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Sample records for residual viral replication

  1. Dissecting the role of the ϕ29 terminal protein DNA binding residues in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguera, Isabel; Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Salas, Margarita

    2015-03-11

    Phage ϕ29 DNA replication takes place by a protein-priming mechanism in which the viral DNA polymerase catalyses the covalent linkage of the initiating nucleotide to a specific serine residue of the terminal protein (TP). The N-terminal domain of the ϕ29 TP has been shown to bind to the host DNA in a sequence-independent manner and this binding is essential for the TP nucleoid localisation and for an efficient viral DNA replication in vivo. In the present work we have studied the involvement of the TP N-terminal domain residues responsible for DNA binding in the different stages of viral DNA replication by assaying the in vitro activity of purified TP N-terminal mutant proteins. The results show that mutation of TP residues involved in DNA binding affects the catalytic activity of the DNA polymerase in initiation, as the Km for the initiating nucleotide is increased when these mutant proteins are used as primers. Importantly, this initiation defect was relieved by using the ϕ29 double-stranded DNA binding protein p6 in the reaction, which decreased the Km of the DNA polymerase for dATP about 130-190 fold. Furthermore, the TP N-terminal domain was shown to be required both for a proper interaction with the DNA polymerase and for an efficient viral DNA amplification. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Requirement of the N-terminal residues of human cytomegalovirus UL112-113 proteins for viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Eui; Park, Mi Young; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Han, Tae Hee; Lee, Chan Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The UL112-113 region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome encodes four phosphoproteins of 34, 43, 50, and 84 kDa that promote viral DNA replication. Co-transfection assays have demonstrated that self-interaction of these proteins via the shared N-termini is necessary for their intranuclear distribution as foci and for the efficient relocation of a viral DNA polymerase processivity factor (UL44) to the viral replication sites. However, the requirement of UL112-113 N-terminal residues for viral growth and DNA replication has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of deletion of the N-terminal regions of UL112-113 proteins on viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. A deletion of the entire UL112 region or the region encoding the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues from the HCMV (Towne strain) bacmid impaired viral growth in bacmid-transfected human fibroblast cells, indicating their requirement for viral growth. In co-immunoprecipitation assays using the genomic gene expressing the four UL112-113 proteins together, the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues were found to be necessary for stable expression of UL112-113 proteins and their self-interaction. These residues were also required for efficient binding to and relocation of UL44, but not for interaction with IE2, an origin-binding transcription factor. In co-transfection/replication assays, replication of the oriLyt-containing plasmid was promoted by expression of intact UL112-113 proteins, but not by the expression of 25-amino-acid residue-deleted proteins. Our results demonstrate that the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues of UL112-113 proteins that mediate self-interaction contribute to viral growth by promoting their binding to UL44 and the initiation of oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

  3. Recombination-dependent concatemeric viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Piano, Ambra; Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Zecchi, Lisa; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of viral double stranded (ds) DNA replication involves proteins that recruit and load the replisome at the replication origin (ori). Any block in replication fork progression or a programmed barrier may act as a factor for ori-independent remodelling and assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. Then replication initiation becomes dependent on recombination proteins, a process called recombination-dependent replication (RDR). RDR, which is recognized as being important for replication restart and stability in all living organisms, plays an essential role in the replication cycle of many dsDNA viruses. The SPP1 virus, which infects Bacillus subtilis cells, serves as a paradigm to understand the links between replication and recombination in circular dsDNA viruses. SPP1-encoded initiator and replisome assembly proteins control the onset of viral replication and direct the recruitment of host-encoded replisomal components at viral oriL. SPP1 uses replication fork reactivation to switch from ori-dependent θ-type (circle-to-circle) replication to σ-type RDR. Replication fork arrest leads to a double strand break that is processed by viral-encoded factors to generate a D-loop into which a new replisome is assembled, leading to σ-type viral replication. SPP1 RDR proteins are compared with similar proteins encoded by other viruses and their possible in vivo roles are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conserved residues in the coiled-coil pocket of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 are essential for viral replication and interhelical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Hongmei; Konstantinidis, Alex K.; Stewart, Kent D.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Ng, Teresa; Swift, Kerry; Matayoshi, Edmund D.; Kati, Warren; Kohlbrenner, William; Molla, Akhteruzzaman

    2004-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 plays an important role in mediating the fusion of HIV with host cells. During the fusion process, three N-terminal helices and three C-terminal helices pack in an anti-parallel direction to form a six-helix bundle. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the gp41 core demonstrated that within each coiled-coil interface, there is a deep and large pocket, formed by a cluster of residues in the N-helix coiled-coil. In this report, we systematically analyzed the role of seven conserved residues that are either lining or packing this pocket on the infectivity and interhelical interaction using novel approaches. Our results show that residues L568, V570, W571, and K574 of the N-helix that are lining the side chain and right wall of the pocket are important for establishing a productive infection. Mutations V570A and W571A completely abolished replication, while replication of the L568A and K574A mutants was significantly attenuated relative to wild type. Similarly, residues W628, W631, and I635 of the C-helix that insert into the pocket are essential for infectivity. The impaired infectivity of these seven mutants is in part attributed to the loss in binding affinity of the interhelical interaction. Molecular modeling of the crystal structure of the coiled-coil further shows that alanine substitution of those residues disrupts the hydrophobic interaction between the N- and C-helix. These results suggest that the conserved residues in the coiled-coil domain play a key role in HIV infection and this coiled-coil pocket is a good target for development of inhibitors against HIV. In addition, our data indicate that the novel fluorescence polarization assay described in this study could be valuable in screening for inhibitors that block the interhelical interaction and HIV entry

  5. Lipid Tales of Viral Replication and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2017-03-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are the largest group of RNA viruses on Earth and cellular membranes are critical for all aspects of their life cycle, from entry and replication to exit. In particular, membranes serve as platforms for replication and as carriers to transmit these viruses to other cells, the latter either as an envelope surrounding a single virus or as the vesicle containing a population of viruses. Notably, many animal and human viruses appear to induce and exploit phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate/cholesterol-enriched membranes for replication, whereas many plant and insect-vectored animal viruses utilize phosphatidylethanolamine/cholesterol-enriched membranes for the same purpose; and phosphatidylserine-enriched membrane carriers are widely used by both single and populations of viruses for transmission. Here I discuss the implications for viral pathogenesis and therapeutic development of this remarkable convergence on specific membrane lipid blueprints for replication and transmission. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Intracellular Detection of Viral Transcription and Replication Using RNA FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Chapter 14. Intracellular detection of viral transcription and replication using RNA FISH i. Summary/Abstract Many hemorrhagic fever viruses...resolution. However, viral RNA tends to cluster in specific subcellular sites (e.g. viral replication factories). Thus while true single-molecule...assays [4]. Detection of viral RNA allows for in depth interrogation of the subcellular sites of viral replication and such experiments will help further

  7. Viral trans-factor independent replication of human papillomavirus genomes

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    Angeletti Peter C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papillomaviruses (PVs establish a persistent infection in the proliferating basal cells of the epithelium. The viral genome is replicated and maintained as a low-copy nuclear plasmid in basal keratinocytes. Bovine and human papillomaviruses (BPV and HPV are known to utilize two viral proteins; E1, a DNA helicase, and E2, a transcription factor, which have been considered essential for viral DNA replication. However, growing evidence suggests that E1 and E2 are not entirely essential for stable replication of HPV. Results Here we report that multiple HPV16 mutants, lacking either or both E1 and E2 open reading frame (ORFs and the long control region (LCR, still support extrachromosomal replication. Our data clearly indicate that HPV16 has a mode of replication, independent of viral trans-factors, E1 and E2, which is achieved by origin activity located outside of the LCR.

  8. A dimeric Rep protein initiates replication of a linear archaeal virus genome: implications for the Rep mechanism and viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oke, Muse; Kerou, Melina; Liu, Huanting

    2011-01-01

    that a protein encoded in the 34-kbp genome of the rudivirus SIRV1 is a member of the replication initiator (Rep) superfamily of proteins, which initiate rolling-circle replication (RCR) of diverse viruses and plasmids. We show that SIRV Rep nicks the viral hairpin terminus, forming a covalent adduct between...... positioned active sites, each with a single tyrosine residue, work in tandem to catalyze DNA nicking and joining. We propose a novel mechanism for rudivirus DNA replication, incorporating the first known example of a Rep protein that is not linked to RCR. The implications for Rep protein function and viral......The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Their replication mechanisms remain obscure, although parallels have been drawn to the Poxviridae and other large cytoplasmic eukaryotic viruses. Here we report...

  9. Uracil DNA glycosylase BKRF3 contributes to Epstein-Barr virus DNA replication through physical interactions with proteins in viral DNA replication complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Tzu; Liu, I-Hua; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Shu-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Yang, Pei-Wen; Chuang, Yu-Chia; Lee, Chung-Pei; Chen, Mei-Ru

    2014-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication. The expression level of BKRF3 increased gradually during viral replication, coupled with a decrease of cellular UNG2, suggesting BKRF3 enzyme activity compensates for UNG2 and ensures the fidelity of viral DNA replication. In immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, BKRF3 was coimmuno-precipitated with BALF5, the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1, and the immediate-early transactivator Rta. Coexpression of BMRF1 appeared to facilitate the nuclear targeting of BKRF3 in immunofluorescence staining. Residues 164 to 255 of BKRF3 were required for interaction with Rta and BALF5, whereas residues 81 to 166 of BKRF3 were critical for BMRF1 interaction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown experiments. Viral DNA replication was defective in cells harboring BKRF3 knockout EBV bacmids. In complementation assays, the catalytic mutant BKRF3(Q90L,D91N) restored viral DNA replication, whereas the leucine loop mutant BKRF3(H213L) only partially rescued viral DNA replication, coupled with a reduced ability to interact with the viral DNA polymerase and Rta. Our data suggest that BKRF3 plays a critical role in viral DNA synthesis predominantly through its interactions with viral proteins in the DNA replication compartment, while its enzymatic activity may be supplementary for uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) function during virus replication. Catalytic activities of both cellular UDG UNG2 and viral UDGs contribute to herpesviral DNA replication. To ensure that the enzyme activity executes at

  10. APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes

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    Luc Willems

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolution of viruses and their hosts has reached a fragile and dynamic equilibrium that allows viral persistence, replication and transmission. In response, infected hosts have developed strategies of defense that counteract the deleterious effects of viral infections. In particular, single-strand DNA editing by Apolipoprotein B Editing Catalytic subunits proteins 3 (APOBEC3s is a well-conserved mechanism of mammalian innate immunity that mutates and inactivates viral genomes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of APOBEC3 editing during viral replication, the viral strategies that prevent APOBEC3 activity and the consequences of APOBEC3 modulation on viral fitness and host genome integrity. Understanding the mechanisms involved reveals new prospects for therapeutic intervention.

  11. JC virus agnoprotein enhances large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for its involvement in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2012-11-10

    Agnoprotein is required for the successful completion of the JC virus (JCV) life cycle and was previously shown to interact with JCV large T-antigen (LT-Ag). Here, we further characterized agnoprotein's involvement in viral DNA replication. Agnoprotein enhances the DNA binding activity of LT-Ag to the viral origin (Ori) without directly interacting with DNA. The predicted amphipathic α-helix of agnoprotein plays a major role in this enhancement. All three phenylalanine (Phe) residues of agnoprotein localize to this α-helix and Phe residues in general are known to play critical roles in protein-protein interaction, protein folding and stability. The functional relevance of all Phe residues was investigated by mutagenesis. When all were mutated to alanine (Ala), the mutant virus (F31AF35AF39A) replicated significantly less efficiently than each individual Phe mutant virus alone, indicating the importance of Phe residues for agnoprotein function. Collectively, these studies indicate a close involvement of agnoprotein in viral DNA replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Parvovirus B19 Utilizes Cellular DNA Replication Machinery for Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Zekun; Xiong, Min; Chen, Aaron Yun; Xu, Peng; Ganaie, Safder S; Badawi, Yomna; Kleiboeker, Steve; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Ye, Shui Qing; Qiu, Jianming

    2018-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection of human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) induces a DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest at late S phase, which facilitates viral DNA replication. However, it is not clear exactly which cellular factors are employed by this single-stranded DNA virus. Here, we used microarrays to systematically analyze the dynamic transcriptome of EPCs infected with B19V. We found that DNA metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage response, cell cycle, and cell cycle arrest pathways were significantly regulated after B19V infection. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that most cellular DNA replication proteins were recruited to the centers of viral DNA replication, but not the DNA repair DNA polymerases. Our results suggest that DNA replication polymerase δ and polymerase α are responsible for B19V DNA replication by knocking down its expression in EPCs. We further showed that although RPA32 is essential for B19V DNA replication and the phosphorylated forms of RPA32 colocalized with the replicating viral genomes, RPA32 phosphorylation was not necessary for B19V DNA replication. Thus, this report provides evidence that B19V uses the cellular DNA replication machinery for viral DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection can cause transient aplastic crisis, persistent viremia, and pure red cell aplasia. In fetuses, B19V infection can result in nonimmune hydrops fetalis and fetal death. These clinical manifestations of B19V infection are a direct outcome of the death of human erythroid progenitors that host B19V replication. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response that is important for cell cycle arrest at late S phase. Here, we analyzed dynamic changes in cellular gene expression and found that DNA metabolic processes are tightly regulated during B19V infection. Although genes involved in cellular DNA replication were downregulated overall, the cellular DNA replication machinery was tightly

  13. UGGT1 enhances enterovirus 71 pathogenicity by promoting viral RNA synthesis and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Nien Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71 utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1, a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood. Using EVA71 as a model, this study found that host UGGT1 and viral 3D polymerase co-precipitate along with other factors on membranous replication complexes to enhance viral replication. Increased UGGT1 levels elevated viral growth rates, while viral pathogenicity was observed to be lower in heterozygous knockout mice (Uggt1 +/- mice. These findings provide important insight on the role of UPR and host UGGT1 in regulating RNA virus replication and pathogenicity.

  14. Bunyavirales ribonucleoproteins: the viral replication and transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yeping; Li, Jing; Gao, George F; Tien, Po; Liu, Wenjun

    2018-03-08

    The Bunyavirales order is one of the largest groups of segmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes many pathogenic strains that cause severe human diseases. The RNA segments of the bunyavirus genome are separately encapsidated by multiple copies of nucleoprotein (N), and both termini of each N-encapsidated genomic RNA segment bind to one copy of the viral L polymerase protein. The viral genomic RNA, N and L protein together form the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that constitutes the molecular machinery for viral genome replication and transcription. Recently, breakthroughs have been achieved in understanding the architecture of bunyavirus RNPs with the determination of the atomic structures of the N and L proteins from various members of this order. In this review, we discuss the structures and functions of these bunyavirus RNP components, as well as viral genome replication and transcription mechanisms.

  15. Cyclophilins as Modulators of Viral Replication

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    Stephen D. Frausto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophilins are peptidyl‐prolyl cis/trans isomerases important in the proper folding of certain proteins. Mounting evidence supports varied roles of cyclophilins, either positive or negative, in the life cycles of diverse viruses, but the nature and mechanisms of these roles are yet to be defined. The potential for cyclophilins to serve as a drug target for antiviral therapy is evidenced by the success of non-immunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitors (CPIs, including Alisporivir, in clinical trials targeting hepatitis C virus infection. In addition, as cyclophilins are implicated in the predisposition to, or severity of, various diseases, the ability to specifically and effectively modulate their function will prove increasingly useful for disease intervention. In this review, we will summarize the evidence of cyclophilins as key mediators of viral infection and prospective drug targets.

  16. HSV-1 Remodels Host Telomeres to Facilitate Viral Replication

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    Zhong Deng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the ends of cellular chromosomes. We show here that infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 results in chromosomal structural aberrations at telomeres and the accumulation of telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage foci (TIFs. At the molecular level, HSV-1 induces transcription of telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA, followed by the proteolytic degradation of the telomere protein TPP1 and loss of the telomere repeat DNA signal. The HSV-1-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0 is required for TERRA transcription and facilitates TPP1 degradation. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA depletion of TPP1 increases viral replication, indicating that TPP1 inhibits viral replication. Viral replication protein ICP8 forms foci that coincide with telomeric proteins, and ICP8-null virus failed to degrade telomere DNA signal. These findings suggest that HSV-1 reorganizes telomeres to form ICP8-associated prereplication foci and to promote viral genomic replication.

  17. Clade-specific differences in active viral replication and compartmentalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, Monica; Centlivre, Mireille; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the impact of HIV-1 clade-specific polymorphisms on the dynamics of viral replication and compartmentalization in vivo. HIV-1 transcription and compartmentalization are essentially modulated by interconnected parameters: cellular activation by T-cell receptor engagement or

  18. Oligomerization of Baculovirus LEF-11 Is Involved in Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cao, Ming-Ya; Li, Hai-Qing; Lei, Xue-Jiao; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) late expression factor 11 (lef-11) is associated with viral DNA replication and have demonstrated that it potentially interacts with itself; however, whether LEF-11 forms oligomers and the impact of LEF-11 oligomerization on viral function have not been substantiated. In this study, we first demonstrated that LEF-11 is capable of forming oligomers. Additionally, a series of analyses using BmNPV LEF-11 truncation mutants indicated that two distinct domains control LEF-11 oligomerization (aa 42-61 and aa 72-101). LEF-11 truncation constructs were inserted into a lef-11-knockout BmNPV bacmid, which was used to demonstrate that truncated LEF-11 lacking either oligomerization domain abrogates viral DNA replication. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine that the conserved hydrophobic residues Y58&I59 (representing Y58 and I59), I85 and L88&L89 (representing L88 and L89) are required for LEF-11 oligomerization and viral DNA replication. Collectively, these data indicate that BmNPV LEF-11 oligomerization influences viral DNA replication.

  19. Bacteriophage SPP1 DNA replication strategies promote viral and disable host replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Elena M; Zinder, John C; Manhart, Carol M; Lo Piano, Ambra; McHenry, Charles S; Ayora, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    Complex viruses that encode their own initiation proteins and subvert the host's elongation apparatus have provided valuable insights into DNA replication. Using purified bacteriophage SPP1 and Bacillus subtilis proteins, we have reconstituted a rolling circle replication system that recapitulates genetically defined protein requirements. Eleven proteins are required: phage-encoded helicase (G40P), helicase loader (G39P), origin binding protein (G38P) and G36P single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB); and host-encoded PolC and DnaE polymerases, processivity factor (β(2)), clamp loader (τ-δ-δ') and primase (DnaG). This study revealed a new role for the SPP1 origin binding protein. In the presence of SSB, it is required for initiation on replication forks that lack origin sequences, mimicking the activity of the PriA replication restart protein in bacteria. The SPP1 replisome is supported by both host and viral SSBs, but phage SSB is unable to support B. subtilis replication, likely owing to its inability to stimulate the PolC holoenzyme in the B. subtilis context. Moreover, phage SSB inhibits host replication, defining a new mechanism by which bacterial replication could be regulated by a viral factor.

  20. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis of aromatic residues within the polymerase domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: critical role of Phe-130 for p51 function and second-site revertant restoring viral replication capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Isabel; Gutiérrez-Rivas, Mónica; López-Galíndez, Cecilio; Menéndez-Arias, Luis

    2004-07-01

    The effects on virus viability and reverse transcriptase (RT) function of substituting Trp for Tyr or Phe residues within the polymerase domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT have been analyzed with an infectious HIV-1 clone. Viruses containing mutations Y56W, F61W, F87W, F116W, Y127W, Y144W, F171W, Y181W, Y183W, Y188W, F227W, or Y232W in their RT-coding regions were viable and showed replication capacities similar or slightly reduced in comparison with the wild-type HIV-1. However, RTs bearing mutations F77W or Y146W had a dNTP-binding defect, rendering nonviable viruses. HIV-1 carrying RT mutations F124W or F130W replicated very poorly, but compensatory changes (K83R for F124W, and T58S for F130W) were selected upon passaging the virus in cell culture. The amino acid substitution F130W diminishes the stability of the 51-kDa subunit of the RT (p51) and impairs polyprotein processing in virus-infected cells, an effect that can be mitigated when T58S is found in p51.

  1. Recruitment of Brd4 to the human papillomavirus type 16 DNA replication complex is essential for replication of viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Helfer, Christine M; Pancholi, Neha; Bradner, James E; You, Jianxin

    2013-04-01

    Replication of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genome relies on viral factors E1 and E2 and the cellular replication machinery. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) interacts with viral E2 protein to mediate papillomavirus (PV) genome maintenance and viral transcription. However, the functional role of Brd4 in the HPV life cycle remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we provide the first look into the E2-Brd4 interaction in the presence of other important viral factors, such as the HPV16 E1 protein and the viral genome. We show that Brd4 is recruited to actively replicating HPV16 origin foci together with HPV16 E1, E2, and a number of the cellular replication factors: replication protein A70 (RPA70), replication factor C1 (RFC1), and DNA polymerase δ. Mutagenesis disrupting the E2-Brd4 interaction abolishes the formation of the HPV16 replication complex and impairs HPV16 DNA replication in cells. Brd4 was further demonstrated to be necessary for HPV16 viral DNA replication using a cell-free replication system in which depletion of Brd4 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing leads to impaired HPV16 viral DNA replication and recombinant Brd4 protein is able to rescue viral DNA replication. In addition, releasing endogenous Brd4 from cellular chromatin by using the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1(+) enhances HPV16 DNA replication, demonstrating that the role of Brd4 in HPV DNA replication could be uncoupled from its function in chromatin-associated transcriptional regulation and cell cycle control. Our study reveals a new role for Brd4 in HPV genome replication, providing novel insights into understanding the life cycle of this oncogenic DNA virus.

  2. The Lysine Residues within the Human Ribosomal Protein S17 Sequence Naturally Inserted into the Viral Nonstructural Protein of a Unique Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Are Important for Enhanced Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important but extremely understudied human pathogen. Due largely to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV, the molecular mechanisms of HEV replication and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently, a unique genotype 3 strain of HEV recovered from a chronically infected patient was adapted for growth in HepG2C3A human hepatoma cells. The adaptation of the Kernow C-1 P6 HEV to propagate in HepG2C3A cells selected for a rare virus recombinant that contains an insertion of a 171-nucleotide sequence encoding amino acids 21 to 76 of the human ribosomal protein S17 (RPS17) within the hypervariable region (HVR) of the HEV ORF1 protein. When the RPS17 insertion was placed into a strain of genotype 1 HEV which infects only humans, it expanded the host range of the virus, allowing it to infect cell lines from multiple animal species, including cow, dog, cat, chicken, and hamster. In this study, we utilized forward and reverse genetics to attempt to define which aspects of the RPS17 insertion allow for the ability of the Kernow C-1 P6 HEV to adapt in cell culture and allow for expanded host tropism. We demonstrate that the RPS17 sequence insertion in HEV bestows novel nuclear/nucleolar trafficking capabilities to the ORF1 protein of Kernow P6 HEV and that lysine residues within the RPS17 insertion, but not nuclear localization of the ORF1 protein, correlate with the enhanced replication of the HEV Kernow C-1 P6 strain. The results from this study have important implications for understanding the mechanism of cross-species infection and replication of HEV. IMPORTANCE HEV is an important pathogen worldwide. The virus causes high mortality (up to 30%) in pregnant women and has been recognized to cause chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised populations. The life cycle of HEV has been understudied due to a lack of sufficient cell culture systems in which to propagate the virus. Recently, insertions and rearrangements of the

  3. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication.

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    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1-471 of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection.

  4. Recruitment of Brd4 to the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 DNA Replication Complex Is Essential for Replication of Viral DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Helfer, Christine M.; Pancholi, Neha; Bradner, James E.; You, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Replication of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genome relies on viral factors E1 and E2 and the cellular replication machinery. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) interacts with viral E2 protein to mediate papillomavirus (PV) genome maintenance and viral transcription. However, the functional role of Brd4 in the HPV life cycle remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we provide the first look into the E2-Brd4 interaction in the presence of other important viral factors, such as t...

  5. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  6. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus DNA polymerase C terminus is required for nuclear localization and viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guozhong; Krell, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    The DNA polymerase (DNApol) of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is essential for viral DNA replication. The DNApol exonuclease and polymerase domains are highly conserved and are considered functional in DNA replication. However, the role of the DNApol C terminus has not yet been characterized. To identify whether only the exonuclease and polymerase domains are sufficient for viral DNA replication, several DNApol C-terminal truncations were cloned into a dnapol-null AcMNPV bacmid with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Surprisingly, most of the truncation constructs, despite containing both exonuclease and polymerase domains, could not rescue viral DNA replication and viral production in bacmid-transfected Sf21 cells. Moreover, GFP fusions of these same truncations failed to localize to the nucleus. Truncation of the C-terminal amino acids 950 to 984 showed nuclear localization but allowed for only limited and delayed viral spread. The C terminus contains a typical bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif at residues 804 to 827 and a monopartite NLS motif at residues 939 to 948. Each NLS, as a GFP fusion peptide, localized to the nucleus, but both NLSs were required for nuclear localization of DNApol. Alanine substitutions in a highly conserved baculovirus DNApol sequence at AcMNPV DNApol amino acids 972 to 981 demonstrated its importance for virus production and DNA replication. Collectively, the data indicated that the C terminus of AcMNPV DNApol contains two NLSs and a conserved motif, all of which are required for nuclear localization of DNApol, viral DNA synthesis, and virus production. The baculovirus DNA polymerase (DNApol) is a highly specific polymerase that allows viral DNA synthesis and hence virus replication in infected insect cells. We demonstrated that the exonuclease and polymerase domains of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) alone are insufficient for viral

  7. Replication-Coupled Recruitment of Viral and Cellular Factors to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication Forks for the Maintenance and Expression of Viral Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembowski, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infects over half the human population. Much of the infectious cycle occurs in the nucleus of cells where the virus has evolved mechanisms to manipulate host processes for the production of virus. The genome of HSV-1 is coordinately expressed, maintained, and replicated such that progeny virions are produced within 4–6 hours post infection. In this study, we selectively purify HSV-1 replication forks and associated proteins from virus-infected cells and identify select viral and cellular replication, repair, and transcription factors that associate with viral replication forks. Pulse chase analyses and imaging studies reveal temporal and spatial dynamics between viral replication forks and associated proteins and demonstrate that several DNA repair complexes and key transcription factors are recruited to or near replication forks. Consistent with these observations we show that the initiation of viral DNA replication is sufficient to license late gene transcription. These data provide insight into mechanisms that couple HSV-1 DNA replication with transcription and repair for the coordinated expression and maintenance of the viral genome. PMID:28095497

  8. Viral terminal protein directs early organization of phage DNA replication at the bacterial nucleoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Holguera, Isabel; Ballesteros-Plaza, David; Carballido-López, Rut; Salas, Margarita

    2010-09-21

    The mechanism leading to protein-primed DNA replication has been studied extensively in vitro. However, little is known about the in vivo organization of the proteins involved in this fundamental process. Here we show that the terminal proteins (TPs) of phages ϕ29 and PRD1, infecting the distantly related bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, respectively, associate with the host bacterial nucleoid independently of other viral-encoded proteins. Analyses of phage ϕ29 revealed that the TP N-terminal domain (residues 1-73) possesses sequence-independent DNA-binding capacity and is responsible for its nucleoid association. Importantly, we show that in the absence of the TP N-terminal domain the efficiency of ϕ29 DNA replication is severely affected. Moreover, the TP recruits the phage DNA polymerase to the bacterial nucleoid, and both proteins later are redistributed to enlarged helix-like structures in an MreB cytoskeleton-dependent way. These data disclose a key function for the TP in vivo: organizing the early viral DNA replication machinery at the cell nucleoid.

  9. Borna disease virus phosphoprotein modulates epigenetic signaling in neurons to control viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaud, Emilie M; Szelechowski, Marion; Bétourné, Alexandre; Foret, Charlotte; Thouard, Anne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Malnou, Cécile E

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the modalities of interaction of neurotropic viruses with their target cells represents a major challenge that may improve our knowledge of many human neurological disorders for which viral origin is suspected. Borna disease virus (BDV) represents an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence in neurons and its consequences for neuronal homeostasis. It is now established that BDV ensures its long-term maintenance in infected cells through a stable interaction of viral components with the host cell chromatin, in particular, with core histones. This has led to our hypothesis that such an interaction may trigger epigenetic changes in the host cell. Here, we focused on histone acetylation, which plays key roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, notably for neurons. We performed a comparative analysis of histone acetylation patterns of neurons infected or not infected by BDV, which revealed that infection decreases histone acetylation on selected lysine residues. We showed that the BDV phosphoprotein (P) is responsible for these perturbations, even when it is expressed alone independently of the viral context, and that this action depends on its phosphorylation by protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that BDV P inhibits cellular histone acetyltransferase activities. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating cellular acetylation levels, we observed that inhibiting cellular acetyl transferases reduces viral replication in cell culture. Our findings reveal that manipulation of cellular epigenetics by BDV could be a means to modulate viral replication and thus illustrate a fascinating example of virus-host cell interaction. Persistent DNA viruses often subvert the mechanisms that regulate cellular chromatin dynamics, thereby benefitting from the resulting epigenetic changes to create a favorable milieu for their latent and persistent states. Here, we reasoned that Borna disease virus (BDV), the only RNA virus known to

  10. Viral rewiring of cellular lipid metabolism to create membranous replication compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, Jeroen Rpm; van Kuppeveld, Frank Jm

    2017-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses (e.g. poliovirus, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, SARS-coronavirus) remodel cellular membranes to form so-called viral replication compartments (VRCs), which are the sites where viral RNA genome replication takes place. To induce VRC formation, these viruses

  11. Kinetics of viral replication and local and systemic immune responses in experimental rotavirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Eydelloth, R S; Vonderfecht, S L; Sheridan, J F; Enders, L D; Yolken, R H

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-seronegative mice were orally inoculated with murine rotavirus in order to study the kinetics of rotavirus replication and the relationship of viral replication to immunity and disease and to assess the effects of local and systemic antibodies on viral clearance and disease resolution.

  12. Kinetics of viral replication and local and systemic immune responses in experimental rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eydelloth, R S; Vonderfecht, S L; Sheridan, J F; Enders, L D; Yolken, R H

    1984-06-01

    Rotavirus-seronegative mice were orally inoculated with murine rotavirus in order to study the kinetics of rotavirus replication and the relationship of viral replication to immunity and disease and to assess the effects of local and systemic antibodies on viral clearance and disease resolution.

  13. Differential Requirement of Human Cytomegalovirus UL112-113 Protein Isoforms for Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommartz, Tim; Tang, Jiajia; Brost, Rebekka; Brune, Wolfram

    2017-09-01

    The UL112-113 gene is one of the few alternatively spliced genes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). It codes for four phosphoproteins, p34, p43, p50, and p84, all of which are expressed with early kinetics and accumulate at sites of viral DNA replication within the host cell nucleus. Although these proteins are known to play important, possibly essential, roles in the viral replication cycle, little is known about the contribution of individual UL112-113 protein products. Here we used splice site mutagenesis, intron deletion and substitution, and nonsense mutagenesis to prevent the individual expression of each UL112-113 protein isoform and to investigate the importance of each isoform for viral replication. We show that HCMV mutants lacking p34 or p50 expression replicated to high titers in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells, indicating that these proteins are nonessential for viral replication, while mutant viruses carrying a stop mutation within the p84 coding sequence were severely growth impaired. Viral replication could not be detected upon the inactivation of p43 expression, indicating that this UL112-113 protein is essential for viral replication. We also analyzed the ability of UL112-113 proteins to recruit other viral proteins to intranuclear prereplication compartments. While UL112-113 expression was sufficient to recruit the UL44-encoded viral DNA polymerase processivity factor, it was not sufficient for the recruitment of the viral UL84 and UL117 proteins. Remarkably, both the p43 and p84 isoforms were required for the efficient recruitment of pUL44, which is consistent with their critical role in the viral life cycle. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus requires gene products from 11 genetic loci for the lytic replication of its genome. One of these loci, UL112-113, encodes four proteins with common N termini by alternative splicing. In this study, we inactivated the expression of each of the four UL112-113 proteins individually and determined their

  14. HIV-1 clade promoters strongly influence spatial and temporal dynamics of viral replication in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centlivre, Mireille; Sommer, Peter; Michel, Marie; Ho Tsong Fang, Raphaël; Gofflo, Sandrine; Valladeau, Jenny; Schmitt, Nathalie; Thierry, Françoise; Hurtrel, Bruno; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Sala, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Although the primary determinant of cell tropism is the interaction of viral envelope or capsid proteins with cellular receptors, other viral elements can strongly modulate viral replication. While the HIV-1 promoter is polymorphic for a variety of transcription factor binding sites, the impact of

  15. Plum Pox Virus 6K1 Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Targets the Viral Replication Complex at the Early Stage of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2016-05-15

    The potyviral RNA genome encodes two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed by three viral protease domains into 11 mature proteins. Extensive molecular studies have identified functions for the majority of the viral proteins. For example, 6K2, one of the two smallest potyviral proteins, is an integral membrane protein and induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originated replication vesicles that target the chloroplast for robust viral replication. However, the functional role of 6K1, the other smallest protein, remains uncharacterized. In this study, we developed a series of recombinant full-length viral cDNA clones derived from a Canadian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate. We found that deletion of any of the short motifs of 6K1 (each of which ranged from 5 to 13 amino acids), most of the 6K1 sequence (but with the conserved sequence of the cleavage sites being retained), or all of the 6K1 sequence in the PPV infectious clone abolished viral replication. The trans expression of 6K1 or the cis expression of a dislocated 6K1 failed to rescue the loss-of-replication phenotype, suggesting the temporal and spatial requirement of 6K1 for viral replication. Disruption of the N- or C-terminal cleavage site of 6K1, which prevented the release of 6K1 from the polyprotein, either partially or completely inhibited viral replication, suggesting the functional importance of the mature 6K1. We further found that green fluorescent protein-tagged 6K1 formed punctate inclusions at the viral early infection stage and colocalized with chloroplast-bound viral replicase elements 6K2 and NIb. Taken together, our results suggest that 6K1 is required for viral replication and is an important viral element of the viral replication complex at the early infection stage. Potyviruses account for more than 30% of known plant viruses and consist of many agriculturally important viruses. The genomes of potyviruses encode two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into 11 mature

  16. The human cytomegalovirus gene products essential for late viral gene expression assemble into prereplication complexes before viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Hiroki; Stinski, Mark F; Murata, Takayuki; Yamashita, Yoriko; Kanda, Teru; Toyokuni, Shinya; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2011-07-01

    The regulation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) late gene expression by viral proteins is poorly understood, and these viral proteins could be targets for novel antivirals. HCMV open reading frames (ORFs) UL79, -87, and -95 encode proteins with homology to late gene transcription factors of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 ORFs 18, 24, and 34, respectively. To determine whether these HCMV proteins are also essential for late gene transcription of a betaherpesvirus, we mutated HCMV ORFs UL79, -87, and -95. Cells were infected with the recombinant viruses at high and low multiplicities of infection (MOIs). While viral DNA was detected with the recombinant viruses, infectious virus was not detected unless the wild-type viral proteins were expressed in trans. At a high MOI, mutation of ORF UL79, -87, or -95 had no effect on the level of major immediate-early (MIE) gene expression or viral DNA replication, but late viral gene expression from the UL44, -75, and -99 ORFs was not detected. At a low MOI, preexpression of UL79 or -87, but not UL95, in human fibroblast cells negatively affected the level of MIE viral gene expression and viral DNA replication. The products of ORFs UL79, -87, and -95 were expressed as early viral proteins and recruited to prereplication complexes (pre-RCs), along with UL44, before the initiation of viral DNA replication. All three HCMV ORFs are indispensable for late viral gene expression and viral growth. The roles of UL79, -87, and -95 in pre-RCs for late viral gene expression are discussed.

