spirits from the domestic producers in order to evaluate their quality according to the Official Regulation. A total of 100 samples of three different types of grape brandies (lozova rakia, komova rakia and vinjak) and 30 samples of plum brandies obtained from seven domestic producers were analyzed on the content of ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, i-propanol, n- propanol, i-bu...

  3. Changes in dark chocolate volatiles during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Lia M; Cadwallader, Keith R; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2012-05-09

    Chocolate storage is critical to the quality of the final product. Inadequate storage, especially with temperature fluctuations, may lead to a change in crystal structure, which may eventually cause fat bloom. Bloom is the main cause of quality loss in the chocolate industry. The impact of various storage conditions on the flavor quality of dark chocolate was determined. Dark chocolate was stored in different conditions leading to either fat or sugar bloom and analyzed at 0, 4, and 8 weeks of storage. Changes in chocolate flavor were determined by volatile analysis and descriptive sensory evaluation. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least-squares regression analysis (PLS). Volatile concentration and loss were significantly affected by storage conditions. Chocolates stored at high temperature were the most visually and texturally compromised, but volatile concentrations were affected the least, whereas samples stored at ambient, frozen, and high relative humidity conditions had significant volatile loss during storage. It was determined that high-temperature storage caused a change in crystal state due to the polymorphic shift to form VI, leading to an increase in sample hardness. Decreased solid fat content (SFC) during high-temperature storage increased instrumentally determined volatile retention, although no difference was detected in chocolate flavor during sensory analysis, possibly due to instrumental and sensory sampling techniques. When all instrumental and sensory data had been taken into account, the storage condition that had the least impact on texture, surface roughness, grain size, lipid polymorphism, fat bloom formation, volatile concentrations, and sensory attributes was storage at constant temperature and 75% relative humidity.

  4. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ ).......We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...

  5. Method for processing coal-enrichment waste with solid and volatile fuel inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, A. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.; Osintsev, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method relates to the field of industrial heat and power engineering. It can be used in coal preparation plants for processing coal waste. This new way is realized to produce a loose ash residue directed to the production of silicate products and fuel gas in rotary kilns. The proposed method is associated with industrial processing of brown coal beneficiation waste. Waste is obtained by flotation separation of rock particles up to 13 mm in size from coal particles. They have in their composition both solid and volatile fuel inclusions (components). Due to the high humidity and significant rock content, low heat of combustion, these wastes are not used on energy boilers, they are stored in dumps polluting the environment.

  6. Toxicity of char residues produced in the co-pyrolysis of different wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Maria; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Barbosa, R; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Gulyurtlu, I

    2010-04-01

    Char residues produced in the co-pyrolysis of different wastes (plastics, pine biomass and used tyres) were characterized using chemical and toxicity assays. One part of the solid chars was submitted to extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) in order to reduce the toxicity of the char residues by removing organic contaminants. The different volatility fractions present in the extracted char (Char A) and in the raw char (Char B) were determined by progressive weight loss combustion. A selected group of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg and As) was determined in both chars. The chars were subjected to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268 - 2, 2007 and the resulting eluates were further characterized by determining a group of inorganic parameters (pH, conductivity, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg and As contents) and the concentrations of several organic contaminants (volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols). An ecotoxicological characterization was also performed by using the bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the Council Decision 2003/33/CE and the criteria on the evaluation methods of waste ecotoxicity (CEMWE). The results obtained in this work indicated that the extraction with DCM is an effective method for the removal of organic contaminants of high to medium volatility from pyrolysis solid residues, thus decreasing their toxicity potential. Zn can be leached from the chars even after the DCM extraction treatment and can contribute to the ecotoxicity of the eluates obtained from chars. Both chars (treated and non treated with DCM) were classified as hazardous and ecotoxic wastes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  8. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  9. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast...

  10. Chemical treatment of post-harvest Marandu grass seed residues with different moisture contents Tratamento químico do resíduo pós-colheita de sementes de capim-marandu com diferentes teores de umidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this was to evaluate the effect of chemical treatments with urea (3 or 5% DM and anhydrous ammonia (3% DM applied to the post-harvest hay residues of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu that contained different moisture contents (15, 25 or 30%. A randomized block design was used with eight treatments and four replications (defined as the bale layers within the hay stacks. The hay treated with 3% anhydrous ammonia and 15% moisture content reduced the levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF from 84.3 to 79.1% and increased the in vitro digestibility of the dry matter (DM from 37.3 to 55.5% compared to the control group. The variation in the moisture content did not significantly alter the action of ammonia, with mean values of 77.6% NDF and 57.3% in vitro digestibility of DM. The hay with 5% urea reduces the NDF content from 84.3 to 79.6% compared to the untreated hay, so the hay moisture content has to be increased to 30% to achieve a greater effect on the DM digestibility, which subsequently increases by 12 percentage units.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do tratamento químico com ureia (3 ou 5% na MS e amônia anidra (3% na MS no feno de resíduo pós-colheita de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu, contendo diferentes teores de umidade (15, 25 ou 30%. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições (camadas de fardos dentro das pilhas. O feno tratado com 3% de amônia anidra com 15% de umidade ocasionou redução de 84,3 para 79,1% nos teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e elevação de 37,3 para 55,5% na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS em relação ao grupo controle. A variação na umidade não alterou de maneira significativa a ação da amônia, cujos valores médios foram 77,6% de FDN e 57,3% de digestibilidade in vitro da MS. O feno com 5% de ureia reduziu os teores de FDN de 84,3 para 79,6% em relação ao feno não-tratado, o que tornou necess

  11. Extensive volatile loss during formation and differentiation of the Moon

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Chizu; Moynier, Frederic; Valdes, Maria C.; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Low estimated lunar volatile contents, compared with Earth, are a fundamental observation for Earth?Moon system formation and lunar evolution. Here we present zinc isotope and abundance data for lunar crustal rocks to constrain the abundance of volatiles during the final stages of lunar differentiation. We find that ferroan anorthosites are isotopically heterogeneous, with some samples exhibiting high ?66Zn, along with alkali and magnesian suite samples. Since the plutonic samples were formed...

  12. Headspace Analysis of Volatile Compounds Coupled to Chemometrics in Leaves from the Magnoliaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace volatile analysis has been used for volatiles profiling in leaves of 4 Magnolia species with a total of 75 compounds were identified. Monterpene hydrocarbons dominated the volatile blend of M. calophylla (86%, M. acuminata (78%, M. virginiana (70% and M. grandiflora (47% with b -pinene and b -ocimene occurring in the largest amounts, whereas sesquiterpenes were the most abundant compounds in M. grandiflora (39%. High levels of oxygenated compounds were only found in M. virginiana volatile blend (11.4% with 2-phenylethyl alcohol as major component. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on volatiles content revealed the close relationship between M. acuminata and M. calophylla.

  13. Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Bernard J; Fleming, Jeff; Whaley, Robert E

    1996-01-01

    Black and Scholes (1973) implied volatilities tend to be systematically related to the option's exercise price and time to expiration. Derman and Kani (1994), Dupire (1994), and Rubinstein (1994) attribute this behavior to the fact that the Black-Scholes constant volatility assumption is violated in practice. These authors hypothesize that the volatility of the underlying asset's return is a deterministic function of the asset price and time and develop the deterministic volatility function (...

  14. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The persistent nature of equity volatility is investigated by means of a multi-factor stochastic volatility model with time varying parameters. The parameters are estimated by means of a sequential matching procedure which adopts as auxiliary model a time-varying generalization of the HAR model...... for the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...

  15. Evaporative fractionation of volatile stable isotopes and their bearing on the origin of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The Moon is depleted in volatile elements relative to the Earth and Mars. Low abundances of volatile elements, fractionated stable isotope ratios of S, Cl, K and Zn, high μ (238U/204Pb) and long-term Rb/Sr depletion are distinguishing features of the Moon, relative to the Earth. These geochemical characteristics indicate both inheritance of volatile-depleted materials that formed the Moon and planets and subsequent evaporative loss of volatile elements that occurred during lunar formation and differentiation. Models of volatile loss through localized eruptive degassing are not consistent with the available S, Cl, Zn and K isotopes and abundance data for the Moon. The most probable cause of volatile depletion is global-scale evaporation resulting from a giant impact or a magma ocean phase where inefficient volatile loss during magmatic convection led to the present distribution of volatile elements within mantle and crustal reservoirs. Problems exist for models of planetary volatile depletion following giant impact. Most critically, in this model, the volatile loss requires preferential delivery and retention of late-accreted volatiles to the Earth compared with the Moon. Different proportions of late-accreted mass are computed to explain present-day distributions of volatile and moderately volatile elements (e.g. Pb, Zn; 5 to >10%) relative to highly siderophile elements (approx. 0.5%) for the Earth. Models of early magma ocean phases may be more effective in explaining the volatile loss. Basaltic materials (e.g. eucrites and angrites) from highly differentiated airless asteroids are volatile-depleted, like the Moon, whereas the Earth and Mars have proportionally greater volatile contents. Parent-body size and the existence of early atmospheres are therefore likely to represent fundamental controls on planetary volatile retention or loss. PMID:25114311

  16. Evaporative fractionation of volatile stable isotopes and their bearing on the origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M D; Moynier, Frederic

    2014-09-13

    The Moon is depleted in volatile elements relative to the Earth and Mars. Low abundances of volatile elements, fractionated stable isotope ratios of S, Cl, K and Zn, high μ ((238)U/(204)Pb) and long-term Rb/Sr depletion are distinguishing features of the Moon, relative to the Earth. These geochemical characteristics indicate both inheritance of volatile-depleted materials that formed the Moon and planets and subsequent evaporative loss of volatile elements that occurred during lunar formation and differentiation. Models of volatile loss through localized eruptive degassing are not consistent with the available S, Cl, Zn and K isotopes and abundance data for the Moon. The most probable cause of volatile depletion is global-scale evaporation resulting from a giant impact or a magma ocean phase where inefficient volatile loss during magmatic convection led to the present distribution of volatile elements within mantle and crustal reservoirs. Problems exist for models of planetary volatile depletion following giant impact. Most critically, in this model, the volatile loss requires preferential delivery and retention of late-accreted volatiles to the Earth compared with the Moon. Different proportions of late-accreted mass are computed to explain present-day distributions of volatile and moderately volatile elements (e.g. Pb, Zn; 5 to >10%) relative to highly siderophile elements (approx. 0.5%) for the Earth. Models of early magma ocean phases may be more effective in explaining the volatile loss. Basaltic materials (e.g. eucrites and angrites) from highly differentiated airless asteroids are volatile-depleted, like the Moon, whereas the Earth and Mars have proportionally greater volatile contents. Parent-body size and the existence of early atmospheres are therefore likely to represent fundamental controls on planetary volatile retention or loss. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  18. Residue characteristics of sludge from a chemical industrial plant by microwave heating pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Nina; Zeng, Jun-Yan; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2018-03-01

    Sludge from biological wastewater treatment procedures was treated using microwave heating pyrolysis to reduce the environmental impact of a chemical plant. In this study, major elements, trace elements, PAHs and nitro-PAHs in raw sludge, and pyrolysis residues were investigated. The contents of major element from raw sludge were carbon 46.7 ± 5.9%, hydrogen 5.80 ± 0.58%, nitrogen 6.81 ± 0.59%, and sulfur 1.34 ± 0.27%. Trace elemental concentrations including Zn, Mn, Cr, Cd, As, and Sn were 0.410 ± 0.050, 0.338 ± 0.008, 0.063 ± 0.006, 0.019 ± 0.001, 0.004 ± 0.001, and 0.003 ± 0.002 mg/g, respectively. For various pyrolysis temperatures, Ca, Fe, Sr, Cr, and Sn contents remained at almost the same level as those in raw sludge. Results indicated that these elements did not easily volatilize. The content of 16 PAH species was about 4.78 μg/g in the raw sludge and 23-65 μg/g for pyrolysis residues associated with various temperatures. The content of ten nitro-PAHs was about 58 ng/g for the raw sludge and 141-744 ng/g for pyrolysis residues. The total nitro-PAH content was highest at 600 °C and then decreased when the temperature was over 600 °C. Total nitro-PAH content was about 247 ng/g at 800 °C.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  20. The origin of volatiles in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier-Majumder, Saswata; Hirschmann, Marc M.

    2017-08-01

    The Earth's deep interior contains significant reservoirs of volatiles such as H, C, and N. Due to the incompatible nature of these volatile species, it has been difficult to reconcile their storage in the residual mantle immediately following crystallization of the terrestrial magma ocean (MO). As the magma ocean freezes, it is commonly assumed that very small amounts of melt are retained in the residual mantle, limiting the trapped volatile concentration in the primordial mantle. In this article, we show that inefficient melt drainage out of the freezing front can retain large amounts of volatiles hosted in the trapped melt in the residual mantle while creating a thick early atmosphere. Using a two-phase flow model, we demonstrate that compaction within the moving freezing front is inefficient over time scales characteristic of magma ocean solidification. We employ a scaling relation between the trapped melt fraction, the rate of compaction, and the rate of freezing in our magma ocean evolution model. For cosmochemically plausible fractions of volatiles delivered during the later stages of accretion, our calculations suggest that up to 77% of total H2O and 12% of CO2 could have been trapped in the mantle during magma ocean crystallization. The assumption of a constant trapped melt fraction underestimates the mass of volatiles in the residual mantle by more than an order of magnitude.Plain Language SummaryThe Earth's deep interior contains substantial amounts of volatile elements like C, H, and N. How these elements got sequestered in the Earth's interior has long been a topic of debate. It is generally assumed that most of these elements escaped the interior of the Earth during the first few hundred thousand years to create a primitive atmosphere, leaving the mantle reservoir nearly empty. In this work, we show that the key to this paradox involves the very early stages of crystallization of the mantle from a global magma ocean. Using numerical models, we show

  1. Inflation, volatility and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Judson; Athanasios Orphanides

    1996-01-01

    This paper re-examines the relationship between inflation, inflation volatility and growth using cross-country panel data for the past 30 years. With regard to the level of inflation, we find that in contrast to current findings which are based on cross-sectional time-average regression comparisons, exploiting the time dimension of the data reveals a strong negative correlation between inflation and income growth for all but very low inflation countries. To examine the role of inflation uncer...

  2. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  3. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  4. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  5. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  6. Produção comercializável e teores de Cu e Zn em cenoura em decorrência da ação residual de fósforo e composto de lixo em solo sob cerrado Marketable yield and contents of Cu and Zn in carrot as influenced by residual phosphate and urban compost in a cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel V. de Mesquita Filho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se em 1997, em condições de campo um experimento em Latossolo Vermelho Escuro distrófico argiloso sob cerrado de Brasília, para avaliar o efeito residual das aplicações em anos anteriores, a lanço de doses de fósforo (superfosfato triplo, e de composto de lixo na produção de cenoura (Daucus carota, cv. Brasília, assim como nos teores de cobre e zinco em raízes frescas. Aproveitou-se o mesmo delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições, no mesmo campo experimental dos experimentos anteriores distribuídos num esquema fatorial 3 x 5 incluindo-se 3 níveis de fósforo (0; 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 5 níveis de composto de lixo (0; 20; 40; 60 e 80 t ha-1. A colheita foi realizada aos 90 dias após o plantio. A análise estatística dos dados de produção total de raízes revelou efeito residual da adubação dos últimos dois anos em linear e quadrático altamente significativo (pA field experiment was conducted on a clayey Yellow Red Oxisol to evaluate the residual effect of the application of phosphorus and urban waste compost of the previous two years on the root production of carrot cv. Brasília. The soil of the previous experiment design used a factorial consisting of three levels of phosphorus (0; 400 and 800 kg ha-1, applied as triple superphosphate combined with five levels of urban waste compost (0; 20; 40; 60 and 80 t.ha-1, was arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Carrot plants were harvested 90 days after planting. After the harvest, a linear and quadratic effect for phosphorus and urban waste compost (p<0,01 was observed. The linear interaction P x quadratic urban compost was highly significant (p<0,01. The maximum root total production was 26.5 t.ha-1 corresponding to 18.5 t ha-1 of marketable yield, estimated by the calculated doses of 762.5 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 53.2 t ha-1 of urban waste compost according to the function: Y(PROD = 4.541143 + 4.0088 x 10-2 P2O5 + 2

  7. [Analyze on volatile compounds of Antrodia camphorata using HS-SPME-GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Jing-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2011-11-01

    To analyze the volatile compounds of Antrodia camphorata in solid-state and submerged cultures. A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were used to evaluate the profile of the volatile compounds. 49 volatile compounds were identified in A. camphorata mycelia in submerged culture, while 43 volatile compounds were identified in mycelia in solid-state culture. 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-ylacetate, acetic acid octyl ester and ethanol were the main volatile compounds in A. camphorata mycelia in submerged culture, while 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-methyl-butyraldenhyde, gamma-podecalactone and methyl 2-furozte were the most potent key volatile compounds in mycelia in solid-state culture. The volatile compounds in the mycelia of A. camphorata in solid-state and submerged cultures are similar but their relative contents are different.

  8. Biosynthesis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by bacterial community from propylene oxide saponification wastewater residual sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Zhu, Ying; Gu, Pengfei; Li, Yumei; Fan, Xiangyu; Song, Dongxue; Ji, Yan; Li, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    The saponification wastewater from the process of propylene oxide (PO) production is contaminated with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chlorine contents. Although the activated sludge process could treat the PO saponification wastewater effectively, the residual sludge was difficult to be disposed properly. In this research, microbes in PO saponification wastewater residual sludge were acclimated to produce poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from volatile fatty acids. Through Miseq Illumina highthroughput sequencing, the bacterial community discrepancy between the original and the acclimated sludge samples were analyzed. The proportions of Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Brevundimonas and Pseudomonas, the potential PHBV-producers in the residual sludge, were all obviously increased. In the batch fermentation, the production of PHBV could achieve 4.262g/L at 300min, with the content increased from 0.04% to 23.67% of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) in the acclimated sludge, and the COD of the PO saponification wastewater was also decreased in the fermentation. This work would provide an effective solution for the utilization of PO saponification wastewater residual sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of Fluorine Content in AFFF Concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    expensive and time consuming . Newer analytical methods focus on detection and measurement of the fluorine- containing molecule which frequently...formulations, an analysis 19F NMR spectra wherein profiles somewhat unique to individual commercial AFFF can be identified and a fluorine content comparison...establishing a volatiles profile along with a non- volatiles or solids content for an AFFF concentrate. These concentrates have a strong potential

  10. Teor de matéria seca, pH e amônia volatilizada da cama de frango tratada ou não com diferentes aditivos Dry matter content, pH and volatilized ammonia from poultry litter treated or not with different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse experimento foi determinar o teor de matéria seca, pH e a amônia volatilizada da cama de frango tratada ou não com diferentes aditivos. Foram utilizadas 440 aves, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (1 - cama nova; 2 - cama reutilizada (CR; 3 - CR tratada com sulfato de alumínio; 4 - CR tratada com gesso agrícola e 5 - CR tratada com cal hidratada e quatro repetições. As amostras da cama foram coletadas quando as aves completaram 42 dias de idade. Não houve influência dos aditivos sobre os resultados de matéria seca, entretanto, a adição de gesso agrícola reduziu o valor de pH (6,97 e a quantidade de amônia volatilizada (11,29 mg/kg da cama de frango. Conclui-se que o gesso agrícola pode ser adicionado à cama, promovendo redução no pH e na perda de nitrogênio por volatilização da amônia.The aim of this experiment was to determine the dry matter content, pH and the volatilized ammonia from the poultry litter treated or not with different additives. Four hundred and forty birds were used, in randomized block design, with five treatments (1 - new litter; 2 - reused litter (RL; 3 - RL treated with aluminum sulfate; 4 - RL treated with gypsum and 5 - RL treated with hydrated lime and four replicates. The samples of the litter were collected when the birds were 42 days old. There was no influence of the additives on the dry matter results. However, the gypsum reduced the pH value (6.97 and the quantity of volatilized ammonia (11.29 mg/kg from the poultry litter. It was concluded that the gypsum can be added to the poultry litter, promoting a reduction in the pH value and in the losses of nitrogen by ammonia volatilization.

  11. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...

  13. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AMBIENT VOLATILITY OF TRIETHYL PHOSPHATE ECBC-TR-1476 James H. Buchanan John J. Mahle RESEARCH AND...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Oct 2016 – Jan 2017 4. TITLE: Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate 5a. CONTRACT...humidity on TEPO volatility is nearly as predicted by Raoult’s law, that is, vapor pressure suppression is proportional to ambient relative humidity. An

  14. Has food price volatility risen?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Gilbert; Wyn Morgan

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that the volatility of grains and vegetable oils prices may be increasing but it is too early to make a definite ...

  15. Composition of volatile aromatic compounds and minerals of tarhana enriched with cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Hasan; Tarakçı, Zekai

    2017-03-01

    Different concentrations of cherry laurel pulp (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used to produce tarhana samples. Volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content were investigated. Volatile aromatic compounds were analyzed by using GC-MS with SPME fiber and minor mineral values were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The statistical analysis showed that addition of pulp affected volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content significantly. Thirty five volatile aromatic compounds were found in tarhana samples. The octanoic acid from acids, benzaldehyde (CAS) phenylmethanal from aldehydes, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one from ketones, octadecane (CAS) n -octadecane form terpenes, ethyl caprylate from esters and benzenemethanol (CAS) benzyl alcohol from alcohols had the highest percentage of volatile aromatic compounds. Tarhana samples were rich source of Mn, Cu and Fe content.

  16. Mass transfer study between soil, atmosphere, groundwater and building in a contaminated area; volatile organic compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotel, S.