  17. Phosphorylation of Human Metapneumovirus M2-1 Protein Upregulates Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Mijia; Liang, Xueya; Jennings, Ryan; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2016-08-15

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major causative agent of upper- and lower-respiratory-tract infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. Like all pneumoviruses, hMPV encodes the zinc binding protein M2-1, which plays important regulatory roles in RNA synthesis. The M2-1 protein is phosphorylated, but the specific role(s) of the phosphorylation in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that hMPV M2-1 is phosphorylated at amino acid residues S57 and S60. Subsequent mutagenesis found that phosphorylation is not essential for zinc binding activity and oligomerization, whereas inhibition of zinc binding activity abolished the phosphorylation and oligomerization of the M2-1 protein. Using a reverse genetics system, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) lacking either one or both phosphorylation sites in the M2-1 protein were recovered. These recombinant viruses had a significant decrease in both genomic RNA replication and mRNA transcription. In addition, these recombinant viruses were highly attenuated in cell culture and cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs lacking phosphorylation in the M2-1 protein triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with wild-type hMPV. Collectively, these data demonstrated that phosphorylation of the M2-1 protein upregulates hMPV RNA synthesis, replication, and pathogenesis in vivo The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and children. Currently, there is no antiviral or vaccine to combat these diseases. All known pneumoviruses encode a zinc binding protein, M2-1, which is a transcriptional antitermination factor. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of M2-1 is essential for virus

  18. Effects of interferon-α/β on HBV replication determined by viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Tian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Interferons α and β (IFN-α/β are type I interferons produced by the host to control microbial infections. However, the use of IFN-α to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV patients generated sustained response to only a minority of patients. By using HBV transgenic mice as a model and by using hydrodynamic injection to introduce HBV DNA into the mouse liver, we studied the effect of IFN-α/β on HBV in vivo. Interestingly, our results indicated that IFN-α/β could have opposite effects on HBV: they suppressed HBV replication when viral load was high and enhanced HBV replication when viral load was low. IFN-α/β apparently suppressed HBV replication via transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. In contrast, IFN-α/β enhanced viral replication by inducing the transcription factor HNF3γ and activating STAT3, which together stimulated HBV gene expression and replication. Further studies revealed an important role of IFN-α/β in stimulating viral growth and prolonging viremia when viral load is low. This use of an innate immune response to enhance its replication and persistence may represent a novel strategy that HBV uses to enhance its growth and spread in the early stage of viral infection when the viral level is low.

  19. Effects of Interferon-α/β on HBV Replication Determined by Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongjun; Chen, Wen-ling; Ou, Jing-hsiung James

    2011-01-01

    Interferons α and β (IFN-α/β) are type I interferons produced by the host to control microbial infections. However, the use of IFN-α to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients generated sustained response to only a minority of patients. By using HBV transgenic mice as a model and by using hydrodynamic injection to introduce HBV DNA into the mouse liver, we studied the effect of IFN-α/β on HBV in vivo. Interestingly, our results indicated that IFN-α/β could have opposite effects on HBV: they suppressed HBV replication when viral load was high and enhanced HBV replication when viral load was low. IFN-α/β apparently suppressed HBV replication via transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. In contrast, IFN-α/β enhanced viral replication by inducing the transcription factor HNF3γ and activating STAT3, which together stimulated HBV gene expression and replication. Further studies revealed an important role of IFN-α/β in stimulating viral growth and prolonging viremia when viral load is low. This use of an innate immune response to enhance its replication and persistence may represent a novel strategy that HBV uses to enhance its growth and spread in the early stage of viral infection when the viral level is low. PMID:21829354

  20. Nidovirus replication structures : hijacking membranes to support viral RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, Kèvin

    2011-01-01

    Positive-stranded RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells and their replication complexes are associated with modified cell membranes. We investigated the structure of the nidovirus-induced membrane modifications and found that nidoviruses transform the endoplasmic reticulum into a

  1. The actin-like MreB cytoskeleton organizes viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Daniel, Richard; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Carballido-López, Rut; Castilla-Llorente, Virginia; Errington, Jeff; Meijer, Wilfried J J; Salas, Margarita

    2009-08-11

    Little is known about the organization or proteins involved in membrane-associated replication of prokaryotic genomes. Here we show that the actin-like MreB cytoskeleton of the distantly related bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis is required for efficient viral DNA replication. Detailed analyses of B. subtilis phage ϕ29 showed that the MreB cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in organizing phage DNA replication at the membrane. Thus, phage double-stranded DNA and components of the ϕ29 replication machinery localize in peripheral helix-like structures in a cytoskeleton-dependent way. Importantly, we show that MreB interacts directly with the ϕ29 membrane-protein p16.7, responsible for attaching viral DNA at the cell membrane. Altogether, the results reveal another function for the MreB cytoskeleton and describe a mechanism by which viral DNA replication is organized at the bacterial membrane.

  2. Viral and Cellular Components of AAV2 Replication Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Rebecca; Seyffert, Michael; Pereira, Bruna de Andrade; Fraefel, Cornel

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a helpervirus-dependent parvovirus with a bi-phasic life cycle comprising latency in absence and lytic replication in presence of a helpervirus, such as adenovirus (Ad) or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Helpervirus-supported AAV2 replication takes place in replication compartments (RCs) in the cell nucleus where virus DNA replication and transcription occur. RCs consist of a defined set of helper virus-, AAV2-, and cellular proteins. Here we compare the profile of cellular proteins recruited into AAV2 RCs or identified in Rep78-associated complexes when either Ad or HSV-1 is the helpervirus, and we discuss the potential roles of some of these proteins in AAV2 and helpervirus infection. PMID:24222808

  3. Brd4 Is Displaced from HPV Replication Factories as They Expand and Amplify Viral DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Nozomi; Chen, Dan; Jang, Moon Kyoo; Kang, Dong Wook; Luecke, Hans F.; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; McBride, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    Replication foci are generated by many viruses to concentrate and localize viral DNA synthesis to specific regions of the cell. Expression of the HPV16 E1 and E2 replication proteins in keratinocytes results in nuclear foci that recruit proteins associated with the host DNA damage response. We show that the Brd4 protein localizes to these foci and is essential for their formation. However, when E1 and E2 begin amplifying viral DNA, Brd4 is displaced from the foci and cellular factors associated with DNA synthesis and homologous recombination are recruited. Differentiated HPV-infected keratinocytes form similar nuclear foci that contain amplifying viral DNA. We compare the different foci and show that, while they have many characteristics in common, there is a switch between early Brd4-dependent foci and mature Brd4-independent replication foci. However, HPV genomes encoding mutated E2 proteins that are unable to bind Brd4 can replicate and amplify the viral genome. We propose that, while E1, E2 and Brd4 might bind host chromatin at early stages of infection, there is a temporal and functional switch at later stages and increased E1 and E2 levels promote viral DNA amplification, displacement of Brd4 and growth of a replication factory. The concomitant DNA damage response recruits proteins required for DNA synthesis and repair, which could then be utilized for viral DNA replication. Hence, while Brd4 can enhance replication by concentrating viral processes in specific regions of the host nucleus, this interaction is not absolutely essential for HPV replication. PMID:24278023

  4. Human Cytomegalovirus UL44 Concentrates at the Periphery of Replication Compartments, the Site of Viral DNA Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Blair L.; Boulant, Steeve; Chang, Lynne; Knipe, David M.; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Coen, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of replication compartments, the subnuclear structures in which the viral DNA genome is replicated, is a hallmark of herpesvirus infections. The localization of proteins and viral DNA within human cytomegalovirus replication compartments is not well characterized. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated the accumulation of the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44 at the periphery of replication compartments and the presence of different populations of UL44 in infected cells. In co...

  5. COPI activity coupled with fatty acid biosynthesis is required for viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cherry

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available During infection by diverse viral families, RNA replication occurs on the surface of virally induced cytoplasmic membranes of cellular origin. How this process is regulated, and which cellular factors are required, has been unclear. Moreover, the host-pathogen interactions that facilitate the formation of this new compartment might represent critical determinants of viral pathogenesis, and their elucidation may lead to novel insights into the coordination of vesicular trafficking events during infection. Here we show that in Drosophila cells, Drosophila C virus remodels the Golgi apparatus and forms a novel vesicular compartment, on the surface of which viral RNA replication takes place. Using genome-wide RNA interference screening, we found that this step in the viral lifecycle requires at least two host encoded pathways: the coat protein complex I (COPI coatamer and fatty acid biosynthesis. Our results integrate, clarify, and extend numerous observations concerning the cell biology of viral replication, allowing us to conclude that the coupling of new cellular membrane formation with the budding of these vesicles from the Golgi apparatus allows for the regulated generation of this new virogenic organelle, which is essential for viral replication. Additionally, because these pathways are also limiting in flies and in human cells infected with the related RNA virus poliovirus, they may represent novel targets for antiviral therapies.

  6. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits replication and viral morphogenesis of dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Acosta, Rubén; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Syed, Gulam H; Siddiqui, Aleem; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2014-09-01

    Dengue is the most common mosquito borne viral disease in humans. The infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes (DENV) can either be asymptomatic or manifest in two clinical forms, the mild dengue fever or the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever that may progress into dengue shock syndrome. A DENV replicative cycle relies on host lipid metabolism; specifically, DENV infection modulates cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, generating a lipid-enriched cellular environment necessary for viral replication. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-DENV effect of the Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a hypolipidemic agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A dose-dependent inhibition in viral yield and NS1 secretion was observed in supernatants of infected cells treated for 24 and 48 h with different concentrations of NDGA. To evaluate the effect of NDGA in DENV replication, a DENV4 replicon transfected Vero cells were treated with different concentrations of NDGA. NDGA treatment significantly reduced DENV replication, reiterating the importance of lipids in viral replication. NDGA treatment also led to reduction in number of lipid droplets (LDs), the neutral lipid storage organelles involved in DENV morphogenesis that are known to increase in number during DENV infection. Furthermore, NDGA treatment resulted in dissociation of the C protein from LDs. Overall our results suggest that NDGA inhibits DENV infection by targeting genome replication and viral assembly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early growth response-1 facilitates enterovirus 71 replication by direct binding to the viral genome RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Peili; Han, Yang; Luo, Zhen; Cao, Yanhua; Zhu, Chengliang; Xiong, Ying; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-05-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections can cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), meningoencephalitis, neonatal sepsis, and even fatal encephalitis in children. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for EV71 infection due to the lack of understanding of viral replication and infection; and viral infections have emerged as an imperative global hazard. Thus, it is extremely important to understand the mechanism of EV71 replication in order to prevent and control the diseases associated with EV71 infections. Early growth response-1 (EGR1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that regulates diverse biological functions, including inflammation, apoptosis, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and even viral infection. Here, we provide new insight into the role of EV71 infection in regulating EGR1 production; and reveal a novel mechanism by which EGR1 facilitates EV71 replication. We demonstrate that EV71 activates EGR1 expression during infection by stimulating the protein kinase A/protein kinase Cɛ/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PKA/PKCɛ/PI3K/Akt) cascade. We further reveal that EV71-activated EGR1, in turn, regulates the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of EV71 to enhance viral replication. In addition, EGR1 facilitates EV71 replication by binding directly to stem-loops I and IV of EV71 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) with its first two zinc fingers. Moreover, EGR1 protein co-localizes with EV71 RNA in the cytoplasm of infected cells to facilitate viral replication. Our results reveal an important new role of EGR1 in viral infection, provide new insight into the novel mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication, and suggest a potential application of EGR1 in the control of EV71 infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conserved elements within the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus; their influence on viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jonas

    for the development of anti-viral agents. SHAPE analysis of the entire FMDV genome (Poulsen, 2015) has identified three conserved RNA structures within the coding regions for 2B, 3C and 3D (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) which might have an important role in virus replication. The FMDV 2A peptide, another conserved...... a distinct codon bias. Remarkably, this bias matches the codon bias observed within naturally occurring FMDV strains. Interestingly, the codons selected are different for P17 and P19. Residue P17 is preferentially encoded by CCU while P19 is preferentially encoded by CCC. However, a single prolyl......-tRNA species recognizes both of these two codons in cattle and pigs, which are the major hosts for FMDV, and suggests a role for the RNA sequence itself. Manuscript 3 examines the influence of three conserved RNA structures within the genome of FMDV on viral protein synthesis and virus viability. Poulsen...

  9. Viral and Cellular Determinants of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication in Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Volker; Hoffmann, Sandra; Herian, Ulrike; Penin, Francois; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been facilitated by the development of selectable subgenomic replicons replicating in the human hepatoma cell line Huh-7 at a surprisingly high level. Analysis of the replicon population in selected cells revealed the occurrence of cell culture-adaptive mutations that enhance RNA replication substantially. To gain a better understanding of HCV cell culture adaptation, we characterized conserved mutations identified by sequence analysis of 26 independent replicon cell clones for their effect on RNA replication. Mutations enhancing replication were found in nearly every nonstructural (NS) protein, and they could be subdivided into at least two groups by their effect on replication efficiency and cooperativity: (i) mutations in NS3 with a low impact on replication but that enhanced replication cooperatively when combined with highly adaptive mutations and (ii) mutations in NS4B, -5A, and -5B, causing a strong increase in replication but being incompatible with each other. In addition to adaptive mutations, we found that the host cell plays an equally important role for efficient RNA replication. We tested several passages of the same Huh-7 cell line and found up to 100-fold differences in their ability to support replicon amplification. These differences were not due to variations in internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation or RNA degradation. In a search for cellular factor(s) that might be responsible for the different levels of permissiveness of Huh-7 cells, we found that replication efficiency decreased with increasing amounts of transfected replicon RNA, indicating that viral RNA or proteins are cytopathic or that host cell factors in Huh-7 cells limit RNA amplification. In summary, these data show that the efficiency of HCV replication in cell culture is determined both by adaptation of the viral sequence and by the host cell itself. PMID:12584326

  10. Response of sublethally irradiated monkeys to a replicating viral antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmas, D.E.; Spertzel, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Temporal effects of exposure to sublethal, total-body x radiation (400 R) on responses to vaccination with the attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine virus, TC-83, were examined in rhesus monkeys. Viremia, often with delayed onset, was prolonged even when irradiation preceded vaccination by 28 days. Virus titers were increased, particularly in groups irradiated 4 or 7 days before vaccination. Delay in appearance of hemagglutination-inhibition and serum-neutralizing antibody correlated closely with persistence of viremia in irradiated-vaccinated monkeys. The temporal course of antibody response was markedly affected by the interval between irradiation and injection of this replicating antigen. With longer intervals between irradiation and vaccination, the somewhat depressed antibody responses approached normal or surpassed those of nonirradiated monkeys. Vaccination 14 days after radiation exposure resulted in lethality to 8 of 12 monkeys, apparently as a result of secondary infection. The additional lymphopenic stress due to the effect of TC-83, superimposed on the severely depressed hematopoietic competence at 14 days, undoubtedly contributed to this increased susceptibility to latent infection

  11. Human Cytomegalovirus Can Procure Deoxyribonucleotides for Viral DNA Replication in the Absence of Retinoblastoma Protein Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuny, Chad V; Kalejta, Robert F

    2016-10-01

    Viral DNA replication requires deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). These molecules, which are found at low levels in noncycling cells, are generated either by salvage pathways or through de novo synthesis. Nucleotide synthesis utilizes the activity of a series of nucleotide-biosynthetic enzymes (NBEs) whose expression is repressed in noncycling cells by complexes between the E2F transcription factors and the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor. Rb-E2F complexes are dissociated and NBE expression is activated during cell cycle transit by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-mediated Rb phosphorylation. The DNA virus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes a viral Cdk (v-Cdk) (the UL97 protein) that phosphorylates Rb, induces the expression of cellular NBEs, and is required for efficient viral DNA synthesis. A long-held hypothesis proposed that viral proteins with Rb-inactivating activities functionally similar to those of UL97 facilitated viral DNA replication in part by inducing the de novo production of dNTPs. However, we found that dNTPs were limiting even in cells infected with wild-type HCMV in which UL97 is expressed and Rb is phosphorylated. Furthermore, we revealed that both de novo and salvage pathway enzymes contribute to viral DNA replication during HCMV infection and that Rb phosphorylation by cellular Cdks does not correct the viral DNA replication defect observed in cells infected with a UL97-deficient virus. We conclude that HCMV can obtain dNTPs in the absence of Rb phosphorylation and that UL97 can contribute to the efficiency of DNA replication in an Rb phosphorylation-independent manner. Transforming viral oncoproteins, such as adenovirus E1A and papillomavirus E7, inactivate Rb. The standard hypothesis for how Rb inactivation facilitates infection with these viruses is that it is through an increase in the enzymes required for DNA synthesis, which include nucleotide-biosynthetic enzymes. However, HCMV UL97, which functionally mimics these viral

  12. Viral gene products and replication of the human immunodeficiency type 1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C D; Park, J; Wakefield, J K

    1994-05-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic represents a modern-day plague that has not only resulted in a tragic loss of people from a wide spectrum of society but has reshaped our viewpoints regarding health care, the treatment of infectious diseases, and social issues regarding sexual behavior. There is little doubt now that the cause of the disease AIDS is a virus known as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV virus is a member of a large family of viruses termed retroviruses, which have as a hallmark the capacity to convert their RNA genome into a DNA form that then undergoes a process of integration into the host cell chromosome, followed by the expression of the viral genome and translation of viral proteins in the infected cell. This review describes the organization of the HIV-1 viral genome, the expression of viral proteins, as well as the functions of the accessory viral proteins in HIV replication. The replication of the viral genome is divided into two phases, the early phase and the late phase. The early phase consists of the interaction of the virus with the cell surface receptor (CD4 molecule in most cases), the uncoating and conversion of the viral RNA genome into a DNA form, and the integration into the host cell chromosome. The late phase consists of the expression of the viral proteins from the integrated viral genome, the translation of viral proteins, and the assembly and release of the virus. Points in the HIV-1 life cycle that are targets for therapeutic intervention are also discussed.

  13. Baculovirus LEF-11 nuclear localization signal is important for viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Dong, Zhanqi; Hu, Nan; Hu, Zhigang; Dong, Feifan; Jiang, Yaming; Li, Jun; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Minhui

    2017-06-15

    Baculovirus LEF-11 is a small nuclear protein that is involved in viral late gene transcription and DNA replication. However, the characteristics of its nuclear localization signal and its impact on viral DNA replication are unknown. In the present study, systemic bioinformatics analysis showed that the baculovirus LEF-11 contains monopartite and bipartite classical nuclear localization signal sequences (cNLSs), which were also detected in a few alphabaculovirus species. Localization of representative LEF-11 proteins of four baculovirus genera indicated that the nuclear localization characteristics of baculovirus LEF-11 coincided with the predicted results. Moreover, Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) LEF-11 could be transported into the nucleus during viral infection in the absence of a cNLSs. Further investigations demonstrated that the NLS of BmNPV LEF-11 is important for viral DNA replication. The findings of the present study indicate that the characteristics of the baculovirus LEF-11 protein and the NLS is essential to virus DNA replication and nuclear transport mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Manipulating 3D-Printed and Paper Models Enhances Student Understanding of Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Lisa; Johannes, Kristen; Powers, Jackie; Silberglitt, Matt; Davenport, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding key concepts in molecular biology requires reasoning about molecular processes that are not directly observable and, as such, presents a challenge to students and teachers. We ask whether novel interactive physical models and activities can help students understand key processes in viral replication. Our 3D tangible models are…

  15. Replication of an incomplete alfalfa mosaic virus genome in plants transformed with viral replicase genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taschner, P. E.; van der Kuyl, A. C.; Neeleman, L.; Bol, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    RNAs 1 and 2 of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) encode proteins P1 and P2, respectively, both of which have a putative role in viral RNA replication. Tobacco plants were transformed with DNA copies of RNA1 (P1-plants), RNA2 (P2-plants) or a combination of these two cDNAs (P12-plants). All transgenic

  16. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gefei; Li, Rui; Jiang, Zhiwu; Gu, Liming; Chen, Yanxia; Dai, Jianping; Li, Kangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy.

  17. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i. but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy.

  18. IL-9 inhibits viral replication in Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial injuries in viral myocarditis (VMC are caused by viral infection and related autoimmune disorders. Recent studies suggest that IL-9 mediated both antimicrobial immune and autoimmune responses in addition to allergic diseases. However, the role of IL-9 in viral infection and VMC remains controversial and uncertain. In this study, we infected Balb/c mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, and found that IL-9 was enriched in the blood and hearts of VMC mice on days 5 and 7 after virus infection. Most of IL-9 was secreted by CD8+ T cells on day 5 and CD4+ T cells on day 7 in the myocardium. Further, IL-9 knockout exacerbated cardiac damage following CVB3 infection, along with a sharp increase in viral replication and IL-17a expression, as well as a decrease in TGF-β. In contrast, repletion of IL-9 in Balb/c mice with CVB infection induced the opposite effect. Studies in vitro further revealed that IL-9 directly inhibited viral replication in cardiomyocytes by reducing coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression, which might be associated with up-regulation of TGF-β autocrine effect in these cells. However, IL-9 had no direct effect on apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Our data indicated that IL-9 played a protective role in disease progression by inhibiting CVB3 replication in the early stages of VMC.

  19. Insights into the functional characteristics of geminivirus rolling-circle replication initiator protein and its interaction with host factors affecting viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Irum; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-02-01

    Geminiviruses are DNA viruses that infect several economically important crops, resulting in a reduction in their overall yield. These plant viruses have circular, single-stranded DNA genomes that replicate mainly by a rolling-circle mechanism. Geminivirus infection results in crosstalk between viral and cellular factors to complete the viral life cycle or counteract the infection as part of defense mechanisms of host plants. The geminiviral replication initiator protein Rep is the only essential viral factor required for replication. It is multifunctional and is known to interact with a number of host factors to modulate the cellular environment or to function as a part of the replication machinery. This review provides a holistic view of the research related to the viral Rep protein and various host factors involved in geminiviral DNA replication. Studies on the promiscuous nature of geminiviral satellite DNAs are also reviewed.

  20. Viral DNA replication-dependent DNA damage response activation during BK polyomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhalen, Brandy; Justice, Joshua L; Imperiale, Michael J; Jiang, Mengxi

    2015-05-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) reactivation is associated with severe human disease in kidney and bone marrow transplant patients. The interplay between viral and host factors that regulates the productive infection process remains poorly understood. We have previously reported that the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is activated upon lytic BKPyV infection and that its activation is required for optimal viral replication in primary kidney epithelial cells. In this report, we set out to determine what viral components are responsible for activating the two major phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases (PI3KKs) involved in the DDR: ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase. Using a combination of UV treatment, lentivirus transduction, and mutant virus infection experiments, our results demonstrate that neither the input virus nor the expression of large T antigen (TAg) alone is sufficient to trigger the activation of ATM or ATR in our primary culture model. Instead, our data suggest that the activation of both the ATM- and ATR-mediated DDR pathways is linked to viral DNA replication. Intriguingly, a TAg mutant virus that is unable to activate the DDR causes substantial host DNA damage. Our study provides insight into how DDRs are activated by polyomaviruses in primary cells with intact cell cycle checkpoints and how the activation might be linked to the maintenance of host genome stability. Polyomaviruses are opportunistic pathogens that are associated with several human diseases under immunosuppressed conditions. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) affects mostly kidney and bone marrow transplant patients. The detailed replication mechanism of these viruses remains to be determined. We have previously reported that BKPyV activates the host DNA damage response (DDR), a response normally used by the host cell to combat genotoxic stress, to aid its own replication. In this study, we identified that the trigger for DDR activation is viral

  1. ACH-806, an NS4A antagonist, inhibits hepatitis C virus replication by altering the composition of viral replication complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wengang; Sun, Yongnian; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yongsen; Fabrycki, Joanne; Chen, Dawei; Wang, Xiangzhu; Agarwal, Atul; Phadke, Avinash; Deshpande, Milind; Huang, Mingjun

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C patients with direct-acting antiviral drugs involves the combination of multiple small-molecule inhibitors of distinctive mechanisms of action. ACH-806 (or GS-9132) is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor specific for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It inhibits viral RNA replication in HCV replicon cells and was active in genotype 1 HCV-infected patients in a proof-of-concept clinical trial (1). Here, we describe a potential mechanism of action (MoA) wherein ACH-806 alters viral replication complex (RC) composition and function. We found that ACH-806 did not affect HCV polyprotein translation and processing, the early events of the formation of HCV RC. Instead, ACH-806 triggered the formation of a homodimeric form of NS4A with a size of 14 kDa (p14) both in replicon cells and in Huh-7 cells where NS4A was expressed alone. p14 production was negatively regulated by NS3, and its appearance in turn was associated with reductions in NS3 and, especially, NS4A content in RCs due to their accelerated degradation. A previously described resistance substitution near the N terminus of NS3, where NS3 interacts with NS4A, attenuated the reduction of NS3 and NS4A conferred by ACH-806 treatment. Taken together, we show that the compositional changes in viral RCs are associated with the antiviral activity of ACH-806. Small molecules, including ACH-806, with this novel MoA hold promise for further development and provide unique tools for clarifying the functions of NS4A in HCV replication.

  2. Adenovirus-encoding virus-associated RNAs suppress HDGF gene expression to support efficient viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Kondo

    Full Text Available Non-coding small RNAs are involved in many physiological responses including viral life cycles. Adenovirus-encoding small RNAs, known as virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs, are transcribed throughout the replication process in the host cells, and their transcript levels depend on the copy numbers of the viral genome. Therefore, VA RNAs are abundant in infected cells after genome replication, i.e. during the late phase of viral infection. Their function during the late phase is the inhibition of interferon-inducible protein kinase R (PKR activity to prevent antiviral responses; recently, mivaRNAs, the microRNAs processed from VA RNAs, have been reported to inhibit cellular gene expression. Although VA RNA transcription starts during the early phase, little is known about its function. The reason may be because much smaller amount of VA RNAs are transcribed during the early phase than the late phase. In this study, we applied replication-deficient adenovirus vectors (AdVs and novel AdVs lacking VA RNA genes to analyze the expression changes in cellular genes mediated by VA RNAs using microarray analysis. AdVs are suitable to examine the function of VA RNAs during the early phase, since they constitutively express VA RNAs but do not replicate except in 293 cells. We found that the expression level of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF significantly decreased in response to the VA RNAs under replication-deficient condition, and this suppression was also observed during the early phase under replication-competent conditions. The suppression was independent of mivaRNA-induced downregulation, suggesting that the function of VA RNAs during the early phase differs from that during the late phase. Notably, overexpression of HDGF inhibited AdV growth. This is the first report to show the function, in part, of VA RNAs during the early phase that may be contribute to efficient viral growth.

  3. Viral hijacking of a replicative helicase loader and its implications for helicase loading control and phage replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Iris V.; Berger, James M.

    2016-05-31

    Replisome assembly requires the loading of replicative hexameric helicases onto origins by AAA+ ATPases. How loader activity is appropriately controlled remains unclear. Here, we use structural and biochemical analyses to establish how an antimicrobial phage protein interferes with the function of theStaphylococcus aureusreplicative helicase loader, DnaI. The viral protein binds to the loader’s AAA+ ATPase domain, allowing binding of the host replicative helicase but impeding loader self-assembly and ATPase activity. Close inspection of the complex highlights an unexpected locus for the binding of an interdomain linker element in DnaI/DnaC-family proteins. We find that the inhibitor protein is genetically coupled to a phage-encoded homolog of the bacterial helicase loader, which we show binds to the host helicase but not to the inhibitor itself. These findings establish a new approach by which viruses can hijack host replication processes and explain how loader activity is internally regulated to prevent aberrant auto-association.

  4. In vitro inhibition of African swine fever virus-topoisomerase II disrupts viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ferdinando B; Frouco, Gonçalo; Martins, Carlos; Leitão, Alexandre; Ferreira, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a highly-contagious and fatal disease of domestic pigs, leading to serious socio-economic impact in affected countries. To date, neither a vaccine nor a selective anti-viral drug are available for prevention or treatment of African swine fever (ASF), emphasizing the need for more detailed studies at the role of ASFV proteins involved in viral DNA replication and transcription. Notably, ASFV encodes for a functional type II topoisomerase (ASFV-Topo II) and we recently showed that several fluoroquinolones (bacterial DNA topoisomerase inhibitors) fully abrogate ASFV replication in vitro. Here, we report that ASFV-Topo II gene is actively transcribed throughout infection, with transcripts being detected as early as 2 hpi and reaching a maximum peak concentration around 16 hpi, when viral DNA synthesis, transcription and translation are more active. siRNA knockdown experiments showed that ASFV-Topo II plays a critical role in viral DNA replication and gene expression, with transfected cells presenting lower viral transcripts (up to 89% decrease) and reduced cytopathic effect (-66%) when compared to the control group. Further, a significant decrease in the number of both infected cells (75.5%) and viral factories per cell and in virus yields (up to 99.7%, 2.5 log) was found only in cells transfected with siRNA targeting ASFV-Topo II. We also demonstrate that a short exposure to enrofloxacin during the late phase of infection (from 15 to 1 hpi) induces fragmentation of viral genomes, whereas no viral genomes were detected when enrofloxacin was added from the early phase of infection (from 2 to 16 hpi), suggesting that fluoroquinolones are ASFV-Topo II poisons. Altogether, our results demonstrate that ASFV-Topo II enzyme has an essential role during viral genome replication and transcription, emphasizing the idea that this enzyme can be a potential target for drug and vaccine development against ASF

  5. Automatic detection and measurement of viral replication compartments by ellipse adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Yasel; Guerrero, Adán; Hidalgo, Paloma; López, Raul Eduardo; Wood, Christopher D.; Gonzalez, Ramón A.; Rendón-Mancha, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to hijack cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific virus-induced cellular micro-environments. Adenoviruses (Ad) and other DNA viruses induce extensive reorganization of the cell nucleus and formation of nuclear Replication Compartments (RCs), where the viral genome is replicated and expressed. In this work an automatic algorithm designed for detection and segmentation of RCs using ellipses is presented. Unlike algorithms available in the literature, this approach is deterministic, automatic, and can adjust multiple RCs using ellipses. The proposed algorithm is non iterative, computationally efficient and is invariant to affine transformations. The method was validated over both synthetic images and more than 400 real images of Ad-infected cells at various timepoints of the viral replication cycle obtaining relevant information about the biogenesis of adenoviral RCs. As proof of concept the algorithm was then used to quantitatively compare RCs in cells infected with the adenovirus wild type or an adenovirus mutant that is null for expression of a viral protein that is known to affect activities associated with RCs that result in deficient viral progeny production.

  6. Cardiac Fibroblasts Aggravate Viral Myocarditis: Cell Specific Coxsackievirus B3 Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lindner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease caused by viral infection. Different subpopulations of leukocytes enter the cardiac tissue and lead to severe cardiac inflammation associated with myocyte loss and remodeling. Here, we study possible cell sources for viral replication using three compartments of the heart: fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and macrophages. We infected C57BL/6j mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 and detected increased gene expression of anti-inflammatory and antiviral cytokines in the heart. Subsequently, we infected cardiac fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and macrophages with CVB3. Due to viral infection, the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-β was significantly increased in cardiac fibroblasts compared to cardiomyocytes or macrophages. We found that in addition to cardiomyocytes cardiac fibroblasts were infected by CVB3 and displayed a higher virus replication (132-fold increase compared to cardiomyocytes (14-fold increase between 6 and 24 hours after infection. At higher virus concentrations, macrophages are able to reduce the viral copy number. At low virus concentration a persistent virus infection was determined. Therefore, we suggest that cardiac fibroblasts play an important role in the pathology of CVB3-induced myocarditis and are another important contributor of virus replication aggravating myocarditis.

  7. Suppression of Rac1 Signaling by Influenza A Virus NS1 Facilitates Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Sheng, Chunjie; Gu, Xiuling; Liu, Dong; Yao, Chen; Gao, Shijuan; Chen, Shuai; Huang, Yinghui; Huang, Wenlin; Fang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major human pathogen with the potential to become pandemic. IAV contains only eight RNA segments; thus, the virus must fully exploit the host cellular machinery to facilitate its own replication. In an effort to comprehensively characterize the host machinery taken over by IAV in mammalian cells, we generated stable A549 cell lines with over-expression of the viral non-structural protein (NS1) to investigate the potential host factors that might be modulated by the NS1 protein. We found that the viral NS1 protein directly interacted with cellular Rac1 and facilitated viral replication. Further research revealed that NS1 down-regulated Rac1 activity via post-translational modifications. Therefore, our results demonstrated that IAV blocked Rac1-mediated host cell signal transduction through the NS1 protein to facilitate its own replication. Our findings provide a novel insight into the mechanism of IAV replication and indicate new avenues for the development of potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27869202

  8. Viral replication under combination antiretroviral therapy: A comparison of four different regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghani, Azra C.; Ferguson, Neil M.; Fraser, Christophe; Donnelly, Christl A.; Danner, Sven; Reiss, Peter; Lange, Joep; Goudsmit, Jaap; Anderson, Roy M.; de Wolf, Frank

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model of the interaction among CD4(+) T-cells, HIV-1, and antiretroviral drugs was fitted to the viral load decline following initiation of combination therapy to estimate differences in the residual reproductive capacity of virus (R-0) in the average patient in each group. Four

  9. Host DNA damage response factors localize to merkel cell polyomavirus DNA replication sites to support efficient viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sabrina H; Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Buck, Christopher B; You, Jianxin

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates a role for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in the development of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), making MCPyV the first polyomavirus to be clearly associated with human cancer. With the high prevalence of MCPyV infection and the increasing amount of MCC diagnosis, there is a need to better understand the virus and its oncogenic potential. In this study, we examined the relationship between the host DNA damage response (DDR) and MCPyV replication. We found that components of the ATM- and ATR-mediated DDR pathways accumulate in MCPyV large T antigen (LT)-positive nuclear foci in cells infected with native MCPyV virions. To further study MCPyV replication, we employed our previously established system, in which recombinant MCPyV episomal DNA is autonomously replicated in cultured cells. Similar to native MCPyV infection, where both MCPyV origin and LT are present, the host DDR machinery colocalized with LT in distinct nuclear foci. Immunofluorescence in situ hybridization and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation analysis showed that these DDR proteins and MCPyV LT in fact colocalized at the actively replicating MCPyV replication complexes, which were absent when a replication-defective LT mutant or an MCPyV-origin mutant was introduced in place of wild-type LT or wild-type viral origin. Inhibition of DDR kinases using chemical inhibitors and ATR/ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown reduced MCPyV DNA replication without significantly affecting LT expression or the host cell cycle. This study demonstrates that these host DDR factors are important for MCPyV DNA replication, providing new insight into the host machinery involved in the MCPyV life cycle. MCPyV is the first polyomavirus to be clearly associated with human cancer. However, the MCPyV life cycle and its oncogenic mechanism remain poorly understood. In this report, we show that, in cells infected with native MCPyV virions, components of the ATM- and ATR-mediated DDR

  10. Infectious bursal disease virus as a replication-incompetent viral vector expressing green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2017-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) has been established as a replication-competent viral vector capable of carrying an epitope at multiple loci in the genome. To enhance the safety and increase the insertion capacity of IBDV as a vector, a replication-incompetent IBDV vector was developed in the present study. The feasibility of replacing one of the viral gene loci, including pvp2, vp3, vp1, or the polyprotein vp243, with the sequence of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was explored. A method combining TCID 50 and immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) determined the most feasible locus for gene replacement to be pvp2. The genomic segment containing gfp at the pvp2 locus was able to be encapsidated into IBDV particles. Furthermore, the expression of GFP in GFP-IBDV infected cells was confirmed by Western blotting and GFP-IBDV particles showed similar morphology and size to that of wildtype IBDV by electron microscopy. By providing the deleted protein in trans in a packaging cell line (pVP2-DF1), replication-incompetent GFP-IBDV particles were successfully plaque-quantified. The gfp sequence from the plaque-forming GFP-IBDV in pVP2-DF1 was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. To our knowledge, GFP-IBDV developed in the present study is the first replication-incompetent IBDV vector which expresses a foreign protein in infected cells without the capability to produce viral progeny. Additionally, such replication-incompetent IBDV vectors could serve as bivalent vaccine vectors for conferring protection against infections with IBDV and other economically important, or zoonotic, avian pathogens.

  11. Hepatitis B virus modulates store-operated calcium entry to enhance viral replication in primary hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Casciano

    Full Text Available Many viruses modulate calcium (Ca2+ signaling to create a cellular environment that is more permissive to viral replication, but for most viruses that regulate Ca2+ signaling, the mechanism underlying this regulation is not well understood. The hepatitis B virus (HBV HBx protein modulates cytosolic Ca2+ levels to stimulate HBV replication in some liver cell lines. A chronic HBV infection is associated with life-threatening liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and HBx modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels could have an important role in HBV pathogenesis. Whether HBx affects cytosolic Ca2+ in a normal hepatocyte, the natural site of an HBV infection, has not been addressed. Here, we report that HBx alters cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in cultured primary hepatocytes. We used single cell Ca2+ imaging of cultured primary rat hepatocytes to demonstrate that HBx elevates the cytosolic Ca2+ level in hepatocytes following an IP3-linked Ca2+ response; HBx effects were similar when expressed alone or in the context of replicating HBV. HBx elevation of the cytosolic Ca2+ level required extracellular Ca2+ influx and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC entry and stimulated HBV replication in hepatocytes. We used both targeted RT-qPCR and transcriptome-wide RNAseq analyses to compare levels of SOC channel components and other Ca2+ signaling regulators in HBV-expressing and control hepatocytes and show that the transcript levels of these various proteins are not affected by HBV. We also show that HBx regulation of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation is likely the consequence of HBV modulation of a SOC channel regulatory mechanism. In support of this, we link HBx enhancement of SOC-regulated Ca2+ accumulation to Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria and demonstrate that HBx stimulates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in primary hepatocytes. The results of our study may provide insights into viral mechanisms that affect Ca2+ signaling to regulate viral replication and virus

  12. Leukoencephalitis associated with selective viral replication in the brain of a pony with experimental chronic equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, J L; Long, M T; Baszler, T V

    2004-09-01

    Neurologic disease occurs sporadically in horses infected with the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). This report describes a case of clinically severe neurologic disease in a pony experimentally infected with EIAV. This pony did not have fever or anemia, which are the characteristic clinical signs of disease. The histopathologic changes were characterized as lymphohistiocytic periventricular leukoencephalitis. Polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization data showed that the brain lesions were directly associated with viral replication and that high-level viral replication occurred selectively within the lesion and not in other tissues. These findings suggest that EIAV-associated neurologic disease is the direct result of viral replication.

  13. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Veenhuis, Rebecca T; May, Megan; Luna, Krystle A; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Cox, Andrea L; Carrington, Mary; Bailey, Justin R; Arduino, Roberto C; Blankson, Joel N

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of controlled in acute HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication. © 2016.

  14. Human cytomegalovirus RL13 protein interacts with host NUDT14 protein affecting viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanping; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The interaction between the host and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is important in determining the outcome of a viral infection. The HCMV RL13 gene product exerts independent, inhibitory effects on viral growth in fibroblasts and epithelial cells. At present, there are few reports on the interactions between the HCMV RL13 protein and human host proteins. The present study provided direct evidence for the specific interaction between HCMV RL13 and host nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X (nudix)‑type motif 14 (NUDT14), a UDP‑glucose pyrophosphatase, using two‑hybrid screening, an in vitro glutathione S‑transferase pull‑down assay, and co‑immunoprecipitation in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Additionally, the RL13 protein was shown to co‑localize with the NUDT14 protein in the HEK293 cell membrane and cytoplasm, demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Decreasing the expression level of NUDT14 via NUDT14‑specific small interfering RNAs increased the number of viral DNA copies in the HCMV‑infected cells. However, the overexpression of NUDT14 in a stably expressing cell line did not affect viral DNA levels significantly in the HCMV infected cells. Based on the known functions of NUDT14, the results of the present study suggested that the interaction between the RL13 protein and NUDT14 protein may be involved in HCMV DNA replication, and that NUDT14 may offer potential in the modulation of viral infection.

  15. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs) kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs) and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  16. A DNA Binding Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Transcription in Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Bin; Shi, Yanghui; Quan, Yanping; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A DNA-binding protein (DBP) [GenBank accession number: M63416] of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) has been reported to be a regulatory factor in BmNPV, but its detailed functions remain unknown. In order to study the regulatory mechanism of DBP on viral proliferation, genome replication, and gene transcription, a BmNPV dbp gene knockout virus dbp-ko-Bacmid was generated by the means of Red recombination system. In addition, dbp-repaired virus dbp-re-Bacmid was constructed by the means of the Bac to Bac system. Then, the Bacmids were transfected into BmN cells. The results of this viral titer experiment revealed that the TCID50 of the dbp-ko-Bacmid was 0; however, the dbp-re-Bacmid was similar to the wtBacmid (p>0.05), indicating that the dbp-deficient would lead to failure in the assembly of virus particles. In the next step, Real-Time PCR was used to analyze the transcriptional phases of dbp gene in BmN cells, which had been infected with BmNPV. The results of the latter experiment revealed that the transcript of dbp gene was first detected at 3 h post-infection. Furthermore, the replication level of virus genome and the transcriptional level of virus early, late, and very late genes in BmN cells, which had been transfected with 3 kinds of Bacmids, were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. The demonstrating that the replication level of genome was lower than that of wtBacmid and dbp-re-Bacmid (pviral replication, but also a viral gene that has a significant impact on transcription and expression during all periods of baculovirus life cycle.

  17. The N terminus of the influenza B virus nucleoprotein is essential for virus viability, nuclear localization, and optimal transcription and replication of the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Lee; Smith, Matt; Davidson, Sophie; Jackson, David

    2014-11-01

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza viruses is a multifunctional protein with essential roles throughout viral replication. Despite influenza A and B viruses belonging to separate genera of the Orthomyxoviridae family, their NP proteins share a relatively high level of sequence conservation. However, NP of influenza B viruses (BNP) contains an evolutionarily conserved N-terminal 50-amino-acid extension that is absent from NP of influenza A viruses. There is conflicting evidence as to the functions of the BNP N-terminal extension; however, this has never been assessed in the context of viral infection. We have used reverse genetics to assess the significance of this region on the functions of BNP and virus viability. The truncation of more than three amino acids prevented virus recovery, suggesting that the N-terminal extension is essential for virus viability. Mutational analysis indicated that multiple regions of the protein are involved in the nuclear localization of BNP, with the entire N-terminal extension required for this to function efficiently. Viruses containing mutations in the first 10 residues of BNP demonstrated few differences in nuclear localization; however, the viruses exhibited significant reductions in viral mRNA transcription and genome replication, resulting in significantly attenuated phenotypes. Mutations introduced to ablate a previously reported nuclear localization signal also resulted in a significant decrease in mRNA production during early stages of viral replication. Overall, our results demonstrate that the N-terminal extension of BNP is essential to virus viability not only for directing nuclear localization of BNP but also for regulating viral mRNA transcription and genome replication. The multifunctional NP of influenza viruses has roles throughout the viral replication cycle; therefore, it is essential for virus viability. Despite high levels of homology between the NP of influenza A and B viruses, the NP of influenza B virus

  18. Heat Shock Protein 90 Ensures Efficient Mumps Virus Replication by Assisting with Viral Polymerase Complex Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Tahara, Maino; Kidokoro, Minoru; Takeda, Makoto

    2017-03-15

    Paramyxoviral RNAs are synthesized by a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) consisting of the large (L) protein and its cofactor phosphoprotein (P protein). The L protein is a multifunctional protein that catalyzes RNA synthesis, mRNA capping, and mRNA polyadenylation. Growing evidence shows that the stability of several paramyxovirus L proteins is regulated by heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). In this study, we demonstrated that Hsp90 activity was important for mumps virus (MuV) replication. The Hsp90 activity was required for L-protein stability and activity because an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), destabilized the MuV L protein and suppressed viral RNA synthesis. However, once the L protein formed a mature polymerase complex with the P protein, Hsp90 activity was no longer required for the stability and activity of the L protein. When the Hsp90 activity was inhibited, the MuV L protein was degraded through the CHIP (C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein)-mediated proteasomal pathway. High concentrations of 17-AAG showed strong cytotoxicity to certain cell types, but combined use of an Hsp70 inhibitor, VER155008, potentiated degradation of the L protein, allowing a sufficient reduction of 17-AAG concentration to block MuV replication with minimum cytotoxicity. Regulation of the L protein by Hsp90 and Hsp70 chaperones was also demonstrated for another paramyxovirus, the measles virus. Collectively, our data show that the Hsp90/Hsp70 chaperone machinery assists in the maturation of the paramyxovirus L protein and thereby in the formation of a mature RdRp complex and efficient viral replication. IMPORTANCE Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is nearly universally required for viral protein homeostasis. Here, we report that Hsp90 activity is required for efficient propagation of mumps virus (MuV). Hsp90 functions in the maintenance of the catalytic subunit of viral polymerase, the large (L) protein, prior to formation of a

  19. CRISPR/Cas9-Derived Mutations Both Inhibit HIV-1 Replication and Accelerate Viral Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cas9 cleaves specific DNA sequences with the assistance of a programmable single guide RNA (sgRNA. Repairing this broken DNA by the cell’s error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ machinery leads to insertions and deletions (indels that often impair DNA function. Using HIV-1, we have now demonstrated that many of these indels are indeed lethal for the virus, but that others lead to the emergence of replication competent viruses that are resistant to Cas9/sgRNA. This unexpected contribution of Cas9 to the development of viral resistance is facilitated by some indels that are not deleterious for viral replication, but that are refractory to recognition by the same sgRNA as a result of changing the target DNA sequences. This observation illustrates two opposite outcomes of Cas9/sgRNA action, i.e., inactivation of HIV-1 and acceleration of viral escape, thereby potentially limiting the use of Cas9/sgRNA in HIV-1 therapy.

  20. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Leflunomide/teriflunomide inhibit Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- induced lymphoproliferative disease and lytic viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Andrea; Plowshay, Julie; Ma, Shidong; Nawandar, Dhananjay; Barlow, Elizabeth A; Romero-Masters, James C; Bristol, Jillian A; Li, Zhe; Tsai, Ming-Han; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Kenney, Shannon C

    2017-07-04

    EBV infection causes mononucleosis and is associated with specific subsets of B cell lymphomas. Immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant recipients are particularly susceptible to EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), which can be fatal. Leflunomide (a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis) and its active metabolite teriflunomide (used to treat multiple sclerosis) inhibit de novo pyrimidine synthesis by targeting the cellular dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thereby decreasing T cell proliferation. Leflunomide also inhibits the replication of cytomegalovirus and BK virus via both "on target" and "off target" mechanisms and is increasingly used to treat these viruses in organ transplant recipients. However, whether leflunomide/teriflunomide block EBV replication or inhibit EBV-mediated B cell transformation is currently unknown. We show that teriflunomide inhibits cellular proliferation, and promotes apoptosis, in EBV-transformed B cells in vitro at a clinically relevant dose. In addition, teriflunomide prevents the development of EBV-induced lymphomas in both a humanized mouse model and a xenograft model. Furthermore, teriflunomide inhibits lytic EBV infection in vitro both by preventing the initial steps of lytic viral reactivation, and by blocking lytic viral DNA replication. Leflunomide/teriflunomide might therefore be clinically useful for preventing EBV-induced LPD in patients who have high EBV loads yet require continued immunosuppression.

  2. The bovine papilloma virus E1 protein has ATPase activity essential to viral DNA replication and efficient transformation in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, P; Thorner, L; Parker, L M; Botchan, M

    1994-10-01

    The bovine papilloma virus (BPV) E1 protein essential to viral DNA replication has recently been shown to associate via direct protein-DNA interactions with the viral origin of replication and to be an ATP-dependent helicase. We show here that in accordance with the latter function, the E1 gene product has intrinsic ATPase activity. Mutations placed throughout the nucleotide binding consensus element abolish the ATPase activity of E1 and render BPV genomes harboring such mutations defective for episomal replication and impaired for oncogenic transformation.

  3. HIV Exploits Antiviral Host Innate GCN2-ATF4 Signaling for Establishing Viral Replication Early in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guochun; Santos Rocha, Clarissa; Hirao, Lauren A; Mendes, Erica A; Tang, Yuyang; Thompson, George R; Wong, Joseph K; Dandekar, Satya

    2017-05-02

    Antiviral innate host defenses against acute viral infections include suppression of host protein synthesis to restrict viral protein production. Less is known about mechanisms by which viral pathogens subvert host antiviral innate responses for establishing their replication and dissemination. We investigated early innate defense against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and viral evasion by utilizing human CD4 + T cell cultures in vitro and a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of AIDS in vivo Our data showed that early host innate defense against the viral infection involves GCN2-ATF4 signaling-mediated suppression of global protein synthesis, which is exploited by the virus for supporting its own replication during early viral infection and dissemination in the gut mucosa. Suppression of protein synthesis and induction of protein kinase GCN2-ATF4 signaling were detected in the gut during acute SIV infection. These changes diminished during chronic viral infection. HIV replication induced by serum deprivation in CD4 + T cells was linked to the induction of ATF4 that was recruited to the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) to promote viral transcription. Experimental inhibition of GCN2-ATF4 signaling either by a specific inhibitor or by amino acid supplementation suppressed the induction of HIV expression. Enhancing ATF4 expression through selenium administration resulted in reactivation of latent HIV in vitro as well as ex vivo in the primary CD4 + T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). In summary, HIV/SIV exploits the early host antiviral response through GCN2-ATF4 signaling by utilizing ATF4 for activating the viral LTR transcription to establish initial viral replication and is a potential target for HIV prevention and therapy. IMPORTANCE Understanding how HIV overcomes host antiviral innate defense response in order to establish infection and dissemination is critical for developing prevention and

  4. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population

  5. Molecular and functional analysis of a conserved CTL epitope in HIV-1 p24 recognized from a long-term nonprogressor: constraints on immune escape associated with targeting a sequence essential for viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R; Leschonsky, B; Harrer, E; Paulus, C; Weber, C; Walker, B D; Buchbinder, S; Wolf, H; Kalden, J R; Harrer, T

    1999-03-15

    It has been hypothesized that sequence variation within CTL epitopes leading to immune escape plays a role in the progression of HIV-1 infection. Only very limited data exist that address the influence of biologic characteristics of CTL epitopes on the emergence of immune escape variants and the efficiency of suppression HIV-1 by CTL. In this report, we studied the effects of HIV-1 CTL epitope sequence variation on HIV-1 replication. The highly conserved HLA-B14-restricted CTL epitope DRFYKTLRAE in HIV-1 p24 was examined, which had been defined as the immunodominant CTL epitope in a long-term nonprogressing individual. We generated a set of viral mutants on an HX10 background differing by a single conservative or nonconservative amino acid substitution at each of the P1 to P9 amino acid residues of the epitope. All of the nonconservative amino acid substitutions abolished viral infectivity and only 5 of 10 conservative changes yielded replication-competent virus. Recognition of these epitope sequence variants by CTL was tested using synthetic peptides. All mutations that abrogated CTL recognition strongly impaired viral replication, and all replication-competent viral variants were recognized by CTL, although some variants with a lower efficiency. Our data indicate that this CTL epitope is located within a viral sequence essential for viral replication. Targeting CTL epitopes within functionally important regions of the HIV-1 genome could limit the chance of immune evasion.

  6. HIV Exploits Antiviral Host Innate GCN2-ATF4 Signaling for Establishing Viral Replication Early in Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochun Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral innate host defenses against acute viral infections include suppression of host protein synthesis to restrict viral protein production. Less is known about mechanisms by which viral pathogens subvert host antiviral innate responses for establishing their replication and dissemination. We investigated early innate defense against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and viral evasion by utilizing human CD4+ T cell cultures in vitro and a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV model of AIDS in vivo. Our data showed that early host innate defense against the viral infection involves GCN2-ATF4 signaling-mediated suppression of global protein synthesis, which is exploited by the virus for supporting its own replication during early viral infection and dissemination in the gut mucosa. Suppression of protein synthesis and induction of protein kinase GCN2-ATF4 signaling were detected in the gut during acute SIV infection. These changes diminished during chronic viral infection. HIV replication induced by serum deprivation in CD4+ T cells was linked to the induction of ATF4 that was recruited to the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR to promote viral transcription. Experimental inhibition of GCN2-ATF4 signaling either by a specific inhibitor or by amino acid supplementation suppressed the induction of HIV expression. Enhancing ATF4 expression through selenium administration resulted in reactivation of latent HIV in vitro as well as ex vivo in the primary CD4+ T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART. In summary, HIV/SIV exploits the early host antiviral response through GCN2-ATF4 signaling by utilizing ATF4 for activating the viral LTR transcription to establish initial viral replication and is a potential target for HIV prevention and therapy.

  7. Mutational analysis of the hypervariable region of hepatitis e virus reveals its involvement in the efficiency of viral RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudupakam, R S; Kenney, Scott P; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Leroith, Tanya; Pierson, F William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-10-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication levels of the HVR deletion mutants were markedly reduced in Huh7 cells, suggesting a role of the HVR in viral replication efficiency. To further verify the results, we constructed HVR deletion mutants by using a genetically divergent, nonmammalian avian HEV, and similar effects on viral replication efficiency were observed when the avian HEV mutants were tested in LMH cells. Furthermore, the impact of complete HVR deletion on virus infectivity was tested in chickens, using an avian HEV mutant with a complete HVR deletion. Although the deletion mutant was still replication competent in LMH cells, the complete HVR deletion resulted in a loss of avian HEV infectivity in chickens. Since the HVR exhibits extensive variations in sequence and length among different HEV genotypes, we further examined the interchangeability of HVRs and demonstrated that HVR sequences are functionally exchangeable between HEV genotypes with regard to viral replication and infectivity in vitro, although genotype-specific HVR differences in replication efficiency were observed. The results showed that although the HVR tolerates small deletions with regard to infectivity, it may interact with viral and host factors to modulate the efficiency of HEV replication.

  8. The logic of DNA replication in double-stranded DNA viruses: insights from global analysis of viral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Darius; Krupovic, Mart; Venclovas, Česlovas

    2016-06-02

    Genomic DNA replication is a complex process that involves multiple proteins. Cellular DNA replication systems are broadly classified into only two types, bacterial and archaeo-eukaryotic. In contrast, double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses feature a much broader diversity of DNA replication machineries. Viruses differ greatly in both completeness and composition of their sets of DNA replication proteins. In this study, we explored whether there are common patterns underlying this extreme diversity. We identified and analyzed all major functional groups of DNA replication proteins in all available proteomes of dsDNA viruses. Our results show that some proteins are common to viruses infecting all domains of life and likely represent components of the ancestral core set. These include B-family polymerases, SF3 helicases, archaeo-eukaryotic primases, clamps and clamp loaders of the archaeo-eukaryotic type, RNase H and ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We also discovered a clear correlation between genome size and self-sufficiency of viral DNA replication, the unanticipated dominance of replicative helicases and pervasive functional associations among certain groups of DNA replication proteins. Altogether, our results provide a comprehensive view on the diversity and evolution of replication systems in the DNA virome and uncover fundamental principles underlying the orchestration of viral DNA replication. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. The bovine papillomavirus constitutive enhancer is essential for viral transformation, DNA replication, and the maintenance of latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Pol, S B; Howley, P M

    1992-04-01

    Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) has served as the prototype papillomavirus for the study of viral transcription, DNA replication, and latency. However, no cis essential transcription control regions which are necessary for both transformation and replication of BPV-1 or any other papillomavirus have yet been defined. We have found that BPV-1 mutants with deletions in the long control region were defective for transformation and replication, with the essential region in the 5' long control region corresponding to the previously defined BPV-1 constitutive enhancer (S. B. Vande Pol and P. M. Howley, J. Virol. 64:5420-5429, 1990). BPV-1 mutants deleted of the constitutive enhancer could be complemented in trans by the full-length virally encoded E2 transactivator and replication factor (E2TA) and in cis by the simian virus 40 enhancer. The constitutive enhancer induced the production of E2TA by activating all the major viral early promoters upstream of the E2 open reading frame. Complementation experiments using a temperature-sensitive E2TA mutant indicated that the constitutive enhancer was necessary for the maintenance of viral DNA replication within latently infected cells and implied that viral transcription under the regulation of the constitutive enhancer may be controlled during the cell cycle. The constitutive enhancer is a master regulatory control region for establishing and maintaining BPV-1 latency, and its characteristics reveal some analogies with cell type-specific enhancer elements recognized in the human papillomaviruses.

  10. Calcein represses human papillomavirus 16 E1-E2 mediated DNA replication via blocking their binding to the viral origin of replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipon; Smith, Nathan W; Wang, Xu; Richardson, Stacie L; Hartman, Matthew C T; Morgan, Iain M

    2017-08-01

    Human papillomaviruses are causative agents in several human diseases ranging from genital warts to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers. Currently only symptoms of HPV induced disease are treated; there are no antivirals available that directly target the viral life cycle. Previously, we determined that the cellular protein TopBP1 interacts with the HPV16 replication/transcription factor E2. This E2-TopBP1 interaction is essential for optimal E1-E2 DNA replication and for the viral life cycle. The drug calcein disrupts the interaction of TopBP1 with itself and other host proteins to promote cell death. Here we demonstrate that calcein blocks HPV16 E1-E2 DNA replication via blocking the viral replication complex forming at the origin of replication. This occurs at non-toxic levels of calcein and demonstrates specificity as it does not block the ability of E2 to regulate transcription. We propose that calcein or derivatives could be developed as an anti-HPV therapeutic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutations in the C3 region of human and simian immunodeficiency virus envelope have differential effects on viral infectivity, replication, and CD4-dependency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Claas; Puffer, Bridget A.; Poehlmann, Stefan; Doms, Robert W.; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Residues within the highly conserved C3 region of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV, SIV) envelope proteins (Envs) bind directly to the cellular CD4 receptor. However, substitutions of D385, which is critical for CD4 engagement along with other changes such as G382R, G383R, frequently arise in SIV mac-infected macaques. We investigated the influence of substitutions in the SIVmac and HIV-1 C3 regions on viral entry, dependence on CD4, and replication. Mutations flanking the C3 region such as G382R or V388A enhanced and changes within the C3 region (i.e., G383R or D385N) impaired SIVmac infectivity. Several naturally occurring sequence variations in the SIVmac Env C3 region facilitated CD4-independent membrane fusion but abrogated viral replication, suggesting that efficient infection requires additional changes elsewhere in Env. Substitutions of S365R and D368G in the HIV-1 Env, which correspond to G382 and D385 in SIVmac Env, consistently impaired viral infectivity. In contrast, mutation of D368N resulted in a virus that could not spread in cells expressing low levels of CD4, but which replicated efficiently when high levels of CD4 were expressed. Thus, changes in the C3 region of HIV-1 or SIVmac Env can have differential effects on viral infectivity and CD4-dependency. We conclude that substitutions flanking the C3 region in SIVmac Env such as G382R or V388A represent one step toward adaptation to growth in target cells expressing low CD4 levels, whereas changes within the C3 region that disrupt CD4 binding might indicate the emergence of CD4-independent variants at later stages of infection, which could potentially broaden viral tropism

  12. Reverse Genetics System Demonstrates that Rotavirus Nonstructural Protein NSP6 Is Not Essential for Viral Replication in Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Satoshi; Kanai, Yuta; Fukuda, Saori; Kugita, Masanori; Kawagishi, Takahiro; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2017-11-01

    The use of overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) to synthesize more than one unique protein from a single mRNA has been described for several viruses. Segment 11 of the rotavirus genome encodes two nonstructural proteins, NSP5 and NSP6. The NSP6 ORF is present in the vast majority of rotavirus strains, and therefore the NSP6 protein would be expected to have a function in viral replication. However, there is no direct evidence of its function or requirement in the viral replication cycle yet. Here, taking advantage of a recently established plasmid-only-based reverse genetics system that allows rescue of recombinant rotaviruses entirely from cloned cDNAs, we generated NSP6-deficient viruses to directly address its significance in the viral replication cycle. Viable recombinant NSP6-deficient viruses could be engineered. Single-step growth curves and plaque formation of the NSP6-deficient viruses confirmed that NSP6 expression is of limited significance for RVA replication in cell culture, although the NSP6 protein seemed to promote efficient virus growth. IMPORTANCE Rotavirus is one of the most important pathogens of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The rotavirus genome, consisting of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA, encodes six structural proteins (VP1 to VP4, VP6, and VP7) and six nonstructural proteins (NSP1 to NSP6). Although specific functions have been ascribed to each of the 12 viral proteins, the role of NSP6 in the viral replication cycle remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the NSP6 protein is not essential for viral replication in cell culture by using a recently developed plasmid-only-based reverse genetics system. This reverse genetics approach will be successfully applied to answer questions of great interest regarding the roles of rotaviral proteins in replication and pathogenicity, which can hardly be addressed by conventional approaches. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Walker-Sperling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of <100 copies/mL. She did not have any known protective HLA alleles, but significant immune activation of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK cells was present, and both cell types inhibited viral replication. Virus cultured from this patient replicated as well in vitro as virus isolated from her partner, a patient with AIDS who was the source of transmission. Virologic breakthrough occurred 9 months after her initial presentation and was associated with an increase in CD4+ T cell activation levels and a significant decrease in NK cell inhibitory capacity. Remarkably, CD8+ T cell inhibitory capacity was preserved and there were no new escape mutations in targeted Gag epitopes. These findings suggest that fully replication-competent virus can be controlled in acute HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication.