    2008-10-01

    A bibliography review led to detail the mechanisms of exchange between phases and transport of volatile organic compounds in the vadose zone, to put in equations their transfer, to set experimental devices and to define relevant tests. The pollutant in question is trichloroethylene, the porous media is a medium sand and the experiments were implemented in column. Once, an analytical method was available to quantify aqueous, gaseous and sorb TCE, predominant transfers mechanisms were quantified separately especially with diffusion experiments through a sand at three different water contents (dry, residual saturation and saturated). Then, these mechanisms have been coupled in a TCE transfer experiment in sand with a hydrostatic water content profile. Each type of test was dimensioned, if it's possible duplicated and interpreted with the multiphasic software Comsol whose flow equation was changed to consider the gravity driven convection. By strictly controlling external factors and boundary conditions, it was possible to carry out transfer experiments reproducible and interpretable with a volatile and reactive compound in a very permeable porous medium. A good reproducibility of experimental results by simulation was achieved with minor changes in basic parameters: report permeability on viscosity, tortuosity (Millington, 1959) and aerodynamics conductivity curve setting parameter (Thomson et al., 1997). This work has resulted in a fine understanding of gas transfers in the vadose zone, especially in the capillarity fringe. (author)

  17. [Research on improving memory impairment of blue lavender volatile oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Yun; Gao, Yong-Sheng; Song, Lin-Zhen; Li, Su-Fang; Qian, Jun-Qing

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the potential application value of lavender volatile oil (LVO), the chemical composition of the volatile oil of lavender was analyzed by GC-MS, and the mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established. Additionally, the antioxidant enzymes activity of T-SOD, GSH-PX, CAT and MDA content were studied. Experimental results showed that 55 kinds of chemical constituents including terpene, terpene alcohol and ester compounds from LVO were identified, and the content of linalool and linalyl acetate was the highest, accounting for 49.71% of the total volatile oil. The ability of mouse platform memory was improved significantly. The levels of GSH-PX, CAT and T-SOD of mouse brain tissue in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the model group (Pmemory acquired disorder. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Good Volatility, Bad Volatility: Signed Jumps and The Persistence of Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Patton; Kevin Sheppard

    2015-01-01

    Using estimators of the variation of positive and negative returns (realized semivariances) and high-frequency data for the S&P 500 Index and 105 individual stocks, this paper sheds new light on the predictability of equity price volatility. We show that future volatility is more strongly related to the volatility of past negative returns than to that of positive returns and that the impact of a price jump on volatility depends on the sign of the jump, with negative (positive) jumps leading t...

  19. Photodegradation and volatility of pesticides: chamber experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Thomas; Ophoff, Holger; Stork, Andreas; Führ, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    formation, which is an antagonistic process to the volatilization of parent compound, the volatilization of unaltered parathion-methyl from each surface generally decreased in the presence of light, particularly in combination with increasing O3 concentrations and *OH radical production rates. First results demonstrated that the photovolatility chamber provides a special tool for the systematic evaluation of (a) photodegradation of surface-located pesticide residues, i.e. measuring qualitative aspects of direct and indirect photodegradation together with relative photodegradation rates, and (b) volatilization of pesticides on surfaces by including and optionally varying relevant parameters such as light, atmospheric O3 concentration, surface temperature, air temperature, air flow rate. The experimental facility represents an important complement to lysimeter and field studies, in particular for experiments on the volatilization of pesticides using the wind tunnel system. With the photovolatility chamber special experiments on photodegradation, volatilization and plant uptake can be conducted to study key processes in more detail and this will lead to a better understanding of the effects of certain environmental processes on the fate of released agrochemicals contributing to an improved risk assessment.

  20. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  1. The influence of volatility spill-overs and market beta on portfolio construction

    OpenAIRE

    André Heymans; Wayne Peter Brewer

    2015-01-01

    This study adds to Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) by providing an additional measure to market beta in constructing a more efficient investment portfolio. The additional measure analyses the volatility spill-over effects among stocks within the same portfolio. Using intraday stock returns from five top-40 listed stocks on the JSE between July 2008 and April 2010, volatility spill-over effects were estimated with a residual- based test (aggregate shock [AS] model) framework. It is shown that wh...

  2. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    A commercial production was analysed at six stages during ripening. Water content, pH and bacterial counts were followed, and volatile compounds from sausages were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of all classes...

  3. Volatile constituents of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main components were b-caryophyllene (12.9%), limonene (9.7%), b-pinene (7.9%), linalool (7.4%), α-pinene (6.4%) and 1,8-cineole (5.5%). Volatile oil of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts was dominated by the high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.2%) and oxygenated monoterpenes ...

  4. Volatile compounds of maari, a fermented product from baobab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile compounds associated with baobab seeds fermentation for Maari production were extracted and analysed by Likens-Nickerson simultaneous steam distillation-extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Furthermore, the titratable acidity, tannin content and proximate ...

  5. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  6. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  7. Exchange rate volatility and its effect on stock market volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates empirically the effect of volatility of the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar vis-à-vis the euro on U.S. stock market volatility while controlling for a number of drivers of stock return volatility. Using a GARCH(1, 1 model and using weekly data covering the period from the week of January 1, 1999 through the week of January 25, 2010, it is found that the 9/11 terrorist attack, bear markets, fluctuations in jobless claims, and negative equity market returns increase financial volatility. On the other hand, no conclusive results are found regarding the effect of fluctuations in M2, or incorrect expectations of changes in the federal funds target rate. Finally, it is found that when major drivers of financial volatility are controlled for, increased exchange rate volatility exerts a positive and statistically significant effect on the volatility of stock returns. Monetary policymakers need to take this effect into account when formulating exchange rate actions within the prevailing managed float.

  8. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  9. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  10. Analysis of the influencing factors of PAEs volatilization from typical plastic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weidong; Chi, Chenchen; Zhou, Chen; Xia, Meng; Ronda, Cees; Shen, Xueyou

    2018-04-01

    The primary emphasis of this research was to investigate the foundations of phthalate (PAEs) pollutant source researches and then firstly confirmed the concept of the coefficient of volatile strength, namely phthalate total content in per unit mass and unit surface area of pollutant sources. Through surveying and evaluating the coefficient of volatile strength of PAEs from typical plastic products, this research carried out reasonable classification of PAEs pollutant sources into three categories and then investigated the relationship amongst the coefficient of volatile strength as well as other environmental factors and the concentration level of total PAEs in indoor air measured in environment chambers. Research obtained phthalate concentration results under different temperature, humidity, the coefficient of volatile strength and the closed time through the chamber experiment. In addition, this study further explored the correlation and ratio of influencing factors that affect the concentration level of total PAEs in environment chambers, including environmental factors, the coefficient of volatile strengths of PAEs and contents of total PAEs in plastic products. The research created an improved database system of phthalate the coefficient of volatile strengths of each type of plastic goods, and tentatively revealed that the volatile patterns of PAEs from different typical plastic goods, finally confirmed that the coefficient of volatile strengths of PAEs is a major factor that affects the indoor air total PAEs concentration, which laid a solid foundation for further establishing the volatile equation of PAEs from plastic products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Estimating the Volatility of Cocoa Price Return with ARCH and GARCH Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Aklimawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of market changing as a result of market liberalization have an impact on agricultural commodities price fluctuation. High volatility on cocoa price movement reflect its price and market risk. Because of price and market uncertainty, the market players face some difficulties to make a decision in determining business development. This research was conducted to 1 understand the characteristics of cocoa price movement in cocoa futures trading, and 2analyze cocoa price volatility using ARCH and GARCH type model. Research was carried out by direct observation on the pattern of cocoa price movement in the futures trading and volatility analysis based on secondary data. The data was derived from Intercontinental Exchange ( ICE Futures U.S. Reports. The analysis result showed that GARCH is the best model to predict the value of average cocoa price return volatility, because it meets criteria of three diagnostic checking, which are ARCH-LM test, residual autocorrelation test and residual normality test. Based on the ARCH-LM test, GARCH (1,1did not have heteroscedasticity, because p-value  2 (0.640139and F-statistic (0.640449 were greater than 0.05. Results of residual autocorrelation test indicated that residual value of GARCH (1,1 was random, because the statistic value of Ljung-Box (LBon the 36 th lag is smaller than the statistic value of  2. Whereas, residual normality test concluded the residual of GARCH (1,1 were normally distributed, because AR (29, MA (29, RESID (-1^2, and GARCH (-1 were significant at 5% significance level. Increasing volatility value indicate high potential risk. Price risk can be reduced by managing financial instrument in futures trading such as forward and futures contract, and hedging. The research result also give an insight to the market player for decision making and determining time of hedging. Key words: Volatility, price, cocoa, GARCH, risk, futures trading

  12. [GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Volatile oils of five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood were extracted with aether at room temperature. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the volatile oils were analysed by GC-MS. It showed that all the five volatile oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes, aromatic constituents and fatty acids. Several sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, nootkatone, valerenic acid, velleral, guaiol, gamma-gurjunene, gamma-selinene, viridiflorol, isoaromadendrene epoxide, valencene, alpha-costol et. al., together with several aromatic constituents, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol,4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, phenylpropionic acid, 1-(benzyloxy)-8-naphthol, anisylacetone, et. al. were found in the volatile oils of Chinese eaglewood for the first time. The samilarities and differences of the volatile oils from the five kinds of Chinese eaglewood were compared. It suggested that the quality of Chinese eaglewood could be evaluated by GC-MS analyse of the volatile oil.

  13. Parallel Prediction of Stock Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Jenq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a measurement of the risk of financial products. A stock will hit new highs and lows over time and if these highs and lows fluctuate wildly, then it is considered a high volatile stock. Such a stock is considered riskier than a stock whose volatility is low. Although highly volatile stocks are riskier, the returns that they generate for investors can be quite high. Of course, with a riskier stock also comes the chance of losing money and yielding negative returns. In this project, we will use historic stock data to help us forecast volatility. Since the financial industry usually uses S&P 500 as the indicator of the market, we will use S&P 500 as a benchmark to compute the risk. We will also use artificial neural networks as a tool to predict volatilities for a specific time frame that will be set when we configure this neural network. There have been reports that neural networks with different numbers of layers and different numbers of hidden nodes may generate varying results. In fact, we may be able to find the best configuration of a neural network to compute volatilities. We will implement this system using the parallel approach. The system can be used as a tool for investors to allocating and hedging assets.

  14. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Siderophile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickodem, K.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently several hypotheses on the origin of volatile siderophile elements in the Earth. One hypothesis is that they were added during Earth s accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core [1], others claim multiple stage origin [2], while some hypothesize that volatiles were added after the core already formed [3]. Several volatile siderophile elements are depleted in Earth s mantle relative to the chondrites, something which continues to puzzle many scientists. This depletion is likely due to a combination of volatility and core formation. The Earth s core is composed of Fe and some lighter constituents, although the abundances of these lighter elements are unknown [4]. Si is one of these potential light elements [5] although few studies have analyzed the effect of Si on metal-silicate partitioning, in particular the volatile elements. As, In, Ge, and Sb are trace volatile siderophile elements which are depleted in the mantle but have yet to be extensively studied. The metal-silicate partition coefficients of these elements will be measured to determine the effect of Si. Partition coefficients depend on temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and metal and silicate composition and can constrain the concentrations of volatile, siderophile elements found in the mantle. Reported here are the results from 13 experiments examining the partitioning of As, In, Ge, and Sb between metallic and silicate liquid. These experiments will examine the effect of temperature, and metal-composition (i.e., Si content) on these elements in or-der to gain a greater understanding of the core-mantle separation which occurred during the Earth s early stages. The data can then be applied to the origin of volatile elements in the Earth.

  15. Volatile compounds of functional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, affecting flavour of traditional and probiotic fresh cheese, were determined. Functional dairy product-fresh cheese was produced from milk of 2.5% fat content and milk of 4.2% fat content, under the semi-industrial conditions. The traditional starter culture Flora Danica (FD and a combination of probiotic starter ABT-1 and FD (ABT-1:FD=1:1 were applied as starters. The volatile fractions were isolated by employing the combined simultaneous distillation-extraction technique (SDE. The compounds were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS and quantified by using standard procedure. Following 19 compounds have been identified: 8 hydrocarbons (decane, undecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, octadecane and 2, 6, 10, 14-tetramethyl hexadecane; 6 ketones (2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2- undecanone, 2-pentadecanone, 2-heptadecanone and 2-tridecanone; 3 aldehydes (nonanal, tetradecanal and hexadecanal; 1 fatty acid (decanoic acid and disulfide, bis (1-methylethyl. The highest levels were associated with hexadecanal, 2-pentadecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-undecanone in all examined samples, regardless to the starter culture and type of milk used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  16. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  17. Improved crop residue cover estimates by coupling spectral indices for residue and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing assessment of soil residue cover (fR) and tillage intensity will improve our predictions of the impact of agricultural practices and promote sustainable management. Spectral indices for estimating fR are sensitive to soil and residue water content, therefore, the uncertainty of estima...

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  19. Disaccharides: Influence on Volatiles and Phenolics of Sour Cherry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Zlatić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continuously developing ingredients, processing methods and packaging materials to improve the quality of fruit products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of sugars, a common ingredient in the food industry, on phenolics and volatiles of sour cherry juice. Sucrose, trehalose and maltose chemical isomers were chosen for this investigation. All sugars influenced the evaluated parameters. Samples with maltose addition had lower, while samples with sucrose and trehalose addition had higher anthocyanin content than the control sample. Generally, trehalose had a higher positive effect on volatiles with the desired flavor note.

  20. Influence of season, harvest time and drying on Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt volatile oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie F. Blank

    Full Text Available Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt is member of the Poaceae family. Java citronella volatile oil has been reported to be among the volatile oils, showing repellent, antimycotic, and acaricide activities. It has been known that agronomical factors have a great effect on both the quality and quantity of essential metabolites. For this reason, it is necessary to determine optimum levels of agronomical factors affecting plant growth and production. Harvest time and drying are very important agronomical factors. This study has been conducted in the Research farm of the " Universidade Federal de Sergipe" , Agronomical Engineering Department along 2002-2003 on the base of factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications. Java citronella was cultivated in a 60 x 60 cm space. Early, midday, and late harvest at 9:00 h, 12:00 h, and 15:00 h were conducted on four different seasons. Fresh and dried leaves were used on the experiments. In order to study the effects of harvest time and drying, yields of dry and fresh herbage (kg/ha, moisture content (%, volatile oil content (% and yield (L/ha, and chemical composition of the volatile oil were measured. Seasonal changes had significant effect on yield of fresh herbage, yield and volatile oil content. Maximum volatile oil yields were observed at 9:00 during summer, winter, and spring. Volatile oil content was influenced by season and drying, but not influenced by harvest time.

  1. Bound volatile precursors in genotypes in the pedigree of 'Marion' blackberry (Rubus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Finn, Chad E; Qian, Michael C

    2010-03-24

    Glycosidically bound volatiles and precursors in genotypes representing the pedigree for 'Marion' blackberry were investigated over two growing seasons. The volatile precursors were isolated using a C18 solid-phase extraction column. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the released volatiles were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct microvial insert thermal desorption GC-MS. The most abundant volatile precursors in the genotypes were alcohols, followed by shikimic acid derivatives. High amounts of furanone glycosides were also detected, while norisoprenoids only existed in a small amount in blackberries. The volatile precursor composition in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree was very similar to their free volatile distribution. 'Logan' and 'Olallie' predominantly had bound norisoprenoids. Wild 'Himalaya' predominated with terpene alcohol and furaneol glycosides, whereas 'Santiam' and 'Chehalem' contained a high level of terpene alcohol glycosides. A similar inheritance pattern was also observed for some volatile precursors in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree. A high content of linalool, hydroxylinalool, and alpha-ionol glycosides in 'Olallie' and a low content in 'Chehalem' resulted in a moderate level in their offspring 'Marion', while a low content of (E)-linalool oxide precursor in 'Olallie' and a high content in 'Chehalem' also resulted in a moderate level in 'Marion'. However, the concentration of furaneol glycosides in 'Marion' exceeded that of its two parents.

  2. Identification of insecticide residues with a conducting-polymer electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The identification of insecticide residues on crop foliage is needed to make periodic pest management decisions. Electronic-nose (e-nose) methods were developed and tested as a means of acquiring rapid identifications of insecticide residue types at relatively low cost by detection of headspace volatiles released from inert surfaces in vitro. Detection methods were...

  3. Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants.

  4. Physicochemical and thermal characterization of nonedible oilseed residual waste as sustainable solid biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Pooja; Srivastava, Gopal; Pathak, Gauri; Dikshit, Madhurima

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of nonedible oilseed Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) defatted residual biomasses (whole seed, kernel, and hull), as solid biofuel. These biomasses showed good carbon contents (39.8-44.5%), whereas, fewer amounts were observed for sulfur (0.15-0.90%), chlorine (0.64-1.76%), nitrogen (0.9-7.2%) and ash contents (4.0-8.7%). Their volatile matter (60.23-81.6%) and calorific values (17.68-19.98 MJ/kg) were found to be comparable to coal. FT-IR and chemical analyses supported the presence of good amount of cellulose, hemicellulose and lower lignin. The pellets prepared without any additional binder, showed better compaction ratio, bulk density and compressive strength. XRF analysis carried out for determination of slagging-fouling indices, suggested their ash deposition tendencies in boilers, which can be overcome significantly with the optimization of the blower operations and control of ash depositions. Thus, overall various chemical, physical properties, thermal decomposition, surface morphological studies and their high biofuel reactivity indicated that residual biomasses of Jatropha and Karanja seeds have high potential to be utilized as a solid biofuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. potential bag filter for volatile organic amines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VADDYPALLY SHIVAIAH

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... be described as a potential bag filter for volatile organic amines. Keywords. Volatile organic amines; hydrogen ..... this bag filter, which can capture volatile amines to form. Figure 8. Thermal ellipsoid plot of ..... huber H, Baumann M and Amann A 2013 Blood and breath levels of selected volatile organic ...

  6. BOTANICAL DIVERSITY AND HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN THE RESIDUE MATRIX AND PLANTS AT THE MORAVIA DUMP IN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA DIVERSIDAD BOTÁNICA Y CONTENIDO DE METALES PESADOS EN LA MATRIZ DE RESIDUOS Y LAS PLANTAS EN EL BASURERO DE MORAVIA EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Solange Sanchez Pinzón; Álvaro Cogollo Pacheco; Catalina Arroyave Quiceno; Rubén Darío Torrenegra Guerrero; Ángel Maria Giraldo Mejía; Rolando Barahona Rosales

    2010-01-01

    . Floristic characterization, plant tissue and residue matrix (RM) analysis were conducted to establish the extent of heavy metal (HM) pollution of the Moravia dump at Medellín, Colombia, a site that was inhabited by more than 17000 people since 1984. More than 65 plant species (28 families) were identified, most of which were herbaceous. Content of HM in the (RM) was determined in 14 different RM samples varied greatly among them, reaching 121 and 9600 mg/kg of Hg and Pb respectively. Mean c...

  7. UTILIZING LOW VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTENT EXTERIOR COATINGS FOR WOOD FURNITURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides an evaluation of commercially viable source reduction techniques implemented by a manufacturer of wood chairs, bar stools and settees in various styles ranging from classic American to European contemporary. As federal EPA regulations became more stringent fo...

  8. Trace Metals and Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Oil Extraction and determination of BTEX and Trace. Metals: For the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of BTEX, 5g of homogenized soil samples were weighed and transferred into dry beakers. The weighed samples were extracted with 10ml hexane. The extracts were centrifuged and passed thru a filter paper to ...

  9. Evaluation of wood residues from Crete as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvuka, D. [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete (Greece); Bandelis, G. [Professional School of Chania, EPAS Chania (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Olive and citrus prunings, the main agricultural residues of Crete, are considered to be of premium importance for local energy production, substituting a large part of conventional fuels. The thermal behaviour of these fuels during combustion was studied by thermogravimetry, at non-isothermal heating conditions. Fly ashes were collected from tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed facility. The effect of the inorganic constituents of the fuels on slagging/fouling and agglomeration propensities, as well as environmental pollution was examined. Kinetic models were developed and reaction rates were determined. The agroresidues studied were characterized as good quality fuels, having high volatile and low ash and sulphur contents. Their ash was rich in Ca, Si, K and P minerals. However, fly ashes were poorer in alkali compounds, implying lower deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. The environmental impact of heavy metals is negligible. The thermochemical reactivity of the two fuels in air was very similar. A power low model fitted the experimental results accurately.

  10. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  11. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 1: Fate of elements and dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeldt, Brita; Jay, Klaus; Seifert, Helmuth; Vehlow, Jürgen; Christensen, Thomas H; Baun, Dorthe L; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator plants that are treated by means of the Ferrox process can be more safely disposed of due to reduction of soluble salts and stabilization of heavy metals in an iron oxide matrix. Further stabilization can be obtained by thermal treatment inside a combustion chamber of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The influence of the Ferrox products on the combustion process, the quality of the residues, and the partitioning of heavy metals between the various solids and the gas have been investigated in the Karlsruhe TAM-ARA pilot plant for waste incineration. During the experiments only few parameters were influenced. An increase in the SO2 concentration in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed compared with reference tests. Higher contents of Fe and volatile heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Pb and partly Hg in the Ferrox products lead to increased concentration of these elements in the solid residues of the co-feeding tests. Neither the burnout nor the PCDD/F formation was altered by the addition of the Ferrox products. Co-feeding of treated APC residues seems to be a feasible approach for obtaining a single solid residue from waste incineration.

  12. Vaporization of semi-volatile components from Savannah River Plant waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilds, G.W.