  14. The proteasomal Rpn11 metalloprotease suppresses tombusvirus RNA recombination and promotes viral replication via facilitating assembly of the viral replicase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth, K Reddisiva; Barajas, Daniel; Nagy, Peter D

    2015-03-01

    RNA viruses co-opt a large number of cellular proteins that affect virus replication and, in some cases, viral genetic recombination. RNA recombination helps viruses in an evolutionary arms race with the host's antiviral responses and adaptation of viruses to new hosts. Tombusviruses and a yeast model host are used to identify cellular factors affecting RNA virus replication and RNA recombination. In this study, we have examined the role of the conserved Rpn11p metalloprotease subunit of the proteasome, which couples deubiquitination and degradation of proteasome substrates, in tombusvirus replication and recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and plants. Depletion or mutations of Rpn11p lead to the rapid formation of viral RNA recombinants in combination with reduced levels of viral RNA replication in yeast or in vitro based on cell extracts. Rpn11p interacts with the viral replication proteins and is recruited to the viral replicase complex (VRC). Analysis of the multifunctional Rpn11p has revealed that the primary role of Rpn11p is to act as a "matchmaker" that brings the viral p92(pol) replication protein and the DDX3-like Ded1p/RH20 DEAD box helicases into VRCs. Overexpression of Ded1p can complement the defect observed in rpn11 mutant yeast by reducing TBSV recombination. This suggests that Rpn11p can suppress tombusvirus recombination via facilitating the recruitment of the cellular Ded1p helicase, which is a strong suppressor of viral recombination, into VRCs. Overall, this work demonstrates that the co-opted Rpn11p, which is involved in the assembly of the functional proteasome, also functions in the proper assembly of the tombusvirus VRCs. RNA viruses evolve rapidly due to genetic changes based on mutations and RNA recombination. Viral genetic recombination helps viruses in an evolutionary arms race with the host's antiviral responses and facilitates adaptation of viruses to new hosts. Cellular factors affect viral RNA recombination, although the role

  15. Viral DNA Replication Orientation and hnRNPs Regulate Transcription of the Human Papillomavirus 18 Late Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Haibin; Ge, Hui; Ajiro, Masahiko; Sharma, Nishi R; Meyers, Craig; Morozov, Pavel; Tuschl, Thomas; Klar, Amar; Court, Donald; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2017-05-30

    The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is tightly linked to keratinocyte differentiation. Although expression of viral early genes is initiated immediately upon virus infection of undifferentiated basal cells, viral DNA amplification and late gene expression occur only in the mid to upper strata of the keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In this report, we show that the relative activity of HPV18 TATA-less late promoter P 811 depends on its orientation relative to that of the origin (Ori) of viral DNA replication and is sensitive to the eukaryotic DNA polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin. Additionally, transfected 70-nucleotide (nt)-long single-strand DNA oligonucleotides that are homologous to the region near Ori induce late promoter activity. We also found that promoter activation in raft cultures leads to production of the late promoter-associated, sense-strand transcription initiation RNAs (tiRNAs) and splice-site small RNAs (spliRNAs). Finally, a cis -acting AAGTATGCA core element that functions as a repressor to the promoter was identified. This element interacts with hnRNP D0B and hnRNP A/B factors. Point mutations in the core prevented binding of hnRNPs and increased the promoter activity. Confirming this result, knocking down the expression of both hnRNPs in keratinocytes led to increased promoter activity. Taking the data together, our study revealed the mechanism of how the HPV18 late promoter is regulated by DNA replication and host factors. IMPORTANCE It has been known for decades that the activity of viral late promoters is associated with viral DNA replication among almost all DNA viruses. However, the mechanism of how DNA replication activates the viral late promoter and what components of the replication machinery are involved remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the P 811 promoter region of HPV18 and demonstrated that its activation depends on the orientation of DNA replication. Using single

  16. Mutational analysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immediate early protein (IE62) subdomains and their importance in viral replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed I., E-mail: mkhalil2@stanford.edu [Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology & Immunology, Stan ford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Molecular Biology, National Research Centre, El-Buhouth St., Cairo (Egypt); Che, Xibing; Sung, Phillip; Sommer, Marvin H. [Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology & Immunology, Stan ford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Hay, John [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Arvin, Ann M. [Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology & Immunology, Stan ford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    VZV IE62 is an essential, immediate-early, tegument protein and consists of five domains. We generated recombinant viruses carrying mutations in the first three IE62 domains and tested their influence on VZV replication kinetics. The mutations in domain I did not affect replication kinetics while domain II mutations, disrupting the DNA binding and dimerization domain (DBD), were lethal for VZV replication. Mutations in domain III of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the two phosphorylation sites S686A/S722A resulted in slower growth in early and late infection respectively and were associated with IE62 accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus respectively. This study mapped the functional domains of IE62 in context of viral infection, indicating that DNA binding and dimerization domain is essential for VZV replication. In addition, the correct localization of IE62, whether nuclear or cytoplasmic, at different points in the viral life cycle, is important for normal progression of VZV replication. - Highlights: • Mutation of IE62 domain I did not affect VZV replication in melanoma cells. • IE62 domain II and III are important for VZV replication in melanoma cells. • Mutations of IE62 domain II (DBD) were lethal for virus replication. • Mutations of IE62 NLS and phosphorylation sites inhibited VZV replication. • NLS and S686A/S722A mutations altered localization of IE62 during early and late infection.

  17. The ubiquitin-conjugating system: multiple roles in viral replication and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Arianna; Munegato, Denis; Carli, Ilaria; Parolin, Cristina; Palù, Giorgio

    2014-05-06

    Through the combined action of ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes, conjugation of ubiquitin to a target protein acts as a reversible post-translational modification functionally similar to phosphorylation. Indeed, ubiquitination is more and more recognized as a central process for the fine regulation of many cellular pathways. Due to their nature as obligate intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the most conserved host cell machineries for their own replication. Thus, it is not surprising that members from almost every viral family are challenged by ubiquitin mediated mechanisms in different steps of their life cycle and have evolved in order to by-pass or exploit the cellular ubiquitin conjugating system to maximize their chance to establish a successful infection. In this review we will present several examples of the complex interplay that links viruses and the ubiquitin conjugation machinery, with a special focus on the mechanisms evolved by the human immunodeficiency virus to escape from cellular restriction factors and to exit from infected cells.

  18. Comparative analysis of seven viral nuclear export signals (NESs reveals the crucial role of nuclear export mediated by the third NES consensus sequence of nucleoprotein (NP in influenza A virus replication.

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    Nopporn Chutiwitoonchai

    Full Text Available The assembly of influenza virus progeny virions requires machinery that exports viral genomic ribonucleoproteins from the cell nucleus. Currently, seven nuclear export signal (NES consensus sequences have been identified in different viral proteins, including NS1, NS2, M1, and NP. The present study examined the roles of viral NES consensus sequences and their significance in terms of viral replication and nuclear export. Mutation of the NP-NES3 consensus sequence resulted in a failure to rescue viruses using a reverse genetics approach, whereas mutation of the NS2-NES1 and NS2-NES2 sequences led to a strong reduction in viral replication kinetics compared with the wild-type sequence. While the viral replication kinetics for other NES mutant viruses were also lower than those of the wild-type, the difference was not so marked. Immunofluorescence analysis after transient expression of NP-NES3, NS2-NES1, or NS2-NES2 proteins in host cells showed that they accumulated in the cell nucleus. These results suggest that the NP-NES3 consensus sequence is mostly required for viral replication. Therefore, each of the hydrophobic (Φ residues within this NES consensus sequence (Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, or Φ4 was mutated, and its viral replication and nuclear export function were analyzed. No viruses harboring NP-NES3 Φ2 or Φ3 mutants could be rescued. Consistent with this, the NP-NES3 Φ2 and Φ3 mutants showed reduced binding affinity with CRM1 in a pull-down assay, and both accumulated in the cell nucleus. Indeed, a nuclear export assay revealed that these mutant proteins showed lower nuclear export activity than the wild-type protein. Moreover, the Φ2 and Φ3 residues (along with other Φ residues within the NP-NES3 consensus were highly conserved among different influenza A viruses, including human, avian, and swine. Taken together, these results suggest that the Φ2 and Φ3 residues within the NP-NES3 protein are important for its nuclear export function

  19. Characterization of the adenoassociated virus Rep protein complex formed on the viral origin of DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zengi; Brister, J. Rodney; Im, Dong-Soo; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between the adenoassociated virus (AAV) replication proteins, Rep68 and 78, and the viral terminal repeats (TRs) is mediated by a DNA sequence termed the Rep-binding element (RBE). This element is necessary for Rep-mediated unwinding of duplex DNA substrates, directs Rep catalyzed cleavage of the AAV origin of DNA replication, and is required for viral transcription and proviral integration. Six discrete Rep complexes with the AAV TR substrates have been observed in vitro, and cross-linking studies suggest these complexes contain one to six molecules of Rep. However, the functional relationship between Rep oligomerization and biochemical activity is unclear. Here we have characterized Rep complexes that form on the AAV TR. Both Rep68 and Rep78 appear to form the same six complexes with the AAV TR, and ATP seems to stimulate formation of specific, higher order complexes. When the sizes of these Rep complexes were estimated on native polyacrylamide gels, the four slower migrating complexes were larger than predicted by an amount equivalent to one or two TRs. To resolve this discrepancy, the molar ratio of protein and DNA was calculated for the three largest complexes. Data from these experiments indicated that the larger complexes included multiple TRs in addition to multiple Rep molecules and that the Rep-to-TR ratio was approximately 2. The two largest complexes were also associated with increased Rep-mediated, origin cleavage activity. Finally, we characterized a second, Rep-mediated cleavage event that occurs adjacent to the normal nicking site, but on the opposite strand. This second site nicking event effectively results in double-stranded DNA cleavage at the normal nicking site

  20. Pterodontic Acid Isolated from Laggera pterodonta Inhibits Viral Replication and Inflammation Induced by Influenza A Virus

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    Wenda Guan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laggera pterodonta (DC. Benth. is a traditional Chinese medicine. The previous study revealed that the crude extracts of this herb could inhibit influenza virus infection, but its anti-influenza components and underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. Column chromatography was performed to isolate components from the plant. Activity against influenza virus of the compound was determined by CPE inhibition assay. Neuraminidase (NA inhibition was measured by chemiluminescence assay. The anti-virus and anti-inflammation effects were determined using dual-luciferase reporter assay, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR and luminex assay. Pterodontic acid was isolated from L. pterodonta, which showed selective anti-viral activities to H1 subtype of human influenza A virus. Meanwhile, the NA activity was not obviously inhibited by the compound. Further experiments exhibited that the compound can suppress the activation of NF-κB signal pathway and export of viral RNP complexes from the nucleus. In addition, it can significantly attenuate expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-6, MIP-1β, MCP-1, and IP-10 induced by human influenza A virus (H1N1 and similarly downregulate expression of cytokines and chemokines induced by avian influenza A virus (H9N2. This study showed that in vitro antiviral activity of pterodontic acid is most probably associated with inhibiting the replication of influenza A virus by blocking nuclear export of viral RNP complexes, and attenuating the inflammatory response by inhibiting activation of the NF-κB pathway. Pterodontic acid might be a potential antiviral agent against influenza A virus.

  1. DNA-Binding Properties of African Swine Fever Virus pA104R, a Histone-Like Protein Involved in Viral Replication and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouco, Gonçalo; Freitas, Ferdinando B; Coelho, João; Leitão, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2017-06-15

    available. Remarkably, ASFV is the only known mammalian virus that putatively codes for a histone-like protein (pA104R) that shares extensive sequence homology with bacterial histone-like proteins. In this study, we characterized the DNA-binding properties of pA104R, analyzed the functional importance of two conserved residues, and showed that pA104R and ASFV topoisomerase II cooperate and display DNA-supercoiling activity. Moreover, pA104R is expressed during the late phase of infection and accumulates in viral DNA replication sites, and its downregulation revealed that pA104R is required for viral DNA replication and transcription. These results suggest that pA104R participates in the modulation of viral DNA topology and genome packaging, indicating that A104R deletion mutants may be a good strategy for vaccine development against ASFV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Stimulated Fibronectin Facilitates Viral Maintenance and Replication through Two Distinct Mechanisms.

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    Sheng Ren

    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN is a high molecular weight extracellular matrix protein that functions in cell adhesion, growth, migration, and embryonic development. However, little is known about the role of FN during viral infection. In the present study, we found significantly higher levels of FN in sera, and liver tissues from hepatitis B virus (HBV patients relative to healthy individuals. HBV expression enhanced FN mRNA and protein levels in the hepatic cell lines Huh7 and HepG2. HBV infection of susceptible HepG2-sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide cells also increased FN expression. We also found that transcriptional factor specificity protein 1 was involved in the induction of FN by HBV. Knockdown of FN expression significantly inhibited HBV DNA replication and protein synthesis through activating endogenous IFN-α production. In addition, FN interacted with the transforming growth factor β-activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1 and TAK1-binding protein complex and attenuated interferon signaling by inhibiting TAK1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 was found to be inhibited by FN. We also observed that FN promoted HBV enhancers to support HBV expression. These results suggest novel functions of endogenous FN involved in immune evasion and maintenance of HBV replication.

  3. Evaluation of chimeric yellow fever 17D/dengue viral replication in ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimírová, Mária; Mantel, Nathalie; Raynaud, Sandrine; Slovák, Mirko; Ustaniková, Katarína; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno; Barban, Veronique; Labuda, Milan

    2012-11-01

    Chimeric yellow fever 17D/DENV-1-4 viruses (CYD-1-4) have been developed as a tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate which is currently being evaluated in efficacy trials in Asia and America. While YF 17D and DENV are mosquito-borne flaviviruses, it has been shown that CYD-1-4 do not replicate after oral infection in mosquitoes and are not transmitted to new hosts. To further document the risk of environmental dissemination of these viruses, we evaluated the replication of CYD-1-4 in ticks, the vector of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), another member of the flavivirus family. Females of two hard tick species, Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, were inoculated intracoelomically with CYD-1-4 viruses and parent viruses (DENV-1-4 and YF 17D). Virus persistence and replication was assessed 2, 16, and 44 days post-inoculation by plaque titration and qRT-PCR. CYD-1-4 viruses were detected in I. ricinus ticks at early time points post-inoculation, but with infectious titers at least 100-fold lower than those observed in TBEV-infected ticks. Unlike TBEV, complete viral clearance occurred by day 44 in most ticks except for CYD-2, which had a tendency to decline. In addition, while about 70% of TBEV-infected I. ricinus nymphs acquired infection by co-feeding with infected tick females on non-viremic hosts, no co-feeding transmission of CYD-2 virus was detected. Based on these results, we conclude that the risk of dissemination of the candidate vaccine viruses by tick bite is highly unlikely.

  4. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Chiaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi [Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan); Yamada, Koji [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Noguchi, Kohji [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutive NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of PEL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by the proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress NF-{kappa}B signaling and induce apoptosis in PEL cells through stabilization of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress viral replication in PEL cells during lytic KSHV infection. -- Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-{kappa}B inhibitory molecule (I{kappa}B{alpha}) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in PEL cells. The NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome

  5. Effect on HIV-1 viral replication capacity of DTG-resistance mutations in NRTI/NNRTI resistant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Mesplède, Thibault; Wainberg, Mark A

    2016-04-30

    Recommended regimens for HIV-positive individuals include the co-administration of dolutegravir (DTG) with two reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs). Although rare, emerging resistance against DTG is often associated with the R263K substitution in integrase. In-vitro-selected R263K was associated with impaired viral replication capacity, DNA integration, and integrase strand-transfer activity, especially when accompanied by the secondary mutation H51Y. Given the reduced fitness of RTI-resistant viruses, we investigated potential impacts on viral replication of combining R263K and H51Y/R263K with major RTI-resistance substitutions including K65R, L74V, K103N, E138K, and M184I/V. We combined the R263K or H51Y/R263K with RTI-resistance mutations into the proviral plasmid pNL4.3 and measured the resulting viral infectiousness, replication capacity, and ability to integrate viral DNA into host cells. Infectiousness was determined by luciferase assay in TZM-bl cells. Replicative capacity was monitored over 7 days and viral DNA integration was studied by real-time Alu-qPCR in PM1 cells. We found that viral infectiousness, replication capacities and integration levels were greatly reduced in triple mutants, i.e. H51Y/R263K plus a RT mutation, and moderately reduced in double mutants, i.e. R263K plus a RT mutation, compared to wild-type and single RT-mutant viruses. Our findings help to explain the absence of RTI mutations in individuals who experienced DTG-treatment failure.

  6. Gefitinib and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decrease viral replication and cytokine production in dengue virus infected human monocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Anyelo; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Fuenmayor, Edgard; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2017-12-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and nucleotide-binding and oligomerization-domain containing 2 (NOD2) are important in cancer and in microbial recognition, respectively. These molecules trigger intracellular signaling pathways inducing the expression of inflammatory genes by NF-kB translocation. Gefitinib (GBTC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) are capable of inhibiting EGFR/NOD2 and NF-kB, respectively. In earlier stages of dengue virus (DENV) infection, monocytes are capable of sustaining viral replication and increasing cytokine production, suggesting that monocyte/macrophages play an important role in early DENV replication. GBTC and PDTC have not been used to modify the pathogenesis of DENV in infected cells. This study was aimed to determine the effect of GBTC and PDTC on viral replication and cytokine production in DENV serotype 2 (DENV2)-infected human monocyte cultures. GBTC and PDTC were used to inhibit EGFR/NOD2 and NF-kB, respectively. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA and viral replication by plaque forming unit assay. Increased DENV2 replication and anti-viral cytokine production (IFN-α/β, TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-18) in infected cultures were found. These parameters were decreased after EGFR/NOD2 or NF-kB inhibitions. The inhibitory effects of GBTC and PDTC on viral replication and cytokine production can be beneficial in the treatment of patients infected by dengue and suggest a possible role of EGFR/NOD2 receptors and NF-kB in dengue pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tonsillar crypt epithelium is an important extra-central nervous system site for viral replication in EV71 encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaoxin; Ong, Kien Chai; Gao, Zifen; Zhao, Xishun; Anderson, Virginia M; McNutt, Michael A; Wong, Kum Thong; Lu, Min

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71; family Picornaviridae, species human Enterovirus A) usually causes hand, foot, and mouth disease, which may rarely be complicated by fatal encephalomyelitis. We investigated extra-central nervous system (extra-CNS) tissues capable of supporting EV71 infection and replication, and have correlated tissue infection with expression of putative viral entry receptors, scavenger receptor B2 (SCARB2), and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded CNS and extra-CNS tissues from seven autopsy cases were examined by IHC and in situ hybridization to evaluate viral antigens and RNA. Viral receptors were identified with IHC. In all seven cases, the CNS showed stereotypical distribution of inflammation and neuronal localization of viral antigens and RNA, confirming the clinical diagnosis of EV71 encephalomyelitis. In six cases in which tonsillar tissues were available, viral antigens and/or RNA were localized to squamous epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts. Tissues from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, mesenteric nodes, spleen, and skin were all negative for viral antigens/RNA. Our novel findings strongly suggest that tonsillar crypt squamous epithelium supports active viral replication and represents an important source of viral shedding that facilitates person-to-person transmission by both the fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. It may also be a portal for viral entry. A correlation between viral infection and SCARB2 expression appears to be more significant than for PSGL-1 expression. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Orthoretroviral-like prototype foamy virus gag-pol expression is compatible with viral replication

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    Reh Juliane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses (FVs unlike orthoretroviruses express Pol as a separate precursor protein and not as a Gag-Pol fusion protein. A unique packaging strategy, involving recognition of briding viral RNA by both Pol precursor and Gag as well as potential Gag-Pol protein interactions, ensures Pol particle encapsidation. Results Several Prototype FV (PFV Gag-Pol fusion protein constructs were generated to examine whether PFV replication is compatible with an orthoretroviral-like Pol expression. During their analysis, non-particle-associated secreted Pol precursor protein was discovered in extracellular wild type PFV particle preparations of different origin, copurifying in simple virion enrichment protocols. Different analysis methods suggest that extracellular wild type PFV particles contain predominantly mature p85PR-RT and p40IN Pol subunits. Characterization of various PFV Gag-Pol fusion constructs revealed that PFV Pol expression in an orthoretroviral manner is compatible with PFV replication as long as a proteolytic processing between Gag and Pol proteins is possible. PFV Gag-Pol translation by a HIV-1 like ribosomal frameshift signal resulted in production of replication-competent virions, although cell- and particle-associated Pol levels were reduced in comparison to wild type. In-frame fusion of PFV Gag and Pol ORFs led to increased cellular Pol levels, but particle incorporation was only marginally elevated. Unlike that reported for similar orthoretroviral constructs, a full-length in-frame PFV Gag-Pol fusion construct showed wildtype-like particle release and infectivity characteristics. In contrast, in-frame PFV Gag-Pol fusion with C-terminal Gag ORF truncations or non-removable Gag peptide addition to Pol displayed wildtype particle release, but reduced particle infectivity. PFV Gag-Pol precursor fusion proteins with inactivated protease were highly deficient in regular particle release, although coexpression of p71Gag

  9. AdEasy-based cloning system to generate tropism expanded replicating adenoviruses expressing transgenes late in the viral life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie-A-Ling, M.; Bakker, C. T.; Wesseling, J. G.; Bosma, P. J.

    2005-01-01

    Replicating adenoviral vectors (RAds) hold great promise for the treatment of cancer. Significant therapeutic effects of these vectors do not only rely on tumor targeting but also on efficient release of viral progeny from host cells. Cytotoxic genes expressed late in the adenoviral life cycle can

  10. A combinational CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing approach can halt HIV replication and prevent viral escape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, Robert Jan; de Jong, Dorien C M; Wolters, Femke; Kruse, Elisabeth M; van Ham, Petra M; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Nijhuis, Monique

    2017-01-01

    HIV presents one of the highest evolutionary rates ever detected and combination antiretroviral therapy is needed to overcome the plasticity of the virus population and control viral replication. Conventional treatments lack the ability to clear the latent reservoir, which remains the major obstacle

  11. Modulation of HIV-1 Gag NC/p1 cleavage efficiency affects protease inhibitor resistance and viral replicative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. van Maarseveen (Noortje); D. Andersson (Dan); M. Lepšík (Martin); A. Fun (Axel); P.J. Schipper (Pauline); D. de Jong (Dorien); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); M. Nijhuis (Monique)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mutations in the substrate of HIV-1 protease, especially changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site, can directly contribute to protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and also compensate for defects in viral replicative capacity (RC) due to a drug resistant protease. These NC/p1 changes

  12. Chloroquine and its derivatives exacerbate B19V-associated anemia by promoting viral replication.

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    Claudia Bönsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An unexpectedly high seroprevalence and pathogenic potential of human parvovirus B19 (B19V have been observed in certain malaria-endemic countries in parallel with local use of chloroquine (CQ as first-line treatment for malaria. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of CQ and other common antimalarial drugs on B19V infection in vitro and the possible epidemiological consequences for children from Papua New Guinea (PNG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viral RNA, DNA and proteins were analyzed in different cell types following infection with B19V in the presence of a range of antimalarial drugs. Relationships between B19V infection status, prior 4-aminoquinoline use and anemia were assessed in 200 PNG children <10 years of age participating in a case-control study of severe infections. In CQ-treated cells, the synthesis of viral RNA, DNA and proteins was significantly higher and occurred earlier than in control cells. CQ facilitates B19V infection by minimizing intracellular degradation of incoming particles. Only amodiaquine amongst other antimalarial drugs had a similar effect. B19V IgM seropositivity was more frequent in 111 children with severe anemia (hemoglobin <50 g/L than in 89 healthy controls (15.3% vs 3.4%; P = 0.008. In children who were either B19V IgM or PCR positive, 4-aminoquinoline use was associated with a significantly lower admission hemoglobin concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data strongly suggest that 4-aminoquinoline drugs and their metabolites exacerbate B19V-associated anemia by promoting B19V replication. Consideration should be given for choosing a non-4-aminoquinoline drug to partner artemisinin compounds in combination antimalarial therapy.

  13. African swine fever virus encodes for an E2-ubiquitin conjugating enzyme that is mono- and di-ubiquitinated and required for viral replication cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ferdinando B; Frouco, Gonçalo; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2018-02-22

    African swine fever virus is the etiological agent of a contagious and fatal acute haemorrhagic viral disease for which there are no vaccines or therapeutic options. The ASFV encodes for a putative E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (ORF I215L) that shows sequence homology with eukaryotic counterparts. In the present study, we showed that pI215L acts as an E2-ubiquitin like enzyme in a large range of pH values and temperatures, after short incubation times. Further experiments revealed that pI215L is polyubiquitinated instead of multi-mono-ubiquitinated and Cys85 residue plays an essential role in the transthioesterification reaction. In infected cells, I215L gene is transcribed from 2 hours post infection and immunoblot analysis confirmed that pI215L is expressed from 4 hpi. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that pI215L is recruited to viral factories from 8 hpi and a diffuse distribution pattern throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm. siRNA studies suggested that pI215L plays a critical role in the transcription of late viral genes and viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results emphasize the potential use of this enzyme as target for drug and vaccine development against ASF.

  14. Wolbachia Blocks Viral Genome Replication Early in Infection without a Transcriptional Response by the Endosymbiont or Host Small RNA Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Rainey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia can protect insects against viral infection, and is being introduced into mosquito populations in the wild to block the transmission of arboviruses that infect humans and are a major public health concern. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this antiviral protection, we have developed a new model system combining Wolbachia-infected Drosophila melanogaster cell culture with the model mosquito-borne Semliki Forest virus (SFV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus. Wolbachia provides strong antiviral protection rapidly after infection, suggesting that an early stage post-infection is being blocked. Wolbachia does appear to have major effects on events distinct from entry, assembly or exit as it inhibits the replication of an SFV replicon transfected into the cells. Furthermore, it causes a far greater reduction in the expression of proteins from the 3' open reading frame than the 5' non-structural protein open reading frame, indicating that it is blocking the replication of viral RNA. Further to this separation of the replicase proteins and viral RNA in transreplication assays shows that uncoupling of viral RNA and replicase proteins does not overcome Wolbachia's antiviral activity. This further suggests that replicative processes are disrupted, such as translation or replication, by Wolbachia infection. This may occur by Wolbachia mounting an active antiviral response, but the virus did not cause any transcriptional response by the bacterium, suggesting that this is not the case. Host microRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in protection, but again we found that host cell miRNA expression was unaffected by the bacterium and neither do our findings suggest any involvement of the antiviral siRNA pathway. We conclude that Wolbachia may directly interfere with early events in virus replication such as translation of incoming viral RNA or RNA transcription, and this likely involves an intrinsic (as opposed to

  15. Mutations in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Affect the Errors Made in a Single Cycle of Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Michael E.; Ferris, Andrea L.; Das, Kalyan; Quinoñes, Octavio; Shao, Wei; Tuske, Steven; Alvord, W. Gregory; Arnold, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic variation in HIV-1 in patients is due to the high rate of viral replication, the high viral load, and the errors made during viral replication. Some of the mutations in reverse transcriptase (RT) that alter the deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP)-binding pocket, including those that confer resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, affect dNTP selection during replication. The effects of mutations in RT on the spectrum (nature, position, and frequency) of errors made in vivo are poorly understood. We previously determined the mutation rate and the frequency of different types of mutations and identified hot spots for mutations in a lacZα (the α complementing region of lacZ) reporter gene carried by an HIV-1 vector that replicates using wild-type RT. We show here that four mutations (Y115F, M184V, M184I, and Q151M) in the dNTP-binding pocket of RT that had relatively small effects on the overall HIV-1 mutation rate (less than 3-fold compared to the wild type) significantly increased mutations at some specific positions in the lacZα reporter gene. We also show that changes in a sequence that flanks the reporter gene can affect the mutations that arise in the reporter. These data show that changes either in HIV-1 RT or in the sequence of the nucleic acid template can affect the spectrum of mutations made during viral replication. This could, by implication, affect the generation of drug-resistant mutants and immunological-escape mutants in patients. IMPORTANCE RT is the viral enzyme that converts the RNA genome of HIV into DNA. Errors made during replication allow the virus to escape from the host's immune system and to develop resistance to the available anti-HIV drugs. We show that four different mutations in RT which are known to be associated with resistance to anti-RT drugs modestly increased the overall frequency of errors made during viral replication. However, the increased errors were not uniformly distributed; the additional errors

  16. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating System: Multiple Roles in Viral Replication and Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Calistri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the combined action of ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes, conjugation of ubiquitin to a target protein acts as a reversible post-translational modification functionally similar to phosphorylation. Indeed, ubiquitination is more and more recognized as a central process for the fine regulation of many cellular pathways. Due to their nature as obligate intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the most conserved host cell machineries for their own replication. Thus, it is not surprising that members from almost every viral family are challenged by ubiquitin mediated mechanisms in different steps of their life cycle and have evolved in order to by-pass or exploit the cellular ubiquitin conjugating system to maximize their chance to establish a successful infection. In this review we will present several examples of the complex interplay that links viruses and the ubiquitin conjugation machinery, with a special focus on the mechanisms evolved by the human immunodeficiency virus to escape from cellular restriction factors and to exit from infected cells.

  17. Analysis of IAV Replication and Co-infection Dynamics by a Versatile RNA Viral Genome Labeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome delivery to the proper cellular compartment for transcription and replication is a primary goal of viruses. However, methods for analyzing viral genome localization and differentiating genomes with high identity are lacking, making it difficult to investigate entry-related processes and co-examine heterogeneous RNA viral populations. Here, we present an RNA labeling approach for single-cell analysis of RNA viral replication and co-infection dynamics in situ, which uses the versatility of padlock probes. We applied this method to identify influenza A virus (IAV infections in cells and lung tissue with single-nucleotide specificity and to classify entry and replication stages by gene segment localization. Extending the classification strategy to co-infections of IAVs with single-nucleotide variations, we found that the dependence on intracellular trafficking places a time restriction on secondary co-infections necessary for genome reassortment. Altogether, these data demonstrate how RNA viral genome labeling can help dissect entry and co-infections.

  18. A positive-strand RNA virus uses alternative protein-protein interactions within a viral protease/cofactor complex to switch between RNA replication and virion morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Félix A.

    2017-01-01

    The viruses of the family Flaviviridae possess a positive-strand RNA genome and express a single polyprotein which is processed into functional proteins. Initially, the nonstructural (NS) proteins, which are not part of the virions, form complexes capable of genome replication. Later on, the NS proteins also play a critical role in virion formation. The molecular basis to understand how the same proteins form different complexes required in both processes is so far unknown. For pestiviruses, uncleaved NS2-3 is essential for virion morphogenesis while NS3 is required for RNA replication but is not functional in viral assembly. Recently, we identified two gain of function mutations, located in the C-terminal region of NS2 and in the serine protease domain of NS3 (NS3 residue 132), which allow NS2 and NS3 to substitute for uncleaved NS2-3 in particle assembly. We report here the crystal structure of pestivirus NS3-4A showing that the NS3 residue 132 maps to a surface patch interacting with the C-terminal region of NS4A (NS4A-kink region) suggesting a critical role of this contact in virion morphogenesis. We show that destabilization of this interaction, either by alanine exchanges at this NS3/4A-kink interface, led to a gain of function of the NS3/4A complex in particle formation. In contrast, RNA replication and thus replicase assembly requires a stable association between NS3 and the NS4A-kink region. Thus, we propose that two variants of NS3/4A complexes exist in pestivirus infected cells each representing a basic building block required for either RNA replication or virion morphogenesis. This could be further corroborated by trans-complementation studies with a replication-defective NS3/4A double mutant that was still functional in viral assembly. Our observations illustrate the presence of alternative overlapping surfaces providing different contacts between the same proteins, allowing the switch from RNA replication to virion formation. PMID:28151973

  19. A positive-strand RNA virus uses alternative protein-protein interactions within a viral protease/cofactor complex to switch between RNA replication and virion morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dubrau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The viruses of the family Flaviviridae possess a positive-strand RNA genome and express a single polyprotein which is processed into functional proteins. Initially, the nonstructural (NS proteins, which are not part of the virions, form complexes capable of genome replication. Later on, the NS proteins also play a critical role in virion formation. The molecular basis to understand how the same proteins form different complexes required in both processes is so far unknown. For pestiviruses, uncleaved NS2-3 is essential for virion morphogenesis while NS3 is required for RNA replication but is not functional in viral assembly. Recently, we identified two gain of function mutations, located in the C-terminal region of NS2 and in the serine protease domain of NS3 (NS3 residue 132, which allow NS2 and NS3 to substitute for uncleaved NS2-3 in particle assembly. We report here the crystal structure of pestivirus NS3-4A showing that the NS3 residue 132 maps to a surface patch interacting with the C-terminal region of NS4A (NS4A-kink region suggesting a critical role of this contact in virion morphogenesis. We show that destabilization of this interaction, either by alanine exchanges at this NS3/4A-kink interface, led to a gain of function of the NS3/4A complex in particle formation. In contrast, RNA replication and thus replicase assembly requires a stable association between NS3 and the NS4A-kink region. Thus, we propose that two variants of NS3/4A complexes exist in pestivirus infected cells each representing a basic building block required for either RNA replication or virion morphogenesis. This could be further corroborated by trans-complementation studies with a replication-defective NS3/4A double mutant that was still functional in viral assembly. Our observations illustrate the presence of alternative overlapping surfaces providing different contacts between the same proteins, allowing the switch from RNA replication to virion formation.

  20. Enterovirus 71 induces autophagy by regulating has-miR-30a expression to promote viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuxuan; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Deyan; Feng, Chunhong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xiaohui; Lv, Xiaowen; Zheng, Nan; Jin, Yu; Wu, Zhiwei

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has increasingly become a public health challenge around the world. Previous studies reported that EV71 infection can induce autophagic machinery to enhance viral replication in vitro and in vivo, but did not address the underlying mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy, in a virus-specific manner, may function to degrade viruses or facilitate viral replication. In this study, we reported that EV71 infection of human epidermoid carcinoma (Hep2) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) induced autophagy, which is beneficial for viral replication. Our investigation of the mechanisms revealed that EV71 infection resulted in the reduction of cellular miR-30a, which led to the inhibition of Beclin-1, a key autophagy-promoting gene that plays important roles at the early phase of autophagosome formation. We provided further evidence that by modulating cellular miR-30a level through either overexpression or inhibition, one can inhibit or promote EV71 replication, respectively, through regulating autophagic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro anti-reovirus activity of kuraridin isolated from Sophora flavescens against viral replication and hemagglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jun Kwon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-reovirus activity of kuraridin isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens. In particular, we focused on whether this property is attributable to direct inhibition of reovirus attachment and/or inhibition of viral replication with the aid of time-of-addition (pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment, and post-treatment experiments. No significant antiviral activity of kuraridin was detected in the pre-treatment assay. In the simultaneous assay, the 50% effective inhibitory concentrations (EC50 of kuraridin were 15.3–176.9 μM against human type 1–3 reoviruses (HRV1–3 and Korean porcine reovirus (PRV. Kuraridin completely blocked binding of viral sigma 1 protein to sialic acids at concentrations lower than 82.5 μM in the hemagglutination inhibition assay. Moreover, kuraridin inhibited HRV1–3 and PRV viral replication with EC50 values of 14.0–62.0 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis disclosed strong suppression of reovirus RNA synthesis at the late stage (18 h of virus replication by kuraridin. The viral yields of kuraridin-treated cells were significantly reduced at 24 h post-infection, compared with DMSO-treated cells. Our results collectively suggest that kuraridin inhibits virus adsorption and replication by inhibiting hemagglutination, viral RNA and protein synthesis and virus shedding, supporting its utility as a viable candidate antiviral drug against reoviruses.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Synthesis of a Novel Viral Factor Mediates Efficient Replication of Genotype-1 Hepatitis E Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya P Nair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV causes acute hepatitis in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa and Latin America. Though self-limiting in normal individuals, it results in ~30% mortality in infected pregnant women. It has also been reported to cause acute and chronic hepatitis in organ transplant patients. Of the seven viral genotypes, genotype-1 virus infects humans and is a major public health concern in South Asian countries. Sporadic cases of genotype-3 and 4 infection in human and animals such as pigs, deer, mongeese have been reported primarily from industrialized countries. Genotype-5, 6 and 7 viruses are known to infect animals such as wild boar and camel, respectively. Genotype-3 and 4 viruses have been successfully propagated in the laboratory in mammalian cell culture. However, genotype-1 virus replicates poorly in mammalian cell culture and no other efficient model exists to study its life cycle. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress promotes genotype-1 HEV replication by inducing cap-independent, internal initiation mediated translation of a novel viral protein (named ORF4. Importantly, ORF4 expression and stimulatory effect of ER stress inducers on viral replication is specific to genotype-1. ORF4 protein sequence is mostly conserved among genotype-1 HEV isolates and ORF4 specific antibodies were detected in genotype-1 HEV patient serum. ORF4 interacted with multiple viral and host proteins and assembled a protein complex consisting of viral helicase, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, X, host eEF1α1 (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 isoform-1 and tubulinβ. In association with eEF1α1, ORF4 stimulated viral RdRp activity. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells that stably express ORF4 or engineered proteasome resistant ORF4 mutant genome permitted enhanced viral replication. These findings reveal a positive role of ER stress in promoting genotype-1 HEV replication and pave the way towards development of an efficient

  3. Recruitment of DNA replication and damage response proteins to viral replication centers during infection with NS2 mutants of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Zandra; Mihaylov, Ivailo S; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2011-02-20

    MVM NS2 is essential for viral DNA amplification, but its mechanism of action is unknown. A classification scheme for autonomous parvovirus-associated replication (APAR) center development, based on NS1 distribution, was used to characterize abnormal APAR body maturation in NS2null mutant infections, and their organization examined for defects in host protein recruitment. Since acquisition of known replication factors appeared normal, we looked for differences in invoked DNA damage responses. We observed widespread association of H2AX/MDC1 damage response foci with viral replication centers, and sequestration and complex hyperphosphorylation of RPA(32), which occurred in wildtype and mutant infections. Quantifying these responses by western transfer indicated that both wildtype and NS2 mutant MVM elicited ATM activation, while phosphorylation of ATR, already basally activated in asynchronous A9 cells, was downregulated. We conclude that MVM infection invokes multiple damage responses that influence the APAR environment, but that NS2 does not modify the recruitment of cellular proteins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  5. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture.

  6. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 is associated with hepatitis C virus replication complex and regulates viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, LN; Lim, YS; Pham, Long

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is tightly regulated by lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have recently screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet...... formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. We selected and characterized the gene encoding stearoyl coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase 1 (SCD1). siRNA-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of SCD1 abrogated HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon and Jc1-infected cells, while...... exogenous supplementation of either oleate or palmitoleate, products of SCD1 activity, resurrected HCV replication in SCD1 knockdown cells. SCD1 was coimmunoprecipitated with HCV nonstructural proteins and colocalized with both double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and HCV nonstructural proteins, indicating that SCD1...

  7. Viral replication and lung lesions in BALB/c mice experimentally inoculated with avian metapneumovirus subgroup C isolated from chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV emerged as an important respiratory pathogen causing acute respiratory tract infection in avian species. Here we used a chicken aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C isolate to inoculate experimentally BALB/c mice and found that the aMPV/C can efficiently replicate and persist in the lungs of mice for at least 21 days with a peak viral load at day 6 postinoculation. Lung pathological changes were characterized by increased inflammatory cells. Immunochemical assay showed the presence of viral antigens in the lungs and significant upregulation of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were detected following inoculation. These results indicate for the first time that chicken aMPV/C may replicate in the lung of mice. Whether aMPV/C has potential as zoonotic pathogen, further investigation will be required.

  8. Viral replication and lung lesions in BALB/c mice experimentally inoculated with avian metapneumovirus subgroup C isolated from chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Wang, Jing; Yan, Xu; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; Quan, Rong; Li, Zixuan; Du, Fang; Wei, Ting; Liu, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) emerged as an important respiratory pathogen causing acute respiratory tract infection in avian species. Here we used a chicken aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) isolate to inoculate experimentally BALB/c mice and found that the aMPV/C can efficiently replicate and persist in the lungs of mice for at least 21 days with a peak viral load at day 6 postinoculation. Lung pathological changes were characterized by increased inflammatory cells. Immunochemical assay showed the presence of viral antigens in the lungs and significant upregulation of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were detected following inoculation. These results indicate for the first time that chicken aMPV/C may replicate in the lung of mice. Whether aMPV/C has potential as zoonotic pathogen, further investigation will be required.

  9. A discontinuous RNA platform mediates RNA virus replication: building an integrated model for RNA-based regulation of viral processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Wu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus-strand RNA viruses contain RNA elements within their genomes that mediate a variety of fundamental viral processes. The traditional view of these elements is that of local RNA structures. This perspective, however, is changing due to increasing discoveries of functional viral RNA elements that are formed by long-range RNA-RNA interactions, often spanning thousands of nucleotides. The plus-strand RNA genomes of tombusviruses exemplify this concept by possessing different long-range RNA-RNA interactions that regulate both viral translation and transcription. Here we report that a third fundamental tombusvirus process, viral genome replication, requires a long-range RNA-based interaction spanning approximately 3000 nts. In vivo and in vitro analyses suggest that the discontinuous RNA platform formed by the interaction facilitates efficient assembly of the viral RNA replicase. This finding has allowed us to build an integrated model for the role of global RNA structure in regulating the reproduction of a eukaryotic RNA virus, and the insights gained have extended our understanding of the multifunctional nature of viral RNA genomes.

  10. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-20

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation ofbona fidestress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingjie; Dong, Luna; Yu, Shengqing; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Hang; Zhang, Pin; Meng, Chunchun; Zhan, Yuan; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Guijun; Liao, Ying; Ding, Chan

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian cells respond to various environmental stressors to form stress granules (SGs) by arresting cytoplasmic mRNA, protein translation element, and RNA binding proteins. Virus-induced SGs function in different ways, depending on the species of virus; however, the mechanism of SG regulation of virus replication is not well understood. In this study, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) triggered stable formation of bona fide SGs on HeLa cells through activating the protein kinase R (PKR)/eIF2α pathway. NDV-induced SGs contained classic SG markers T-cell internal antigen (TIA)-1, Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein (G3BP)-1, eukaryotic initiation factors, and small ribosomal subunit, which could be disassembled in the presence of cycloheximide. Treatment with nocodazole, a microtubule disruption drug, led to the formation of relatively small and circular granules, indicating that NDV infection induces canonical SGs. Furthermore, the role of SGs on NDV replication was investigated by knockdown of TIA-1 and TIA-1-related (TIAR) protein, the 2 critical components involved in SG formation from the HeLa cells, followed by NDV infection. Results showed that depletion of TIA-1 or TIAR inhibited viral protein synthesis, reduced extracellular virus yields, but increased global protein translation. FISH revealed that NDV-induced SGs contained predominantly cellular mRNA rather than viral mRNA. Deletion of TIA-1 or TIAR reduced NP mRNA levels in polysomes. These results demonstrate that NDV triggers stable formation of bona fide SGs, which benefit viral protein translation and virus replication by arresting cellular mRNA.-Sun, Y., Dong, L., Yu, S., Wang, X., Zheng, H., Zhang, P., Meng, C., Zhan, Y., Tan, L., Song, C., Qiu, X., Wang, G., Liao, Y., Ding, C. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation of bona fide stress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation. © FASEB.

  12. Development of viable TAP-tagged dengue virus for investigation of host-virus interactions in viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyomtip, Teera; Hodge, Kenneth; Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Pisitkun, Trairak; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Chimnaronk, Sarin

    2016-03-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for life-threatening dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The viral replication machinery containing the core non-structural protein 5 (NS5) is implicated in severe dengue symptoms but molecular details remain obscure. To date, studies seeking to catalogue and characterize interaction networks between viral NS5 and host proteins have been limited to the yeast two-hybrid system, computational prediction and co-immunoprecipitation (IP) of ectopically expressed NS5. However, these traditional approaches do not reproduce a natural course of infection in which a number of DENV NS proteins colocalize and tightly associate during the replication process. Here, we demonstrate the development of a recombinant DENV that harbours a TAP tag in NS5 to study host-virus interactions in vivo. We show that our engineered DENV was infective in several human cell lines and that the tags were stable over multiple viral passages, suggesting negligible structural and functional disturbance of NS5. We further provide proof-of-concept for the use of rationally tagged virus by revealing a high confidence NS5 interaction network in human hepatic cells. Our analysis uncovered previously unrecognized hnRNP complexes and several low-abundance fatty acid metabolism genes, which have been implicated in the viral life cycle. This study sets a new standard for investigation of host-flavivirus interactions.

  13. An interaction between human papillomavirus 16 E2 and TopBP1 is required for optimum viral DNA replication and episomal genome establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Mary M; Mackintosh, Lorna J; Bodily, Jason M; Dornan, Edward S; Laimins, Laimonis A; Morgan, Iain M

    2012-12-01

    In human papillomavirus DNA replication, the viral protein E2 forms homodimers and binds to 12-bp palindromic DNA sequences surrounding the origin of DNA replication. Via a protein-protein interaction, it then recruits the viral helicase E1 to an A/T-rich origin of replication, whereupon a dihexamer forms, resulting in DNA replication initiation. In order to carry out DNA replication, the viral proteins must interact with host factors that are currently not all known. An attractive cellular candidate for regulating viral replication is TopBP1, a known interactor of the E2 protein. In mammalian DNA replication, TopBP1 loads DNA polymerases onto the replicative helicase after the G(1)-to-S transition, and this process is tightly cell cycle controlled. The direct interaction between E2 and TopBP1 would allow E2 to bypass this cell cycle control, resulting in DNA replication more than once per cell cycle, which is a requirement for the viral life cycle. We report here the generation of an HPV16 E2 mutant compromised in TopBP1 interaction in vivo and demonstrate that this mutant retains transcriptional activation and repression functions but has suboptimal DNA replication potential. Introduction of this mutant into a viral life cycle model results in the failure to establish viral episomes. The results present a potential new antiviral target, the E2-TopBP1 interaction, and increase our understanding of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the E2-TopBP1 interaction is essential.

  14. Longitudinal Kinetics of Cytomegalovirus-Specific T-Cell Immunity and Viral Replication in Infants With Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sharon F; Holmes, Tyson H; Slifer, Teri; Ramachandran, Vasavi; Mackey, Sally; Hebson, Cathleen; Arvin, Ann M; Lewis, David B; Dekker, Cornelia L

    2016-03-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is reported to affect up to 1% of all live births in the United States. T-cell immunity may be important for controlling CMV replication in congenital CMV-infected infants. We describe the natural history of CMV-specific T-cell evolution and CMV replication in infants with congenital CMV infection. Cytomegalovirus viral load, CMV urine culture, and CMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were assessed in a prospective longitudinal cohort of 51 infants with congenital CMV infection who were observed from birth to 3 years of age. We found a kinetic pattern of decreasing urinary CMV replication and increasing CMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses during the first 3 years of life. We also found higher CMV-specific CD8 T-cell responses were associated with subsequent reduction of urine CMV viral load. For infants with congenital CMV infection, our data suggest an age-related maturation of both CMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity that is associated with an age-related decline in urinary CMV replication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Proficient Replication of the Yeast Genome by a Viral DNA Polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Joseph L; Stith, Carrie M; Burgers, Peter M

    2016-05-27

    DNA replication in eukaryotic cells requires minimally three B-family DNA polymerases: Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ϵ. Pol δ replicates and matures Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol δ is a three-subunit enzyme (Pol3-Pol31-Pol32). A small C-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit Pol3 carries both iron-sulfur cluster and zinc-binding motifs, which mediate interactions with Pol31, and processive replication with the replication clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), respectively. We show that the entire N-terminal domain of Pol3, containing polymerase and proofreading activities, could be effectively replaced by those from bacteriophage RB69, and could carry out chromosomal DNA replication in yeast with remarkable high fidelity, provided that adaptive mutations in the replication clamp PCNA were introduced. This result is consistent with the model that all essential interactions for DNA replication in yeast are mediated through the small C-terminal domain of Pol3. The chimeric polymerase carries out processive replication with PCNA in vitro; however, in yeast, it requires an increased involvement of the mutagenic translesion DNA polymerase ζ during DNA replication. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Proline residues in the HIV-1 NH2-terminal capsid domain: structure determinants for proper core assembly and subsequent steps of early replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzon, T; Leschonsky, B; Bieler, K; Paulus, C; Schröder, J; Wolf, H; Wagner, R

    2000-03-15

    Recent analyses suggest that the p24 capsid (p24(CA)) domain of the HIV-1 group-specific antigen (Gag) may be divided into two structurally and functionally distinct moieties: (i) an amino-terminal portion, previously shown to bind the cellular chaperone cyclophilin A, and (ii) a carboxy-terminal domain, known to contribute to the interaction of the Gag and Gag-Pol precursors during the early assembly process. In order to gain deeper insight into the role of the amino-terminal domain of the p24(CA) protein during viral replication, eight highly conserved proline residues known to promote turns and to terminate alpha-helices within the p24 tertiary structure were replaced by a leucine residue (P-position-L). Following transfection of the proviral constructs in COS7 cells, the majority of the mutants resembled wild-type viruses with respect to the assembly and release of virions. However, although the released particles contained wild-type levels of genomic viral RNA, the mature products of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins as well as the Env glycoproteins-all of them, except mutant P225L-were either noninfectious or severely affected in their replicative capacity. Entry assays monitoring the process of viral DNA synthesis led to the classification of selected provirus mutants into four different phenotypes: (i) mutant P225L was infectious and allowed complete reverse transcription including formation of 2-LTR circles; (ii) mutants P149L, P170L, and P217L failed to form 2-LTR circles; (iii) mutant P222L displayed a severe defect in binding and incorporating cyclophilin A into virions, was delayed with respect to DNA polymerization, and failed to form a 2-LTR replication intermediate; and (iv) mutant P133L was unable even to synthesize a first-strand cDNA product. All replication-defective mutants were characterized by severe alterations in the stability of virion cores, which were in two cases reflected by visible changes in the core morphology. These results suggest

  17. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Fox

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the “mitotic” spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of asymptomatic carriers (ACs and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL. 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset.

  18. Zinc Salts Block Hepatitis E Virus Replication by Inhibiting the Activity of Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Nidhi; Subramani, Chandru; Anang, Saumya; Muthumohan, Rajagopalan; Shalimar; Nayak, Baibaswata; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Surjit, Milan

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute, self-limiting hepatitis in healthy individuals and leads to chronic disease in immunocompromised individuals. HEV infection in pregnant women results in a more severe outcome, with the mortality rate going up to 30%. Though the virus usually causes sporadic infection, epidemics have been reported in developing and resource-starved countries. No specific antiviral exists against HEV. A combination of interferon and ribavirin therapy has been used to control the disease with some success. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that plays crucial roles in multiple cellular processes. Zinc salts are known to be effective in reducing infections caused by few viruses. Here, we investigated the effect of zinc salts on HEV replication. In a human hepatoma cell (Huh7) culture model, zinc salts inhibited the replication of genotype 1 (g-1) and g-3 HEV replicons and g-1 HEV infectious genomic RNA in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of a replication-defective mutant of g-1 HEV genomic RNA under similar conditions ruled out the possibility of zinc salts acting on replication-independent processes. An ORF4-Huh7 cell line-based infection model of g-1 HEV further confirmed the above observations. Zinc salts did not show any effect on the entry of g-1 HEV into the host cell. Furthermore, our data reveal that zinc salts directly inhibit the activity of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), leading to inhibition of viral replication. Taken together, these studies unravel the ability of zinc salts in inhibiting HEV replication, suggesting their possible therapeutic value in controlling HEV infection. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a public health concern in resource-starved countries due to frequent outbreaks. It is also emerging as a health concern in developed countries owing to its ability to cause acute and chronic infection in organ transplant and immunocompromised individuals. Although antivirals such as ribavirin have been used

  19. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kudret Sariyer

    Full Text Available PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV, which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs. We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF. SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen.Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins.Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral reactivation leading to

  20. Regulation of Viral Replication, Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Responses by 17-AAG during Chikungunya Virus Infection in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas K. Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6 MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86 were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology.

  1. Regulation of Viral Replication, Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Responses by 17-AAG during Chikungunya Virus Infection in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Tapas K; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Laishram Pradeep K; Sahoo, Subhransu S; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2017-01-06

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6) MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86) were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of protein-protein interactions and involvement of viral proteins in SARS-CoV replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji'an Pan

    Full Text Available Analyses of viral protein-protein interactions are an important step to understand viral protein functions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we adopted a mammalian two-hybrid system to screen the genome-wide intraviral protein-protein interactions of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV and therefrom revealed a number of novel interactions which could be partly confirmed by in vitro biochemical assays. Three pairs of the interactions identified were detected in both directions: non-structural protein (nsp 10 and nsp14, nsp10 and nsp16, and nsp7 and nsp8. The interactions between the multifunctional nsp10 and nsp14 or nsp16, which are the unique proteins found in the members of Nidovirales with large RNA genomes including coronaviruses and toroviruses, may have important implication for the mechanisms of replication/transcription complex assembly and functions of these viruses. Using a SARS-CoV replicon expressing a luciferase reporter under the control of a transcription regulating sequence, it has been shown that several viral proteins (N, X and SUD domains of nsp3, and nsp12 provided in trans stimulated the replicon reporter activity, indicating that these proteins may regulate coronavirus replication and transcription. Collectively, our findings provide a basis and platform for further characterization of the functions and mechanisms of coronavirus proteins.

  3. Secondary mutations in viruses resistant to HIV-1 integrase inhibitors that restore viral infectivity and replication kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Koichiro; Wakasa-Morimoto, Chiaki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Miki, Shigeru; Noshi, Takeshi; Seki, Takahiro; Kanamori-Koyama, Mikiko; Kawauchi, Shinobu; Suyama, Akemi; Fujishita, Toshio; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Garvey, Edward P; Johns, Brian A; Foster, Scott A; Underwood, Mark R; Sato, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Tamio

    2009-02-01

    Passage of HIV-1 in the presence of integrase inhibitors (INIs) generates resistant viruses that have mutations in the integrase region. Integrase-resistant mutations Q148K and Q148R were identified as primary mutations with the passage of HIV-1 IIIB in the presence of INIs S-1360 or S/GSK-364735, respectively. Secondary amino acid substitutions E138K or G140S were observed when passage with INI was continued. The role of these mutations was investigated with molecular clones. Relative to Q148K alone, Q148K/E138K had 2- and >6-fold increases in resistance to S-1360 and S/GSK-364735, respectively, and the double mutant had slightly better infectivity and replication kinetics. In contrast, Q148K/G140S and Q148R/E138K had nearly equivalent or slightly reduced fold resistance to the INI compared with their respective Q148 primary mutants, and had increases in infectivity and replication kinetics. Recovery of these surrogates of viral fitness coincided with the recovery of integration efficiency of viral DNA into the host cell chromosome for these double mutants. These data show that recovery of viral integration efficiency can be an important factor for the emergence and maintenance of INI-resistant mutations.

  4. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among na??ve herring (1.2 ?? 103 PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Molecular biology of human herpesvirus 8: novel functions and virus-host interactions implicated in viral pathogenesis and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Emily; Nicholas, John

    2014-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the second identified human gammaherpesvirus. Like its relative Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-8 is linked to B-cell tumors, specifically primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, in addition to endothelial-derived KS. HHV-8 is unusual in its possession of a plethora of "accessory" genes and encoded proteins in addition to the core, conserved herpesvirus and gammaherpesvirus genes that are necessary for basic biological functions of these viruses. The HHV-8 accessory proteins specify not only activities deducible from their cellular protein homologies but also novel, unsuspected activities that have revealed new mechanisms of virus-host interaction that serve virus replication or latency and may contribute to the development and progression of virus-associated neoplasia. These proteins include viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), viral chemokines (vCCLs), viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs), and viral antiapoptotic proteins homologous to FLICE (FADD-like IL-1β converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (FLIP) and survivin. Other HHV-8 proteins, such as signaling membrane receptors encoded by open reading frames K1 and K15, also interact with host mechanisms in unique ways and have been implicated in viral pathogenesis. Additionally, a set of micro-RNAs encoded by HHV-8 appear to modulate expression of multiple host proteins to provide conditions conducive to virus persistence within the host and could also contribute to HHV-8-induced neoplasia. Here, we review the molecular biology underlying these novel virus-host interactions and their potential roles in both virus biology and virus-associated disease.

  7. Monitoring the determinants of efficient viral replication using Classical Swine Fever Virus-reporter replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Everett, Helen; Crooke, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiological agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining improved knowledge of the pathogenic features of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence...... of the CSFV genome within cells can be achieved using autonomously replicating constructs (replicons) containing a reporter gene that expresses a readily quantifiable enzyme. Here, a newly implemented cloning technique was applied to genome modification of the fulllength CSFV cDNA previously inserted...... proteins considered non-essential for RNA replication were constructed and these deletions were replaced with an in-frame insertion of the Renilla luciferase (Rluc) sequence. RNA transcripts from these replicons should be translated as a single functional open reading frame. Full-genome cDNAs (~10-12,3 kb...

  8. Host–Pathogen Interactions in Measles Virus Replication and Anti-Viral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The measles virus (MeV is a contagious pathogenic RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, that can cause serious symptoms and even fetal complications. Here, we summarize current molecular advances in MeV research, and emphasize the connection between host cells and MeV replication. Although measles has reemerged recently, the potential for its eradication is promising with significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of its replication and host-pathogen interactions.

  9. Replication-competent infectious hepatitis B virus vectors carrying substantially sized transgenes by redesigned viral polymerase translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zihua; Wu, Li; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Shizhu; Li, Baosheng; Li, Haijun; Kang, Fubiao; Wang, Junping; Xia, Huan; Ping, Caiyan; Nassal, Michael; Sun, Dianxing

    2013-01-01

    Viral vectors are engineered virus variants able to deliver nonviral genetic information into cells, usually by the same routes as the parental viruses. For several virus families, replication-competent vectors carrying reporter genes have become invaluable tools for easy and quantitative monitoring of replication and infection, and thus also for identifying antivirals and virus susceptible cells. For hepatitis B virus (HBV), a small enveloped DNA virus causing B-type hepatitis, such vectors are not available because insertions into its tiny 3.2 kb genome almost inevitably affect essential replication elements. HBV replicates by reverse transcription of the pregenomic (pg) RNA which is also required as bicistronic mRNA for the capsid (core) protein and the reverse transcriptase (Pol); their open reading frames (ORFs) overlap by some 150 basepairs. Translation of the downstream Pol ORF does not involve a conventional internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We reasoned that duplicating the overlap region and providing artificial IRES control for translation of both Pol and an in-between inserted transgene might yield a functional tricistronic pgRNA, without interfering with envelope protein expression. As IRESs we used a 22 nucleotide element termed Rbm3 IRES to minimize genome size increase. Model plasmids confirmed its activity even in tricistronic arrangements. Analogous plasmids for complete HBV genomes carrying 399 bp and 720 bp transgenes for blasticidin resistance (BsdR) and humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) produced core and envelope proteins like wild-type HBV; while the hrGFP vector replicated poorly, the BsdR vector generated around 40% as much replicative DNA as wild-type HBV. Both vectors, however, formed enveloped virions which were infectious for HBV-susceptible HepaRG cells. Because numerous reporter and effector genes with sizes of around 500 bp or less are available, the new HBV vectors should become highly useful tools to better

  10. Replication-competent infectious hepatitis B virus vectors carrying substantially sized transgenes by redesigned viral polymerase translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihua Wang

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are engineered virus variants able to deliver nonviral genetic information into cells, usually by the same routes as the parental viruses. For several virus families, replication-competent vectors carrying reporter genes have become invaluable tools for easy and quantitative monitoring of replication and infection, and thus also for identifying antivirals and virus susceptible cells. For hepatitis B virus (HBV, a small enveloped DNA virus causing B-type hepatitis, such vectors are not available because insertions into its tiny 3.2 kb genome almost inevitably affect essential replication elements. HBV replicates by reverse transcription of the pregenomic (pg RNA which is also required as bicistronic mRNA for the capsid (core protein and the reverse transcriptase (Pol; their open reading frames (ORFs overlap by some 150 basepairs. Translation of the downstream Pol ORF does not involve a conventional internal ribosome entry site (IRES. We reasoned that duplicating the overlap region and providing artificial IRES control for translation of both Pol and an in-between inserted transgene might yield a functional tricistronic pgRNA, without interfering with envelope protein expression. As IRESs we used a 22 nucleotide element termed Rbm3 IRES to minimize genome size increase. Model plasmids confirmed its activity even in tricistronic arrangements. Analogous plasmids for complete HBV genomes carrying 399 bp and 720 bp transgenes for blasticidin resistance (BsdR and humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP produced core and envelope proteins like wild-type HBV; while the hrGFP vector replicated poorly, the BsdR vector generated around 40% as much replicative DNA as wild-type HBV. Both vectors, however, formed enveloped virions which were infectious for HBV-susceptible HepaRG cells. Because numerous reporter and effector genes with sizes of around 500 bp or less are available, the new HBV vectors should become highly useful tools to

  11. Why Human Papillomaviruses Activate the DNA Damage Response (DDR) and How Cellular and Viral Replication Persists in the Presence of DDR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Molly L; Das, Dipon; Morgan, Iain M

    2017-09-21

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) require the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) in order to undergo a successful life cycle. This activation presents a challenge for the virus and the infected cell: how does viral and host replication proceed in the presence of a DDR that ordinarily arrests replication; and how do HPV16 infected cells retain the ability to proliferate in the presence of a DDR that ordinarily arrests the cell cycle? This raises a further question: why do HPV activate the DDR? The answers to these questions are only partially understood; a full understanding could identify novel therapeutic strategies to target HPV cancers. Here, we propose that the rapid replication of an 8 kb double stranded circular genome during infection creates aberrant DNA structures that attract and activate DDR proteins. Therefore, HPV replication in the presence of an active DDR is a necessity for a successful viral life cycle in order to resolve these DNA structures on viral genomes; without an active DDR, successful replication of the viral genome would not proceed. We discuss the essential role of TopBP1 in this process and also how viral and cellular replication proceeds in HPV infected cells in the presence of DDR signals.

  12. Gag sequence variation in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission cluster influences viral replication fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, Esther F.; van Nuenen, Ad C.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2013-01-01

    Three men from a proven homosexual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission cluster showed large variation in their clinical course of infection. To evaluate the effect of evolution of the same viral variant in these three patients, we analysed sequence variation in the capsid

  13. Association of Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 with Rad50-Interacting Protein 1 Enhances Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-León, Karen; Wijendra, Kalpanee; Siddiqa, Abida; Pentland, Ieisha; Feeney, Katherine M; Knapman, Alison; Davies, Rachel; Androphy, Elliot J; Parish, Joanna L

    2017-03-01

    Rad50-interacting protein 1 (Rint1) associates with the DNA damage response protein Rad50 during the transition from the S phase to the G 2 /M phase and functions in radiation-induced G 2 checkpoint control. It has also been demonstrated that Rint1 is essential in vesicle trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through an interaction with Zeste-White 10 (ZW10). We have isolated a novel interaction between Rint1 and the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) transcription and replication factor E2. E2 binds to Rint1 within its ZW10 interaction domain, and we show that in the absence of E2, Rint1 is localized to the ER and associates with ZW10. E2 expression results in a disruption of the Rint1-ZW10 interaction and an accumulation of nuclear Rint1, coincident with a significant reduction in vesicle movement from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. Interestingly, nuclear Rint1 and members of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex were found in distinct E2 nuclear foci, which peaked during mid-S phase, indicating that the recruitment of Rint1 to E2 foci within the nucleus may also result in the recruitment of this DNA damage-sensing protein complex. We show that exogenous Rint1 expression enhances E2-dependent virus replication. Conversely, the overexpression of a truncated Rint1 protein that retains the E2 binding domain but not the Rad50 binding domain acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of E2-dependent HPV replication. Put together, these experiments demonstrate that the interaction between Rint1 and E2 has an important function in HPV replication. IMPORTANCE HPV infections are an important driver of many epithelial cancers, including those within the anogenital and oropharyngeal tracts. The HPV life cycle is tightly regulated and intimately linked to the differentiation of the epithelial cells that it infects. HPV replication factories formed in the nucleus are locations where viral DNA is copied to support virus persistence and amplification of

  14. Reinitiated viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase resumes replication at a reduced rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilfan, I.D.; Candelli, A.; Hage, S.; Aalto, A.P.; Poranen, M.M.; Bamford, D.H.; Dekker, N.H.

    2008-01-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRP) form an important class of enzymes that is responsible for genome replication and transcription in RNA viruses and involved in the regulation of RNA interference in plants and fungi. The RdRP kinetics have been extensively studied, but pausing, an important

  15. Functional mapping of regions of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis viral genome required for DNA replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Voeten, J. T.; Goldbach, R. W.; Vlak, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Previous results showed that plasmids containing one of the eight putative origins (ori's) of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) are replicated after transfection into Spodoptera frugiperda cells if essential trans-acting factors are supplied by AcMNPV infection (Kool et al.,

  16. Roles of HIV-1 capsid in viral replication and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sage, Valerie; Mouland, Andrew J; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando

    2014-11-26

    The primary roles of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein are to encapsidate and protect the viral RNA genome. It is becoming increasing apparent that HIV-1 CA is a multifunctional protein that acts early during infection to coordinate uncoating, reverse transcription, nuclear import of the pre-integration complex and integration of double stranded viral DNA into the host genome. Additionally, numerous recent studies indicate that CA is playing a crucial function in HIV-1 immune evasion. Here we summarize the current knowledge on HIV-1 CA and its interactions with the host cell to promote infection. The fact that CA engages in a number of different protein-protein interactions with the host makes it an interesting target for the development of new potent antiviral agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mutational Analysis of the Hypervariable Region of Hepatitis E Virus Reveals Its Involvement in the Efficiency of Viral RNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudupakam, R. S.; Kenney, Scott P.; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A.; LeRoith, Tanya; Pierson, F. William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication levels of the HVR deletion mutants were markedly reduced in Huh7 cells, suggesting a role of the HVR in viral replication efficiency. To further verify the results, we constructed HVR deletion mutants by using a genetically divergent, nonmammalian avian HEV, and similar effects on viral replication efficiency were observed when the avian HEV mutants were tested in LMH cells. Furthermore, the impact of complete HVR deletion on virus infectivity was tested in chickens, using an avian HEV mutant with a complete HVR deletion. Although the deletion mutant was still replication competent in LMH cells, the complete HVR deletion resulted in a loss of avian HEV infectivity in chickens. Since the HVR exhibits extensive variations in sequence and length among different HEV genotypes, we further examined the interchangeability of HVRs and demonstrated that HVR sequences are functionally exchangeable between HEV genotypes with regard to viral replication and infectivity in vitro, although genotype-specific HVR differences in replication efficiency were observed. The results showed that although the HVR tolerates small deletions with regard to infectivity, it may interact with viral and host factors to modulate the efficiency of HEV replication. PMID:21775444

  18. Stem cell gene therapy for HIV: strategies to inhibit viral entry and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiusto, David L

    2015-03-01

    Since the demonstration of a cure of an HIV+ patient with an allogeneic stem cell transplant using naturally HIV-resistant cells, significant interest in creating similar autologous products has fueled the development of a variety of "cell engineering" approaches to stem cell therapy for HIV. Among the more well-studied strategies is the inhibition of viral entry through disruption of expression of viral co-receptors or through competitive inhibitors of viral fusion with the cell membrane. Preclinical evaluation of these approaches often starts in vitro but ultimately is tested in animal models prior to clinical implementation. In this review, we trace the development of several key approaches (meganucleases, short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and fusion inhibitors) to modification of hematopoietic stem cells designed to impart resistance to HIV to their T-cell and monocytic progeny. The basic evolution of technologies through in vitro and in vivo testing is discussed as well as the pros and cons of each approach and how the addition of postentry inhibitors may enhance the overall antiviral efficacy of these approaches.