    1978-08-01

    Sodium and boric oxides account for approximately 90% of the semi-volatile off-gases that are generated during vitrification of Savannah River Plant waste. The two oxides volatilize as the thermally stable compound sodium metaborate, Na 2 O . B 2 O 3 . The quantity of semi-volatiles increases with increases in (1) the temperature of the melt, (2) the time of vitrification, (3) the surface area of the melt, and (4) the sodium content of the glass-forming mixture. The amounts of semi-volatiles evolved in three hours varied from 1.5 to 9.0 mg per cm 2 of melt surface. Values between 3.5 to 4.0 mg/cm 2 were typical for normal melting conditions and compositions. Cesium oxide volatility averaged 0.11 mg/cm 2 from samples that contained 0.06 wt % Cs 2 O. Volatilities ranged from 0.09 to 0.2 mg/cm 2 . Volatility of Cs 2 O was not significantly suppressed when TiO 2 was added to the glass melt. Cesium volatility was unaffected when Cs was added to the melt as Cs-loaded zeolite rather than a Cs 2 CO 3 solution. Over a range of 0.03 to 0.09 wt % Cs 2 O in the melt, volatility of Cs 2 O increased when the Cs content of the melt increased. Lithium volatility was low and was unaffected by changes in melting conditions or melt composition. Lithium, like sodium, volatilized from borosilicate melts as the metaborate, Li 2 O . B 2 O 3

  13. Volatility and thermal stabilty of rare earth pivaloiltrifluoroacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, T.N.; Korchkov, V.P.; Durasov, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal stability of pivaloltrifluoroacetonates of rare earth metals (Ln(PTA) 3 ) and the influence of their hydrate composition on the volatility and thermal stability of complexes have been investigated, tris-Chelates have been obtained by the interaction of HPTA (C 8 H 11 O 2 F 3 ) with salts of rare earth metals in the neutral homogeneous or heterogeneous medium. The structure of synthethized complexes corresponds to Ln(PTA) 3 xnH 2 o (n=1, 2). The products have been dried in vacuum in presence of P 2 O 5 . The investigation of the volatility and thermal stability of obtained compounds has been made by means of thermogravimetrical and differentially-thermal analysis together with mass-spectrometry data. The increase of volatility of anhydrous complexes in the series from La to Lu being characteristical for compounds of rare earth metals have been established. The evaporation of the great part of complexes has been occurred with partial decomposition. The role of the latter process decreases from La to Lu compounds. The presence of water in complexes leads to substantial decrease in the volatility and thermal stability of dihydrates. Monohydrates of the complexes of higher lanthanoids have been found to dehydrate and evaporate practically without residue and decomposition

  14. Volatile compounds of some popular Mediterranean seafood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. GIOGIOS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of highly commercialised fresh Mediterranean seafood species, including seven fish (sand-smelt Atherina boyeri, picarel Spicara smaris, hake Merluccius merluccius, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, bogue Boobps boops, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and striped-mullet Mullus barbatus, squid (Loligo vulgaris, shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, were evaluated by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and subsequent GC-MS analysis. A total of 298 volatile compounds were detected. The mussels contained the highest total concentration of volatile compounds, while pilchard among fish species contained the highest number and concentrations of volatile compounds. Individual patterns of volatile compounds have been distinguished. The fish species when compared to the shellfish species studied, contained 6 to 30 times more 1-penten-3-ol, higher quantities of 2-ethylfuran, and 2,3-pentanedione, which was absent from the shellfish species. Pilchard is characterized by a high concentration of alcohols, shrimps by the high presence of amines and S-compounds, while mussels by high amounts of aldehydes, furans, and N-containing compounds (pyridine, pyrazines and pyrrols. The fatty acid-originating carbonyl compounds in fish seem to be related to the species’ fat content.

  15. Extensive volatile loss during formation and differentiation of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Chizu; Moynier, Frederic; Valdes, Maria C; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K; Day, James M D

    2015-07-03

    Low estimated lunar volatile contents, compared with Earth, are a fundamental observation for Earth-Moon system formation and lunar evolution. Here we present zinc isotope and abundance data for lunar crustal rocks to constrain the abundance of volatiles during the final stages of lunar differentiation. We find that ferroan anorthosites are isotopically heterogeneous, with some samples exhibiting high δ(66)Zn, along with alkali and magnesian suite samples. Since the plutonic samples were formed in the lunar crust, they were not subjected to degassing into vacuum. Instead, their compositions are consistent with enrichment of the silicate portions of the Moon in the heavier Zn isotopes. Because of the difference in δ(66)Zn between bulk silicate Earth and lunar basalts and crustal rocks, the volatile loss likely occurred in two stages: during the proto-lunar disk stage, where a fraction of lunar volatiles accreted onto Earth, and from degassing of a differentiating lunar magma ocean, implying the possibility of isolated, volatile-rich regions in the Moon's interior.

  16. Volatility Properties of Polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.

    2002-06-01

    Thermodynamical constants to describe evaporation processes of polonium are summarized and critically discussed. Additionally, systematic changes of the properties of the chalcogenes are analyzed, empirical correlations are proofed and cyclic processes are balanced. Accordingly, the existing values of entropies for polonium are acceptable. Questionable, however, are those values of enthalpies, which have been deduced from results of the experimental investigations of the vapor pressure temperature dependency, of the melting point, and of the boiling temperatures. Technical difficulties and possible error sources of the measurements resulting from the radioactive decay properties of 210 Po are discussed. Using extrapolative standard enthalpies and entropies as well as their temperature dependency, the equilibrium partial pressure of the monomeric and dimeric polonium above the pure condensed phase and the equilibrium constant of the dimerization reaction in the gas phase are calculated: log p/pa Po (g) = (11.797 ± 0.024) -(9883.4 ± 9.5)/T (for T = 298-600 K); = (10.661 ± 0.057) - (9328.4 ± 4.9)/T (for T = 500-1300 K); log p/pa Po 2 (g) = (13.698 ± 0.049) - (8592.3 ± 19.6)/T (for T = 298-600 K); = (11.424 ± 0.124) - (7584.1 ± 98.1)/T (for T = 500-1300 K); log K (dim) = (-4.895 ± 0.012) + (11071 ± 6)/T. According to these calculations and in contrast to other works, polonium evaporates in the entire temperature range between 298 and 1300 K in the dimeric state. Hence, 'latent heats' of the volatilization processes are clearly larger compared to literature data. Especially in the temperature range of the solid polonium the calculated vapor pressure curve shifts significantly to lower values, whereas the boiling point was almost reproduced by the calculation. The results of the extrapolation for the standard enthalpy of the gaseous monomeric polonium and the dimerization enthalpy ΔH 0 298 Po (g) = 188.9 kJ/mol and ΔH 0 298 (form) Po 2 (g) = 211.5 kJ/mol are

  17. Evaluation of dose due to the liberation of the radioactive content present in systems of final disposal of radioactive residues; Evaluacion de la dosis debida a la liberacion del contenido radiactivo presente en sistemas de disposicion final de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, V.; Lopez, F. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (C1429BNP) (Argentina)]. e-mail: vamado@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The disposal systems of radioactive residuals well-known as repositories near to the surface, are used to dispose residuals that can contain high concentrations of radionuclides of period of short semi disintegration, which they would decay at levels radiologically insignificant in some few decades or in some centuries: and acceptably low concentrations of radionuclides of period of long semi disintegration. The dose that would receive the critic group due to these systems it could be increased by cause of discreet events that affect the foreseen retard time, or by the gradual degradation of the barriers. To this last case it contributes the presence of water, because it implies leaching and dissolution that can give place to radionuclide concentrations in the underground water greater to the prospective ones. The dosimetric evaluation is important because it offers useful objective information to decide if a given repository is adjusted to the purposes of its design and it fulfills the regulatory requirements. In this work a simplified evaluation of the dose that would receive the critic group due to the liberation of contained radionuclides in a hypothetical system of final disposition of radioactive residuals is presented. For it, they are considered representative values of the usually contained activities in this type of systems and they are carried out some approaches of the source term. The study is developed in two stages. In the first one, by means of the Radionuclide pollutant scattering pattern in phreatic aquifers (DRAF) it is considered the scattering of the pollutants in the phreatic aquifer, until the discharge point in the course of the nearest surface water. This model, developed originally in the regulatory branch of the National Commission of Argentine Atomic Energy (CNEA); it solves the transport equation of solutes in porous means in three dimensions, by the finite differences method having in account the soil retention and the radioactive

  18. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  19. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... for environmental sustainable alternatives exists and electrodialysis could be such an alternative. The potential of electrodialysis for treating APC-residue is explored in this work by designing and testing a continuous-flow bench-scale reactor that can work with a high solids content feed solution. Experiments...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial...... solutions are concerned with deposition. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. This work presents a bench scale study of the feasibility of treating APC-residue from a dry system by electrodialysis....... A system resembling conventional electrodialysis was designed and adjusted to fit the high solids content feed solution (10% APC residue, 90% water). Experiments were made in bench scale with raw residue (natural pH > 12), water pre-residue (natural pH > 12), acid pre-washed residue (pH 10), and acid...

  1. Heavy metals behavior during thermal plasma vitrification of incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, N.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the developed world, incineration of wastes is widely and increasingly practiced. Worldwide, a total of approximately 100 millions of tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) material is incinerated annually. Incineration of one ton of MSW leads to the formation of 30 to 50 kg of fly ash, depending on the type of incinerator. The waste disposal of these dusts already causes great problems today; they are of low bulk density, they contain high concentrations of hazardous water-soluble heavy metal compounds, organohalogen compounds (dioxines, furanes), sulfur, and chlorinated compounds. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, show great promise: the residues are melted at high temperature and converted in a relatively inert glass. A few tens of plants, essentially in Japan and Taiwan, have been in industrial operation for a few years. To be authorized to be dumped in a common landfill, the glassy product has to satisfy the leaching test procedure to ensure long-term durability. But to satisfy the regulation to be reused, for example as a nonhazardous standard material in road building, the glassy product would probably include contents in some heavy metals lower than critical limits. So today, there are two alternatives: the first one is to improve the heavy toxic metals evaporation to get a 'light' glassy product and to recycle separately the said separated metals; the second is on the contrary to improve the incorporation of a maximum of heavy metals into the vitreous silicate matrix. Whatever, it is highly required to control, in situ and in real time, volatility of these metals during ash melting under electrical arc. The objective of this work was to reach basic data about metals volatility under the plasma column of an electrical arc transferred on the melt: an experiment has been designed to examine the effects of processing conditions, such as melt temperature, melt composition, and furnace atmosphere, upon volatilization and glassy slag

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B.B.; Khaleel, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: → Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. → Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. → Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. → Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. → No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M., E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)

    2011-11-15

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: > Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. > Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. > Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. > Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. > No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  4. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  5. Oxygen concentration affects volatile compound biosynthesis during virgin olive oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero, Carmen; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2008-06-25

    The effect of O 2 concentration on oil volatile compounds synthesized during the process to obtain virgin olive oil (VOO) was established. The study was carried out either on the whole process or within the main steps (milling and malaxation) of this process with two olive cultivars, Picual and Arbequina, at two ripening stages. Data show that O 2 control during milling has a negative impact on VOO volatile synthesis. This effect seems to depend on cultivar and on the ripening stage in cultivar Picual. Because most VOO volatiles are synthesized during olive fruit crushing at the milling step, O 2 control during malaxation seems to affect just slightly the volatile synthesis. The highest effect was observed when control of O 2 concentration was performed over the whole process. In this case, the content of volatile compounds of oils obtained from both cultivars and ripening stages showed quite similar trends.

  6. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  7. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...... of funding liquidity constraints suggesting an economic channel for the effect....

  8. Realized Volatility in Seoul Foreign Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Shick Chung

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs model-free estimates of daily KRW/USD's volatility, termed realized volatility, using two minutes frequency and compares the volatility with two major currencies of JPY/USD and EURO/USD. We confirm that the empirical properties of KRW/USD's realized volatility are very similar to early findings major currencies as argued by Andersen et. al(2003. Noteworthy results include the distribution of realized volatility are leptokurtic, but the distributions of logarithmic standard deviations are nearly Gaussian. We also find that the correlation between KRW/USD and major currency, JPY/USD and EURO/USD, are positive and increase with volatility.

  9. Volatile Components from Old Plum Brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoslav Nikićević

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography and GC/MS methods were used to detect volatile components of three home-made natural old plum brandy samples and one sample of industrially-produced plum brandy. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of this extracts led to the identification of 99 components, including 46 esters, 7 hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes, 3 aldehydes, 9 alcohols, 1 lactone, 1 ketone, 8 acetals, 14 terpenes, 8 acids and 2 phenols. Ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were the most abundant in all samples. In addition, the content of methanol, ethanol and higher alcohols C3–C5 was determined.

  10. Nitrogen mineralization from organic residues: research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M L; Kissel, D E; Vigil, M F

    2005-01-01

    Research on nitrogen (N) mineralization from organic residues is important to understand N cycling in soils. Here we review research on factors controlling net N mineralization as well as research on laboratory and field modeling efforts, with the objective of highlighting areas with opportunities for additional research. Among the factors controlling net N mineralization are organic composition of the residue, soil temperature and water content, drying and rewetting events, and soil characteristics. Because C to N ratio of the residue cannot explain all the variability observed in N mineralization among residues, considerable effort has been dedicated to the identification of specific compounds that play critical roles in N mineralization. Spectroscopic techniques are promising tools to further identify these compounds. Many studies have evaluated the effect of temperature and soil water content on N mineralization, but most have concentrated on mineralization from soil organic matter, not from organic residues. Additional work should be conducted with different organic residues, paying particular attention to the interaction between soil temperature and water content. One- and two-pool exponential models have been used to model N mineralization under laboratory conditions, but some drawbacks make it difficult to identify definite pools of mineralizable N. Fixing rate constants has been used as a way to eliminate some of these drawbacks when modeling N mineralization from soil organic matter, and may be useful for modeling N mineralization from organic residues. Additional work with more complex simulation models is needed to simulate both gross N mineralization and immobilization to better estimate net N mineralized from organic residues.

  11. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  12. Volatile phenolics in Teran PTP red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile phenolics, 4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol were quantified in Teran PTP wines that were produced in the Kras winegrowing district. The compounds were determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry after extraction with diethylether. Three years monitoring (2011, 2012, 2013 vintages showed that all four undesirable compounds were identified in Teran PTP wines, however their content did not influence significantly the sensory characteristics of the wine. The average contents gained over the three-year period (2011-2013; n=82 were 153±193 µg L-1 for 4-ethylphenol, 1265±682 µg L-1 for 4-vinylphenol, 69±94 µg L-1 for 4-ethylguaiacol and 128±106 µg L-1 for 4-vinylguaiacol. 7.3 % of samples showed contents of 4-ethylphenol above the odour threshold values. For 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol that percentage was 98.8 %, 25.6 % and 91.5 %, respectively.

  13. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  14. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  15. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  16. Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System: evidence from angrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Hauri, Erik H; McCubbin, Francis M; Lapen, Thomas J; Berger, Eve L; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; Gaetani, Glenn A; Righter, Kevin; Sarafian, Emily

    2017-05-28

    Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the 207 Pb- 206 Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma. We use volatile saturation models to demonstrate that the angrite parent body must have been a major body in the early inner Solar System. We further show via mixing calculations that all inner Solar System bodies accreted volatile elements with carbonaceous chondrite H and N isotope signatures extremely early in Solar System history. Only a small portion (if any) of comets and gaseous nebular H species contributed to the volatile content of the inner Solar System bodies.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  18. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  19. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    We present and test a model relating a firm's idiosyncratic cost, its exporting status, and the volatilities of its domestic and export sales. In prior models of trade, supply costs for domestic and exports were linear and thus additively separable. We introduce a nonlinear cost function in order...... to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...... has several testable predictions. First, larger firms have lower total and domestic sales volatilities. Second, foreign market volatility increases domestic sales volatilities for exporters. Third, exporters allocate output across both markets in order to reduce total sales volatility. We find...

  20. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  1. A volatile topic: Parsing out the details of Earth's formation through experimental metal-silicate partitioning of volatile and moderately volatile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, B. M.; Siebert, J.; Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Sossi, P.; Moynier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile and moderately volatile elements display different volatilities and siderophilities, as well as varying sensitivity to thermodynamic controls (X, P, T, fO2) during metal-silicate differentiation. The experimental determination of the metal-silicate partitioning of these elements permits us to evaluate processes controlling the distribution of these elements in Earth. In this work, we have combined metal-silicate partitioning data and results for S, Sn, Zn and Cu, and input these characterizations into Earth formation models. Model parameters such as source material, timing of volatile delivery, fO2 path, and degree of impactor equilibration were varied to encompass an array of possible formation scenarios. These models were then assessed to discern plausible sets of conditions that can produce current observed element-to-element ratios (e.g. S/Zn) in the Earth's present-day mantle, while also satisfying current estimates on the S content of the core, at no more than 2 wt%. The results of our models indicate two modes of accretion that can maintain chondritic element-to-element ratios for the bulk Earth and can arrive at present-day mantle abundances of these elements. The first mode requires the late addition of Earth's entire inventory of these elements (assuming a CI-chondritic composition) and late-stage accretion that is marked by partial equilibration of large impactors. The second, possibly more intuitive mode, requires that Earth accreted - at least initially - from volatile poor material preferentially depleted in S relative to Sn, Zn, and Cu. From a chemical standpoint, this source material is most similar to type I chondrule rich (and S poor) materials (Hewins and Herzberg, 1996; Mahan et al., 2017; Amsellem et al., 2017), such as the metal-bearing carbonaceous chondrites.

  2. Wintertime hygroscopicity and volatility of ambient urban aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Mikkilä, Jyri; Németh, Zoltán; Kulmala, Markku; Salma, Imre

    2018-04-01

    particles were ordinarily volatile. They could be composed of moderately transformed aged combustion particles consisting of partly oxygenated organics, inorganic salts and soot. The larger particles contained internally mixed non-volatile chemical species as a refractory residual in 20-25 % of the aerosol material (by volume).

  3. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  4. Distribution of volatile composition in 'marion' ( rubus species hyb) blackberry pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Finn, Chad; Qian, Michael C

    2010-02-10

    The distribution of volatile constituents in ancestral genotypes of 'Marion' blackberry's pedigree was investigated over two growing seasons. Each genotype in the pedigree had a specific volatile composition. Red raspberry was dominated by norisoprenoids, lactones, and acids. 'Logan' and 'Olallie' also had a norisoprenoid dominance but at much lower concentrations. The concentration of norisoprenoids in other blackberry genotypes was significantly lower. Terpenes and furanones were predominant in wild 'Himalaya' blackberry, whereas terpenes were the major volatiles in 'Santiam'. 'Marion', a selection from 'Chehalem' and 'Olallie', contained almost all of the volatile compounds in its pedigree at moderate amount. The chiral isomeric ratios of 11 pairs of compounds were also studied. Strong chiral isomeric preference was observed for most of the chiral compounds, and each cultivar had its unique chiral isomeric distribution. An inherent pattern was observed for some volatile compounds in the 'Marion' pedigree. Raspberry and 'Logan' had a very high concentration of beta-ionone, but was reduced by half in 'Olallie' and by another half in 'Marion' as the crossing proceeded. A high content of linalool in 'Olallie' and a low content in 'Chehalem' resulted in a moderate content of linalool in their progeny 'Marion'. However, the concentration of furaneol in 'Marion' was higher than in its parents. A high content of (S)-linalool in 'Olallie' and a racemic content of (S)-,(R)-linalool in 'Chehalem' resulted in a preference for the (S)-form in 'Marion'.

  5. 76 FR 35968 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...) Inherent ash and moisture content and (2) the volatility of the coal. The final rule, like the ETS, considers the variability of inherent ash and moisture of coal as part of the incombustible content of a sample used to calculate the 80% requirement. The volatility of the coal is expressed as the percentage...

  6. Bio-syngas production from agro-industrial biomass residues by steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacioni, Tatiana Ramos; Soares, Diniara; Domenico, Michele Di; Rosa, Maria Fernanda; Moreira, Regina de Fátima Peralta Muniz; José, Humberto Jorge

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the steam gasification potential of three residues from Brazilian agro-industry by assessing their reaction kinetics and syngas production at temperatures from 650 to 850°C and a steam partial pressure range of 0.05 to 0.3bar. The transition temperature between kinetic control and diffusion control regimes was identified. Prior to the gasification tests, the raw biomasses, namely apple pomace, spent coffee grounds and sawdust, were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed quartz tubular reactor under controlled conditions. Gasification tests were performed isothermally in a magnetic suspension thermobalance and the reaction products were analyzed by a gas chromatograph with TCD/FID detectors. According to the characterization results, the samples presented higher carbon and lower volatile matter contents than the biomasses. Nevertheless, all of the materials had high calorific value. Syngas production was influenced by both temperature and steam partial pressure. Higher concentrations of H 2 and CO were found in the conversion range of 50-80% and higher concentrations of CO 2 in conversions around 10%, for all the gasified biochars. The H 2 /CO decreased with increasing temperature, mainly in kinetic control regime, in the lower temperature range. The results indicate the gasification potential of Brazilian biomass residues and are an initial and important step in the development of gasification processes in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaerobic biodegradability and methane potential of crop residue co-digested with buffalo dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability) and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential) of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System). The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids), ultimate analysis (CHONS), pH and TA (Total Alkalinity). The BMP/sub observed/ during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37+-0.2+-degree C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVS/sub add/ for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane. (author)

  8. Dynamic Factor Models for the Volatility Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Michel; Ozturk, Sait R.; Dijk, Dick van

    The implied volatility surface is the collection of volatilities implied by option contracts for different strike prices and time-to-maturity. We study factor models to capture the dynamics of this three-dimensional implied volatility surface. Three model types are considered to examine desirable...