  19. Autophagy and Mammalian Viruses: Roles in Immune Response, Viral Replication, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P; Münz, C

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an important cellular catabolic process conserved from yeast to man. Double-membrane vesicles deliver their cargo to the lysosome for degradation. Hence, autophagy is one of the key mechanisms mammalian cells deploy to rid themselves of intracellular pathogens including viruses. However, autophagy serves many more functions during viral infection. First, it regulates the immune response through selective degradation of immune components, thus preventing possibly harmful overactivation and inflammation. Additionally, it delivers virus-derived antigens to antigen-loading compartments for presentation to T lymphocytes. Second, it might take an active part in the viral life cycle by, eg, facilitating its release from cells. Lastly, in the constant arms race between host and virus, autophagy is often hijacked by viruses and manipulated to their own advantage. In this review, we will highlight key steps during viral infection in which autophagy plays a role. We have selected some exemplary viruses and will describe the molecular mechanisms behind their intricate relationship with the autophagic machinery, a result of host-pathogen coevolution. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Retinoid X Receptor α-Dependent HBV Minichromosome Remodeling and Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; He, Song; Guo, Jin-Jun; Peng, Hong; Fan, Jia-Hao; Li, Qing-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is organized into a minichromosome in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes through interactions with histone and nonhistone proteins. Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), a liver-enriched nuclear receptor, participates in regulation of HBV replication and transcription through modulation of HBV enhancer 1 and core promoter activity. This study investigated RXRα involvement in HBV cccDNA epigenetic modifications. Quantitative cccDNA chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was applied to study the recruitment of RXRα, histones, and chromatin-modifying enzymes to HBV minichromosome in HepG2 cells after transfection of the linear HBV genome. RXRα Was found to directly bind to HBV cccDNA; recruitment of RXRα to HBV mini-chromosome paralleled HBV replication, histone recruitment, and histone acetylation in HBVcccDNA. Moreover, RXRα overexpression or knock-down significantly increased or impaired the recruitment of the p300 acetyltransferase to cccDNAminichromosome. Our results confirmed the regulation of RXRα on HBV replication in vitro and demonstrated the modulation of RXRα on HBV cccDNA epigenetics. These findings provide a profound theoretical and experimental basis for late-model antiviral treatment acting on the HBV cccDNA and minichromosome.

  1. Prior Virus Exposure Alters the Long-Term Landscape of Viral Replication during Feline Lentiviral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue VandeWoude

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a feline model of lentiviral cross-species transmission using a puma lentivirus (PLV or FIVPco which infects domestic cats but does not cause disease. Infection with PLV protects cats from CD4+ T-cell decline caused by subsequent infection with virulent feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV. Previous studies implicate innate immune and/or cellular restriction mechanisms for FIV disease attenuation in PLV-infected cats. In this study, we evaluated viral infection and cytokine mRNA transcription in 12 different tissue reservoirs approximately five months post infection. We quantitated tissue proviral load, viral mRNA load and relative transcription of IL-10, IL-12p40 and IFNγ from tissues of cats exposed to FIV, PLV or both viruses and analyzed these parameters using a multivariate statistical approach. The distribution and intensity of FIV infection and IFNγ transcription differed between single and co-infected cats, characterized by higher FIV proviral loads and IFNγ expression in co-infected cat tissues. Variability in FIV mRNA load and IFNγ was significantly more constrained in co-infected versus singly infected cat tissues. Single-infected:co-infected ratios of FIV mRNA load compared to FIV proviral load indicated that active viral transcription was apparently inhibited during co-infection. These results indicate that previous PLV infection increases activation of tissue innate immunity and constrains the ability of FIV to productively infect tissue reservoirs of infection for months, independent of FIV proviral load, supporting a model in which innate immunity and/or modulation of target cell susceptibility play a key role in PLV-induced protection from FIV disease.

  2. Hepatitis B Virus-Encoded MicroRNA Controls Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Li, Hongfeng; Sun, Huahui; Fan, Hongxia; Hu, Yaqi; Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Tang, Hua

    2017-05-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, single-stranded, noncoding, functional RNAs. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with virions and subviral forms of particles that lack a core. It was not known whether HBV encodes miRNAs. Here, we identified an HBV-encoded miRNA (called HBV-miR-3) by deep sequencing and Northern blotting. HBV-miR-3 is located at nucleotides (nt) 373 to 393 of the HBV genome and was generated from 3.5-kb, 2.4-kb, and 2.1-kb HBV in a classic miRNA biogenesis (Drosha-Dicer-dependent) manner. HBV-miR-3 was highly expressed in hepatoma cell lines with an integrated HBV genome and HBV + hepatoma tumors. In patients with HBV infection, HBV-miR-3 was released into the circulation by exosomes and HBV virions, and HBV-miR-3 expression had a positive correlation with HBV titers in the sera of patients in the acute phase of HBV infection. More interestingly, we found that HBV-miR-3 represses HBsAg, HBeAg, and replication of HBV. HBV-miR-3 targets the unique site of the HBV 3.5-kb transcript to specifically reduce HBc protein expression, levels of pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), and HBV replication intermediate (HBV-RI) generation but does not affect the HBV DNA polymerase level, thus suppressing HBV virion production (replication). This may explain the low levels of HBV virion generation with abundant subviral particles lacking core during HBV replication, which may contribute to the development of persistent infection in patients. Taken together, our findings shed light on novel mechanisms by which HBV-encoded miRNA controls the process of self-replication by regulating HBV transcript during infection. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can become a long-term, chronic infection and lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer. HBV is a small DNA virus that belongs to the hepadnavirus family, with virions and subviral forms of particles that lack a core. MicroRNA (miRNA), a small (∼22-nt) noncoding RNA

  3. The Viral Replication Complex Is Associated with the Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Koch, G.; Peeters, B.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus ([NDV] also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1) can be discriminated from low-virulence strains by the presence of multiple basic amino acid residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein. However, some NDV variants isolated from

  4. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  5. Immune responses elicited against rotavirus middle layer protein VP6 inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Suvi; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Tamminen, Kirsi; López-Guerrero, Vanessa; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Palomares, Laura A; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is a common cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children worldwide. Live oral RV vaccines protect against severe RVGE, but the immune correlates of protection are not yet clearly defined. Inner capsid VP6 protein is a highly conserved, abundant, and immunogenic RV protein, and VP6-specific mucosal antibodies, especially IgA, have been implicated to protect against viral challenge in mice. In the present study systemic and mucosal IgG and IgA responses were induced by immunizing BALB/c mice intranasally with a combination of recombinant RV VP6 protein (subgroup II [SGII]) and norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) used in a candidate vaccine. Following immunization mice were challenged orally with murine RV strain EDIMwt (SG non-I-non-II, G3P10[16]). In order to determine neutralizing activity of fecal samples, sera, and vaginal washes (VW) against human Wa RV (SGII, G1P1A[8]) and rhesus RV (SGI, G3P5B[3]), the RV antigen production was measured with an ELISA-based antigen reduction neutralization assay. Only VWs of immunized mice inhibited replication of both RVs, indicating heterotypic protection of induced antibodies. IgA antibody depletion and blocking experiments using recombinant VP6 confirmed that neutralization was mediated by anti-VP6 IgA antibodies. Most importantly, after the RV challenge significant reduction in viral shedding was observed in feces of immunized mice. These results suggest a significant role for mucosal RV VP6-specific IgA for the inhibition of RV replication in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these results underline the importance of non-serotype-specific immunity induced by the conserved subgroup-specific RV antigen VP6 in clearance of RV infection. PMID:25424814

  6. Degradation of cellular mir-27 by a novel, highly abundant viral transcript is important for efficient virus replication in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Marcinowski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegaloviruses express large amounts of viral miRNAs during lytic infection, yet, they only modestly alter the cellular miRNA profile. The most prominent alteration upon lytic murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection is the rapid degradation of the cellular miR-27a and miR-27b. Here, we report that this regulation is mediated by the ∼1.7 kb spliced and highly abundant MCMV m169 transcript. Specificity to miR-27a/b is mediated by a single, apparently optimized, miRNA binding site located in its 3'-UTR. This site is easily and efficiently retargeted to other cellular and viral miRNAs by target site replacement. Expression of the 3'-UTR of m169 by an adenoviral vector was sufficient to mediate its function, indicating that no other viral factors are essential in this process. Degradation of miR-27a/b was found to be accompanied by 3'-tailing and -trimming. Despite its dramatic effect on miRNA stability, we found this interaction to be mutual, indicating potential regulation of m169 by miR-27a/b. Most interestingly, three mutant viruses no longer able to target miR-27a/b, either due to miRNA target site disruption or target site replacement, showed significant attenuation in multiple organs as early as 4 days post infection, indicating that degradation of miR-27a/b is important for efficient MCMV replication in vivo.

  7. Cell-Free and Cell-Based Approaches to Explore the Roles of Host Membranes and Lipids in the Formation of Viral Replication Compartment Induced by Tombusviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter D; Pogany, Judit; Xu, Kai

    2016-03-03

    Plant positive strand RNA viruses are intracellular infectious agents that take advantage of cellular lipids and membranes to support replication and protect viral RNA from degradation by host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss how Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) co-opts lipid transfer proteins and modulates lipid metabolism and transport to facilitate the assembly of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes within intricate replication compartments. Identification and characterization of the proviral roles of specific lipids and proteins involved in lipid metabolism based on results from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) model host and cell-free approaches are discussed. The review also highlights the advantage of using liposomes with chemically defined composition to identify specific lipids required for TBSV replication. Remarkably, all the known steps in TBSV replication are dependent on cellular lipids and co-opted membranes.

  8. Reactivation of viral replication in anti-HBe positive chronic HBsAg carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Aldershvile, J; Kryger, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication was investigated in an unselected group of 44 HBV DNA negative, anti-HBe positive chronic HBsAg carriers. Twenty-five patients (54%) were intravenous drug addicts and 7 (16%) were male homosexuals. Sixteen patients had evidence of delta infection...... and five of the seven male homosexuals had human immunodeficiency virus infection. The patients were followed for 1 to 180 months (median, 24 months) while HBV DNA negative, anti-HBe positive. Reactivation, defined as reappearance of HBV DNA or HBeAg, or both, was detected in six patients corresponding...... to an annual reactivation rate of 5%. Reactivation in four patients was detected by reversion to HBV DNA positivity only, whereas HBeAg/anti-HBe status remained unchanged. Two patients became both HBV DNA and HBeAg positive. None of the patients developed hepatitis-like symptoms and transaminase elevation...

  9. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus K8 Is an RNA Binding Protein That Regulates Viral DNA Replication in Coordination with a Noncoding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongcheng; Wang, Yan; Yuan, Yan

    2018-01-10

    KSHV lytic replication and constant primary infection of fresh cells are crucial for viral tumorigenicity. Virus-encoded b-Zip family protein K8 plays an important role in viral DNA replication in both viral reactivation and de novo infection. The mechanism underlying the functional role of K8 in the viral life cycle is elusive. Here we report that K8 is a RNA binding protein, which also associates with many proteins including other RNA binding proteins. Many K8-involved protein-protein interactions are mediated by RNA. Using a c ross l inking and i mmuno p recipitation (CLIP) procedure combined with high-throughput sequencing, RNAs that are associated with K8 in BCBL-1 cells were identified, that include both viral (PAN, T1.4, T0.7 and etc.) and cellular (MALAT-1, MRP, 7SK and etc.) RNAs. An RNA-binding motif in K8 was defined, and mutation of the motif abolished the ability of K8 binding to many noncoding RNAs as well as viral DNA replication during de novo infection, suggesting that the K8 functions in viral replication are carried out through RNA association. The function of K8 and associated T1.4 RNA was investigated in details and results showed that T1.4 mediates the binding of K8 with ori-Lyt DNA. T1.4-K8 complex physically bound to KSHV ori-Lyt DNA and recruited other proteins and cofactors to assemble replication complex. Depletion of T1.4 abolished the DNA replication in primary infection. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the role of K8 in coordination with T1.4 RNA in regulating KSHV DNA replication during de novo infection. Importance Genome wide analyses of the mammalian transcriptome revealed that a large proportion of sequence previously annotated as noncoding region are actually transcribed and give rise to stable RNAs. Emergence of a large number of noncoding RNAs suggests that functional RNA-protein complexes exampled by ribosome or spliceosome are not ancient relics of the last riboorganism but would be well adapted for

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Mutant with Point Mutations in UL39 Is Impaired for Acute Viral Replication in Mice, Establishment of Latency, and Explant-Induced Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Heba H; Thompson, Thornton W; Konen, Adam J; Haenchen, Steve D; Hilliard, Joshua G; Macdonald, Stuart J; Morrison, Lynda A; Davido, David J

    2018-04-01

    In the process of generating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutations in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39 , which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6. These mutations resulted in lysine-to-proline (residue 393) and arginine-to-histidine (residue 950) substitutions in ICP6. To determine whether alteration of these amino acids was responsible for the KOS-NA phenotypes in vivo , we recombined the wild-type UL39 gene into the KOS-NA genome and rescued its acute replication phenotypes in mice. To further establish the role of UL39 in KOS-NA's decreased pathogenicity, the UL39 mutations were recombined into HSV-1 (generating UL39 mut ), and this mutant virus showed reduced ocular and TG replication in mice comparable to that of KOS-NA. Interestingly, ICP6 protein levels were reduced in KOS-NA-infected cells relative to the wild-type protein. Moreover, we observed that KOS-NA does not counteract caspase 8-induced apoptosis, unlike wild-type strain KOS. Based on alignment studies with other HSV-1 ICP6 homologs, our data suggest that amino acid 950 of ICP6 likely plays an important role in ICP6 accumulation and inhibition of apoptosis, consequently impairing HSV-1 pathogenesis in a mouse model of HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is a major human pathogen that infects ∼80% of the human population and can be life threatening to infected neonates or immunocompromised individuals. Effective therapies for treatment of recurrent HSV-1 infections are limited, which emphasizes a critical need to understand in

  11. CD200R1 supports HSV-1 viral replication and licenses pro-inflammatory signaling functions of TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy J Soberman

    Full Text Available The CD200R1:CD200 axis is traditionally considered to limit tissue inflammation by down-regulating pro-inflammatory signaling in myeloid cells bearing the receptor. We generated CD200R1(-/- mice and employed them to explore both the role of CD200R1 in regulating macrophage signaling via TLR2 as well as the host response to an in vivo, TLR2-dependent model, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 infection. CD200R1(-/- peritoneal macrophages demonstrated a 70-75% decrease in the generation of IL-6 and CCL5 (Rantes in response to the TLR2 agonist Pam(2CSK(4 and to HSV-1. CD200R1(-/- macrophages could neither up-regulate the expression of TLR2, nor assemble a functional inflammasome in response to HSV-1. CD200R1(-/- mice were protected from HSV-1 infection and exhibited dysfunctional TLR2 signaling. Finally, both CD200R1(-/- mice and CD200R1(-/- fibroblasts and macrophages showed a markedly reduced ability to support HSV-1 replication. In summary, our data demonstrate an unanticipated and novel requirement for CD200R1 in "licensing" pro-inflammatory functions of TLR2 and in limiting viral replication that are supported by ex vivo and in vivo evidence.

  12. Zinc binding activity of human metapneumovirus M2-1 protein is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Sun, Jing; Liang, Xueya; Li, Jianrong

    2015-06-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a member of the Pneumovirinae subfamily in the Paramyxoviridae family that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. Unlike members of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily, the polymerase complex of pneumoviruses requires an additional cofactor, the M2-1 protein, which functions as a transcriptional antitermination factor. The M2-1 protein was found to incorporate zinc ions, although the specific role(s) of the zinc binding activity in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that the third cysteine (C21) and the last histidine (H25) in the zinc binding motif (CCCH) of hMPV M2-1 were essential for zinc binding activity, whereas the first two cysteines (C7 and C15) play only minor or redundant roles in zinc binding. In addition, the zinc binding motif is essential for the oligomerization of M2-1. Subsequently, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) carrying mutations in the zinc binding motif were recovered. Interestingly, rhMPV-C21S and -H25L mutants, which lacked zinc binding activity, had delayed replication in cell culture and were highly attenuated in cotton rats. In contrast, rhMPV-C7S and -C15S strains, which retained 60% of the zinc binding activity, replicated as efficiently as rhMPV in cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs that lacked zinc binding activity triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with rhMPV. Taken together, these results demonstrate that zinc binding activity is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. These results also suggest that inhibition of zinc binding activity may serve as a novel approach to rationally attenuate hMPV and perhaps other pneumoviruses for vaccine purposes. The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the leading causes of acute

  13. Enhanced Viral Replication and Modulated Innate Immune Responses in Infant Airway Epithelium following H1N1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Candice C.; Reader, J. Rachel; Gerriets, Joan E.; Wang, Theodore T.; Harrod, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. The contribution of pulmonary host defense mechanisms to viral respiratory infection susceptibility in very young children is poorly understood. As a surrogate to compare mucosal immune responses of infant and adult lungs, rhesus monkey primary airway epithelial cell cultures were infected with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in vitro. Virus replication, cytokine secretion, cell viability, and type I interferon (IFN) pathway PCR array profiles were evaluated for both infant and adult cultures. In comparison with adult cultures, infant cultures showed significantly increased levels of H1N1 replication, reduced alpha interferon (IFN-α) protein synthesis, and no difference in cell death following infection. Age-dependent differences in expression levels of multiple genes associated with the type I IFN pathway were observed in H1N1-infected cultures. To investigate the pulmonary and systemic responses to H1N1 infection in early life, infant monkeys were inoculated with H1N1 by upper airway administration. Animals were monitored for virus and parameters of inflammation over a 14-day period. High H1N1 titers were recovered from airways at day 1, with viral RNA remaining detectable until day 9 postinfection. Despite viral clearance, bronchiolitis and alveolitis persisted at day 14 postinfection; histopathological analysis revealed alveolar septal thickening and intermittent type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. Our overall findings are consistent with the known susceptibility of pediatric populations to respiratory virus infection and suggest that intrinsic developmental differences in airway epithelial cell immune function may contribute to the limited efficacy of host defense during early childhood. IMPORTANCE To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of intrinsic developmental differences in infant airway epithelial cells that may contribute to the

  14. Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, Ellen F; Storer, James A; Fitzgerald, Megan E; Wasik, Bethany R; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Turner, Paul E; Pyle, Anna Marie; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2015-01-20

    Most isolates of human rhinovirus, the common cold virus, replicate more robustly at the cool temperatures found in the nasal cavity (33-35 °C) than at core body temperature (37 °C). To gain insight into the mechanism of temperature-dependent growth, we compared the transcriptional response of primary mouse airway epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus at 33 °C vs. 37 °C. Mouse airway cells infected with mouse-adapted rhinovirus 1B exhibited a striking enrichment in expression of antiviral defense response genes at 37 °C relative to 33 °C, which correlated with significantly higher expression levels of type I and type III IFN genes and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) at 37 °C. Temperature-dependent IFN induction in response to rhinovirus was dependent on the MAVS protein, a key signaling adaptor of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Stimulation of primary airway cells with the synthetic RLR ligand poly I:C led to greater IFN induction at 37 °C relative to 33 °C at early time points poststimulation and to a sustained increase in the induction of ISGs at 37 °C relative to 33 °C. Recombinant type I IFN also stimulated more robust induction of ISGs at 37 °C than at 33 °C. Genetic deficiency of MAVS or the type I IFN receptor in infected airway cells permitted higher levels of viral replication, particularly at 37 °C, and partially rescued the temperature-dependent growth phenotype. These findings demonstrate that in mouse airway cells, rhinovirus replicates preferentially at nasal cavity temperature due, in part, to a less efficient antiviral defense response of infected cells at cool temperature.

  15. Immune Responses and Viral Replication in Long-Term Inapparent Carrier Ponies Inoculated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott A.; Li, Feng; McKeon, Brian M.; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    Persistent infection of equids by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is typically characterized by a progression during the first year postinfection from chronic disease with recurring disease cycles to a long-term asymptomatic infection that is maintained indefinitely. The goal of the current study was to perform a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of the course of virus infection and development of host immunity in experimentally infected horses as they progressed from chronic disease to long-term inapparent carriage. We previously described the evolution of EIAV genomic quasispecies (C. Leroux, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:9627–9639, 1997) and host immune responses (S. A. Hammond, S. J. Cook, D. L. Lichtenstein, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:3840–3852, 1997) in four experimentally infected ponies during sequential disease episodes associated with chronic disease during the first 10 months postinfection. In the current study, we extended the studies of these experimentally infected ponies to 3 years postinfection to characterize the levels of virus replication and development of host immune responses associated with the progression from chronic disease to long-term inapparent infection. The results of these studies revealed over a 103-fold difference in the steady-state levels of plasma viral RNA detected during long-term inapparent infection that correlated with the severity of chronic disease, indicating different levels of control of virus replication during long-term inapparent infections. Detailed analyses of antibody and cellular immune responses in all four ponies over the 3-year course of infection revealed a similar evolution during the first year postinfection of robust humoral and cellular immunity that then remained relatively constant during long-term inapparent infection. These observations indicate that immune parameters that have previously been correlated with EIAV vaccine protection fail to provide

  16. Immune responses and viral replication in long-term inapparent carrier ponies inoculated with equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, S A; Li, F; McKeon, B M; Cook, S J; Issel, C J; Montelaro, R C

    2000-07-01

    Persistent infection of equids by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is typically characterized by a progression during the first year postinfection from chronic disease with recurring disease cycles to a long-term asymptomatic infection that is maintained indefinitely. The goal of the current study was to perform a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of the course of virus infection and development of host immunity in experimentally infected horses as they progressed from chronic disease to long-term inapparent carriage. We previously described the evolution of EIAV genomic quasispecies (C. Leroux, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:9627-9639, 1997) and host immune responses (S. A. Hammond, S. J. Cook, D. L. Lichtenstein, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:3840-3852, 1997) in four experimentally infected ponies during sequential disease episodes associated with chronic disease during the first 10 months postinfection. In the current study, we extended the studies of these experimentally infected ponies to 3 years postinfection to characterize the levels of virus replication and development of host immune responses associated with the progression from chronic disease to long-term inapparent infection. The results of these studies revealed over a 10(3)-fold difference in the steady-state levels of plasma viral RNA detected during long-term inapparent infection that correlated with the severity of chronic disease, indicating different levels of control of virus replication during long-term inapparent infections. Detailed analyses of antibody and cellular immune responses in all four ponies over the 3-year course of infection revealed a similar evolution during the first year postinfection of robust humoral and cellular immunity that then remained relatively constant during long-term inapparent infection. These observations indicate that immune parameters that have previously been correlated with EIAV vaccine protection fail to provide

  17. The human parvovirus B19 non-structural protein 1 N-terminal domain specifically binds to the origin of replication in the viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Zhao, Haiyan; Deng, Xuefeng; Qiu, Jianming; Tang, Liang

    2014-01-20

    The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of human parvovirus B19 plays a critical role in viral DNA replication. Previous studies identified the origin of replication in the viral DNA, which contains four DNA elements, namely NSBE1 to NSBE4, that are required for optimal viral replication (Guan et al., 2009). Here we have demonstrated in vitro that the NS1 N-terminal domain (NS1N) binds to the origin of replication in a sequence-specific, length-dependent manner that requires NSBE1 and NSBE2, while NSBE3 and NSBE4 are dispensable. Mutagenesis analysis has identified nucleotides in NSBE1 and NSBE2 that are critical for NS1N binding. These results suggest that NS1 binds to the NSBE1-NSBE2 region in the origin of replication, while NSBE3 and NSBE4 may provide binding sites for potential cellular factors. Such a specialized nucleoprotein complex may enable NS1 to nick the terminal resolution site and separate DNA strands during replication. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 Enhances Viral Replication in CD172a+ Monocytic Cells upon Adhesion to Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Kathlyn; Favoreel, Herman W; Poelaert, Katrien C K; Van Cleemput, Jolien; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-11-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a main cause of respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelopathy in horses. Monocytic cells (CD172a(+)) are the main carrier cells of EHV-1 during primary infection and are proposed to serve as a "Trojan horse" to facilitate the dissemination of EHV-1 to target organs. However, the mechanism by which EHV-1 is transferred from CD172a(+) cells to endothelial cells (EC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate EHV-1 transmission between these two cell types. We hypothesized that EHV-1 employs specific strategies to promote the adhesion of infected CD172a(+) cells to EC to facilitate EHV-1 spread. Here, we demonstrated that EHV-1 infection of CD172a(+) cells resulted in a 3- to 5-fold increase in adhesion to EC. Antibody blocking experiments indicated that α4β1, αLβ2, and αVβ3 integrins mediated adhesion of infected CD172a(+) cells to EC. We showed that integrin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were involved in EHV-1-induced CD172a(+) cell adhesion at early times of infection. EHV-1 replication was enhanced in adherent CD172a(+) cells, which correlates with the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In the presence of neutralizing antibodies, approximately 20% of infected CD172a(+) cells transferred cytoplasmic material to uninfected EC and 0.01% of infected CD172a(+) cells transmitted infectious virus to neighboring cells. Our results demonstrated that EHV-1 infection induces adhesion of CD172a(+) cells to EC, which enhances viral replication, but that transfer of viral material from CD172a(+) cells to EC is a very specific and rare event. These findings give new insights into the complex pathogenesis of EHV-1. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a highly prevalent pathogen worldwide, causing frequent outbreaks of abortion and myeloencephalopathy, even in vaccinated horses. After primary replication in the respiratory tract, EHV-1 disseminates

  19. The human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55 kDa protein obstructs inhibition of viral replication by type I interferon in normal human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdave S Chahal

    Full Text Available Vectors derived from human adenovirus type 5, which typically lack the E1A and E1B genes, induce robust innate immune responses that limit their therapeutic efficacy. We reported previously that the E1B 55 kDa protein inhibits expression of a set of cellular genes that is highly enriched for those associated with anti-viral defense and immune responses, and includes many interferon-sensitive genes. The sensitivity of replication of E1B 55 kDa null-mutants to exogenous interferon (IFN was therefore examined in normal human fibroblasts and respiratory epithelial cells. Yields of the mutants were reduced at least 500-fold, compared to only 5-fold, for wild-type (WT virus replication. To investigate the mechanistic basis of such inhibition, the accumulation of viral early proteins and genomes was compared by immunoblotting and qPCR, respectively, in WT- and mutant-infected cells in the absence or presence of exogenous IFN. Both the concentration of viral genomes detected during the late phase and the numbers of viral replication centers formed were strongly reduced in IFN-treated cells in the absence of the E1B protein, despite production of similar quantities of viral replication proteins. These defects could not be attributed to degradation of entering viral genomes, induction of apoptosis, or failure to reorganize components of PML nuclear bodies. Nor was assembly of the E1B- and E4 Orf6 protein- E3 ubiquitin ligase required to prevent inhibition of viral replication by IFN. However, by using RT-PCR, the E1B 55 kDa protein was demonstrated to be a potent repressor of expression of IFN-inducible genes in IFN-treated cells. We propose that a primary function of the previously described transcriptional repression activity of the E1B 55 kDa protein is to block expression of IFN- inducible genes, and hence to facilitate formation of viral replication centers and genome replication.

  20. Curaxin CBL0100 Blocks HIV-1 Replication and Reactivation through Inhibition of Viral Transcriptional Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Maxime J; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Huang, Huachao; Brennan, Justin; Simpson, Sydney; Purmal, Andrei; Gurova, Katerina; Keefer, Michael C; Kobie, James J; Santoso, Netty G; Zhu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), predominantly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), remains incurable. The barrier to a cure lies in the virus' ability to establish a latent infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Unsurprisingly, efforts for a sterilizing cure have focused on the "shock and kill" strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) to complement cART in order to eliminate these latent reservoirs. However, this method faces numerous challenges. Recently, the "block and lock" strategy has been proposed. It aims to reinforce a deep state of latency and prevent sporadic reactivation ("blip") of HIV-1 using latency-promoting agents (LPAs) for a functional cure. Our studies of curaxin 100 (CBL0100), a small-molecule targeting the facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex, show that it blocks both HIV-1 replication and reactivation in in vitro and ex vivo models of HIV-1. Mechanistic investigation elucidated that CBL0100 preferentially targets HIV-1 transcriptional elongation and decreases the occupancy of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) and FACT at the HIV-1 promoter region. In conclusion, CBL0100 is a newly identified inhibitor of HIV-1 transcription that can be used as an LPA in the "block and lock" cure strategy.

  1. Morphological correlates of genital HPV infection: Viral replication, transcription and gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, C.P.; Friedman, D.; Nuovo, G.; Silverstein, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Current studies indicate a strong correlation between specific morphological changes and the presence of certain HPV strains in precancerous squamous epithelium of the cervix, vulva and vagina. HPV type 16 is the most commonly detected HPV type in cervical lesions in our experience, and 85% of these lesions exhibit some morphological features associated with aneuploid epithelium (CIN). However, over 50% of these lesions containing HPV 16 DNA exhibit, in addition, foci of epithelium indistinguishable from condyloma, although in our experience, only one HPV type(16) is detected in the majority of these lesions. DNA-DNA in situ hybridization analysis of these lesions containing HPV 16 DNA has demonstrated nucleic acids in areas resembling both condyloma and CIN, with the greatest concentration in mature cells containing cytoplasmic maturation. Ten percent of lesions containing HPV 16 produce detectable capsid antigens, and we have confirmed the presence of these antigens in the same areas which hybridize in-situ for HPV DNA. Recent studies using biotin and S-35 labeled RNa probes constructed in GEM-1 vectors indicate that early HPV genes are expressed primarily in the upper (more mature) regions of the neoplastic epithelium. Thus maturation appears to exert a positive influence on a variety of HPV functions in neoplastic epithelium, including DNA replication, early and late gene expression. It is possible that patterns of gene expression may vary between lesions associated with different HPV types or different morphologies. This possibility is being explored

  2. Curaxin CBL0100 Blocks HIV-1 Replication and Reactivation through Inhibition of Viral Transcriptional Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime J. Jean

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, predominantly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, remains incurable. The barrier to a cure lies in the virus' ability to establish a latent infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Unsurprisingly, efforts for a sterilizing cure have focused on the “shock and kill” strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRAs to complement cART in order to eliminate these latent reservoirs. However, this method faces numerous challenges. Recently, the “block and lock” strategy has been proposed. It aims to reinforce a deep state of latency and prevent sporadic reactivation (“blip” of HIV-1 using latency-promoting agents (LPAs for a functional cure. Our studies of curaxin 100 (CBL0100, a small-molecule targeting the facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT complex, show that it blocks both HIV-1 replication and reactivation in in vitro and ex vivo models of HIV-1. Mechanistic investigation elucidated that CBL0100 preferentially targets HIV-1 transcriptional elongation and decreases the occupancy of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II and FACT at the HIV-1 promoter region. In conclusion, CBL0100 is a newly identified inhibitor of HIV-1 transcription that can be used as an LPA in the “block and lock” cure strategy.

  3. Mutational Analysis of the Hypervariable Region of Hepatitis E Virus Reveals Its Involvement in the Efficiency of Viral RNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Pudupakam, R. S.; Kenney, Scott P.; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A.; LeRoith, Tanya; Pierson, F. William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication...

  4. Variants in host viral replication cycle genes are associated with heterosexual HIV-1 acquisition in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Abigail W; Mackelprang, Romel D; Celum, Connie; De Bruyn, Guy; Beima-Sofie, Kristin; John-Stewart, Grace; Ronald, Allan; Mugo, Nelly R; Buckingham, Kati; Bamshad, Michael J; Mullins, James I; McElrath, M J; Lingappa, Jairam R

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated genetic variants in 51 candidate genes encoding proteins that interact with HIV-1 during the virus life cycle for association with HIV-1 outcomes in an African cohort. Using a nested case-control study within a cohort of heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we genotyped 475 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) and 18 SNPs previously associated with HIV-1 transmission and/or progression (candidate SNPs) in 51 host genes. We used logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for sex, age, and population stratification to detect SNP associations with HIV-1 acquisition, plasma HIV-1 set point, and a composite measure of HIV-1 disease progression. Significant thresholds for tagSNP, but not candidate SNP, associations were subjected to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. We evaluated 491 HIV-1-infected and 335 HIV-1-uninfected individuals for 493 SNPs, 459 of which passed quality control filters. Candidate SNP PPIA rs8177826 and tagSNP SMARCB1 rs6003904 were significantly associated with HIV-1 acquisition risk (odds ratio = 0.14, P = 0.03, and odds ratio = 2.11, Pcorr = 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, the TT genotype for CCR5 rs1799988 was associated with a mean 0.2 log10 copies per milliliter lower plasma HIV-1 RNA set point (P = 0.04). We also identified significant associations with HIV-1 disease progression for variants in FUT2 and MBL2. Using a targeted gene approach, we identified variants in host genes whose protein products interact with HIV-1 during the virus replication cycle and were associated with HIV-1 outcomes in this African cohort.

  5. The impact of early immune destruction on the kinetics of postacute viral replication in rhesus monkey infected with the simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Schleif, William A.; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Handt, Larry; Chen, Minchun; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Liang Xiaoping; Fu Tongming; Tang Aimin; Wilson, Keith A.; McElhaugh, Michael; Carella, Anthony; Tan, Charles; Connolly, Brett; Hill, Susan; Klein, Hilton; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Set-point viral load is positively correlated with the extent of initial viral replication in pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the correlation, we conducted a systematic investigation in rhesus monkeys infected with the highly pathogenic SHIV 89.6P. This model is widely used in the preclinical evaluation of AIDS vaccine candidates and a thorough understanding of the model's biology is important to the proper interpretation of these evaluations. We found that the levels of peak viremia were positively correlated not only with the levels of set-point viremia but, importantly, with the extent of initial overall immune destruction as indicated by the degree of CD4 + T cell depletion and lymph node germinal center (GC) formation. The extent of initial overall immune destruction was inversely correlated with subsequent development and maintenance of virus-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Thus, these data suggest that the extent of early immune damage determines the development and durability of virus-specific immunity, thereby playing a critical role in establishing the levels of set-point viral replication in SHIV infection. Vaccines that limit both the initial viral replication and the extent of early immune damage will therefore mediate long-term virus replication control and mitigation of long-term immune destruction in this model of immunodeficiency virus infection

  6. Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Viral Replication by In Situ Hybridization in Primary Lymphoid Organs From Naturally and Experimentally Infected Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Segalés, J.; Fernandes, L.