  9. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, Olaf; Zweers, H.; Boer, de W.; Garbeva, P.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures

  10. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  11. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  12. Volatilization of EPTC as affected by soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liqun

    Volatilization is an important process that controls the dissipation of pesticides after field application. Soil moisture plays an important role in controlling the volatilization of pesticides. However, the extent of this role is unclear. This study was conducted to determine how soil moisture affects the sorption capacity and vapor loss of EPTC (S-ethyl dipropyl carbamothioate) from two soils, Weswood clay loam (fine- silty, mixed, thermic fluventic ustochrepts) and Padina loamy sand (loamy, siliceous, thermic grossarenic paleustalfs). Soil samples with different moisture contents were exposed to saturated EPTC vapor for 1, 2, 5, or 12 days and sorbed concentrations were measured. Sorption capacity of Weswood after 12 days exposure was about 12 times higher with air-dry soil than at the wilting point (-1500 kPa). For Padina, after 12 days exposure, the sorption capacity was about 18 times higher at air- dry than at -1500 kPa. The maximum sorption extrapolated from the partitioning coefficients determined with an equilibrium batch system and Henry's law were similar to the sorption capacities when moisture content was close to the wilting point for both soils. Desorption of EPTC vapor from soils with different moistures was determined by a purge and trap method. EPTC vapor losses strongly depended on the soil moisture and/or the humidity of the air. If the air was dry, volatilization of EPTC was much larger when the soil was wet. If humidity of the air was high, the effect of soil moisture on volatilization was not as great. No significant correlation at a confidence level of 95% was found between water and EPTC vapor losses for either soil when water saturated air was used as a purge gas. When purged with dry air, losses of water and EPTC vapor were strongly correlated at a confidence level of 99%. This study indicates that decreasing soil moisture significantly increases EPTC sorption and decreases volatilization. Simulation of volatilization with a one

  13. Deregulated power prices: comparison of volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Flynn, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine electrical power price variability for 14 deregulated markets. Power price volatility is measured by price velocity, the daily average of the absolute value of price change per hour. Deregulated markets show a wide variability in price velocity. Some price velocity is expected and arises from the daily diurnal price pattern, which differs significantly between markets. Even when the expected daily variability in price is removed, the residual unexpected variability differs between markets. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent and have low values of unexpected price velocity. These markets create a climate conducive to consumers facing the market through real time pricing and shaping consumption behaviors in response to price changes. Other markets, for example, South Australia and Alberta, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to avoid demand side management and escape risk through hedging mechanisms

  14. Assessment of ex-vitro anaerobic digestion kinetics of crop residues through first order exponential models: effect of lag phase period and curve factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic studies of AD (Anaerobic Digestion) process are useful to predict the performance of digesters and design appropriate digesters and also helpful in understanding inhibitory mechanisms of biodegradation. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic kinetics of crop residues digestion with buffalo dung. Seven crop residues namely, bagasse, banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw were selected from the field and were analyzed on MC (Moisture Contents), TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids) with standard methods. In present study, three first order exponential models namely exponential model, exponential lag phase model and exponential curve factor model were used to assess the kinetics of the AD process of crop residues and the effect of lag phase and curve factor was analyzed based on statistical hypothesis testing and on information theory. Assessment of kinetics of the AD of crop residues and buffalo dung follows the first order kinetics. Out of the three models, the simple exponential model was the poorest model, while the first order exponential curve factor model is the best fit model. In addition to statistical hypothesis testing, the exponential curve factor model has least value of AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion) and can generate methane production data more accurately. Furthermore, there is an inverse linear relationship between the lag phase period and the curve factor. (author)

  15. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  16. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  17. Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

  18. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  19. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, A V

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  20. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  1. Volatile constituents of Trichothecium roseum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaelen, M; Vanhaelen-Fastre, R; Geeraerts, J

    1978-06-01

    In the course of investigation of Trichothecium roseum (Fungi Imperfecti) for its attractancy against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (cheese mite), the twenty following volatile compounds produced at a very low concentration by the microfungus were identified by gc, gc/ms, gc/c.i.ms and tlc: 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol, octa-1,5-dien-3 one, 1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, octa-1,5-dien-3 ol, furfural, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpineol (alpha and beta) citronellyl acetate, nerol, citronellol, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol geranyl acetate, 1-phenyl ethanol and nerolidol. Octa-1,5-dien-3-ol and octa-1,5-dien-3-one have not been previously isolated from fungi; octa-1,5-dien-3-ol is the most potent attractant amount the volatile compounds detected by gc.

  2. Evolution of Io's volatile inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.B.; Witteborn, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    Voyager data are used to make crude estimates of the rate at which Io loses volatiles, by a variety of processes, to the surrounding magnetosphere, for the case of both the current, SO2-dominated atmosphere and hypothetical paleoatmospheres in which such other gases as N2 may have been the dominant constituent. Among the mechanisms making significant contributions to the prodigious rate at which Io is losing volatiles are: the interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with volcanic plume particles and the background atmosphere, the sputtering of ices on the surface, if the nightside atmospheric pressure is low enough and Jeans' escape of O as a dissociation product of SO2 gas. It is also argued that in the case of paleoatmospheres only the first two alternatives would have been possible and, nevertheless, insufficient to account for N2 loss over the life of the satellite

  3. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  4. Relative Liquidity and Future Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Marcela; Zer, Ilknur; Fryzlewicz, Piotr; Rheinlander, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to identify the strong predictive power of the relative concentration of depth provision, rather than volume of orders, over volatility. To this end, we propose a new measure, relative liquidity (RLIQ), which extracts information from a limit order book distribution and captures the level of consensus on a security's trading price. Higher liquidity provision farther away from the best quotes, relative to the rest of the book, is associated with a disagre...

  5. Volatiles in Inter-Specific Bacterial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, Olaf; Zweers, Hans; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well-described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium, and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal, and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide) were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here, we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  6. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eTyc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  7. Effect of torrefaction pre-treatment on physical and combustion characteristics of biomass composite briquette from rice husk and banana residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Atan Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is an alternative renewable energy sources that can generates energy almost same as fossil fuel. The depletion sources of fossil fuel had increase the potential use of biomass energy. In Malaysia, rice husk and banana residues are abundantly left and not treated with proper disposal method which later may contribute to environment and health problems. Thus the development of biomass composite briquette made from rice husk and banana residue is one of the potential ways to reduce the problems and hence may contribute the better way to treat the waste by recycling the waste into a form of biomass product. The biomass briquettes are used for thermal applications because it can produce a complete combustion as it has a consistent quality and high burning efficiency. However, the quality of the biomass briquette can be added by application of torrefaction pre-treatment method. Torrefaction is a thermal method that can produce more high quality of the briquette with high calorific value, high fixed carbon content, low volatile matter, and low ash content. This study was conducted to assess the physical and combustion characteristic of the biomass briquette from rice husk and banana residue which was produced through torrefaction process. The biomass briquette, were densified by using hot press machine with temperature of 180°C for about 30 minutes. The briquette produce are 150 μm in particle size with varies in mixing ratio of rice husk to banana residue which are 100:0, 80:20 and 60:40. After the briquetting process, the biomass fuel briquettes have been undergoes parameter testing and the data have been analysed. Result showed the best biomass briquette is developed from torrefied rice husk and banana residue mixed at ratio of 60:40. Moreover, SEM image reveal that torrefaction pre-treatment has shrinkage the fibres size which confirming the thermal stability of the briquette.

  8. Volatilization of gasoline from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthus, P.

    1993-05-01

    Gasoline contaminated soil threatens water resources and air quality. The extent of the threat depends on gasoline behavior in soil, which is affected by various mechanisms such as volatilization. To quantify volatilization, gasoline spills were simulated in the laboratory using a synthetic gasoline and three dry soils. Total gasoline and individual gasoline compound concentrations in soil were monitored as a function of depth and time. The time to reduce overall gasoline concentration in coarse sand, sandy loam, and silt loam to 40% of initial concentration, averaged between surface and a 200-mm depth, ranged from 0.25 d to 10 d. A wicking phenomenon which contributed to gasoline flux toward the atmosphere was indicated by behavior of a low-volatility gasoline compound. Based on separate wicking experiments, this bulk immiscible movement was estimated at an upward velocity of 0.09 m/d for Delhi sandy loam and 0.05 m/d for Elora silt loam. 70 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs

  9. Characterization of Ash Standards for the Residues Project

    CERN Document Server

    Westsik, G A

    2001-01-01

    Measurements have been completed to characterize the plutonium content and isotopic composition of ash standards that are or may be used as quality control check sources for the Residues Stabilization Project. These standards are for use as check sources for the Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System (SGSAS) employed for the Residues Stabilization Project.

  10. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hygroscopicity and ammonia volatilization losses from nitrogen sources in coated urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Abreu Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic fertilizers tend to absorb moisture from the air and may have undesirable characteristics such as moistness, clumping and lower fluidity, hampering the application. The increasing use of urea is due to its numerous advantages, although this nitrogen (N source is highly susceptible to volatilization losses, particularly when applied to the soil surface of management systems with conservation of crop residues. The volatilization losses can be minimized by slow or controlled-release fertilizers, with controlled water solubility of the urea-coating materials; and by stabilized fertilizers, which prolong the period during which N remains in the amide or ammonia forms by urease inhibitors. This study evaluated the hygroscopicity of and ammonia volatilization from urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate or with sulfur. The hygroscopicity of the sources was evaluated over time after exposure to five levels of relative humidity (RH and volatilization evaluated after application to the soil surface covered with sugarcane trash. Ammonium nitrate has a low potential for volatilization losses, but is highly hygroscopic. Although coating with boric acid and copper sulfate or elemental sulfur reduced the critical humidity level of urea, the delay in the volatilization process is a potential positive factor.

  12. Predicting Abnormal Stock Return Volatility Using Textual Analysis of News ‒ A Meta-Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Myšková

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Textual analysis of news articles is increasingly important in predicting stock prices. Previous research has intensively utilized the textual analysis of news and other firmrelated documents in volatility prediction models. It has been demonstrated that the news may be related to abnormal stock price behavior subsequent to their dissemination. However, previous studies to date have tended to focus on linear regression methods in predicting volatility. Here, we show that non-linear models can be effectively employed to explain the residual variance of the stock price. Moreover, we use meta-learning approach to simulate the decision-making process of various investors. The results suggest that this approach significantly improves the prediction accuracy of abnormal stock return volatility. The fact that the length of news articles is more important than news sentiment in predicting stock return volatility is another important finding. Notably, we show that Rotation forest performs particularly well in terms of both the accuracy of abnormal stock return volatility and the performance on imbalanced volatility data

  13. Mathematical modelling of volatile matter evolution during carbonisation in metallurgical coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Godiwalla, K.M.; Mehrotra, S.P.; Chatterjee, A.; Krishnan, S.H.; Choudhary, P.C. [National Meteorological Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, a mathematical model to simulate volatile matter evolution during the carbonisation process for Indian coals has been developed. This model is a part of the endeavour to develop a rigorous mathematical model to simulate the main physical, chemical changes and transient heat transfer phenomena occurring during thermal decomposition of coals in coke oven carbonisation. To have sufficient generality for the applications to coke oven practices, the mathematical model describes the kinetics of release of main volatile matter constituents, thereby permitting the changes in the mass and composition of solid residue to be estimated by element balances. The prediction of volatile matter evolution has been made from coal ultimate analysis and heating profile based on the principles of kinetics and rate phenomena. The aim of this mathematical model is to predict the yield and composition of volatile matter as a function of charge temperature and to relate these to the changes in the semi-coke composition for some typical Indian coals used for coke making in the coke ovens of Tata Steel. The quantity of volatile matter loss from coal during carbonisation was also determined experimentally using a standard thermogravimetric analyser (TGA), in which the weight of the sample undergoing test is monitored continuously while the sample is heated at a constant rate. The computer based mathematical model predictions for volatile matter yield are verified with the experimental results and found to be in good agreement.

  14. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  15. Hot char-catalytic reforming of volatiles from MSW pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Dezhen; Arena, Umberto; He, Pinjing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatile from MSW pyrolysis is reformed with hot char from the same pyrolysis process. • The yields of syngas increase evidently with H 2 being the main contributor and the major component of the syngas. • Pyrolysis oil becomes light and its composition distribution is narrowed. • The HHV, volatile elements and alkali metals contents in the char decrease. • The emissions including SO 2 , NO, NO 2 and HCN changed after reforming process. - Abstract: Volatile products obtained from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW), including syngas and pyrolysis oil, were forced to contact the hot char from the same pyrolysis process at 500–600 °C in a fixed bed reactor to be reformed. The yields and properties of syngas, char and pyrolysis liquid were investigated; and the energy re-distribution among the products due to char reforming was quantified. The preliminary investigation at lab scale showed that hot char-catalytic reforming of the volatiles leads to an increase in the dry syngas yield from 0.25 to 0.37 N m 3 kg −1 MSW at 550 °C. Accordingly, the carbon conversion ratio into syngas increases from 29.6% to 35.0%; and the MSW chemical energy transferred into syngas increased from 41.8% to 47.4%. The yield of pyrolysis liquid products, including pyrolysis oil and water, decreased from 27.3 to 16.5 wt%, and the molecular weight of the oil becoming lighter. Approximately 60% of the water vapour contained in the volatiles converted into syngas. After reforming, the concentrations of SO 2 and HCN in the syngas decreases, while those of NO and NO 2 increase. The char concentrations of N, H, C and alkali metal species decreased and its higher heating value decreased too.

  16. Chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements from two megacity field studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The volatilities of different chemical species in ambient aerosols are important but remain poorly characterized. The coupling of a recently developed rapid temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD, operated in the range 54–230°C with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS during field studies in two polluted megacities has enabled the first direct characterization of chemically-resolved urban particle volatility. Measurements in Riverside, CA and Mexico City are generally consistent and show ambient nitrate as having the highest volatility of any AMS standard aerosol species while sulfate showed the lowest volatility. Total organic aerosol (OA showed volatility intermediate between nitrate and sulfate, with an evaporation rate of 0.6%·K−1 near ambient temperature, although OA dominates the residual species at the highest temperatures. Different types of OA were characterized with marker ions, diurnal cycles, and positive matrix factorization (PMF and show significant differences in volatility. Reduced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, a surrogate for primary OA, POA, oxygenated OA (OOA, a surrogate for secondary OA, SOA, and biomass-burning OA (BBOA separated with PMF were all determined to be semi-volatile. The most aged OOA-1 and its dominant ion, CO2+, consistently exhibited the lowest volatility, with HOA, BBOA, and associated ions for each among the highest. The similar or higher volatility of HOA/POA compared to OOA/SOA contradicts the current representations of OA volatility in most atmospheric models and has important implications for aerosol growth and lifetime. A new technique using the AMS background signal was demonstrated to quantify the fraction of species up to four orders-of-magnitude less volatile than those detectable in the MS mode, which for OA represent ~5% of the non-refractory (NR OA signal. Our results strongly imply that all OA types should be considered

  17. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parawira, W.; Read, J.S.; Mattiasson, B.; Bjoernsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  18. Efeito de diferentes aditivos sobre os teores de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e digestibilidade da silagem de maracujá Effects of different additives on the content of crude protein, ether extract and coefficient of digestibility of silage of passion fruit residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Prata Neiva Júnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os teores de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e a digestibilidade "in vitro" da matéria seca (DIVMS da silagem de resíduo de maracujá em mistura com diferentes aditivos, em níveis crescentes de adição, foi conduzido este estudo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em um esquema fatorial do tipo (3 x 4 + 1, sendo três aditivos (bagaço de cana (BC, casca de café (CC e sabugo de milho (SM em quatro níveis de adição (10, 15, 20 e 25% e um tratamento testemunha (resíduo de maracujá puro ensilado. O material experimental foi ensilado em silos de PVC adaptados com válvula tipo "Bunsen" com capacidade para aproximadamente 3 kg cada. Apenas o aditivo CC promoveu aumento dos teores de PB. O aditivo CC foi o que mais contribuiu para a redução dos teores de EE. Os valores de DIVMS permitiram classificar as silagens como de boa ou média qualidade, à exceção da silagem aditivada de SM.Aminig to evaluate the content of crude protein, ether extract and the coefficient of "in vitro" dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of passion fruit residue silage in mixture with different additives at increasing levels of addition, this study was undertaken. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized, with four replicates. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme of the (3 x 4 + 1 type, with three treatments as follow (sugar cane bagasse (CB, coffee hulls (HC and corn cob (CC at four levels of addition (10, 15, 20 and 25% and a control treatment (ensiled unmixed passion fruit residue. The experimental material was ensiled in PVC silos, fitted with a "Bunsen" type valve, with a capacity of about 3 kg each. Only the additive CH increased in the crude protein contents. CC was the one which contributed to the reduction of ether extract contents. The values of IVDMD allowed to classify the silages as good or of medium

  19. Comparison of spectroscopic techniques for the determination of Kjeldahl and ammoniacal nitrogen content of farmyard manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemsley, E K; Tapp, H S; Scarlett, A J; Miles, S J; Hammond, R; Wilson, R H

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of determining the nitrogen content of farmyard manure using infrared spectroscopy was investigated. Fifteen samples each of cattle, pig, and turkey manure were analyzed by three infrared techniques: Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR), using attenuated total reflection (ATR); near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R); and near-infrared optothermal photoacoustic (NIR-OT). The near-infrared measurements were made at wavelengths determined respectively by four (NIR-OT) and five (NIR-R) band-pass filters. The total nitrogen (using the Kjeldahl method) and volatile (ammoniacal) nitrogen contents of all samples were measured by wet chemistry. Internally cross-validated (ICV) partial least-squares (PLS) regression was then used to obtain calibrations for the nitrogen content. The data sets obtained by each technique were treated separately. Within these sets, data from each manure type were treated both separately and combined: the best predictive ability was obtained by combining data from all three manure types. From the combined data set, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients for the ICV-predicted versus actual Kjeldahl nitrogen content were, respectively, 6772 mg/kg dry wt, 0.862 (MIR); 9434 mg/kg dry wt, 0.771 (NIR-OT); and 8943 mg/kg dry wt, 0.865 (NIR-R). For the ammoniacal nitrogen content, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients were 3869 mg/kg dry wt, 0.899 (MIR); 6079 mg/kg dry wt, 0.820 (NIR-OT); and 3498 mg/kg dry wt, 0.961 (NIR-R).

  20. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur

    2008-01-01

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics

  1. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools.

  2. Volatile compounds of Aspergillus strains with different abilities to produce ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna, Jadwiga

    2005-03-09

    Volatile compounds emitted by Aspergillus strains having different abilities to produce ochratoxin A were investigated. Thirteen strains of Aspergillus ochraceus, three belonging to the A. ochraceus group, and eight other species of Aspergillus were examined for their abilities to produce volatile compounds and ochratoxin A on a wheat grain medium. The profiles of volatile compounds, analyzed using SPME, in all A. ochraceus strains, regardless of their toxeginicity, were similar and comprised mainly of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octene, and limonene. The prevailing compound was always 1-octen-3-ol. Mellein, which forms part of the ochratoxin A molecule, was found in both toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains. Volatile compounds produced by other Aspergillus strains were similar to those of A. ochraceus. Incubation temperatures (20, 24, and 27 degrees C) and water content in the medium (20, 30, and 40%) influenced both volatile compounds formation and ochratoxin A biosynthesis efficiency, although conditions providing the maximum amount of volatiles were different from those providing the maximum amount of ochratoxin A. The pattern of volatiles produced by toxigenic A. ochraceus strains does not facilitate their differentiation from nontoxigenic strains.

  3. SESQUITERPENE RICH VOLATILE SEED OIL OF TAGETES PATULA L. FROM NORTHWEST IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodistilled volatile seed oil composition of commonly growing ornamental Tagetes patula L. was analyzed for its constituents by GC/MS. Forty constituents were identified, comprising 94% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.7% and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (15.8% were the main subclasses of volatile oil components followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (12.6%. The principle constituents of the volatile oil were (E-caryophyllene (44.6% caryophyllene oxide (14.8%, germacrene D (3.8%, (Z-β-ocimene (3.8% and limonene (3.7%. From chemical point of view, oxides (15.7% were the predominant group of components with caryophyllene oxide as their main representative. α-terthienyl (3.8% comprised partially large amount in the volatile oil content despite of its polar and less-volatile nature. Taking into account the volatile oil profile, the chemical composition of the volatile seed oil of commonly growing ornamental T. patula L. was characterized as sesquiterpene and α-terthienyl rich one probably with appreciable biocidal (Insecticidal and nematicidal and pharmacological potential.