    2013-01-01

    was not detected in the experimentally PCV2-inoculated pigs or the control animals. Among the PMWS-affected pigs, 19 of 20 (95%) thymuses were positive for PCV2 by CP ISH, and 7 of 19 (37%) of these also supported viral replication. By CP ISH, PCV2 was detected in 16 of 33 (48%) bone marrow samples, and 5 of 16...

  7. Enterovirus 71 virion-associated galectin-1 facilitates viral replication and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Huan Lee

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection causes a myriad of diseases from mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease or herpangina to fatal brain stem encephalitis complicated with pulmonary edema. Several severe EV71 endemics have occurred in Asia-Pacific region, including Taiwan, and have become a serious threat to children's health. EV71 infection is initiated by the attachment of the virion to the target cell surface. Although this process relies primarily upon interaction between viruses and cell surface receptors, soluble factors may also influence the binding of EV71 to host cells. Galectin-1 has been reported to participate in several virus infections, but is not addressed in EV71. In this study, we found that the serum levels of galectin-1 in EV71-infected children were higher than those in non-infected people. In EV71 infected cells, galectin-1 was found to be associated with the EV71 VP1 and VP3 via carbohydrate residues and subsequently released and bound to another cell surface along with the virus. EV71 propagated from galectin-1 knockdown SK-N-SH cells exhibited lower infectivity in cultured cells and less pathogenicity in mice than the virus propagated from parental cells. In addition, this galectin-1-free EV71 virus was sensitive to high temperature and lost its viability after long-term storage, which could be restored following supplement of recombinant galectin-1. Taken together, our findings uncover a new role of galectin-1 in facilitating EV71 virus infection.

  8. Barrier to auto integration factor becomes dephosphorylated during HSV-1 Infection and Can Act as a host defense by impairing viral DNA replication and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Augusta; Thunuguntla, Prasanth; Wicklund, April; Jones, Clinton; Wiebe, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    BAF (Barrier to Autointegration Factor) is a highly conserved DNA binding protein that senses poxviral DNA in the cytoplasm and tightly binds to the viral genome to interfere with DNA replication and transcription. To counteract BAF, a poxviral-encoded protein kinase phosphorylates BAF, which renders BAF unable to bind DNA and allows efficient viral replication to occur. Herein, we examined how BAF phosphorylation is affected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and tested the ability of BAF to interfere with HSV-1 productive infection. Interestingly, we found that BAF phosphorylation decreases markedly following HSV-1 infection. To determine whether dephosphorylated BAF impacts HSV-1 productive infection, we employed cell lines stably expressing a constitutively unphosphorylated form of BAF (BAF-MAAAQ) and cells overexpressing wild type (wt) BAF for comparison. Although HSV-1 production in cells overexpressing wtBAF was similar to that in cells expressing no additional BAF, viral growth was reduced approximately 80% in the presence of BAF-MAAAQ. Experiments were also performed to determine the mechanism of the antiviral activity of BAF with the following results. BAF-MAAAQ was localized to the nucleus, whereas wtBAF was dispersed throughout cells prior to infection. Following infection, wtBAF becomes dephosphorylated and relocalized to the nucleus. Additionally, BAF was associated with the HSV-1 genome during infection, with BAF-MAAAQ associated to a greater extent than wtBAF. Importantly, unphosphorylated BAF inhibited both viral DNA replication and gene expression. For example, expression of two regulatory proteins, ICP0 and VP16, were substantially reduced in cells expressing BAF-MAAAQ. However, other viral genes were not dramatically affected suggesting that expression of certain viral genes can be differentially regulated by unphosphorylated BAF. Collectively, these results suggest that BAF can act in a phosphorylation-regulated manner to impair

  9. A Novel, Highly Selective Inhibitor of Pestivirus Replication That Targets the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Leyssen, Pieter; Mabery, Eric; Boddeker, Nina; Vrancken, Robert; Froeyen, Matheus; Ansari, Israrul H.; Dutartre, Hélène; Rozenski, Jef; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Letellier, Carine; Lanford, Robert; Canard, Bruno; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Donis, Ruben O.; Herdewijn, Piet; Watson, Julia; De Clercq, Erik; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Neyts, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We report on the highly potent and selective antipestivirus activity of 5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-phenyl-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (BPIP). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) for inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-induced cytopathic effect formation was 0.04 ± 0.01 μM. Comparable reduction of viral RNA synthesis (EC50 = 0.12 ± 0.02 μM) and production of infectious virus (EC50 = 0.074 ± 0.003 μM) were observed. The selectivity index (ratio of 50% cytostatic concentration/EC50) of BPIP was ∼2,000. BPIP was inactive against the hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon and yellow fever virus but demonstrated weak activity against GB virus. Drug-resistant mutants were at least 300-fold less susceptible to BPIP than wild-type virus; showed cross-resistance to N-propyl-N-[2-(2H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indol-3-ylthio)ethyl]-1-propanamine (VP32947), and carried the F224S mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). When the F224S mutation was introduced into an infectious clone, the drug-resistant phenotype was obtained. BPIP did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp, but did inhibit the activity of replication complexes (RCs). Computational docking revealed that F224 is located at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase. Docking of BPIP in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed aromatic ring stacking, some hydrophobic contacts, and a hydrogen bond. Since two structurally unrelated compounds, i.e., BPIP and VP32947, target the same region of the BVDV RdRp, this position may be expected to be critical in the functioning of the polymerase or assembly of the RC. The potential of BPIP for the treatment of pestivirus and hepacivirus infections is discussed. PMID:16352539

  10. Residual viraemia in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S.R.; Katzenstein, T.L.; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2008-01-01

    )-microglobulin (+22 nmol/l, P = 0.016) and time-points with PCR-RV were also associated with higher IgA (+0.82 micromol/l, P = 0.035) and CD8-count (+1.18-fold, P = 0.001). Patients with TMA-RV in the study-period had higher HIV-1 RNA pre-HAART (P = 0.032). RV was not associated with proviral-HIV-1-DNA, CD4......Despite undetectable viral load in conventional assays, probably all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected patients have residual viraemia (RV) detectable by ultra-sensitive assays. To study this issue, this study investigated virologic and immunologic consequences of RV in highly active...... antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA or=1 episode with TMA-RV whereas 9 patients had undetectable TMA-RV throughout the study-period. Time-points with TMA-RV and PCR-RV were associated with higher circulating sTNFrII (+0.234 ng/ml, P = 0.030) and beta(2...

  11. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. BRD4 Phosphorylation Regulates HPV E2-Mediated Viral Transcription, Origin Replication, and Cellular MMP-9 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-Yuan Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification can modulate protein conformation and alter binding partner recruitment within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report that bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4, a transcription co-factor and chromatin regulator, uses a phosphorylation-induced switch mechanism to recruit E2 protein encoded by cancer-associated human papillomavirus (HPV to viral early gene and cellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 promoters. Enhanced MMP-9 expression, induced upon keratinocyte differentiation, occurs via BRD4-dependent recruitment of active AP-1 and NF-κB to their target sequences. This is triggered by replacement of AP-1 family members JunB and JunD by c-Jun and by re-localization of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In addition, BRD4 phosphorylation is critical for E2- and origin-dependent HPV DNA replication. A class of phospho-BRD4-targeting compounds, distinct from the BET bromodomain inhibitors, effectively blocks BRD4 phosphorylation-specific functions in transcription and factor recruitment.

  13. PolyC-binding protein 1 interacts with 5'-untranslated region of enterovirus 71 RNA in membrane-associated complex to facilitate viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Luo

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, which may lead to severe neurological disorders and mortality in children. EV71 genome is a positive single-stranded RNA containing a single open reading frame (ORF flanked by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR and 3'UTR. The 5'UTR is fundamentally important for virus replication by interacting with cellular proteins. Here, we revealed that poly(C-binding protein 1 (PCBP1 specifically binds to the 5'UTR of EV71. Detailed studies indicated that the RNA-binding K-homologous 1 (KH1 domain of PCBP1 is responsible for its binding to the stem-loop I and IV of EV71 5'UTR. Interestingly, we revealed that PCBP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but mainly localized in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells due to interaction and co-localization with the viral RNA. Furthermore, sub-cellular distribution analysis showed that PCBP1 is located in ER-derived membrane, in where virus replication occurred in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells, suggesting PCBP1 is recruited in a membrane-associated replication complex. In addition, we found that the binding of PCBP1 to 5'UTR resulted in enhancing EV71 viral protein expression and virus production so as to facilitate viral replication. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism in which PCBP1 as a positive regulator involved in regulation of EV71 replication in the host specialized membrane-associated replication complex, which provides an insight into cellular factors involved in EV71 replication.

  14. Fluorescent reporter signals, EGFP and DsRed, encoded in HIV-1 facilitate the detection of productively infected cells and cell-associated viral replication levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka eTerahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric analysis is a reliable and convenient method for investigating molecules at the single cell level. Previously, recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains were constructed that express a fluorescent reporter, either enhanced green fluorescent protein or DsRed, which allow the monitoring of HIV-1-infected cells by flow cytometry. The present study further investigated the potential of these recombinant viruses in terms of whether the HIV-1 fluorescent reporters would be helpful in evaluating viral replication based on fluorescence intensity. When primary CD4+ T cells were infected with recombinant viruses, the fluorescent reporter intensity measured by flow cytometry was associated with the level of CD4 downmodulation and Gag p24 expression in infected cells. Interestingly, some HIV-1-infected cells, in which CD4 was only moderately downmodulated, were reporter-positive but Gag p24-negative. Furthermore, when the activation status of primary CD4+ T cells was modulated by T cell receptor-mediated stimulation, we confirmed the preferential viral production upon strong stimulation and showed that the intensity of the fluorescent reporter within a proportion of HIV-1-infected cells was correlated with the viral replication level. These findings indicate that a fluorescent reporter encoded within HIV-1 is useful for the sensitive detection of productively-infected cells at different stages of infection and for evaluating cell-associated viral replication at the single cell level.

  15. The novel immunosuppressive protein kinase C inhibitor sotrastaurin has no pro-viral effects on the replication cycle of hepatitis B or C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas von Hahn

    Full Text Available The pan-protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor sotrastaurin (AEB071 is a novel immunosuppressant currently in phase II trials for immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation. Besides T-cell activation, PKC affects numerous cellular processes that are potentially important for the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, major blood-borne pathogens prevalent in solid organ transplant recipients. This study uses state of the art virological assays to assess the direct, non-immune mediated effects of sotrastaurin on HBV and HCV. Most importantly, sotrastaurin had no pro-viral effect on either HBV or HCV. In the presence of high concentrations of sotrastaurin, well above those used clinically and close to levels where cytotoxic effects become detectable, there was a reduction of HCV and HBV replication. This reduction is very likely due to cytotoxic and/or anti-proliferative effects rather than direct anti-viral activity of the drug. Replication cycle stages other than genome replication such as viral cell entry and spread of HCV infection directly between adjacent cells was clearly unaffected by sotrastaurin. These data support the evaluation of sotrastaurin in HBV and/or HCV infected transplant recipients.

  16. The Oncogenic Small Tumor Antigen of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Is an Iron-Sulfur Cluster Protein That Enhances Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sabrina H; Wang, Ranran; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Knight, Simon A B; Buck, Christopher B; You, Jianxin

    2016-02-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) plays an important role in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). MCPyV small T (sT) antigen has emerged as the key oncogenic driver in MCC carcinogenesis. It has also been shown to promote MCPyV LT-mediated replication by stabilizing LT. The importance of MCPyV sT led us to investigate sT functions and to identify potential ways to target this protein. We discovered that MCPyV sT purified from bacteria contains iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis showed that MCPyV sT coordinates a [2Fe-2S] and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. We also observed phenotypic conservation of Fe/S coordination in the sTs of other polyomaviruses. Since Fe/S clusters are critical cofactors in many nucleic acid processing enzymes involved in DNA unwinding and polymerization, our results suggested the hypothesis that MCPyV sT might be directly involved in viral replication. Indeed, we demonstrated that MCPyV sT enhances LT-mediated replication in a manner that is independent of its previously reported ability to stabilize LT. MCPyV sT translocates to nuclear foci containing actively replicating viral DNA, supporting a direct role for sT in promoting viral replication. Mutations of Fe/S cluster-coordinating cysteines in MCPyV sT abolish its ability to stimulate viral replication. Moreover, treatment with cidofovir, a potent antiviral agent, robustly inhibits the sT-mediated enhancement of MCPyV replication but has little effect on the basal viral replication driven by LT alone. This finding further indicates that MCPyV sT plays a direct role in stimulating viral DNA replication and introduces cidofovir as a possible drug for controlling MCPyV infection. MCPyV is associated with a highly aggressive form of skin cancer in humans. Epidemiological surveys for MCPyV seropositivity and sequencing analyses of healthy human skin suggest that MCPyV may represent a common component of the human skin microbial flora. However, much of the biology of the virus

  17. Lipid droplet-binding protein TIP47 regulates hepatitis C Virus RNA replication through interaction with the viral NS5A protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee A Vogt

    Full Text Available The nonstructural protein NS5A has emerged as a new drug target in antiviral therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection. NS5A is critically involved in viral RNA replication that takes place at newly formed membranes within the endoplasmic reticulum (membranous web and assists viral assembly in the close vicinity of lipid droplets (LDs. To identify host proteins that interact with NS5A, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the N-terminus of NS5A (amino acids 1-31, a well-studied α-helical domain important for the membrane tethering of NS5A. Our studies identified the LD-associated host protein, Tail-Interacting Protein 47 (TIP47 as a novel NS5A interaction partner. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments in Huh7 hepatoma cells confirmed the interaction of TIP47 with full-length NS5A. shRNA-mediated knockdown of TIP47 caused a more than 10-fold decrease in the propagation of full-length infectious HCV in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. A similar reduction was observed when TIP47 was knocked down in cells harboring an autonomously replicating HCV RNA (subgenomic replicon, indicating that TIP47 is required for efficient HCV RNA replication. A single point mutation (W9A in NS5A that disrupts the interaction with TIP47 but preserves proper subcellular localization severely decreased HCV RNA replication. In biochemical membrane flotation assays, TIP47 cofractionated with HCV NS3, NS5A, NS5B proteins, and viral RNA, and together with nonstructural viral proteins was uniquely distributed to lower-density LD-rich membrane fractions in cells actively replicating HCV RNA. Collectively, our data support a model where TIP47--via its interaction with NS5A--serves as a novel cofactor for HCV infection possibly by integrating LD membranes into the membranous web.

  18. Influenza A virus encoding secreted Gaussia luciferase as useful tool to analyze viral replication and its inhibition by antiviral compounds and cellular proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Eckert

    Full Text Available Reporter genes inserted into viral genomes enable the easy and rapid quantification of virus replication, which is instrumental to efficient in vitro screening of antiviral compounds or in vivo analysis of viral spread and pathogenesis. Based on a published design, we have generated several replication competent influenza A viruses carrying either fluorescent proteins or Gaussia luciferase. Reporter activity could be readily quantified in infected cultures, but the virus encoding Gaussia luciferase was more stable than viruses bearing fluorescent proteins and was therefore analyzed in detail. Quantification of Gaussia luciferase activity in the supernatants of infected culture allowed the convenient and highly sensitive detection of viral spread, and enzymatic activity correlated with the number of infectious particles released from infected cells. Furthermore, the Gaussia luciferase encoding virus allowed the sensitive quantification of the antiviral activity of the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI zanamivir and the host cell interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM proteins 1-3, which are known to inhibit influenza virus entry. Finally, the virus was used to demonstrate that influenza A virus infection is sensitive to a modulator of endosomal cholesterol, in keeping with the concept that IFITMs inhibit viral entry by altering cholesterol levels in the endosomal membrane. In sum, we report the characterization of a novel influenza A reporter virus, which allows fast and sensitive detection of viral spread and its inhibition, and we show that influenza A virus entry is sensitive to alterations of endosomal cholesterol levels.

  19. Early viral replication and induced or constitutive immunity in rainbow trout families with differential resistance to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; LaPatra, S.E.; Woodson, J.C.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess correlates of innate resistance in rainbow trout full-sibling families that differ in susceptibility to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). As part of a commercial breeding program, full-sibling families were challenged with IHNV by waterborne exposure at the 1 g size to determine susceptibility to IHNV. Progeny from select families (N = 7 families) that varied in susceptibility (ranging from 32 to 90% cumulative percent mortality (CPM)) were challenged again at the 10 g size by intra-peritoneal injection and overall mortality, early viral replication and immune responses were evaluated. Mortality challenges included 20–40 fish per family while viral replication and immune response studies included 6 fish per family at each time point (24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (hpi)). CPM at the 1 g size was significantly correlated with CPM at the 10 g size, indicating that inherent resistance was a stable trait irrespective of size. In the larger fish, viral load was measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in the anterior kidney and was a significant predictor of family disease outcome at 48 hpi. Type I interferon (IFN) transcript levels were significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 48 and 72 hpi, while type II IFN gene expression was significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 24 and 48 hpi. Mean family type I but not type II IFN gene expression was weakly associated with susceptibility at 72 hpi. There was no association between mean family susceptibility and the constitutive expression of a range of innate immune genes (e.g. type I and II IFN pathway genes, cytokine and viral recognition receptor genes). The majority of survivors from the challenge had detectable serum neutralizing antibody titers but no trend was observed among families. This result suggests that even the most resistant families experienced sufficient levels of viral replication to trigger specific

  20. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection.

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    Emily Adland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004. The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001, but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007. Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002. In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression.

  1. Identification of diverse defense mechanisms in trout red blood cells in response to VHSV halted viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nombela, Ivan; Puente-Marin, Sara; Chico, Veronica; Villena, Alberto J; Carracedo, Begoña; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, Maria Carmen; Mercado, Luis; Perez, Luis; Coll, Julio; Estepa, Amparo; Ortega-Villaizan, Maria Del Mar

    2017-01-01

    Background: It has been described that fish nucleated red blood cells (RBCs) generate a wide variety of immune-related gene transcripts when viruses highly replicate inside them and are their main target cell. The immune response and mechanisms of fish RBCs against viruses targeting other cells or tissues has not yet been explored and is the objective of our study. Methods: Trout RBCs were obtained from peripheral blood, ficoll purified and exposed to Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia virus (VHSV). Immune response was evaluated by means of RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) protein profiling Results: VHSV N gene transcripts incremented early postexposure and were drastically decreased after 6 hours postexposure (hpe). The expression of the type I interferon ( ifn1 ) gene was significantly downregulated at early postexposure (3 hpe), together with a gradual downregulation of interferon-inducible mx and pkr genes until 72 hpe. Type I IFN protein was downregulated and interferon-inducible Mx protein was maintained at basal levels. Co-culture assays of RBCs with TSS (stromal cell line from spleen) revealed the IFN crosstalk between both cell types. On the other hand, anti-microbial peptide β-defensin 1 and neutrophil chemotactic factor interleukin 8 were slightly upregulated in VHSV-exposed RBCs Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) revealed that VHSV exposure can induce a global protein downregulation in trout RBCs, mainly related to RNA stability and proteasome pathways. The antioxidant/antiviral response is also suggested to be involved in the response of trout RBCs to VHSV. Conclusions: A variety of mechanisms are proposed to be implicated in the antiviral response of trout RBCs against VHSV halted infection. Ongoing research is focused on understanding the mechanisms in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first report that implicates fish RBCs in the antiviral

  2. Metabolic abnormalities and viral replication are associated with biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T I; Borkowsky, W; DiMeglio, L A; Dooley, L; Geffner, M E; Hazra, R; McFarland, E J; Mendez, A J; Patel, K; Siberry, G K; Van Dyke, R B; Worrell, C J; Jacobson, D L; Shearer, William; Cooper, Norma; Harris, Lynette; Purswani, Murli; Baig, Mahboobullah; Cintron, Anna; Puga, Ana; Navarro, Sandra; Patton, Doyle; Burchett, Sandra; Karthas, Nancy; Kammerer, Betsy; Yogev, Ram; Malee, Kathleen; Hunter, Scott; Cagwin, Eric; Wiznia, Andrew; Burey, Marlene; Nozyce, Molly; Chen, Janet; Gobs, Elizabeth; Grant, Mitzie; Knapp, Katherine; Allison, Kim; Garvie, Patricia; Acevedo-Flores, Midnela; Rios, Heida; Olivera, Vivian; Silio, Margarita; Borne, Cheryl; Sirois, Patricia; Spector, Stephen; Norris, Kim; Nichols, Sharon; McFarland, Elizabeth; Barr, Emily; Chambers, Carrie; Watson, Douglas; Messenger, Nicole; Belanger, Rose; Dieudonne, Arry; Bettica, Linda; Adubato, Susan; Scott, Gwendolyn; Himic, Lisa; Willen, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    HIV-infected children may be at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. We compared levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in HIV-infected children (with and without hyperlipidaemia) with those in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), and determined factors associated with these biomarkers. A prospective cohort study was carried out. Biomarkers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1)], coagulant dysfunction (fibrinogen and P-selectin), endothelial dysfunction [soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM) and E-selectin], and metabolic dysfunction (adiponectin) were measured in 226 HIV-infected and 140 HEU children. Anthropometry, body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, HIV disease severity, and antiretroviral therapy were recorded. The median ages of the children were 12.3 years in the HIV-infected group and 10.1 years in the HEU group. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores, waist and hip circumferences, and percentage body fat were lower in the HIV-infected children. Total and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children also had higher MCP-1, fibrinogen, sICAM and sVCAM levels. In multivariable analyses in the HIV-infected children alone, BMI z-score was associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen, but lower MCP-1 and sVCAM. Unfavourable lipid profiles were positively associated with IL-6, MCP-1, fibrinogen, and P- and E-selectin, whereas increased HIV viral load was associated with markers of inflammation (MCP-1 and CRP) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM and sVCAM). HIV-infected children have higher levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction than do HEU children. Risk factors associated with higher biomarkers include unfavourable lipid levels and active HIV replication. © 2011 British HIV

  3. Construction of a subgenomic CV-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of CV-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype CV-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full CV-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP CV-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the CV-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP CV-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate CV-B3 replication activities in human target cell models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Viral Polymerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung H.

    2016-01-01

    Viral polymerases play a central role in viral genome replication and transcription. Based on the genome type and the specific needs of particular virus, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are found in various viruses. Viral polymerases are generally active as a single protein capable of carrying out multiple functions related to viral genome synthesis. Specifically, viral polymerases use variety of mechanisms to recognize initial binding sites, ensure processive elongation, terminate replication at the end of the genome, and also coordinate the chemical steps of nucleic acid synthesis with other enzymatic activities. This review focuses on different viral genome replication and transcription strategies, and the polymerase interactions with various viral proteins that are necessary to complete genome synthesis. PMID:22297518

  5. Human parvovirus B19 infection causes cell cycle arrest of human erythroid progenitors at late S phase that favors viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Kleiboeker, Steve; Deng, Xuefeng; Qiu, Jianming

    2013-12-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection has a unique tropism to human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) in human bone marrow and the fetal liver. It has been reported that both B19V infection and expression of the large nonstructural protein NS1 arrested EPCs at a cell cycle status with a 4 N DNA content, which was previously claimed to be "G2/M arrest." However, a B19V mutant infectious DNA (M20(mTAD2)) replicated well in B19V-semipermissive UT7/Epo-S1 cells but did not induce G2/M arrest (S. Lou, Y. Luo, F. Cheng, Q. Huang, W. Shen, S. Kleiboeker, J. F. Tisdale, Z. Liu, and J. Qiu, J. Virol. 86:10748-10758, 2012). To further characterize cell cycle arrest during B19V infection of EPCs, we analyzed the cell cycle change using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-labeling and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, which precisely establishes the cell cycle pattern based on both cellular DNA replication and nuclear DNA content. We found that although both B19V NS1 transduction and infection immediately arrested cells at a status of 4 N DNA content, B19V-infected 4 N cells still incorporated BrdU, indicating active DNA synthesis. Notably, the BrdU incorporation was caused neither by viral DNA replication nor by cellular DNA repair that could be initiated by B19V infection-induced cellular DNA damage. Moreover, several S phase regulators were abundantly expressed and colocalized within the B19V replication centers. More importantly, replication of the B19V wild-type infectious DNA, as well as the M20(mTAD2) mutant, arrested cells at S phase. Taken together, our results confirmed that B19V infection triggers late S phase arrest, which presumably provides cellular S phase factors for viral DNA replication.

  6. Cytoplasmic translocation of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein and its binding to viral RNA during Japanese encephalitis virus infection inhibits virus replication.

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    Deepika Bhullar

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome containing a single open reading frame flanked by the 5'- and 3'-non-coding regions (NCRs. The virus genome replicates via a negative-sense RNA intermediate. The NCRs and their complementary sequences in the negative-sense RNA are the sites for assembly of the RNA replicase complex thereby regulating the RNA synthesis and virus replication. In this study, we show that the 55-kDa polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB interacts in vitro with both the 5'-NCR of the positive-sense genomic RNA--5NCR(+, and its complementary sequence in the negative-sense replication intermediate RNA--3NCR(-. The interaction of viral RNA with PTB was validated in infected cells by JEV RNA co-immunoprecipitation and JEV RNA-PTB colocalization experiments. Interestingly, we observed phosphorylation-coupled translocation of nuclear PTB to cytoplasmic foci that co-localized with JEV RNA early during JEV infection. Our studies employing the PTB silencing and over-expression in cultured cells established an inhibitory role of PTB in JEV replication. Using RNA-protein binding assay we show that PTB competitively inhibits association of JEV 3NCR(- RNA with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5 protein, an event required for the synthesis of the plus-sense genomic RNA. cAMP is known to promote the Protein kinase A (PKA-mediated PTB phosphorylation. We show that cells treated with a cAMP analogue had an enhanced level of phosphorylated PTB in the cytoplasm and a significantly suppressed JEV replication. Data presented here show a novel, cAMP-induced, PTB-mediated, innate host response that could effectively suppress JEV replication in mammalian cells.

  7. Modulation of HIV-1 Gag NC/p1 cleavage efficiency affects protease inhibitor resistance and viral replicative capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maarseveen Noortje M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the substrate of HIV-1 protease, especially changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site, can directly contribute to protease inhibitor (PI resistance and also compensate for defects in viral replicative capacity (RC due to a drug resistant protease. These NC/p1 changes are known to enhance processing of the Gag protein. To investigate the capacity of HIV-1 to modulate Gag cleavage and its consequences for PI resistance and RC, we performed a detailed enzymatic and virological analysis using a set of PI resistant NC/p1 variants (HXB2431V, HXB2436E+437T, HXB2437T and HXB2437V. Results Here, we demonstrate that single NC/p1 mutants, which displayed only a slight increase in PI resistance did not show an obvious change in RC. In contrast, the double NC/p1 mutant, which displayed a clear increase in processing efficiency and PI resistance, demonstrated a clear reduction in RC. Cleavage analysis showed that a tridecameric NC/p1 peptide representing the double NC/p1 mutant was cleaved in two specific ways instead of one. The observed decrease in RC for the double NC/p1 mutant (HXB2436E+437T could (partially be restored by either reversion of the 436E change or by acquisition of additional changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site at codon 435 or 438 as was revealed during in vitro evolution experiments. These changes not only restored RC but also reduced PI resistance levels. Furthermore these changes normalized Gag processing efficiency and obstructed the novel secondary cleavage site observed for the double NC/p1 mutant. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate that HIV-1 can modulate Gag processing and thereby PI resistance. Distinct increases in Gag cleavage and PI resistance result in a reduced RC that can only be restored by amino acid changes in NC/p1 which reduce Gag processing to an optimal rate.

  8. Effects of mutations within the SV40 large T antigen ATPase/p53 binding domain on viral replication and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, K W; Srinivasan, A; Vartikar, J V; Pipas, J M

    1998-01-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is a 708 amino-acid protein possessing multiple biochemical activities that play distinct roles in productive infection or virus-induced cell transformation. The carboxy-terminal portion of T antigen includes a domain that carries the nucleotide binding and ATPase activities of the protein, as well as sequences required for T antigen to associate with the cellular tumor suppressor p53. Consequently this domain functions both in viral DNA replication and cellular transformation. We have generated a collection of SV40 mutants with amino-acid deletions, insertions or substitutions in specific domains of the protein. Here we report the properties of nine mutants with single or multiple substitutions between amino acids 402 and 430, a region thought to be important for both the p53 binding and ATPase functions. The mutants were examined for the ability to produce infectious progeny virions, replicate viral DNA in vivo, perform in trans complementation tests, and transform established cell lines. Two of the mutants exhibited a wild-type phenotype in all these tests. The remaining seven mutants were defective for plaque formation and viral DNA replication, but in each case these defects could be complemented by a wild-type T antigen supplied in trans. One of these replication-defective mutants efficiently transformed the REF52 and C3H10T1/2 cell lines as assessed by the dense-focus assay. The remaining six mutants were defective for transforming REF52 cells and transformed the C3H10T1/2 line with a reduced efficiency. The ability of mutant T antigen to transform REF52 cells correlated with their ability to induce increased levels of p53.

  9. Replicative homeostasis II: Influence of polymerase fidelity on RNA virus quasispecies biology: Implications for immune recognition, viral autoimmunity and other "virus receptor" diseases

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    Sallie Richard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much of the worlds' population is in active or imminent danger from established infectious pathogens, while sporadic and pandemic infections by these and emerging agents threaten everyone. RNA polymerases (RNApol generate enormous genetic and consequent antigenic heterogeneity permitting both viruses and cellular pathogens to evade host defences. Thus, RNApol causes more morbidity and premature mortality than any other molecule. The extraordinary genetic heterogeneity defining viral quasispecies results from RNApol infidelity causing rapid cumulative genomic RNA mutation a process that, if uncontrolled, would cause catastrophic loss of sequence integrity and inexorable quasispecies extinction. Selective replication and replicative homeostasis, an epicyclical regulatory mechanism dynamically linking RNApol fidelity and processivity with quasispecies phenotypic diversity, modulating polymerase fidelity and, hence, controlling quasispecies behaviour, prevents this happening and also mediates immune escape. Perhaps more importantly, ineluctable generation of broad phenotypic diversity after viral RNA is translated to protein quasispecies suggests a mechanism of disease that specifically targets, and functionally disrupts, the host cell surface molecules – including hormone, lipid, cell signalling or neurotransmitter receptors – that viruses co-opt for cell entry. This mechanism – "Viral Receptor Disease (VRD" – may explain so-called "viral autoimmunity", some classical autoimmune disorders and other diseases, including type II diabetes mellitus, and some forms of obesity. Viral receptor disease is a unifying hypothesis that may also explain some diseases with well-established, but multi-factorial and apparently unrelated aetiologies – like coronary artery and other vascular diseases – in addition to diseases like schizophrenia that are poorly understood and lack plausible, coherent, pathogenic explanations.

  10. Replicative homeostasis II: influence of polymerase fidelity on RNA virus quasispecies biology: implications for immune recognition, viral autoimmunity and other "virus receptor" diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallie, Richard

    2005-08-22

    Much of the worlds' population is in active or imminent danger from established infectious pathogens, while sporadic and pandemic infections by these and emerging agents threaten everyone. RNA polymerases (RNApol) generate enormous genetic and consequent antigenic heterogeneity permitting both viruses and cellular pathogens to evade host defences. Thus, RNApol causes more morbidity and premature mortality than any other molecule. The extraordinary genetic heterogeneity defining viral quasispecies results from RNApol infidelity causing rapid cumulative genomic RNA mutation a process that, if uncontrolled, would cause catastrophic loss of sequence integrity and inexorable quasispecies extinction. Selective replication and replicative homeostasis, an epicyclical regulatory mechanism dynamically linking RNApol fidelity and processivity with quasispecies phenotypic diversity, modulating polymerase fidelity and, hence, controlling quasispecies behaviour, prevents this happening and also mediates immune escape. Perhaps more importantly, ineluctable generation of broad phenotypic diversity after viral RNA is translated to protein quasispecies suggests a mechanism of disease that specifically targets, and functionally disrupts, the host cell surface molecules--including hormone, lipid, cell signalling or neurotransmitter receptors--that viruses co-opt for cell entry. This mechanism--"Viral Receptor Disease (VRD)"--may explain so-called "viral autoimmunity", some classical autoimmune disorders and other diseases, including type II diabetes mellitus, and some forms of obesity. Viral receptor disease is a unifying hypothesis that may also explain some diseases with well-established, but multi-factorial and apparently unrelated aetiologies--like coronary artery and other vascular diseases--in addition to diseases like schizophrenia that are poorly understood and lack plausible, coherent, pathogenic explanations.

  11. Silencing of neurotropic flavivirus replication in the central nervous system by combining multiple microRNA target insertions in two distinct viral genome regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teterina, Natalya L.; Liu, Guangping; Maximova, Olga A.; Pletnev, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, microRNA-targeting has become an effective strategy for selective control of tissue-tropism and pathogenesis of both DNA and RNA viruses. Here, using a neurotropic flavivirus as a model, we demonstrate that simultaneous miRNA targeting of the viral genome in the open reading frame and 3′-noncoding regions for brain-expressed miRNAs had an additive effect and produced a more potent attenuation of the virus compared to separate targeting of those regions. Multiple miRNA co-targeting of these two distantly located regions completely abolished the virus neurotropism as no viral replication was detected in the developing brain of neonatal mice. Furthermore, no viral antigens were detected in neurons, and neuronal integrity in the brain of mice was well preserved. This miRNA co-targeting approach can be adapted for other viruses in order to minimize their replication in a cell- or tissue-type specific manner, but most importantly, to prevent virus escape from miRNA-mediated silencing. PMID:24889244

  12. Immune Activation and Viral Replication after Vaccination with an Influenza A H1N1 2009 Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

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    Nattawat Onlamoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group. The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.