  4. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  5. Removal of uranium from simulated fly ash by chloride volatilization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuaki, Sato; Yoshikatsu, Tochigi; Toshiki, Fukui; Takeo, Fujino

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash is generated from LWR nuclear power plant as a low-level waste, which is contaminated with a small amount of radioactive materials, composed mainly of uranium oxide. The constituents of the fly ash are similar to those of the ore; the major components of the ash are oxides of silicon, aluminum, sodium, magnesium, zinc, iron sodium and uranium. In this study, removal of uranium from the simulated fly ash, of which composition was U 3 O 8 : 10, CaO:25, SiO 2 : 25, Al 2 O 3 : 20, MgO: 10, ZnO:5, Fe 2 O 3 : 3 and Na 2 CO 3 : 2 wt%, by chloride volatilization method was examined. The simulated fly ash was chlorinated by the same manner as the dry way processing for the ore; namely, the ash was heated in a flow of chlorine in the presence of carbon at high temperatures. In the case of volatilization of uranium from U 3 O 8 and a simulated fly ash by chlorination using chlorine and carbon, it was seen that uranium of both samples showed similar volatilization behaviour: The volatilization ratio of uranium (VU) increased with increasing temperature from 800 to 1100 C. The VU value attained 99.9% at 1100 C. Iron, silicon and zinc showed similar behaviour to uranium, namely, they vaporized completely. The volatilization ratio of aluminum, magnesium and sodium were still high in a range 80-90%. The volatilization ratio of calcium was ∼40% under the same chlorination condition, though it changed to chloride. For recovery of uranium from fly ash by chlorination using chlorine in the presence of carbon, high volatilization ratio of uranium can be achieved at high temperatures. Volatilization ratio of other components also increases, which decreases the amount of decontaminated residue resulting in the reducing of decontamination effect. Selection of heating condition is important. (author)

  6. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  7. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  8. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  9. On the volatility-volume relationship in energy futures markets using intra-day data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien; Sevi, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between trading volume and price volatility in the crude oil and natural gas futures markets when using high-frequency data. By regressing various realized volatility measures (with/without jumps) on trading volume and trading frequency, our results feature a contemporaneous and largely positive relationship. Furthermore, we test whether the volatility-volume relationship is symmetric for energy futures by considering positive and negative realized semi-variance. We show that (i) an asymmetric volatility-volume relationship indeed exists, (ii) trading volume and trading frequency significantly affect negative and positive realized semi-variance, and (iii) the information content of negative realized semi-variance is higher than for positive realized semi-variance. (authors)

  10. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 hours. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples

  11. Inflation Volatility and the Inflation-Growth Tradeoff in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha; Varsha S. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    This paper amends the New Keynesian Phillips curve model to include inflation volatility and tests the determinants of such volatility for India. It provides results on the determinants of inflation volatility and expected inflation volatility for OLS and ARDL (1,1) models and for change in inflation volatility and change in expected inflation volatility using ECM models. Output gap affects change in expected inflation volatility along (in the ECM model) and not in the other models. Major det...

  12. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  13. Comparison of biogas production from rapeseed and wheat residues in compound with cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Seventy million tons of agricultural crops are produced from 18 million hectares of agricultural lands in Iran every year. Since 80% of the crops (wt. basis ends up as residues, therefore, about 50 million tons of crop residues are generated annually the majority of which is burnt on field leading to vast emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG due to the incomplete combustion process. These residues could potentially be transformed into heat energy directly by adopting a burning process or indirectly by first transforming them into secondary fuel as hydrogen, bio-methane, methanol or ethanol. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted using, wheat and rapeseed straws dried at ambient temperature co-digested with fresh cow dung while the total solid content and detention time were kept constant. To conduct the Anaerobic Digestion (AD experiments, cylinder reactors (13 L were constructed and placed in a water bath equipped with a heater and sensor to maintain the temperature at 35±2 oC. The biogas produced in the digester was investigated by measuring the displacement of the water in a measuring tube connected to the reactor. Gas samples were obtained from the sampling port and were analyzed gas chromatograph. The temperature for detector, injector and oven were 170, 110 and 50 oC respectively. Before the test, the first CH4 and CO2 net gases, peaks corresponding percentage was determined with respect to the retention time of the area. Then sample was compared with standard gas and samples gas percentage was determined. The residues were mechanically pretreated using a mill in order to increase the availability of the biomass to enzymes. After the pre-treatment, the material (<2 mm was mixed with a different proportion of fresh cow dung, Initial Total Solids (TS content in the reactor was adjusted at 9%. Factors such as PH, Volatile Solids (VS were determined by the standard method. Results and Discussion A decrease in the

  14. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  15. Atum: Scalable Group Communication Using Volatile Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Guerraoui, Rachid; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Pavlovic, Matej; Seredinschi, Dragos-Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Atum, a group communication middleware for a large, dynamic, and hostile environment. At the heart of Atum lies the novel concept of volatile groups: small, dynamic groups of nodes, each executing a state machine replication protocol, organized in a flexible overlay. Using volatile groups, Atum scatters faulty nodes evenly among groups, and then masks each individual fault inside its group. To broadcast messages among volatile groups, Atum runs a gossip protocol across the...

  16. Identify and Manage the Software Requirements Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Khloud Abd Elwahab; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholeif

    2016-01-01

    Management of software requirements volatility through development of life cycle is a very important stage. It helps the team to control significant impact all over the project (cost, time and effort), and also it keeps the project on track, to finally satisfy the user which is the main success criteria for the software project. In this research paper, we have analysed the root causes of requirements volatility through a proposed framework presenting the requirements volatility causes and how...

  17. Labour Demand and Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Broll; Sabine Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess under what conditions exchange rate volatility exerts a positive effect on a firm's labour demand. As the exchange rate volatility increases, so does the value of the export option provided the firm under study is flexible. Flexibility is important because it gives the firm option value. Higher volatility increases the potential gains from trade and may increase the demand for labour. This may explain part of the mixed empirical findings regarding the ef...

  18. Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman V.; Rancière, Romain; Servén, Luis; Ventura, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction Norman V. Loayza, Romain Ranciere, Luis Serven, ` and Jaume Ventura Macroeconomic volatility, both a source and a reflection of underdevelopment, is a fundamental concern for developing countries. This article provides a brief overview of the recent literature on macroeconomic volatility in developing countries, highlighting its causes, consequences, and possible remedies. to reduce domestic policy-induced macroecon...

  19. The determinants of public deficit volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Agnello, Luca; Sousa, Ricardo M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the political, institutional and economic sources of public deficit volatility. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models and a sample of 125 countries analyzed from 1980 to 2006, we show that higher public deficit volatility is typically associated with higher levels of political instability and less democracy. In addition, public deficit volatility tends to be magnified for small countries, in the outcome of hyper-inflation episodes ...

  20. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  1. Volatile Constituents of Zhumaria Majdae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanparst

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS analyses of a sample of essential oil of zhumaria Linalool ned by simple water distillation of the pulverized air - dired leaves and flowers of the plant indicated that Linalool and comphor are the two major constituents of the volatile oil. Sylvestrene , y -terpinene, a- Pinene, b - carene, camphene, and Epiborneol constitute the other main components of the essential oil. The GC - MS chromatogram indicated the presence of more than fifty - components in the oil, most of them were present in trace amounts. In this study, the chemical structures of twenty of these consti tuents were elucidated using GC - MS analysis.

  2. Evolution of the Aroma Volatiles of Pear Fruits Supplemented with Fatty Acid Metabolic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaihua Qin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored “Nanguoli” fruits than in green-flavored “Dangshansuli” fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in “Dangshansuli” fruits were higher than in “Nanguoli” fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in “Dangshansuli” was approximately three times that in “Nanguoli”. The higher contents of hexyl esters in “Dangshansuli” may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented.

  3. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    the trading day. Consequently, the test is based on comparing the empirical characteristic function of the studentized returns across the trading day. The limit distribution of the test depends on the error in recovering volatility from discrete return data and the empirical process error associated...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  4. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  5. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  6. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  7. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  8. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  9. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  10. Thermophilic Dry Methane Fermentation of Distillation Residue Eluted from Ethanol Fermentation of Kitchen Waste and Dynamics of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic dry methane fermentation is advantageous for feedstock with high solid content. Distillation residue with 65.1 % moisture content was eluted from ethanol fermentation of kitchen waste and subjected to thermophilic dry methane fermentation, after adjusting the moisture content to 75 %. The effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on thermophilic dry methane fermentation was investigated. Results showed that thermophilic dry methane fermentation could not be stably performed for >10 weeks at a C/N ratio of 12.6 and a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg sludge/d; however, it was stably performed at a C/N ratio of 19.8 and a VTS loading rate of 3 g/kg sludge/d with 83.4 % energy recovery efficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacteria and archaea decreased by two orders of magnitude at a C/N ratio of 12.6, whereas they were not influenced at a C/N ratio of 19.8. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relative abundance of protein-degrading bacteria increased and that of organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and acetic acid-oxidizing bacteria decreased at a C/N ratio of 12.6. Therefore, there was accumulation of NH 4 + and acetic acid, which inhibited thermophilic dry methane fermentation.

  11. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  12. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  13. Volatile Constituents of Three Illicium Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen B. Qinh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatiles from the leaves of three different Illicium species has been studied. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (FID and GC-MS. The components by identified by MS libraries and their LRIs. The essential oil contents vary between 0.12% and 0.21% (v/w, calculated on a dry weight basis. Illicium majus J. D. Hooker & Thomson afforded oil whose major constituents were aromadendrene (13.0%, cuparene (8.2%, 1,8-cineole (8.1% and calamenene (7.8%. However, 1,8-cineole (8.4%, linalool (7.7%, (E-nerolidol (7.6% and sabinene (7.1% were the quantitatively significant compounds of the leaf oil of Illicium micranthun Dunn. The leaf oil of Illicium tsaii A. C. Smith comprised mainly of (E-nerolidol (15.5%, β-caryophyllene (8.1%, β-cedrene (6.5%, 1,8-cineole (6.3% and calamenene (6.3%. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of these plants from are being reported for the first time.

  14. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Volatiles and char combustion rates of demineralised lignite and wood blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilgin, Melek; Pehlivan, Dursun [Firat University, Chemical Engineering Department, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-07-15

    Today, much interest is given to the utilisation of materials of plant origin as substitutions of fossil fuels in meeting energy needs to reduce the level of atmospheric pollutant emissions and global warming threat, and emphasis has been placed on the co-combustion of coal and biomass. In this study, volatiles and char combustion behaviour of the fuel pellets composed from demineralised lignite and poplar wood sawdust, were investigated in a cylindrical wire mesh basket placed in a preheated tube furnace. The results have shown that ignition times of the pellets decreased with the burning temperature and shortened further due to demineralisation of lignite. Volatiles combustion rates of the samples did not correlate well with combustion times. However, they can be correlated with their respective proximate volatile matter contents. Char burnout times decreased with increasing combustion rates and correlated well with the respective proximate fixed carbon contents of the samples. Deviations were more considerable in the case of rate data. (author)

  16. Volatiles and char combustion rates of demineralised lignite and wood blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, Melek; Pehlivan, Dursun

    2009-01-01

    Today, much interest is given to the utilisation of materials of plant origin as substitutions of fossil fuels in meeting energy needs to reduce the level of atmospheric pollutant emissions and global warming threat, and emphasis has been placed on the co-combustion of coal and biomass. In this study, volatiles and char combustion behaviour of the fuel pellets composed from demineralised lignite and poplar wood sawdust, were investigated in a cylindrical wire mesh basket placed in a preheated tube furnace. The results have shown that ignition times of the pellets decreased with the burning temperature and shortened further due to demineralisation of lignite. Volatiles combustion rates of the samples did not correlate well with combustion times. However, they can be correlated with their respective proximate volatile matter contents. Char burnout times decreased with increasing combustion rates and correlated well with the respective proximate fixed carbon contents of the samples. Deviations were more considerable in the case of rate data. (author)

  17. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  18. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-08

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  19. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  20. Residual Effect of Chromium on Early Growth of Fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These greenhouse and field trials were aimed at determining the residual influence of Cr on some agronomic characters, nutrient content, nutrient uptake and crude protein content of fluted pumpkin in soils previously treated with 0, 50, 100, 200 mg Cr(NO3). .9H2O per 5 kg soil in the greenhouse and 0, 20, 40, 80 kgha-1 Cr ...

  1. Feeding potential of summer grain crop residues for woolled sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 80:20 for the first collection on maize residues. Schoonraad (1985) did not pick up the cobs, so much more grain was available. Crude protein content. Changes in percentage crude protein in oesophageal samples are shown in Figure 2. With all crops, CP content of oesophageal samples was initially high but decreased ...

  2. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  3. The fate of nitrogen from crop residues of broccoli, leek and sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Smit, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concern has lead to legislation on fertilization to reduce nutrient losses to the environment. Reducing N input may be inadequate for crops that have a high N content in their residues. Reducing N input will negatively affect yield, but the residues remain. Management of crop residues

  4. Robust enzymatic saccharification of a Douglas-fir forest harvest residue by SPORL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu; Roland Gleisner; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs

    2013-01-01

    Forest harvest residues can be a cost-effective feedstock for a biorefinery, but the high lignin content of forest residues is a major barrier for enzymatic sugar production. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome strong recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco var. menziesii) forest residue...

  5. Stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the link between stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty. We show that US stock market volatility is significantly related to the dispersion in economic forecasts from SPF survey participants over the period from 1969 to 1996. This link is much

  6. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CLEOME VISCOSA FROM NIGERIA. Gabriel Olatunji, Peter Weyerstahl, Stephen Oguntoye. Abstract. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR.

  7. Firm-level volatility and exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, G.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific

  8. Flavonoids and volatiles in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flavonoids and volatiles in a traditional herbal medicine Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flower were determined by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively. Eight flavonoids and fifty eight volatiles were identified. Luteolin-7-glucoside and quercitrin were the most abundant flavonoids and they amounted for 85.7% of the total ...

  9. Some recent developments in stochastic volatility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Nicolato, Elisa; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews and puts in context some of our recent work on stochastic volatility (SV) modelling for financial economics. Here our main focus is on: (i) the relationship between subordination and SV, (ii) OU based volatility models, (iii) exact option pricing, (iv) realized power variation...

  10. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonia volatilization is a direct loss of available nitrogen in agriculture. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of amending NPK fertilizer with different rates of clinoptilolite zeolite on ammonia volatilization, soil exchangeable ammonium, and available nitrate. Seven treatments evaluated were: 250 g soil ...

  11. American option pricing with stochastic volatility processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of option pricing more perfectly, the option pricing problem with Heston stochastic volatility model is considered. The optimal implementation boundary of American option and the conditions for its early execution are analyzed and discussed. In view of the fact that there is no analytical American option pricing formula, through the space discretization parameters, the stochastic partial differential equation satisfied by American options with Heston stochastic volatility is transformed into the corresponding differential equations, and then using high order compact finite difference method, numerical solutions are obtained for the option price. The numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and simulation. The two kinds of optimal exercise boundaries under the conditions of the constant volatility and the stochastic volatility are compared, and the results show that the optimal exercise boundary also has stochastic volatility. Under the setting of parameters, the behavior and the nature of volatility are analyzed, the volatility curve is simulated, the calculation results of high order compact difference method are compared, and the numerical option solution is obtained, so that the method is verified. The research result provides reference for solving the problems of option pricing under stochastic volatility such as multiple underlying asset option pricing and barrier option pricing.

  12. Mutual fund volatility timing and management fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambona, E.; Golec, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that compensation incentives partly drive fund managers’ market volatility timing strategies. Larger incentive management fees lead to less counter-cyclical or more pro-cyclical volatility timing. But fund styles or aggregate fund flows could also account for this relation;

  13. The economic value of realized volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jacobs, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so, we ...

  14. The influence of volatility spill-overs and market beta on portfolio construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Heymans

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adds to Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT by providing an additional measure to market beta in constructing a more efficient investment portfolio. The additional measure analyses the volatility spill-over effects among stocks within the same portfolio. Using intraday stock returns from five top-40 listed stocks on the JSE between July 2008 and April 2010, volatility spill-over effects were estimated with a residual- based test (aggregate shock [AS] model framework. It is shown that when a particular stock attracted fewer volatility spill-over effects from the other stocks in the portfolio, the overall portfolio volatility decreased as well. In most cases market beta showcased similar results. Therefore, in order to construct a more efficient risk- adjusted portfolio, one requires both a portfolio that has a unit correlation with the market (beta-based, and stocks that showcase the least amount of volatility spill-over effects amongst one another. These results might assist portfolio managers to construct lower mean variance portfolios.

  15. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  16. Determination of Trace and Volatile Element Abundance Systematics of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses 74220 and 15426 Using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. Carrie; Porrachia, Magali; McCubbin, Francis M.; Day, James M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Since their recognition as pyroclastic glasses generated by volcanic fire fountaining on the Moon, 74220 and 15426 have garnered significant scientific interest. Early studies recognized that the glasses were particularly enriched in volatile elements on their surfaces. More recently, detailed analyses of the interiors of the glasses, as well as of melt inclusions within olivine grains associated with the 74220 glass beads, have determined high H2O, F, Cl and S contents. Such elevated volatile contents seem at odds with evidence from moderately volatile elements (MVE), such as Zn and K, for a volatile- depleted Moon. In this study, we present initial results from an analytical campaign to study trace element abundances within the pyroclastic glass beads. We report trace element data determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for 15426 and 74220.

  17. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  18. ECOS E-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, Lia [The Environmental Council Of The States, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    This final scientific/technical report on the ECOS e-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database provides a disclaimer and acknowledgement, table of contents, executive summary, description of project activities, and briefing/technical presentation link.

  19. An Evaluation of the Delayed-Coking Product Yield of Heavy Feedstocks Using Asphaltene Content and Carbon Residue Évaluation du rendement en produit de cokéfaction différée de pétrole lourd à l'aide de la teneur an asphaltènes et du résidu de coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schabron J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Six residua from different crude oils were evaluated for composition and carbon residue forming tendencies. The whole residua were evaluated for elemental composition, trace metals content, carbon residue, and specific gravity. Each residuum was deasphaltened in heptane, and the heptane-soluble materials were separated into saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions on activated silica gel. The asphaltenes were evaluated for elemental composition, trace metals content, molecular weight, and carbon residue. The relationship between carbon residues and features of the asphaltenes was studied, and a correlation of contributing features was developed. The asphaltenes were further separated into four fractions according to apparent molecular size by preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The preparative size exclusion chromatographic fractions from the asphaltenes were evaluated for sulfur content, molecular weight, and trace metals content. Material balances showed that the data obtained on the fractions account for the data obtained on the original material. This indicates that the contributions of the properties of the fractions can be studied and related to properties of the whole material. La composition et le résidu de coke de six résidus de raffinage de différents pétroles lourds ont été évalués afin de déterminer des tendances. La composition élémentaire, la teneur en métaux-traces, le résidu de coke et la densité spécifique ont été déterminés sur le résidu complet. Chaque résidu a été désasphalténé dans l'heptane et les produits solubles dans l'heptane ont été séparés en fractions saturée, aromatique et polaire sur du gel de silice activée. La composition élémentaire, la teneur en métaux-traces, la masse moléculaire et le résidu de coke ont été déterminés sur les asphaltènes. La relation entre les résidus de coke et les caractéristiques des asphaltènes a été étudiée, ce qui a permis d

  20. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested......: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German bonds, and German stocks. Significant volatility-spillover effects are found. The national bond...... (stock) volatilities are mainly influenced by bond (stock) effects. Global, regional, and local volatility effects are all important. The introduction of the euro is associated with a structural break....

  1. Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of “Valencia” Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhe Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma, non-volatile (taste and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012. Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.

  2. Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of "Valencia" Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; McCollum, Greg; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A; Widmer, Wilbur W; Luzio, Gary; Cameron, Randall

    2016-01-04

    Florida "Valencia" oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.

  3. Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of “Valencia” Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; McCollum, Greg; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Luzio, Gary; Cameron, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy. PMID:28231099

  4. Volatility smile as relativistic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura

    2017-06-01

    We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.

  5. Volatile organometallic and semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on a project concerned with the metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of mercury-cadmium telluride (MCT) undertaken by a research consortium based in the Clayton area involving Monash University Chemistry Department, Telecom Research Laboratories, and CSIRO Division of Material Sciences and Technology. An M.R. Semicon 226 MOCVD reactor, operating near atmospheric presure with hydrogen carrier gas has been used. Most applications of MCT are direct consequence of its responsiveness to radiation in infrared region spectrum. The main aims of the project were to prepare and assess a range of volatile organometallics that might find use as a dopant sources for MCT, to prepare and study the properties of a range of different lanthanide complexes for MOCVD applications and to fully characterize the semiconductor wafers after growth. 19 refs., 3 figs

  6. Profiling of volatile fragrant components in a mini-core collection of mango germplasms from seven countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Aroma is important in assessing the quality of fresh fruit and their processed products, and could provide good indicators for the development of local cultivars in the mango industry. In this study, the volatile diversity of 25 mango cultivars from China, America, Thailand, India, Cuba, Indonesia, and the Philippines was investigated. The volatile compositions, their relative contents, and the intervarietal differences were detected with headspace solid phase microextraction tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometer methods. The similarities were also evaluated with a cluster analysis and correlation analysis of the volatiles. The differences in mango volatiles in different districts are also discussed. Our results show significant differences in the volatile compositions and their relative contents among the individual cultivars and regions. In total, 127 volatiles were found in all the cultivars, belonging to various chemical classes. The highest and lowest qualitative abundances of volatiles were detected in 'Zihua' and 'Mallika' cultivars, respectively. Based on the cumulative occurrence of members of the classes of volatiles, the cultivars were grouped into monoterpenes (16 cultivars, proportion and balanced (eight cultivars, and nonterpene groups (one cultivars. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles in these cultivars, with terpinolene, 3-carene, caryophyllene and α-Pinene the dominant components depending on the cultivars. Monoterpenes, some of the primary volatile components, were the most abundant aroma compounds, whereas aldehydes were the least abundant in the mango pulp. β-Myrcene, a major terpene, accounted for 58.93% of the total flavor volatile compounds in 'Xiaofei' (Philippens. γ-Octanoic lactone was the only ester in the total flavor volatile compounds, with its highest concentration in 'Guiya' (China. Hexamethyl cyclotrisiloxane was the most abundant volatile compound in 'Magovar' (India, accounting for 46.66% of

  7. Profiling of volatile fragrant components in a mini-core collection of mango germplasms from seven countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ru-Lin; Wu, Hong-Xia; Yao, Quan-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Tian; Luo, Chun; Zhou, Yi-Gang; Liang, Qing-Zhi; Wang, Song-Biao

    2017-01-01

    Aroma is important in assessing the quality of fresh fruit and their processed products, and could provide good indicators for the development of local cultivars in the mango industry. In this study, the volatile diversity of 25 mango cultivars from China, America, Thailand, India, Cuba, Indonesia, and the Philippines was investigated. The volatile compositions, their relative contents, and the intervarietal differences were detected with headspace solid phase microextraction tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometer methods. The similarities were also evaluated with a cluster analysis and correlation analysis of the volatiles. The differences in mango volatiles in different districts are also discussed. Our results show significant differences in the volatile compositions and their relative contents among the individual cultivars and regions. In total, 127 volatiles were found in all the cultivars, belonging to various chemical classes. The highest and lowest qualitative abundances of volatiles were detected in ‘Zihua’ and ‘Mallika’ cultivars, respectively. Based on the cumulative occurrence of members of the classes of volatiles, the cultivars were grouped into monoterpenes (16 cultivars), proportion and balanced (eight cultivars), and nonterpene groups (one cultivars). Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles in these cultivars, with terpinolene, 3-carene, caryophyllene and α-Pinene the dominant components depending on the cultivars. Monoterpenes, some of the primary volatile components, were the most abundant aroma compounds, whereas aldehydes were the least abundant in the mango pulp. β-Myrcene, a major terpene, accounted for 58.93% of the total flavor volatile compounds in ‘Xiaofei’ (Philippens). γ-Octanoic lactone was the only ester in the total flavor volatile compounds, with its highest concentration in ‘Guiya’ (China). Hexamethyl cyclotrisiloxane was the most abundant volatile compound in ‘Magovar’ (India), accounting for 46

  8. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  9. Transportation of volatile elements in thermally evolving planetesimals: An important role of metallic iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, K.; Sugiura, N.

    1994-01-01

    Ordinary chondrites are considered to have experienced thermal metamorphism in small bodies. We are interested in behaviors of volatile elements in such a kind of thermally evolving planetesimals. Volatile elements generally have high vapor pressures at high temperature. In porous bodies, with a high gas permeability, volatile elements are transported efficiently over a long range. Behavior of volatile elements transported by permeable gas flow can be handled by an equation whose form is similar to that of the equation of thermal diffusion. We can follow transportation of heats and volatile elements in planetesimals, when parameters in these equations, initial conditions and chemical behavior of volatile elements are given. Recently, we discovered that nitrogen in equilibrated H-chondrites is mainly trapped in taenite (f.c.c. Fe-Ni), probably dissolved in interstitial sites. Fegley suggests that metallic iron cannot trap nitrogen in the solar nebula gas due to its very low nitrogen partial pressure. Approximately 1 bar of nitrogen pressure is required to explain the nitrogen content in taenite. We may expect high nitrogen gas partial pressure (possibly produced by vaporization of nitrogen-bearing solids such as organic materials) at the interior of thermally evolving planetesimals. Kinetic behavior of nitrogen in taenite suggests that it can easily be equilibrated with the ambient nitrogen gas at temperatures of approximately 500 C or higher. We consider that nitrogen is trapped in taenite through a nitrogen redistribution process occurred during the thermal metamorphic event.

  10. Late-stage volatile saturation as a potential trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Isaia, Roberto; Pyle, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Magma reservoirs are thought to grow relatively slowly, assembling incrementally under volatile-saturated conditions. Eruptions may be triggered by injections of volatile-rich melt, or generation of over-pressure due to protracted crystallization. Here, we analyse fluorine, chlorine and water in apatite crystals trapped at different stages of magma evolution, and in melt inclusions from clinopyroxene and biotite crystals expelled during an explosive eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, about 4,000 years ago. We combine our geochemical analyses with thermodynamic modelling to reconstruct the evolution of magmatic volatile contents leading up to the explosive eruption. We find that the magma reservoir remained persistently water-undersaturated throughout most of its lifetime. Even crystals in contact with the melt shortly before eruption show that the magma was volatile-undersaturated. Our models suggest that the melt reached volatile saturation at low temperatures, just before eruption. We suggest that late-stage volatile saturation probably triggered the eruption, and conclude that `priming’ of the magma system for eruption may occur on timescales much shorter than the decadal to centennial timescales thought typical for magma reservoir assembly. Thus, surface deformation pulses that record magma assembly at depth beneath Campi Flegrei and other similar magmatic systems may not be immediately followed by an eruption; and explosive eruptions may begin with little warning.

  11. Changes in volatile compounds from sliced Havarti cheese during storage analyzed by dynamic headspace GC/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.; Hansen, L.F.

    2002-01-01

    Sliced Havarti cheese in retail packages with modified atmosphere were stored at 5degreesC for up to 21 days exposed to light or protected against light. The changes in the volatile profile of the cheese was determined by dynamic headspace GC/MS. Fifty-seven compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones......, esters, lactones, and hydrocarbons) were identified and their relative abundance was followed during storage. The complete data set of volatiles of all Havarti cheeses was subjected to partial least squares regression (PLSR) analyses. During storage an increase in the content of some of the volatiles...

  12. Sorption kinetics of selected volatile organic compounds in humin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yang-Hsin; Wu, Shian-Chee

    2002-10-01

    Each component of the chemically heterogeneous soil exhibits a unique sorption behavior toward organic sorbates. The sorption kinetics of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pressed humin disks was investigated by tracking the weight change of the disks with a microbalance. Higher sorbing capacity for more polar VOCs as well as C13 nuclear magnetic resonance data indicates that humin was more hydrophilic than Aldrich humic acid (Milwaukee, WI, USA). The apparent diffusivity of acetone, toluene, and hexane in the disks ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-10) cm2/s. The sorbed toluene in humin does not seem persistent to desorption; however, acetone and hexane, either as polar or linear compounds in humin, show persistence against desorption. On completion of the desorption experiments, there were approximately 35 and 20% sorbate residue for acetone and hexane, respectively.

  13. Effect of γ-irradiation on volatile compounds of dried Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2006-01-01

    The volatile compounds of γ-irradiated dried Welsh onion were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) technique and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) along with their non-irradiated counterparts. A total of 35 volatile compounds were identified in non-irradiated and 1 kGy irradiated samples and 36 volatile compounds were identified in 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy irradiated samples so far belong to chemical classes of acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ester, furan, ketone and S-containing compound. S-containing compounds were detected as major volatile compounds of all experimental samples. Though the content of several compounds was increased after irradiation, content of major S-containing compounds was found to decreased in the process. Application of high-dose irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of dried Welsh onion is feasible as it enhanced the total concentration of volatile compounds by 31.60% and 24.85% at 10 and 20 kGy, respectively

  14. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on volatile compounds of dried Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyawali, Rajendra [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-Young [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Ju [Department of Hotel Cuisine and Bakery, Mokpo Science College, Mokpo 570-730 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dukjindong 150, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ho [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dukjindong 150, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dukjindong 150, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-02-15

    The volatile compounds of {gamma}-irradiated dried Welsh onion were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) technique and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) along with their non-irradiated counterparts. A total of 35 volatile compounds were identified in non-irradiated and 1 kGy irradiated samples and 36 volatile compounds were identified in 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy irradiated samples so far belong to chemical classes of acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ester, furan, ketone and S-containing compound. S-containing compounds were detected as major volatile compounds of all experimental samples. Though the content of several compounds was increased after irradiation, content of major S-containing compounds was found to decreased in the process. Application of high-dose irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of dried Welsh onion is feasible as it enhanced the total concentration of volatile compounds by 31.60% and 24.85% at 10 and 20 kGy, respectively.

  15. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gas exchange and nutrient content in leaves of physic nut irrigated with wastewater and doses of phosphorusTrocas gasosas e teor de nutrientes em folhas de pinhão manso irrigado com água residuária e doses de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Costa Santos Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating leaf gas exchange and nutrient concentration in plants of Physic nut irrigated with wastewater of domestic origin an experiment was conducted in protected ambient adopting randomized block in factorial layout, to study the effects of five levels of hydric reposition – HR (0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 1.00 and 1.25 times of water consumed by the plant, and two levels of phosphorus (135 and 200 g P2O5 plant-1 year-1 with four repetitions. The data of leaf gas exchange were obtained using a portable photosynthesis meter (IRGA. To determine the nutrient content of the plant, fourth and fifth leaves below the inflorescence was used. The reduction in water supply provoked reduction in the rate of carbon assimilation, limiting the production capacity of the Physic nut plants. The increase in level of hydric reposition with wastewater resulted increase in leaf gas exchange, notably in the rate of carbon assimilation. The accumulation of the nutrient follows the sequence: N > K > Ca > Na > Cl > Mg > P > S > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu, and with the increase of water supply the leaf contents of phosphorus, zinc and copper increased. The doses of P2O5 did not influence the contents of studied elements.Com o objetivo de avaliar trocas gasosas e teores de minerais em plantas de pinhão manso irrigadas com água residuária de origem doméstica foi conduzido um ensaio em ambiente protegido adotando-se um delineamento em blocos casualizados em um fatorial com cinco níveis de reposição hídrica (0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 1,25 do consumo de água pela planta e duas doses de P2O5 (135 e 200 g planta-1 por ano com quatro repetições. Os dados de trocas gasosas foliares foram obtidos utilizando-se medidor portátil de fotossíntese (IRGA. Para determinar o teor de nutrientes da planta, utilizou-se o limbo foliar localizado entre a quarta e quinta folha abaixo da inflorescência. A redução da reposição hídrica provocou diminuição na taxa de

  17. Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system extracts water and volatile organic compounds for propellant production, life support consumables, and...

  18. Efficiency of Livestock Residue Treatment in Geomembrane Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Pérez González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of twelve 10 m3 geomembrane biodigesters to treat swine and cattle residuals was assessed. The study took place at the Cooperative of Credits and Services (CCS of the municipality of Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos, Cuba. Its goal was to evaluate feasibility of technology implementation in Cuba. The effluent physical and chemical indicators were determined at entry and exit from biodigesters. The biodigesters charged with pig manure were able to remove 75.88% COD, and up to 66-44% SS. Besides, 64.79% of the contaminating organic load was converted into volatile products during biofermentation. Meanwhile, the biodigesters charged with cattle manure removed 60.42% of COD, and up to 67.67% of SS; 61.51% of the organic contaminating load was converted in volatile products. It was concluded that the biodigesters had acceptable efficiency values, and that the technology can be applied in Cuba.

  19. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available , 1997; Qiu & Tao, 2001; Corkin, 2012; Warner, 2011; Stephenson, 2013). Local content is also seen a way of improving national sustainability performance and developing greener buildings (Olivier et al, 2016; van Reneen, 2014; Gibberd, 2002). As a result...

  20. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  1. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  2. Volatile compounds and antioxidative activity of Porophyllum tagetoides extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, M; Guzman, A P; Azuara, E; Garcia, O; Mendoza, M R; Beristain, C I

    2012-03-01

    Porophyllum tagetoides is an annual warm-weather herb that has an intense typical smell. Its leaves are commonly used in soup preparation and traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Its volatile compounds and antioxidant properties were evaluated in crude, aqueous and ethanol leaf extract and an oil emulsion using different antioxidant assays in vitro, such as: DPPH radical scavenging activity, redox potential, polyphenol content, reducing power and optical density. A high antioxidative activity was found when comparing leaves with stems. The crude extract from leaves showed a very high reducing power (2.88 ± 0.20 O.D.) and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (54.63 ± 4.80%), in concordance with a major concentration of vitamin C (23.97 ± 0.36 mg/100 g). Instead, the highest polyphenol content (264.54 ± 2.17 mg GAE/g of sample) and redox potential (561.23 ± 0.15 mV) were found by the ethanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Aldehydes and terpenes such as nonanal, decanal, trans-pineno, β-myrcene and D-limonene were the major volatiles found. This study suggests that Porophyllum tagetoides extracts could be used as antioxidants.

  3. Study on vacuum pyrolysis of coffee industrial residue for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2017-03-01

    Coffee industrial residue (CIR) is a biomass with high volatile content (64.94 wt.%) and heating value (21.3 MJ·kg-1). This study was carried out to investigate the pyrolysis condition and products of CIR using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and vacuum tube furnace. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, time, pressure and heating rate on the yield of pyrolysis products were discussed. There was an optimal pyrolysis condition: CIR was heated from normal temperature to 400 °C for 60 min, with 10 °C·min-1 heating rate and a pressure of 30 kPaabs. In this condition, the yields of bio-oil, char and non-condensable gas were 42.29, 33.14 and 24.57 wt.%, respectively. The bio-oil contained palmitic acid (47.48 wt.%), oleic acid (17.45 wt.%), linoleic acid (11.34 wt.%), octadecanoic acid (7.62 wt.%) and caffeine (5.18 wt.%).

  4. Graphene based non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomu; Xie, Weiguang; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2014-08-20

    With the continuous advance of modern electronics, the demand for non-volatile memory cells rapidly grows. As a promising material for post-silicon electronic applications, graphene non-volatile memory cells have received renewed interest due to its outstanding electronic and other physical properties. This research news briefly summarizes the recent progress in this area. Appealing research activities and technical trends are highlighted. Afterwards, requirements and aims of future graphene non-volatile memory cells that may possibly influence their commercialization are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  6. Modelling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobešová, Anna; Klepáč, Václav; Kolman, Pavel; Bednářová, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare different approaches to modeling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism. For this purpose we built time-varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility and VAR-DCC-GARCH model with conditional variance. The data from three European countries are included in the analysis: the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovakia. Results show that VAR-DCC-GARCH system captures higher volatility of observed variables but main trends and detected breaks are generally identical in both approaches

  7. Volatile elements in Apollo 16 samples - Possible evidence for outgassing of the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahenbuhl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1973-01-01

    Several Apollo 16 breccias, including one containing goethite, are strikingly enriched in volatile elements such as bromine, cadmium, germanium, antimony, thallium, and zinc. Similar but smaller enrichments are found in all highland soils. It appears that volcanic processes took place in the lunar highlands, involving the release of volatiles including water. The lunar thallium/uranium ratio is .0002 of the cosmic ratio, which suggests that the moon's original water content could not have exceeded the equivalent of a layer 22 meters deep. The cataclastic anorthosites at the Apollo 16 site may represent deep ejecta from the Nectaris basin.

  8. Pyrolysis of fibre residues with plastic contamination from a paper recycling mill: Energy recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Logan Jeremy; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of fibre-plastics residues from paper recycling mill into fuel products. • Product with remarkable energy content up to 42.8 MJ/kg. • Influence of temperature on the product yields and fuel properties. • Effect of plastic composition on product properties. - Abstract: Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the production of marketable energy products from waste mixtures, as it decomposes heterogeneous material into homogenous fuel products. This research assessed the ability of slow pyrolysis to convert three waste streams, composed of fibre residues contaminated with different plastic mixtures, into char and tarry phase products at three different temperatures (300, 425 and 550 °C). The products were characterised in terms of mass yield, higher heating value (HHV) and gross energy conversion (EC). Significant amounts of hydrocarbon plastics in the feed materials increased the calorific values of the char (up to 32.9 MJ/kg) and tarry phase (up to 42.8 MJ/kg) products, comparable to high volatile bituminous A coal and diesel respectively. For all three waste streams converted at 300 °C, the majority of the energy in the feedstock was recovered in the char product (>80%), while deoxygenation of fibre component resulted in char with increased calorific value (up to 31.6 MJ/kg) being produced. Pyrolysis at 425 °C for two of the waste streams containing significant amounts of plastic produced both a valuable char and tarry phase, which resulted in an EC greater than 74%. Full conversion of plastic at 550 °C increased the tarry phase yield but dramatically decreased the char HHV. The influence of temperature on product yield and HHV was discussed based on the pyrolysis mechanisms and in relation to the plastic composition of the waste streams.

  9. Characterization of volatile compounds, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of smoked dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić Radovčić, Nives; Vidaček, Sanja; Janči, Tibor; Medić, Helga

    2016-11-01

    Volatile compounds from smoked dry-cured ham were isolated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated for sensory physical and chemical characteristics. Eighty seven volatile aroma compounds of smoked dry-cured ham were identified. Chemical groups identified were aldehydes (35.6%), phenols (34.3%), alcohols (13.8%), terpenes (6.4%), aromatic hydrocarbons (2.6%), alkanes (2.2%), ketones (2.2%), esters (1.7%) and acids (0.7%). Except volatile compounds derived from lipolysis and proteolysis the second most abundant constituents were phenols that originate from smoking phase of the production process. The most abundant phenols were: 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, 2-metoxy-4-methylphenol, 2-methylphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 4-ethyl-2 methoxyphenol. Principal components analysis showed that NaCl and ash content positively correlated with the salty taste while fat content was correlated to marbling. Water content and a w value were negatively correlated with hardness of dry-cured ham while phenols were positively corelated with smoky aroma. Due to the different volatile composition and pronounced smoky aroma, smoked dry-cured ham can be distinguished from other types of dry-cured hams.

  10. Forecasting Return Volatility of the CSI 300 Index Using the Stochastic Volatility Model with Continuous Volatility and Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The logarithmic realized volatility is divided into the logarithmic continuous sample path variation and the logarithmic discontinuous jump variation on the basis of the SV-RV model in this paper, which constructs the stochastic volatility model with continuous volatility (SV-CJ model. Then, we use high-frequency transaction data for five minutes of the CSI 300 stock index as the study sample, which, respectively, make parameter estimation on the SV, SV-RV, and SV-CJ model. We also comparatively analyze these three models' prediction accuracy by using the loss functions and SPA test. The results indicate that the prior logarithmic realized volatility and the logarithmic continuous sample path variation can be used to predict the future return volatility in China's stock market, while the logarithmic discontinuous jump variation is poor at its prediction accuracy. Besides, the SV-CJ model has an obvious advantage over the SV and SV-RV model as to the prediction accuracy of the return volatility, and it is more suitable for the research concerning the problems of financial practice such as the financial risk management.

  11. Altruism in a volatile world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patrick; Higginson, Andrew D; Radford, Andrew N; Sumner, Seirian

    2018-03-15

    The evolution of altruism-costly self-sacrifice in the service of others-has puzzled biologists since The Origin of Species. For half a century, attempts to understand altruism have developed around the concept that altruists may help relatives to have extra offspring in order to spread shared genes. This theory-known as inclusive fitness-is founded on a simple inequality termed Hamilton's rule. However, explanations of altruism have typically not considered the stochasticity of natural environments, which will not necessarily favour genotypes that produce the greatest average reproductive success. Moreover, empirical data across many taxa reveal associations between altruism and environmental stochasticity, a pattern not predicted by standard interpretations of Hamilton's rule. Here we derive Hamilton's rule with explicit stochasticity, leading to new predictions about the evolution of altruism. We show that altruists can increase the long-term success of their genotype by reducing the temporal variability in the number of offspring produced by their relatives. Consequently, costly altruism can evolve even if it has a net negative effect on the average reproductive success of related recipients. The selective pressure on volatility-suppressing altruism is proportional to the coefficient of variation in population fitness, and is therefore diminished by its own success. Our results formalize the hitherto elusive link between bet-hedging and altruism, and reveal missing fitness effects in the evolution of animal societies.

  12. Ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention: how deep to incorporate urea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; MacDonald, J Douglas; Pelster, David E; Bertrand, Normand

    2013-11-01

    Incorporation of urea decreases ammonia (NH) volatilization, but field measurements are needed to better quantify the impact of placement depth. In this study, we measured the volatilization losses after banding of urea at depths of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 cm in a slightly acidic (pH 6) silt loam soil using wind tunnels. Mineral nitrogen (N) concentration and pH were measured in the top 2 cm of soil to determine the extent of urea N migration and the influence of placement depth on the availability of ammoniacal N for volatilization near the soil surface. Ammonia volatilization losses were 50% of applied N when urea was banded at the surface, and incorporation of the band decreased emissions by an average of 7% cm (14% cm when expressed as a percentage of losses after surface banding). Incorporating urea at depths >7.5 cm therefore resulted in negligible NH emissions and maximum N retention. Cumulative losses increased exponentially with increasing maximum NH-N and pH values measured in the surface soil during the experiment. However, temporal variations in these soil properties were poorly related to the temporal variations in NH emission rates, likely as a result of interactions with other factors (e.g., water content and NH-N adsorption) on, and fixation by, soil particles. Laboratory and field volatilization data from the literature were summarized and used to determine a relationship between NH losses and depth of urea incorporation. When emissions were expressed as a percentage of losses for a surface application, the mean reduction after urea incorporation was approximately 12.5% cm. Although we agree that the efficiency of urea incorporation to reduce NH losses varies depending on several soil properties, management practices, and climatic conditions, we propose that this value represents an estimate of the mean impact of incorporation depth that could be used when site-specific information is unavailable. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy

  13. Characteristics and engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Y. S.; Sugiarti, K.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Residual soil knowledge of volcanic-sedimentary rock products provides important information on the soil bearing capacity and its engineering properties. The residual soil is the result of weathering commonly found in unsaturated conditions, having varied geotechnical characteristics at each level of weathering. This paper summarizes the results of the research from the basic engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic-sedimentary rocks from several different locations. The main engineering properties of residual soil such as specific gravity, porosity, grain size, clay content (X-Ray test) and soil shear strength are performed on volcanic rock deposits. The results show that the variation of the index and engineering properties and the microstructure properties of residual soil have the correlation between the depths of weathering levels. Pore volume and pore size distribution on weathered rock profiles can be used as an indication of weathering levels in the tropics.

  14. THREE-POINT VOLATILITY SMILE CLASSIFICATION: EVIDENCE FROM THE WARSOW STOCK EXCHANGE DURING VOLATILE SUMMER 2011

    OpenAIRE

    García-Machado, Juan J.; Rybczyński, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the behavior of the smile in the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) during the volatile summer of 2011.We investigate the volatility smile derived from liquid call and put options on the Polish WIG20 index which option series expired on September 2011. In this period, the polish index has dropped about 20% in two weeks time. By linear interpolation, implied volatilities for moneyness points needed were calculated, then we construct 355 smile curves for calls and puts options to st...

  15. Assessing relative volatility/intermittency/energy dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    process in particular. This estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, but it is also applicable in other areas. We develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for realised relative power variations of Brownian semistationary processes......, and introduce inference methods based on the theory. We also discuss how to extend the asymptotic theory to other classes of processes exhibiting stochastic volatility/intermittency. As an empirical application, we study relative energy dissipation in data of atmospheric turbulence.......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...

  16. Price volatility in wind dominant electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources causes price volatility in future electricity markets. This is specially the case in European countries that plan high penetration levels. This highlights the necessity for revising market regulations and mechanisms in accordance...... electricity markets. High price volatility is unappreciated because it imposes high financial risk levels to both electricity consumers and producers. Additionally high price variations impede tracking price signals by consumers in future smart grid and jeopardize implementation of demand response concepts....... The main contribution of this paper is to quantify volatility patterns of electricity price, as penetration level of wind power increases. Results explain a direct relationship between wind penetration and electricity price volatility in a quantitative manner....

  17. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  18. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  19. Volatility estimation using a rational GARCH model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Takaishi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rational GARCH (RGARCH model has been proposed as an alternative GARCHmodel that captures the asymmetric property of volatility. In addition to the previously proposedRGARCH model, we propose an alternative RGARCH model called the RGARCH-Exp model thatis more stable when dealing with outliers. We measure the performance of the volatility estimationby a loss function calculated using realized volatility as a proxy for true volatility and compare theRGARCH-type models with other asymmetric type models such as the EGARCH and GJR models.We conduct empirical studies of six stocks on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and find that a volatilityestimation using the RGARCH-type models outperforms the GARCH model and is comparable toother asymmetric GARCH models.

  20. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment...... NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg−1, though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg−1). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results......, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N...

  1. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  2. Investors Behavior under Changing Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Daviou, Agustin; Paraschiv, Florentina

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reaction of the S&P 500 returns to changes in implied volatility given by the VIX index, using a daily data sample from 1990 to 2012. We found that in normal regimes increases (declines) in the expected market volatility result in lower (higher) subsequent stock market returns. Thus, investors enter into selling positions upon a perception of increased risk for their equity investments, while they enter into long positions when they perceive an improved environment for...

  3. The impact of stock spams on volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Taoufik Bouraoui

    2009-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to study the impact of stock spams through the analysis of the variations of volatility. We use the methodology of event studies on a sample of hundred ten firms. The results show positive and significant changes in volatility during 12 days of the event window; a widening of the variation [lowest price - highest price] was noticed following the consignment of messages by the spammers. The sending of stock spams affected the behaviour of investors, indicating thus that...

  4. Electricity Market Interconnections and Electricity Price Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Nuno; Duque, João

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of changes in electricity price returns in the context of interconnected electricity markets. This model predicts an inverse relationship between the increase in interconnection capacity and the volatility of price returns in the corresponding electricity markets. This means that an increase of interconnection between two markets leads to a decrease in the volatility of their prices. We support our model with empirical results from the Australian, European an...

  5. Examining Moderate Volatile Loss through Lunar History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Killen, Rosemary M.; Airapetian, Vladimir; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi

    2017-06-01

    While the Moon and bulk silicate earth (BSE) share many compositional similarities, a notable difference is the apparent depletion of moderate volatiles in lunar samples. Depletion of elements such as sodium and potassium relative to BSE composition has been observed in Apollo samples. The source of these depletions is poorly understood but may be a result of preferential accretion of volatile-rich melt in the inner disk to the Earth during Moon formation.However, recent Kepler data has indicated that stellar analogues to our Sun experience enhanced flare activity early in their evolution. This implies that the Sun may have had a higher frequency and energy of flares and associated Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) in its distant past. We examine the potential impacts of this increased activity on lunar exosphere generation and specifically on potential loss of moderate volatiles including sodium and potassium.We use a surface bounded exosphere model that incorporates multiple processes including photon stimulated desorption, kinetic sputtering and impact vaporization in order to study potential moderate volatile loss under a variety of different conditions. This model is informed by appropriate solar wind and CME properties, which includes CMEs of different energies. We also incorporate regolith overturn to determine ranges of potential bulk depletion of moderate volatiles from the lunar regolith.Our work is aimed at determining the potential impact of solar activity on the depletion of moderate volatiles in the lunar regolith. Such a contribution is important to ascertain in order to isolate the depletion of volatiles due to disk processes and may thus help constrain details of the Moon's formation. Finally, we also examine the potential of lunar abundances of moderate volatiles as an observational tracer of past solar activity.

  6. Volatiles and fatty oil of Cucurbita maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Veličković, Dragan T.; Ristić, Mihailo S.; Karabegović, Ivana T.; Stojičević, Saša S.; Nikolić, Nada Č.; Lazić, Miodrag L.

    2015-01-01

    The subjects of this study are volatile fractions from the fruit, leaf and seed of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), as well as the oil extracted from the seeds of the above plant, with its fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity. The isolation of volatiles was performed by the hydrodistillation process with the Clevenger type apparatus. Seed oil was extracted in a Soxhlet extractor using petroleum ether. The preparation of fatty acid methyl esters was performed according to the AOAC me...

  7. Investor attention and FX market volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, John; Kita, Arben; Wang, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between investors’ active attention, measured by a Google search volume index (SVI), and the dynamics of currency prices. Investor attention is correlated with the trading activities of large FX market participants. Investor attention comoves with comtemporaneous FX market volatility and predicts subsequent FX market volatility, after controlling for macroeconomic fundamentals. In addition, investor attention is related to the currency risk premium. Our results sugge...

  8. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German...

  9. Level Shifts in Volatility and the Implied-Realized Volatility Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; de Magistris, Paolo Santucci

    We propose a simple model in which realized stock market return volatility and implied volatility backed out of option prices are subject to common level shifts corresponding to movements between bull and bear markets. The model is estimated using the Kalman filter in a generalization to the mult...... volatility, which have been interpreted as long memory (or fractional integration) in volatility and fractional cointegration between implied and realized volatility, are accounted for by occasional common level shifts.......We propose a simple model in which realized stock market return volatility and implied volatility backed out of option prices are subject to common level shifts corresponding to movements between bull and bear markets. The model is estimated using the Kalman filter in a generalization...... to the multivariate case of the univariate level shift technique by Lu and Perron (2008). An application to the S&P500 index and a simulation experiment show that the recently documented empirical properties of strong persistence in volatility and forecastability of future realized volatility from current implied...

  10. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  11. Isolation of volatile compounds of Aloe excelsa (Berger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial and pharmacological applications of volatile and non-volatile compounds isolated from plants have been dominating the commercial sector over the recent two decades. Attempts in isolation of volatile compounds of aloes have impact on the medicinal as well as the cosmetic industries. Volatile compound isolation ...

  12. Financial Development, Financial Structure, and Macroeconomic Volatility: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data from 1997–2014 of 30 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions, subdividing trended and cyclical volatility of macroeconomics and inflation, considering different indicators of financial development and financial structure, this paper investigated the impact of financial development and financial structure on macroeconomic volatility. The empirical results found that (1 the trended and cyclical volatility of the previous macroeconomic period had a significantly positive impact on that of the current period, and the impact of trended volatility was greater than that of cyclical volatility; (2 financial development had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility through inflation cyclical volatility, but inflation trended volatility would amplify macroeconomic volatility; financial markets have no significant effect on macroeconomic volatility; financial structure measured with the ratio of stock market turnover and the efficiency of the financial development had a significant positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility; and (3 inflation trended volatility had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility and trended volatility, while inflation cyclical volatility had a significantly positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility.

  13. Long memory and tail dependence in trading volume and volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between volatility, measured by realized volatility, and trading volume for 25 NYSE stocks. We show that volume and volatility are long memory but not fractionally cointegrated in most cases. We also find right tail dependence in the volatility and volume innovations...

  14. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  15. Analysis of volatiles from irradiated yeast extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Tao; Li Xin; Zu Xiaoyan; Chen Yuxia; Geng Shengrong

    2013-01-01

    The method for determination volatiles from irradiated yeast extract (YE) using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed in this paper. The extraction conditions were optimized with reference to the peak area and number of volatiles as aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, acid, ester and sulfur compounds. The optimized conditions of HS-SPME for volatiles in irradiated YE were: divinyl benzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber, extration time 40 min, extraction temperature 40℃. The volatiles from YE irradiated by 0-19.8 kGy were detected using HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS. The results showed that only 15 volatiles were detected from no irradiated YE and main compounds were acetic acid, 2, 3-butanediol and 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-. There were 40 volatiles detected from irradiated YE and the main compounds were acetic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, heptanal and nonanal. Compare to no irradiated yeast extract, the aldehyde, ketone, alkene and disulfide, dimethyl were produced by irradiating process. (authors)

  16. Market volatility modeling for short time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos Neto, Paulo S. G.; Silva, David A.; Ferreira, Tiago A. E.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.

    2011-10-01

    The gain or loss of an investment can be defined by the movement of the market. This movement can be estimated by the difference between the magnitudes of two stock prices in distinct periods and this difference can be used to calculate the volatility of the markets. The volatility characterizes the sensitivity of a market change in the world economy. Traditionally, the probability density function (pdf) of the movement of the markets is analyzed by using power laws. The contributions of this work is two-fold: (i) an analysis of the volatility dynamic of the world market indexes is performed by using a two-year window time data. In this case, the experiments show that the pdf of the volatility is better fitted by exponential function than power laws, in all range of pdf; (ii) after that, we investigate a relationship between the volatility of the markets and the coefficient of the exponential function based on the Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas theory. The results show an inverse relationship between the volatility and the coefficient of the exponential function. This information can be used, for example, to predict the future behavior of the markets or to cluster the markets in order to analyze economic patterns.

  17. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  18. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  19. On the determination of diffusivities of volatile hydrocarbons in semi-solid bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide, supercritical ethane and propane have been considered as solvents to recover heavy oil. Given that mixing solvent with bitumen is one of the important parameters governing the performance of the solvent extraction processes, good understanding of solvent dispersion is essential for the proper design of the process. Produced bitumen can still contain some residual volatile hydrocarbons after gas flashing off a three-phase separator. When exposed to the air due to a spill or ruptured line, these residual hydrocarbons can escape and create air pollution problems. Consequently, knowledge of the diffusivities of volatile components in bitumen is needed to assess the extent of environmental damage that may result from bitumen spill or working loss of vapour to the atmosphere. This paper discusses the de-coupled transfer model developed by this author (and described in a paper in vol. 78 of this journal) and its limiting solution, and provides a re-intrepretation of the method by Fu and Phillips (1979) which in turn was based on the late-time limiting solution advanced by Tang and Zhang (2000). The analysis indicates that gas purging is a valid method for determining the diffusion coefficients of trace, volatile hydrocarbons in bitumen. However, the assumption of de-coupling may not be appropriate for large diffusion flux and slow gas flow. Furthermore, improper use of the limiting solution theory could lead to a 25 per cent error in calculating the diffusion coefficient. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  1. Protecting sensitive information in the volatile memory from disclosure attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Malliaros, Stefanos; Ntantogian, Christoforos; Xenakis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The protection of the volatile memory data is an issue of crucial importance, since authentication credentials and cryptographic keys remain in the volatile memory. For this reason, the volatile memory has become a prime target for memory scrapers, which specifically target the volatile memory, in order to steal sensitive information, such as credit card numbers. This paper investigates security measures, to protect sensitive information in the volatile memory from disclosure attacks. Experim...

  2. Exchangeable basic cations and nitrogen distribution in soil as affected by crop residues and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of N fertilization and residues of pearl millet, black oats and oilseed radish on pH and Ca, Mg, K, NO3-, and NH4+ distribution within the profile of a Distroferric Red Latosol. The equivalent of 8 t ha-1 of plant residues were placed on soil surface. Lime was applied on the soil surface and nitrogen was applied over the straw at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg kg-1, as ammonium nitrate. Corn was grown for 57 days. Calcium contents and pH in the soil profile were decreased by Pearl millet residue, while black oat and oilseed radish increased Ca contents and these effects are not related with Ca contents in residue tissue. However, the presence of plant residues increased nitrate, ammonium, and potassium contents in the deeper layers of the pots.

  3. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  4. BOTANICAL DIVERSITY AND HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN THE RESIDUE MATRIX AND PLANTS AT THE MORAVIA DUMP IN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA DIVERSIDAD BOTÁNICA Y CONTENIDO DE METALES PESADOS EN LA MATRIZ DE RESIDUOS Y LAS PLANTAS EN EL BASURERO DE MORAVIA EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Solange Sanchez Pinzón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available . Floristic characterization, plant tissue and residue matrix (RM analysis were conducted to establish the extent of heavy metal (HM pollution of the Moravia dump at Medellín, Colombia, a site that was inhabited by more than 17000 people since 1984. More than 65 plant species (28 families were identified, most of which were herbaceous. Content of HM in the (RM was determined in 14 different RM samples varied greatly among them, reaching 121 and 9600 mg/kg of Hg and Pb respectively. Mean content of HM (mg/kg in the RM had the following pattern: Pb > Ni > Cr > Hg > Cd. Uptake of HM from the RM to plants was evident in most sampled species, with concentrations of Pb, Cr, and Hg reaching maximum values of 1.0, 123.7, 263.7 mg/kg of Hg, Pb and Cr respectively. However, Lepidium virginicum excluded, estimated bioconcentration factors were not greater than 1.0. Given their adaptation, Bidens pilosa, Urochloa maxima and L. virginicum, appear to be suitable for the revegetation of Moravia. Twenty-four years after its closure, HM content in Moravia continue to be high and the local flora actively takes up HM. Since other studies have shown that in Moravia there is still production of lixiviates and that there is an active heavy metal transference to the local Moravia fauna, it is imperative to implement adequate control measures in order to control HM contamination at this site.Con el fin de establecer el nivel de contaminación por metales pesados (MP, se llevó a cabo una caracterización florística y análisis de la matriz de residuos (MR y muestras de tejidos vegetales en el morro de basuras de Moravia en Medellín, un antiguo botadero de basuras habitado desde 1984 por más de 17.000 personas. Se identificaron más de 65 especies vegetales, la mayoría de ellas herbáceas, agrupadas en 28 familias. El contenido de MP en 14 diferentes muestras de MR varió considerablemente, yendo de 121 y 9.600 mg/kg de Hg y Pb, respectivamente. El contenido

  5. Bid-Ask Spreads, Trading Volume and Return Volatility: Intraday Evidence from Indian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Paital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between stock return volatility, trading volume and bid-ask spread within the scope of mixture of distribution hypothesis (MDH and sequential information arrival hypothesis (SIAH in the Indian stock market using high frequency 5-minute data set over the period of 2 July 2012 to 31 December 2012. This is the first kind of study in India using bid-ask spread as an additional information variable along with trading volume to investigate the relationship with stock return volatility. Our empirical findings provide evidence of a positive contemporaneous relationship between return volatility and trading volume, and also between return volatility and bid-ask spread. Moreover, the results of Granger causality test show that the information content of trading volume and bid-ask spread are useful for predicting stock return volatility. Our results indicate that information arrival to investors tends to follow a sequential rather than a simultaneous process. This finding is consistent with the sequential information arrival hypothesis and contradicts the mixture of distribution hypothesis.

  6. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  7. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  8. Synthesis of volatile compounds of virgin olive oil is limited by the lipoxygenase activity load during the oil extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity is a limiting factor for the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatile compounds during the oil extraction process. For this purpose, LOX activity load was modified during this process using exogenous LOX activity and specific LOX inhibitors on olive cultivars producing oils with different volatile profiles (Arbequina and Picual). Experimental data suggest that LOX activity is a limiting factor for the synthesis of the oil volatile fraction, this limitation being significantly higher in Picual cultivar than in Arbequina, in line with the lowest content of volatile compounds in the oils obtained from the former. Moreover, there is evidence that this limitation of LOX activity takes place mostly during the milling step in the process of olive oil extraction.

  9. Novel vinegar-derived product enriched with dietary fiber: effect on polyphenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Dodero, M Carmen; Natera-Marín, Ramón; Castro-Mejías, Remedios; García-Barroso, Carmelo; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Dietary fiber derived from citrus fruits was added to vinegar. Different sources and quantities of fiber and storage conditions have been scrutinized. Formulated vinegars were evaluated on the basis of their phenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis. The addition of citrus fiber enhanced the phenolic and volatile profile of the resulted vinegars. Whereas lemon fiber contributed mostly to the enrichment of the polyphenolic composition, orange fiber was that which increased in a higher way the volatile composition of the vinegars. Moreover, the content of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and the majority of volatile compounds decreased as the dose of fiber increased. Furthermore, the judges preferred fiber-enriched vinegars, but in different quantities depending of the fiber source. This preference was mainly based on citric attribute, contributing several terpenes and ketones derived from them. The addition of citrus fiber to vinegar did not result in a marked storage-dependence.

  10. Patterns of survival and volatile metabolites of selected Lactobacillus strains during long-term incubation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja; Olszewska, Magdalena; Miks-Krajnik, Marta; Zadernowska, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The focus of this study was to monitor the survival of populations and the volatile compound profiles of selected Lactobacillus strains during long-term incubation in milk. The enumeration of cells was determined by both the Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique using carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) staining and the plate method. Volatile compounds were analysed by the gas-chromatography technique. All strains exhibited good survival in cultured milks, but Lactobacillus crispatus L800 was the only strain with comparable growth and viability in milk, assessed by plate and epifluorescence methods. The significant differences in cell numbers between plate and microscopic counts were obtained for L. acidophilus strains. The investigated strains exhibited different metabolic profiles. Depending on the strain used, 3 to 8 compounds were produced. The strains produced significantly higher concentrations of acetic acid, compared to other volatiles. Lactobacillus strains differed from one another in number and contents of the volatile compounds.

  11. Alternatives for the treatment of the organic fraction of the urban solid residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Fonseca, Mabelin; Fernandez Mena, Dalia; Abalos Rodriguez, Arelis; Rodriguez Perez, Suyen

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of municipal solid waste outdoors, or in some cases burning under the same conditions, is action now and final disposition of these wastes without measuring their consequences. In the student's residence 'Antonio Maceo' Orient University is hosting up to 2250 students belonging to a total of 22 university, generating at full capacity, 3375 kg / day of MSW. This research aims to analyze the solid waste generated in the student's residence, where improperly evaluated the final disposition thereof. It was found that discharges are not separated at the source observed at the landfill, food waste, sweeping waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metal, textile waste, wood, etc. Samplings were carried out directly in 12 rooms of the residence for a total of 48 people, along with students, as part of the educational activities implemented within this work. The average weight of degradable waste generated was 2.5 kg / day during the sampling, revealing the presence of traces of cooked food (cereals, legumes, carbohydrates), fruit and vegetable remains, remains of shells of different origins ( meats, eggs), remnants of tea, etc. The average content of total solids in the waste sampled was 36.3 ± 5.4% and volatile solids content on dry weight was 81.3 ± 2.5% to an average density of 0.68 g / cm3. This residue is characterized to be treated in an anaerobic batch reactor where it is recirculated leachate and studied the competing microorganisms in the anaerobic degradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. (author)

  12. On foundering lithosphere and volatile migration: Upside-down melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, L.

    2007-12-01

    On Earth magmatism occurs on continents in the absence of subduction, often producing volatile-rich magmas such as those in the Leucite Hills, the Sierra Nevada, and Peru's Altiplano. The primary hypothesis to explain this volcanism is foundering of the lower lithosphere into the mantle. Here loss of the lower lithosphere is hypothesized to occur in a ductile manner in response to a density contrast such as would be caused by intruding mantle melts that freeze as eclogites. This mechanism requires no specific structural weakness beyond a dense region in the lithosphere that is gravitationally unstable with respect to the underlying mantle and that possesses a rheology conducive to flow. Density contrasts of as little as 1% are fully sufficient to drive gravitational instabilities. A gravitational instability forms when a perturbation in a boundary grows through lateral flow, causing the perturbation to grow. The growing instability begins to sink into the underlying mantle material as a drip, exactly analogous to but reversed in the sense of growth from an ascending plume head. The unstable material will sink more rapidly than lateral flow in the lower lithosphere can continue to add material to it, resulting in an annulus of thinned lithosphere centered on the instability. Thus the lithosphere is thinned slightly in the region around the drip, but no dome forms in the lower lithosphere during ductile delamination. Traditionally magmatism associated with instabilities has been attributed to return flow of the asthenosphere into such a dome, but maintaining a dome in the lithosphere requires unusual rheological conditions not expected in such a setting. Any volatile content in the sinking material may act in petrologically significant ways. The sinking lower lithosphere may contain 0.1 to 0.2 mass% of water if only nominally anhydrous minerals are present, and up to several weight percent of water if phlogopite or amphibole are present. The sinking lithospheric

  13. Volatility transmission and volatility impulse response functions in European electricity forward markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sevi, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    Using daily data from March 2001 to June 2005, we estimate a VAR-BEKK model and find evidence of return and volatility spillovers between the German, the Dutch and the British forward electricity markets. We apply Hafner and Herwartz [2006, Journal of International Money and Finance 25, 719-740] Volatility Impulse Response Function(VIRF) to quantify the impact of shock on expected conditional volatility. We observe that a shock has a high positive impact only if its size is large compared to the current level of volatility. The impact of shocks are usually not persistent, which may be an indication of market efficiency. Finally, we estimate the density of the VIRF at different forecast horizon. These fitted distributions are asymmetric and show that extreme events are possible even if their probability is low. These results have interesting implications for market participants whose risk management policy is based on option prices which themselves depend on the volatility level. (authors)

  14. Cycling of fertilizer and cotton crop residue nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, I.J.; Constable, G.A.; MacLeod, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral nitrogen (N), nitrate and ammonium contents were monitored in N-fertilized soils supporting cotton crops to provide information on the nitrification, mineralization and immobilization processes operating in the soil. The relative contributions of fertilizer N, previous cotton crop residue N and indigenous soil N to the mineral N pools and to the current crop's N uptake were calculated. After N fertilizer (urea) application, the soil's mineral N content rose rapidly and subsequently declined at a slower rate. The recovery of 15 N-labelled urea as mineral N declined exponentially with time. Biological immobilization (and possibly denitrification to some extent) were believed to be the major processes reducing post-application soil mineral N content. Progressively less N was mineralized upon incubation of soil sampled through the growing season. Little soil N (either from urea or crop residue) was mineralized at crop maturity. Cycling of N was evident between the soil mineral and organic N pools throughout the cotton growing season. Considerable quantities of fertilizer N were immobilized by the soil micro biomass; immobilized N was remineralized and subsequently taken up by the cotton crop. A large proportion of the crop N was taken up in the latter part of the season when the soil mineral N content was low. It is suggested that much of the N taken up by cotton was derived from microbial sources, rather than crop residues. The application of cotton crop residue (stubble) slightly reduced the mineral N content in the soil by encouraging biological immobilization. 15 N was mineralized very slowly from the labelled crop residue and did not contribute significantly to the supply of N to the current crop. Recovery of labelled fertilizer N and labelled crop residue N by the cotton crop was 28% and 1%, respectively. In comparison, the apparent recovery of fertilizer N was 48%. Indigenous soil N contributed 68% of the N taken up by the cotton crop. 33 refs., 1 tab

  15. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Volatile compounds profile of Bromeliaceae flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Everton Hilo; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Souza, Fernanda V D; Ledo, Carlos A S; Alencar, Severino M; Martinelli, Adriana P

    2016-09-01

    Volatile compounds play a vital role in the life cycle of plants, possessing antimicrobial and anti-herbivore activities, and with a significant importance in the food, cosmetic, chemical, and pharmaceutical industry. This study aimed to identify the volatile compounds emitted by flowers of thirteen species belonging to four genera of Bromeliaceae, using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 71 volatile compounds belonging to nine chemical groups were identified. The compounds identified represented more than 97 % of the major components in Aechmea bicolor, Ae. bromeliifolia, Ae. distichantha, Ae. fasciata, and Vriesea friburgensis. In the Ananas varieties, over 99 % of the components were identified, and around 90 % in V. simplex. V. friburgensis presented the largest diversity of volatiles with 31 compounds, while Alcantarea nahoumii presented only 14. All three Ananas varieties presented the same 28 compounds in relatively similar abundance, which has been confirmed by principal component analysis. Current taxonomy and pollination syndrome studies available can adequately explain the variation in volatile compounds among species.

  17. Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisu, Afees A.; Fasanya, Ismail O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide two main innovations: (i) we analyze oil prices of two prominent markets namely West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent using the two recently developed tests by Narayan and Popp (2010) and Liu and Narayan, 2010 both of which allow for two structural breaks in the data series; and (ii) the latter method is modified to include both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models. We identify two structural breaks that occur in 1990 and 2008 which coincidentally correspond to the Iraqi/Kuwait conflict and the global financial crisis, respectively. We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in the oil price volatility. While further extensions can be pursued, the consideration of asymmetric effects as well as structural breaks should not be jettisoned when modelling oil price volatility. - Highlights: ► We analyze oil price volatility using NP (2010) and LN (2010) tests. ► We modify the LN (2010) to account for leverage effects in oil price. ► We find two structural breaks that reflect major global crisis in the oil market. ► We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in oil price volatility. ► Leverage effects and structural breaks are fundamental in oil price modelling.

  18. A bacterial volatile signal for biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria constantly monitor the environment they reside in and respond to potential changes in the environment through a variety of signal sensing and transduction mechanisms in a timely fashion. Those signaling mechanisms often involve application of small, diffusible chemical molecules. Volatiles are a group of small air-transmittable chemicals that are produced universally by all kingdoms of organisms. Past studies have shown that volatiles can function as cell-cell communication signals not only within species, but also cross-species. However, little is known about how the volatile-mediated signaling mechanism works. In our recent study (Chen, et al. mBio (2015, 6: e00392-15, we demonstrated that the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis uses acetic acid as a volatile signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation within physically separated cells in the community. We also showed that the bacterium possesses an intertwined gene network to produce, secrete, sense, and respond to acetic acid, in stimulating biofilm formation. Interestingly, many of those genes are highly conserved in other bacterial species, raising the possibility that acetic acid may act as a volatile signal for cross-species communication.

  19. Biogenic volatile emissions from the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, J; Asensio, D; Tholl, D; Wenke, K; Rosenkranz, M; Piechulla, B; Schnitzler, J P

    2014-08-01

    Volatile compounds are usually associated with an appearance/presence in the atmosphere. Recent advances, however, indicated that the soil is a huge reservoir and source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs), which are formed from decomposing litter and dead organic material or are synthesized by underground living organism or organs and tissues of plants. This review summarizes the scarce available data on the exchange of VOCs between soil and atmosphere and the features of the soil and particle structure allowing diffusion of volatiles in the soil, which is the prerequisite for biological VOC-based interactions. In fact, soil may function either as a sink or as a source of bVOCs. Soil VOC emissions to the atmosphere are often 1-2 (0-3) orders of magnitude lower than those from aboveground vegetation. Microorganisms and the plant root system are the major sources for bVOCs. The current methodology to detect belowground volatiles is described as well as the metabolic capabilities resulting in the wealth of microbial and root VOC emissions. Furthermore, VOC profiles are discussed as non-destructive fingerprints for the detection of organisms. In the last chapter, belowground volatile-based bi- and multi-trophic interactions between microorganisms, plants and invertebrates in the soil are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of oil price volatility are important inputs into macroeconometric models, financial market risk assessment calculations like value at risk, and option pricing formulas for futures contracts. This paper uses several different univariate and multivariate statistical models to estimate forecasts of daily volatility in petroleum futures price returns. The out-of-sample forecasts are evaluated using forecast accuracy tests and market timing tests. The TGARCH model fits well for heating oil and natural gas volatility and the GARCH model fits well for crude oil and unleaded gasoline volatility. Simple moving average models seem to fit well in some cases provided the correct order is chosen. Despite the increased complexity, models like state space, vector autoregression and bivariate GARCH do not perform as well as the single equation GARCH model. Most models out perform a random walk and there is evidence of market timing. Parametric and non-parametric value at risk measures are calculated and compared. Non-parametric models outperform the parametric models in terms of number of exceedences in backtests. These results are useful for anyone needing forecasts of petroleum futures volatility. (author)

  1. Stability of aged bound residues of methyl parathion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helling, C.S.; Gerstl, Z.; Kloskowski, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mineralization of bound 14 C-methyl parathion (MP) was demonstrated, indirectly by 14 CO 2 loss exceeding that which could derive from extractable MP residues, and directly by incubation of extracted soil. Amendment of the soil with sludge and with low to moderate rates of five soil fumigants and sterilants greatly enhanced 14 CO 2 loss; a high rate of HgCl 2 reduced mineralization. Asparagine and glucose amendments (incubated 78 days) caused a 10% increase in 14 CO 2 loss; 14 C-asparagine and 14 C-glucose were degraded, yielding 25% and 38% bound residue, respectively. When glucose, sludge or HgCl 2 was added to aged MP residues (after 145 days incubation), the amendments did not accelerate mineralization during a subsequent 33-day incubation period. Radioactivity after 178 days was 9% extractable, 58% in fulvic acid, 17% in humic acid and 16% in humin, in control soil and in amended soil. Methyl parathion degraded during high-temperature distillation, which technique also failed to yield identifiable volatile 14 C products (except 14 CO 2 ) from bound MP. However, extraction with supercritical methanol solubilized 38% of residual 14 C; parent MP was identified at a level of 0.6 μg per gram soil. (author)

  2. Melt inclusion constraints on volatile systematics and degassing history of the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, E.; Hartley, M. E.; Halldórsson, S. A.; Gudfinnsson, G. H.; Jakobsson, S.

    2018-02-01

    The mass of volatiles emitted during volcanic eruptions is often estimated by comparing the volatile contents of undegassed melt inclusions, trapped in crystals at an early stage of magmatic evolution, with that of the degassed matrix glass. Here we present detailed characterisation of magmatic volatiles (H2O, CO2, S, Fl and Cl) of crystal-hosted melt and fluid inclusions from the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. Based on the ratios of magmatic volatiles to similarly incompatible trace elements, the undegassed primary volatile contents of the Holuhraun parental melt are estimated at 1500-1700 ppm CO2, 0.13-0.16 wt% H2O, 60-80 ppm Cl, 130-240 ppm F and 500-800 ppm S. High-density fluid inclusions indicate onset of crystallisation at pressures ≥ 0.4 GPa ( 12 km depth) promoting deep degassing of CO2. Prior to the onset of degassing, the melt CO2 content may have reached 3000-4000 ppm, with the total magmatic CO2 budget estimated at 23-55 Mt. SO2 release commenced at 0.12 GPa ( 3.6 km depth), eventually leading to entrapment of SO2 vapour in low-density fluid inclusions. We calculate the syn-eruptive volatile release as 22.2 Mt of magmatic H2O, 5.9-7.7 Mt CO2, and 11.3 Mt of SO2 over the course of the eruption; F and Cl release were insignificant. Melt inclusion constraints on syn-eruptive volatile release are similar to estimates made during in situ field monitoring, with the exception of H2O, where field measurements may be heavily biased by the incorporation of meteoric water.

  3. Permanent and transitory oil volatility and aggregate investment in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mansor H.; Ahmed, Huson Joher Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between aggregate investment and oil volatility and its permanent and transitory components for a developing country, Malaysia. In the paper, the components generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (CGARCH) model is utilized to decompose conditional oil volatility into permanent oil volatility and transitory oil volatility. Respectively reflecting fundamental-driven and random shifts in oil volatility, they are expected to exert differential effects on aggregate investment. Adopting a vector autoregression (VAR) framework to allow feedback effects between aggregate investment and its determinants, the paper documents evidence supporting the adverse effects of conditional oil volatility, permanent oil volatility and transitory oil volatility on aggregate investment and real output. Interestingly, contrary to the findings for the developed markets (US and OECD), the real effects of permanent oil volatility tend to be stronger. These findings are reasonably robust to variable specification and measurements in the VAR system. Hence, there is an indication that heightened oil volatility accounts for the slumps in Malaysia's aggregate investment after the Asian financial crisis. - Highlights: • Examines the role of oil volatility in Malaysia's aggregate investment. • Makes distinction between permanent and temporary volatility using CGARCH. • Both volatility components depress investment. • Permanent volatility has larger adverse effects. • Results are robust to alternative model specifications

  4. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  5. Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulle, Marco; Alice Team; Stern, Alan; CONSTERT Team; Kofman, Wlodek; COSIMA Team; Hilchenbach, Martin; GIADA Team; Rotundi, Alessandra; MIDAS Team; Bentley, Mark; MIRO Team; Hofstadter, Mark; OSIRIS Team; Sierks, Holger; ROSINA Team; Altwegg, Kathrin; RPC Team; Nilsson, Hans; Burch, James; Eriksson, Anders; Heinz-Glassmeier, Karl; Henri, Pierre; Carr, Christopher; RSI Team; Paetzold, Martin; , VIRTIS Team; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Lander Team; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; IDS Team; Gruen, Eberhard; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Weissman, Paul; Project Scientist Team; Taylor, Matt; Buratti, Bonnie; Altobelli, Nicolas; Choukroun, Mathieu; Ground-Based Observations Team; Snodgrass, Colin

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta mission has been taking measurements of its target comet Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since early 2014 and will complete operations at the end of September 2016. The mission Science Management Plan, in 1994, laid out the the prime goals and themes of the mission. These five themes were: 1) To study the global characterisation of the Nuclues, the determination of the dynamics properties , surface morpholy and composition of the comet. 2) Examination of the Chemical, Mineralogical and isotopic compositions of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus.3) Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus4) Study the development of cometary activity and the process in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the inner coma5) The origins of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and the implications for the origin of the solar system,To cover all aspects of the Rosetta mission in this special Show case session, this abstracts is one of 5, with this particular presentation focusing on theme 3, in particular on a) The dust-to-gas ratio; b) distributed sources of volatiles; c) seasonal evolution of the dust size distribution.a) The dust-to-gas ratio has been provided by coma observations measuring the gas and dust loss rates from the nucleus surface. The ratio of these two loss rates provides a lower limit of the dust-to-gas ratio at the nucleus surface, since it does not take into account the largest chunks unable to leave the nucleus, or falling back due to the dominant gravity. We review the value inferred so far, its time evolution, and new techniques to directly measure it in the nucleus.b) Evidences offered by Rosetta observations of gas sublimating from dust particles are up to now faint. We report the few available observations and an estimate of the probable average water content in dust particles inferred by 3D gas-dynamical codes of 67P coma.c) The dust-size distribution tunes the sizes

  6. Volatility Spillover in Chinese Steel Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines volatility spillover in Chinese steel markets by comparing spillover effects before and after steel futures market established and finds some interesting change. Volatility spillover method based on multi-GARCH model are proposed. The results show that there is significant proof for spillover effects from B2B electronic market to spot market, and two-way effects between futures and spot market. Market policy planners and practitioners could make decisions according to the master of spillovers. We also find that B2B e-market and futures market can both provide efficient protection against steel price volatility risk, B2B e-market offer a broad-based platform for trading steel commodities over time and space since e-market role in information flow process is dominant.

  7. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  8. Volatility jumps and their economic determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    that there is a positive probability of jumps in volatility. A common factor in the volatility jumps is shown to be related to a set of financial covariates (such as variance risk premium, S&P500 volume, credit-default swap, and federal fund rates). The credit-default swap on US banks and variance risk premium have...... predictive power on expected jump moves, thus confirming the common interpretation that sudden and large increases in equity volatility can be anticipated by credit deterioration of the US bank sector as well as changes in the market expectations of future risks. Finally, the model is extended to incorporate...... the credit-default swap and the variance risk premium in the dynamics of the jump size and intensity....

  9. Antioxidant effect of aromatic volatiles emitted by Lavandula dentata, Mentha spicata, and M. piperita on mouse subjected to low oxygen condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zenghui; Wang, Chunling; Shen, Hong; Zhang, Kezhong; Leng, Pingsheng

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the antioxidant effect of aromatic volatiles of three common aromatic plants, Lavandula dentata, Mentha spicata, and M. piperita. In this study, kunming mice subjected to low oxygen condition were treated with the volatiles emitted from these aromatic plants through inhalation administration. Then the blood cell counts, and the activities and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes in different tissues were tested. The results showed that low oxygen increased the counts of red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets of mice, and aromatic volatiles decreased their counts. Exposure to aromatic volatiles resulted in decreases in the malonaldehyde contents, and increases in the activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in different tissues under low oxygen. In addition, as the main component of aromatic volatiles, eucalyptol was the potential source that imparted positive antioxidant effect.

  10. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Volatile organic compounds profile during milk fermentation by Lactobacillus pentosus and correlations between volatiles flavor and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D D; Wu, Z; Peng, T; Zeng, X Q; Li, H

    2014-02-01

    Flavor, as one of the most important properties determining the acceptability and preference of fermented milks, is influenced by compositional and processing factors. In this study, we focused on the volatile organic compounds related to flavor during milk fermentation by Lactobacillus pentosus according to electronic nose analysis. Xylose (1% addition) metabolized by Lb. pentosus strongly affects the flavor of yogurt, with the potent volatile organic compounds of ethanol (3.08%), 2,3-butanedione (7.77%), and acetic acid (22.70%) detected using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Sensoryanalysis also showed skimmed yogurt fermented by Lb. pentosus with 1% xylose had the unique scores of sourness (acetic acid) and butter flavor (2,3-butanedione). Furthermore, α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase in carbohydrate metabolism play important roles in milk fermentation. Under preferable conditions (pH 5.5, 42 °C) for α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase, the relative content of potent flavor compound 2,3-butanedione was 10.13%, which was 2.55% higher than common culture condition (pH 4.5, 37 °C), revealing that xylose metabolized by Lb. pentosus has potential values for the milk product industry, such as the acceptability and preference of fermented milk product. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of volatile profile and sensory analysis of fresh-cut "Radicchio di Chioggia" stored in air or modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Martignetti, Antonella; Pellicano, Mario Paolo; Stocchero, Matteo; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    The volatile profile of two hybrids of "Radicchio di Chioggia", Corelli and Botticelli, stored in air or passive modified atmosphere (MAP) during 12 days of cold storage, was monitored by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. Botticelli samples were also subjected to sensory analysis. Totally, 61 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of radicchio samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fresh product possessed a metabolic content similar to that of the MAP samples after 5 and 8 days of storage. Projection to latent structures by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed the volatiles content of the samples varied depending only on the packaging conditions. Specifically, 12 metabolites describing the time evolution and explaining the effects of the different storage conditions were highlighted. Finally, a PCA analysis revealed that VOCs profile significantly correlated with sensory attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hedging electricity price volatility using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear power is an important asset to reduce the volatility of electricity prices. • Unpredictability of fossil fuels and carbon prices makes power prices very volatile. • The dynamics of fossil fuels and carbon prices is described by Brownian motions. • LCOE values, volatilities and correlations are obtained via Monte Carlo simulations. • Optimal portfolios of generating technologies are get using a mean–variance approach. - Abstract: The analysis presented in this paper aims to put in some evidence the role of nuclear power as hedging asset against the volatility of electricity prices. The unpredictability of natural gas and coal market prices as well as the uncertainty in environmental policies may affect power generating costs, thus enhancing volatility in electricity market prices. The nuclear option, allowing to generate electricity without carbon emissions, offers the possibility to reduce the volatility of electricity prices through optimal diversification of power generating technologies. This paper provides a methodological scheme to plan well diversified “portfolios” of generating capacity that minimize the electricity price risk induced by random movements of fossil fuels market prices and by unpredictable fluctuations of carbon credits prices. The analysis is developed within a stochastic environment in which the dynamics of fuel prices as well as the dynamics of carbon credits prices is assumed to evolve in time according to well defined Brownian processes. Starting from market data and using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate generating cost values, the hedging argument is developed by selecting optimal portfolio of power generating technologies using a mean–variance approach

  14. Different methods for volatile sampling in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Manfred; Marcillo, Andrea; Einspanier, Almuth; Weiß, Brigitte M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this method has various drawbacks, including a high level of contaminations. Thus, we adapted two methods of volatile sampling from other research fields and compared them to sampling with cotton swabs. To do so we assessed the body odor of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) using cotton swabs, thermal desorption (TD) tubes and, alternatively, a mobile GC-MS device containing a thermal desorption trap. Overall, TD tubes comprised most compounds (N = 113), with half of those compounds being volatile (N = 52). The mobile GC-MS captured the fewest compounds (N = 35), of which all were volatile. Cotton swabs contained an intermediate number of compounds (N = 55), but very few volatiles (N = 10). Almost all compounds found with the mobile GC-MS were also captured with TD tubes (94%). Hence, we recommend TD tubes for state of the art sampling of body odor of mammals or other vertebrates, particularly for field studies, as they can be easily transported, stored and analysed with high performance instruments in the lab. Nevertheless, cotton swabs capture compounds which still may contribute to the body odor, e.g. after bacterial fermentation, while profiles from mobile GC-MS include only the most abundant volatiles of the body odor. PMID:28841690

  15. Volatile constituents of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of flowering aerial parts of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. (Rutaceae from Iran was analyzed for the first time using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Thirty six compounds comprising 92.2% of the total oil were characterized. The main components were b-caryophyllene (12.9%, limonene (9.7%, b-pinene (7.9%, linalool (7.4%, α-pinene (6.4% and 1,8-cineole (5.5%. Volatile oil of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts was dominated by the high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.2% and oxygenated monoterpenes (23.2%.

  16. Volume, Volatility and Public News Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Jia; Xue, Yuan

    We provide new empirical evidence for the way in which financial markets process information. Our results are based on high-frequency intraday data along with new econometric techniques for making inference on the relationship between trading intensity and spot volatility around public news...... announcements. Consistent with the predictions derived from a theoretical model in which investors agree to disagree, our estimates for the intraday volume-volatility elasticity around the most important news announcements are systematically below unity. Our elasticity estimates also decrease significantly...

  17. Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Takken, Todd E.

    2014-07-22

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, the non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.

  18. Assessment of waste management of volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, P.M.; Barbier, M.; Lord, N.; Nainan, D.

    1979-05-01

    This document presents a review of the Technologies for Waste Management of the Volatile Radionuclides of iodine-129, krypton-85, tritium, and carbon-14. The report presents an estimate of the quantities of these volatile radionuclides as are produced in the nuclear power industry. The various technologies as may be used, or which are under investigation, to immobilize these nuclides and to contain them during storage and in disposal are discussed. Also, the alternative disposal options as may be applied to isolate these radioactive wastes from the human environment are presented. The report contains information which was available through approximately January 1978

  19. Volatile substance misuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is prevalent in the United States and associated with manifold deleterious outcomes. This review summarizes research on: (1) the prevalence of VSM in the United States and its trends since 1975, (2) population subgroups at an elevated risk for VSM, (3) key correlates of VSM, (4) psychosocial consequences of VSM, including emerging public health threats, and (5) etiological and contextual considerations of VSM use. Implications for future research and practice with volatile substance misusers in the United States are identified.

  20. Simple volatility test for bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive test measuring the volatility or fuming propensity of bituminous materials with good repeatability has been devised. The test depends on measuring the mass loss which occurs when a small sample of the material is heated in a shallow open dish on a thermostatic hotplate for a fixed time. A rectilinear inverse relation between the mass losses and the softening points of a series of pitches from one source has been found, and the test has been shown to give results which correlate well with other methods for characterizing pitch volatility. Test results obtained with a range of tar products from pitches to creosotes all showed similarly good repeatability. (4 refs.)