  13. The glycoprotein and the matrix protein of rabies virus affect pathogenicity by regulating viral replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Li, Jianwei; Schnell, Matthias J; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2008-03-01

    While the glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is known to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of rabies, the function of the RV matrix protein (M) in RV pathogenicity is not completely clear. To further investigate the roles of these proteins in viral pathogenicity, we constructed chimeric recombinant viruses by exchanging the G and M genes of the attenuated SN strain with those of the highly pathogenic SB strain. Infection of mice with these chimeric viruses revealed a significant increase in the pathogenicity of the SN strain bearing the RV G from the pathogenic SB strain. Moreover, the pathogenicity was further increased when both G and M from SB were introduced into SN. Interestingly, the replacement of the G or M gene or both in SN by the corresponding genes of SB was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of viral replication and viral RNA synthesis. In addition, a chimeric SN virus bearing both the M and G genes from SB exhibited more efficient cell-to-cell spread than a chimeric SN virus in which only the G gene was replaced. Together, these data indicate that both G and M play an important role in RV pathogenesis by regulating virus replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread.

  14. The Glycoprotein and the Matrix Protein of Rabies Virus Affect Pathogenicity by Regulating Viral Replication and Facilitating Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Li, Jianwei; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    While the glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is known to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of rabies, the function of the RV matrix protein (M) in RV pathogenicity is not completely clear. To further investigate the roles of these proteins in viral pathogenicity, we constructed chimeric recombinant viruses by exchanging the G and M genes of the attenuated SN strain with those of the highly pathogenic SB strain. Infection of mice with these chimeric viruses revealed a significant increase in the pathogenicity of the SN strain bearing the RV G from the pathogenic SB strain. Moreover, the pathogenicity was further increased when both G and M from SB were introduced into SN. Interestingly, the replacement of the G or M gene or both in SN by the corresponding genes of SB was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of viral replication and viral RNA synthesis. In addition, a chimeric SN virus bearing both the M and G genes from SB exhibited more efficient cell-to-cell spread than a chimeric SN virus in which only the G gene was replaced. Together, these data indicate that both G and M play an important role in RV pathogenesis by regulating virus replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread. PMID:18094173

  15. RNA Binding Protein RBM38 Regulates Expression of the 11-kDa Protein of Parvovirus B19 which Facilitates Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Safder S; Chen, Aaron Yun; Huang, Chun; Xu, Peng; Kleiboeker, Steve; Du, Aifang; Qiu, Jianming

    2018-02-07

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) expresses a single precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), which undergoes alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation to generate 12 viral mRNA transcripts that encode two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2) and three nonstructural proteins (NS1, 7.5-kDa, and 11-kDa). Splicing at the second 5' donor site (D2) of the B19V pre-mRNA is essential for the expression of VP2 and 11-kDa. We have previously identified that a cis -acting intronic splicing enhancer 2 (ISE2) that lies immediately after the D2 site facilitates recognition of the D2 donor for its efficient splicing. In this study, we report that ISE2 is critical for expression of the 11-kDa viral non-structural protein. We found that ISE2 harbors a consensus RNA-binding motif protein 38 (RBM38) binding sequence-5' -UGUGUG-3'. RBM38 is expressed during the middle stage of erythropoiesis. We first confirmed that the RBM38 binds specifically with the ISE2 element in vitro. Knockdown of RBM38 significantly decreases the level of the spliced mRNA at D2 that encodes 11-kDa protein and, thereafter, expression of the 11-kDa protein, but not the D2-spliced mRNA that encodes VP2. Importantly, we found that the 11-kDa protein enhances viral DNA replication and virion release. Accordingly, knockdown of RBM38 decreases virus replication via downregulating 11-kDa expression. Taken together, these results suggest that the 11-kDa protein facilitates B19V DNA replication, and that RBM38 is an essential host factor for B19V pre-mRNA splicing and for the expression of the 11-kDa protein. IMPORTANCE B19V is a human pathogen that can cause fifth disease, arthropathy, anemia in immune compromised patients and sickle cell disease patients, myocarditis, and hydrops fetalis in pregnant women. Human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) are most susceptible to B19V infection and fully support viral DNA replication. The exclusive tropism of B19V to erythroid lineage cells is not only dependent on the expression of viral

  16. Dual role of TRBP in HIV replication and RNA interference: viral diversion of a cellular pathway or evasion from antiviral immunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerzius Guerline

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that RNA interference (RNAi may be used to provide antiviral immunity in mammalian cells. Human micro (miRNAs can inhibit the replication of a primate virus, whereas a virally-encoded miRNA from HIV inhibits its own replication. Indirect proof comes from RNAi suppressors encoded by mammalian viruses. Influenza NS1 and Vaccinia E3L proteins can inhibit RNAi in plants, insects and worms. HIV-1 Tat protein and Adenovirus VA RNAs act as RNAi suppressors in mammalian cells. Surprisingly, many RNAi suppressors are also inhibitors of the interferon (IFN-induced protein kinase R (PKR but the potential overlap between the RNAi and the IFN pathways remains to be determined. The link between RNAi as an immune response and the IFN pathway may be formed by a cellular protein, TRBP, which has a dual role in HIV replication and RNAi. TRBP has been isolated as an HIV-1 TAR RNA binding protein that increases HIV expression and replication by inhibiting PKR and by increasing translation of structured RNAs. A recent report published in the Journal of Virology shows that the poor replication of HIV in astrocytes is mainly due to a heightened PKR response that can be overcome by supplying TRBP exogenously. In two recent papers published in Nature and EMBO Reports, TRBP is now shown to interact with Dicer and to be required for RNAi mediated by small interfering (si and micro (miRNAs. The apparent discrepancy between TRBP requirement in RNAi and in HIV replication opens the hypotheses that RNAi may be beneficial for HIV-1 replication or that HIV-1 may evade the RNAi restriction by diverting TRBP from Dicer and use it for its own benefit.

  17. Equine viperin restricts equine infectious anemia virus replication by inhibiting the production and/or release of viral Gag, Env, and receptor via distortion of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Na, Lei; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Shen, Nan; Yang, Fei; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Wang, Yu-Hong; Fu, Li-Hua; Wang, Jia-Yi; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Li, Cheng-Yao

    2014-11-01

    Viperin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated multifunctional protein that regulates virus replication and possesses broad antiviral activity. In many cases, viperin interferes with the trafficking and budding of viral structural proteins by distorting the membrane transportation system. The lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been studied extensively. In this study, we examined the restrictive effect of equine viperin (eViperin) on EIAV replication and investigated the possible molecular basis of this restriction to obtain insights into the effect of this cellular factor on retroviruses. We demonstrated that EIAV infection of primary equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs) upregulated the expression of eViperin. The overexpression of eViperin significantly inhibited the replication of EIAV in eMDMs, and knockdown of eViperin transcription enhanced the replication of EIAV in eMDMs by approximately 45.8%. Further experiments indicated that eViperin restricts EIAV at multiple steps of viral replication. The overexpression of eViperin inhibited EIAV Gag release. Both the α-helix domain and radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) domain were required for this activity. However, the essential motifs in SAM were different from those reported for the inhibition of HIV-1 Gag by human viperin. Furthermore, eViperin disrupted the synthesis of both EIAV Env and receptor, which consequently inhibited viral production and entry, respectively, and this disruption was dependent on the eViperin α-helix domain. Using immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that the α-helix domain is responsible for the distortion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Finally, EIAV did not exhibit counteracting eViperin at the protein level. In previous studies, viperin was indicated as restricting virus replications primarily by the inhibition of virus budding. Here, we show that viperin may have multiple antiviral mechanisms, including the reduction

  18. The P2 of Wheat yellow mosaic virus rearranges the endoplasmic reticulum and recruits other viral proteins into replication-associated inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liying; Andika, Ida Bagus; Shen, Jiangfeng; Yang, Di; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Viruses commonly modify host endomembranes to facilitate biological processes in the viral life cycle. Infection by viruses belonging to the genus Bymovirus (family Potyviridae) has long been known to induce the formation of large membranous inclusion bodies in host cells, but their assembly and biological roles are still unclear. Immunoelectron microscopy of cells infected with the bymovirus Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) showed that P1, P2 and P3 are the major viral protein constituents of the membranous inclusions, whereas NIa-Pro (nuclear inclusion-a protease) and VPg (viral protein genome-linked) are probable minor components. P1, P2 and P3 associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but only P2 was able to rearrange ER and form large aggregate structures. Bioinformatic analyses and chemical experiments showed that P2 is an integral membrane protein and depends on the active secretory pathway to form aggregates of ER membranes. In planta and in vitro assays demonstrated that P2 interacts with P1, P3, NIa-Pro or VPg and recruits these proteins into the aggregates. In vivo RNA labelling using WYMV-infected wheat protoplasts showed that the synthesis of viral RNAs occurs in the P2-associated inclusions. Our results suggest that P2 plays a major role in the formation of membranous compartments that house the genomic replication of WYMV. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. The interaction between endogenous 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 and Cucumber mosaic virus LS2b protein affects viral replication, infection and gene silencing suppressor activity.

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    Ruilin Wang

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a model virus for plant-virus protein interaction and mechanism research because of its wide distribution, high-level of replication and simple genome structure. The 2b protein is a multifunctional protein encoded by CMV that suppresses RNA silencing-based antiviral defense and contributes to CMV virulence in host plants. In this report, 12 host proteins were identified as CMV LS2b binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid screen system from the Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library. Among the host proteins, 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 (RPS11 was selected for further studies. The interaction between LS2b and full-length RPS11 was confirmed using the yeast two-hybrid system. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BIFC assays observed by confocal laser microscopy and Glutathione S-transferase (GST pull-down assays were used to verify the interaction between endogenous NbRPS11 and viral CMVLS2b both in vivo and in vitro. TRV-based gene silencing vector was used to knockdown NbRPS11 transcription, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decline in infectious viral RNA replication and a decrease in CMV infection in RPS11 down-regulated Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Thus, the knockdown of RPS11 likely inhibited CMV replication and accumulation. The gene silencing suppressor activity of CMV2b protein was reduced by the RPS11 knockdown. This study demonstrated that the function of viral LS2b protein was remarkably affected by the interaction with host RPS11 protein.

  20. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome packaging signal is located at the 5' end of the genome and promotes viral RNA incorporation into virions in a replication-independent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3' end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies.

  1. Inhibition of viral replication reduces regulatory T cells and enhances the antiviral immune response in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Jeroen N; van der Molen, Renate G; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kusters, Johannes G; Janssen, Harry L A

    2007-04-25

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the impaired immune response that is typical for a chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To gain more insight in the mechanism that is responsible for this impaired immune response, the effect of viral load reduction resulting from treatment with the nucleotide analogue adefovir dipivoxil on the percentages of Treg and HBV-specific T-cell responses was analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 12 patients were collected at baseline and during treatment. In parallel to the decline in viral load, we found a decline in circulating Treg, combined with an increase in HBV core antigen-specific IFN-gamma production and proliferation. The production of IL10 did not decrease during therapy. In conclusion, adefovir induced viral load reduction results in a decline of circulating Treg together with a partial recovery of the immune response.

  2. Inhibition of viral replication reduces regulatory T cells and enhances the antiviral immune response in chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, Jeroen N.; Molen, Renate G. van der; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kusters, Johannes G.; Janssen, Harry L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the impaired immune response that is typical for a chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To gain more insight in the mechanism that is responsible for this impaired immune response, the effect of viral load reduction resulting from treatment with the nucleotide analogue adefovir dipivoxil on the percentages of Treg and HBV-specific T-cell responses was analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 12 patients were collected at baseline and during treatment. In parallel to the decline in viral load, we found a decline in circulating Treg, combined with an increase in HBV core antigen-specific IFN-γ production and proliferation. The production of IL10 did not decrease during therapy. In conclusion, adefovir induced viral load reduction results in a decline of circulating Treg together with a partial recovery of the immune response

  3. The AP-1 binding sites located in the pol gene intragenic regulatory region of HIV-1 are important for viral replication.

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    Laurence Colin

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has previously identified an important intragenic region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genome, whose complete functional unit is composed of the 5103 fragment, the DNaseI-hypersensitive site HS7 and the 5105 fragment. These fragments (5103 and 5105 both exhibit a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-inducible enhancer activity on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. Here, we characterized the three previously identified AP-1 binding sites of fragment 5103 by showing the PMA-inducible in vitro binding and in vivo recruitment of c-Fos, JunB and JunD to this fragment located at the end of the pol gene. Functional analyses demonstrated that the intragenic AP-1 binding sites are fully responsible for the PMA-dependent enhancer activity of fragment 5103. Moreover, infection of T-lymphoid Jurkat and promonocytic U937 cells with wild-type and mutant viruses demonstrated that mutations of the intragenic AP-1 sites individually or in combination altered HIV-1 replication. Importantly, mutations of the three intragenic AP-1 sites led to a decreased in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the viral promoter, strongly supporting that the deleterious effect of these mutations on viral replication occurs, at least partly, at the transcriptional level. Single-round infections of monocyte-derived macrophages confirmed the importance of intragenic AP-1 sites for HIV-1 infectivity.

  4. The formation and modification of chromatin-like structure of human parvovirus B19 regulate viral genome replication and RNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanzhou; Hao, Sujuan; Zhang, Junmei; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Hanzhong; Guan, Wuxiang

    2017-03-15

    B19 virus (B19V) is a single stranded virus in the genus of Erythroparvovirus in the family of Parvoviridae. One of the limiting steps of B19V infection is the replication of viral genome which affected the alternative processing of its RNA. Minute virus of mice (MVM) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been reported to form chromatin-like structure within hours after infection of cells. However, the role of chromatin-like structure is unclear. In the present study, we found that B19V formed chromatin-like structure after 12h when B19V infectious clone was co-transfected with pHelper plasmid to HEK293T cells. Interestingly, the inhibitor of DNA methyl-transferase (5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC) inhibited not only the formation of chromatin-like structure, but also the replication of the viral genomic DNA. More importantly, the splicing of the second intron at splice acceptor sites (A2-1, and A2-2) were reduced and polyadenylation at (pA)p increased when transfected HEK293T cells were treated with DAC. Our results showed that the formation and modification of chromatin-like structure are a new layer to regulate B19V gene expression and RNA processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The AP-1 Binding Sites Located in the pol Gene Intragenic Regulatory Region of HIV-1 Are Important for Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Laurence; Vandenhoudt, Nathalie; de Walque, Stéphane; Van Driessche, Benoît; Bergamaschi, Anna; Martinelli, Valérie; Cherrier, Thomas; Vanhulle, Caroline; Guiguen, Allan; David, Annie; Burny, Arsène; Herbein, Georges; Pancino, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously identified an important intragenic region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome, whose complete functional unit is composed of the 5103 fragment, the DNaseI-hypersensitive site HS7 and the 5105 fragment. These fragments (5103 and 5105) both exhibit a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-inducible enhancer activity on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. Here, we characterized the three previously identified AP-1 binding sites of fragment 5103 by showing the PMA-inducible in vitro binding and in vivo recruitment of c-Fos, JunB and JunD to this fragment located at the end of the pol gene. Functional analyses demonstrated that the intragenic AP-1 binding sites are fully responsible for the PMA-dependent enhancer activity of fragment 5103. Moreover, infection of T-lymphoid Jurkat and promonocytic U937 cells with wild-type and mutant viruses demonstrated that mutations of the intragenic AP-1 sites individually or in combination altered HIV-1 replication. Importantly, mutations of the three intragenic AP-1 sites led to a decreased in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the viral promoter, strongly supporting that the deleterious effect of these mutations on viral replication occurs, at least partly, at the transcriptional level. Single-round infections of monocyte-derived macrophages confirmed the importance of intragenic AP-1 sites for HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:21526160

  6. [Effect of the gardenia extracts-T9 on viral replication and IFN-gamma mRNA in Herpes simplex virus type-1 infected mice brains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu-jing; Huang, Yang; Jiang, Jing; Guo, Shan-shan; Su, Dan; Zhao, Ye; Gao, Ying-jie; Cui, Xiao-lan

    2009-01-01

    RT-PCR was used to detect expression level of VP16 mRNA and IFN-gamma mRNA in Herpes simplex virus type-1 infected mice brains at 4th day, 7th day, 10th day, 14th day, 21st day post infection and investigate the effects of the Gardenia extracts-T9 on viral replication and host immunity. The results showed that expression of VP16 mRNA in Gardenia extracts-T9 high dose and low dose group were both lower than that in virus control group at same time point. Relative VP16 mRNA expression in low dose group decreased at 21st day and relative VP16 mRNA expression in high dose group decreased continuously. Relative expression of IFN-gamma mRNA in high dose and low dose groups were both higher than that in virus control group at all time point except the 4th day. IFN-gamma mRNA in low dose group increased from the 4th day till the 14th day, and after the 14th day, the expression decreased slightly. Relative IFN-gamma mRNA in high dose group maintained increasing from 4th day till 21st day. Base on these results, we conclude that Gardenia extracts-T9 might exert the inhibition effect of viral replication by upregulating expression of IFN-gamma mRNA.

  7. Association of polioviral proteins of the P2 genomic region with the viral replication complex and virus-induced membrane synthesis as visualized by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry and autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienz, K; Egger, D; Pasamontes, L

    1987-09-01

    Using high resolution electron microscopic autoradiography and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies against poliovirus proteins of the P2 genomic region, the location of these proteins in respect to the virus-induced vesicle formation and the viral RNA synthesis was followed during the viral replication cycle. It was found that P2 proteins become rER associated soon after their synthesis. At the site of protein and rER interaction, electron-dense patches appear. Simultaneously, membrane protrusions grow and form vesicles which finally budd off, carrying the patches on their outer surface. As shown by autoradiography, these patches are the site of viral RNA replication and, therefore, they represent the poliovirus replication complex. The vesicles with the replication complex, including replicating and replicated viral RNA, move away from the rER to form a continuously growing vesiculated area in the center of the infected cell, where virus maturation takes place. A likely function of the 2C protein is to attach the replication complex, or some of its components, to the vesicular membranes.

  8. G3BP1 restricts HIV-1 replication in macrophages and T-cells by sequestering viral RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Martinez, Fernando O.; Booiman, Thijs; van Dort, Karel A.; van de Klundert, Maarten A. A.; Gordon, Siamon; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 exploits the cellular machinery for replication and therefore several interactions with cellular factors take place, some of which are yet unknown. We identified GTPase-activating protein-(SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) as a cellular factor that restricts HIV-1, by analyzing

  9. Well begun is half done: Rubella virus perturbs autophagy signaling, thereby facilitating the construction of viral replication compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, László; Megyeri, Klára

    2016-04-01

    The rubella virus is the causative agent of postnatal German measles and the congenital rubella syndrome. The majority of the rubella virus replication complexes originate from the endomembrane system. The rubella virus perturbs the signaling pathways regulating the formation of autophagic membranes in the infected cells, including the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. It is widely accepted that these pathways inhibit autophagy. In contrast, the class III PI3K enzymes are essential for autophagy initiation. By manipulating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, class I PI3K/Akt and class III PI3K axes of signal transduction, the rubella virus may differentially regulate the autophagic cascade, with consequent stimulation of the initiation and strong suppression of the later phases. Dysregulation of autophagy by this virus can have a significant impact on the construction of replication compartments by regulating membrane trafficking. We hypothesize that the rubella virus perturbs the autophagic process in order to prevent the degradation of the virus progeny, and to ensure its replication by hijacking omegasomes for the construction of the replication complexes. The virus is therefore able to utilize an antiviral mechanism to its own advantage. Therapeutic modalities targeting the autophagic process may help to ameliorate the serious consequences of the congenital rubella syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.

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    Carolina Stenfeldt

    Full Text Available A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi characterized by regional localization of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. At this time FMDV antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and CD172a-expressing leukocytes of the crypt epithelium of the paraepiglottic tonsils. De novo replication of FMDV was first detected in oropharyngeal swab samples at 12 hpi and viremia occurred at 18-24 hpi, approximately 24 hours prior to the appearance of vesicular lesions. From 12 through 78 hpi, microscopic detection of FMDV was consistently localized to cytokeratin-positive cells within morphologically characteristic segments of oropharyngeal tonsil crypt epithelium. During this period, leukocyte populations expressing CD172a, SLA-DQ class II and/or CD8 were found in close proximity to infected epithelial cells, but with little or no co-localization with viral proteins. Similarly, M-cells expressing cytokeratin-18 did not co-localize with FMDV proteins. Intra-epithelial micro-vesicles composed of acantholytic epithelial cells expressing large amounts of structural and non-structural FMDV proteins were present within crypts of the tonsil of the soft palate during peak clinical infection. These findings inculpate the paraepiglottic tonsils as the primary site of FMDV infection in pigs exposed via the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the continuing replication of FMDV in the oropharyngeal tonsils during viremia and peak clinical infection with no concurrent amplification of virus occurring in the lower respiratory tract indicates that these sites are the major source of shedding of FMDV from pigs.

  11. Down-regulation of viral replication by adenoviral-mediated expression of siRNA against cellular cofactors for hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Takahiro; Matsushita, Yoshihisa; Shimamura, Hideo; Araki, Hiromasa; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2004-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is currently being evaluated not only as a powerful tool for functional genomics, but also as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for cancer and infectious diseases. Inhibitory effect of siRNA on viral replication has been demonstrated in multiple pathogenic viruses. However, because of the high sequence specificity of siRNA-mediated RNA degradation, antiviral efficacy of siRNA directed to viral genome will be largely limited by emergence of escape variants resistant to siRNA due to high mutation rates of virus, especially RNA viruses such as poliovirus and hepatitis C virus (HCV). To investigate the therapeutic feasibility of siRNAs specific for the putative cellular cofactors for HCV, we constructed adenovirus vectors expressing siRNAs against La, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), subunit gamma of human eukaryotic initiation factors 2B (eIF2Bγ), and human VAMP-associated protein of 33 kDa (hVAP-33). Adenoviral-mediated expression of siRNAs markedly diminished expression of the endogenous genes, and silencing of La, PTB, and hVAP-33 by siRNAs substantially blocked HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. Thus, our studies demonstrate the feasibility and potential of adenoviral-delivered siRNAs specific for cellular cofactors in combating HCV infection, which can be used either alone or in combination with siRNA against viral genome to prevent the escape of mutant variants and provide additive or synergistic anti-HCV effects

  12. Altered Viral Replication and Cell Responses by Inserting MicroRNA Recognition Element into PB1 in Pandemic Influenza A Virus (H1N1) 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyue; Sun, Wenkui; Shi, Yi; Xing, Zheng; Su, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNAs that spatiotemporally modulate mRNAs in a posttranscriptional manner. Engineering mutant viruses by inserting cell-specific miRNA recognition element (MRE) into viral genome may alter viral infectivity and host responses in vital tissues and organs infected with pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1pdm). Methods. In this study, we employed reverse genetics approach to generate a recombinant H1N1pdm with a cell-specific miRNA target sequence inserted into its PB1 genomic segment to investigate whether miRNAs are able to suppress H1N1pdm replication. We inserted an MRE of microRNA-let-7b (miR-let-7b) into the open reading frame of PB1 to test the feasibility of creating a cell-restricted H1N1pdm virus since let-7b is abundant in human bronchial epithelial cells. Results. miR-let-7b is rich in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE). Incorporation of the miR-let-7b-MRE confers upon the recombinant H1N1pdm virus susceptibility to miR-let-7b targeting, suggesting that the H1N1pdm and influenza A viruses can be engineered to exert the desired replication restrictive effect and decrease infectivity in vital tissues and organs. Conclusions. This approach provides an additional layer of biosafety and thus has great potential for the application in the rational development of safer and more effective influenza viral vaccines. PMID:25788763

  13. Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR.

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    Celina M Abreu

    Full Text Available HIV infection is not cleared by antiretroviral drugs due to the presence of latently infected cells that are not eliminated with current therapies and persist in the blood and organs of infected patients. New compounds to activate these latent reservoirs have been evaluated so that, along with HAART, they can be used to activate latent virus and eliminate the latently infected cells resulting in eradication of viral infection. Here we describe three novel diterpenes isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, a tropical shrub. These molecules, identified as ingenols, were modified at carbon 3 and termed ingenol synthetic derivatives (ISD. They activated the HIV-LTR in reporter cell lines and human PBMCs with latent virus in concentrations as low as 10 nM. ISDs were also able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 subtype B and C in MT-4 cells and human PBMCs at concentrations of EC50 0.02 and 0.09 µM respectively, which are comparable to the EC50 of some antiretroviral currently used in AIDS treatment. Control of viral replication may be caused by downregulation of surface CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 observed after ISD treatment in vitro. These compounds appear to be less cytotoxic than other diterpenes such as PMA and prostratin, with effective dose versus toxic dose TI>400. Although the mechanisms of action of the three ISDs are primarily attributed to the PKC pathway, downregulation of surface receptors and stimulation of the viral LTR might be differentially modulated by different PKC isoforms.

  14. The X gene of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is involved in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maohua; You, Hong; Hermonat, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) (type 2) is a popular human gene therapy vector with a long active transgene expression period and no reported vector-induced adverse reactions. Yet the basic molecular biology of this virus has not been fully addressed. One potential gene at the far 3' end of the AAV2 genome, previously referred to as X (nt 3929 to 4393), overlapping the 3' end of the cap gene, has never been characterized, although we did previously identify a promoter just up-stream (p81). Computer analysis suggested that X was involved in replication and transcription. The X protein was identified during active AAV2 replication using a polyclonal antibody against a peptide starting at amino acid 98. Reagents for the study of X included an AAV2 deletion mutant (dl78-91), a triple nucleotide substitution mutant that destroys all three 5' AUG-initiation products of X, with no effect on the cap coding sequence, and X-positive-293 cell lines. Here, we found that X up-regulated AAV2 DNA replication in differentiating keratinocytes (without helper virus, autonomous replication) and in various forms of 293 cell-based assays with help from wild type adenovirus type 5 (wt Ad5) or Ad5 helper plasmid (pHelper). The strongest contribution by X was seen in increasing wt AAV2 DNA replication in keratinocytes and dl78-91 in Ad5-infected X-positive-293 cell lines (both having multi-fold effects). Mutating the X gene in pAAV-RC (pAAV-RC-3Xneg) yielded approximately a ∼33% reduction in recombinant AAV vector DNA replication and virion production, but a larger effect was seen when using this same X-knockout AAV helper plasmid in X-positive-293 cell lines versus normal 293 cells (again, multi-fold). Taken together these data strongly suggest that AAV2 X encodes a protein involved in the AAV life cycle, particularly in increasing AAV2 DNA replication, and suggests that further studies are warranted.

  15. Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV infectious clone: possible mechanism of 3' and 5' end repair and role of polyprotein processing in viral replication.

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    Kunduri Govind

    Full Text Available Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV is a positive stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Sobemovirus. Construction of an infectious clone is an essential step for deciphering the virus gene functions in vivo. Using Agrobacterium based transient expression system we show that SeMV icDNA is infectious on Sesbania grandiflora and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba plants. The efficiency of icDNA infection was found to be significantly high on Cyamopsis plants when compared to that on Sesbania grandiflora. The coat protein could be detected within 6 days post infiltration in the infiltrated leaves. Different species of viral RNA (double stranded and single stranded genomic and subgenomic RNA could be detected upon northern analysis, suggesting that complete replication had taken place. Based on the analysis of the sequences at the genomic termini of progeny RNA from SeMV icDNA infiltrated leaves and those of its 3' and 5' terminal deletion mutants, we propose a possible mechanism for 3' and 5' end repair in vivo. Mutation of the cleavage sites in the polyproteins encoded by ORF 2 resulted in complete loss of infection by the icDNA, suggesting the importance of correct polyprotein processing at all the four cleavage sites for viral replication. Complementation analysis suggested that ORF 2 gene products can act in trans. However, the trans acting ability of ORF 2 gene products was abolished upon deletion of the N-terminal hydrophobic domain of polyprotein 2a and 2ab, suggesting that these products necessarily function at the replication site, where they are anchored to membranes.

  16. Effects of the W153L substitution in HIV reverse transcriptase on viral replication and drug resistance to multiple categories of reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Oliveira, Maureen; Rajotte, Daniel; Bethell, Richard; Wainberg, Mark A

    2014-08-01

    A W153L substitution in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) was recently identified by selection with a novel nucleotide-competing RT inhibitor (NcRTI) termed compound A that is a member of the benzo[4,5]furo[3,2,d]pyrimidin-2-one NcRTI family of drugs. To investigate the impact of W153L, alone or in combination with the clinically relevant RT resistance substitutions K65R (change of Lys to Arg at position 65), M184I, K101E, K103N, E138K, and Y181C, on HIV-1 phenotypic susceptibility, viral replication, and RT enzymatic function, we generated recombinant RT enzymes and viruses containing each of these substitutions or various combinations of them. We found that W153L-containing viruses were impaired in viral replicative capacity and were hypersusceptible to tenofovir (TFV) while retaining susceptibility to most nonnucleoside RT inhibitors. The nucleoside 3TC retained potency against W153L-containing viruses but not when the M184I substitution was also present. W153L was also able to reverse the effects of the K65R substitution on resistance to TFV, and K65R conferred hypersusceptibility to compound A. Biochemical assays demonstrated that W153L alone or in combination with K65R, M184I, K101E, K103N, E138K, and Y181C impaired enzyme processivity and polymerization efficiency but did not diminish RNase H activity, providing mechanistic insights into the low replicative fitness associated with these substitutions. We show that the mechanism of the TFV hypersusceptibility conferred by W153L is mainly due to increased efficiency of TFV-diphosphate incorporation. These results demonstrate that compound A and/or derivatives thereof have the potential to be important antiretroviral agents that may be combined with tenofovir to achieve synergistic results. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Detection of human parvovirus 4 viremia in the follow-up blood samples from seropositive individuals suggests the existence of persistent viral replication or reactivation of latent viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching; Lee, Kuang-Lun

    2015-06-19

    The transmission routes for human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in areas with high seroprevalence are not known. In the work described here, persistent PARV4 viral replication was investigated by conducting a longitudinal study. Ten healthcare workers each provided a blood sample at the beginning of the study (first sample) and 12 months later (second sample). The paired samples were tested for PARV4-positivity by immunoblotting analysis and nested polymerase chain reactions. IgG antibodies against PARV4 were detected in six participants, three of whom also had IgM antibodies against PARV4. The immunoblotting results did not vary over time. PARV4 DNA was detected in the first blood sample from one participant who had IgG antibodies against PARV4 and in the second blood samples from 2 participants who had IgG and IgM antibodies against PARV4. Detection of PARV4 DNA in the second blood samples from two seropositive participants suggests the existence of persistent PARV4 replication or reactivation of inactive virus in the tissues. The finding of persistent or intermittent PARV4 replication in individuals with past infections provides an important clue toward unraveling the non-parenteral transmission routes of PARV4 infection in areas where the virus is endemic.

  18. Hsp90 interacts specifically with viral RNA and differentially regulates replication initiation of Bamboo mosaic virus and associated satellite RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Host factors play crucial roles in the replication of plus-strand RNA viruses. In this report, a heat shock protein 90 homologue of Nicotiana benthamiana, NbHsp90, was identified in association with partially purified replicase complexes from BaMV-infected tissue, and shown to specifically interact with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR of BaMV genomic RNA, but not with the 3' UTR of BaMV-associated satellite RNA (satBaMV RNA or that of genomic RNA of other viruses, such as Potato virus X (PVX or Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Mutational analyses revealed that the interaction occurs between the middle domain of NbHsp90 and domain E of the BaMV 3' UTR. The knockdown or inhibition of NbHsp90 suppressed BaMV infectivity, but not that of satBaMV RNA, PVX, or CMV in N. benthamiana. Time-course analysis further revealed that the inhibitory effect of 17-AAG is significant only during the immediate early stages of BaMV replication. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays demonstrated the existence of an interaction between NbHsp90 and the BaMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results reveal a novel role for NbHsp90 in the selective enhancement of BaMV replication, most likely through direct interaction with the 3' UTR of BaMV RNA during the initiation of BaMV RNA replication.

  19. Importin α5 negatively regulates importin β1-mediated nuclear import of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Haixu; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu; Xu, Houqiang; Hu, Yan; Deng, Shanshan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2018-03-13

    The matrix (M) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is demonstrated to localize in the nucleus via intrinsic nuclear localization signal (NLS), but cellular proteins involved in the nuclear import of NDV M protein and the role of M's nuclear localization in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV remain unclear. In this study, importin β1 was screened to interact with NDV M protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. This interaction was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. In vitro binding studies indicated that the NLS region of M protein and the amino acids 336-433 of importin β1 that belonged to the RanGTP binding region were important for binding. Importantly, a recombinant virus with M/NLS mutation resulted in a pathotype change of NDV and attenuated viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts and SPF chickens. In agreement with the binding data, nuclear import of NDV M protein in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells required both importin β1 and RanGTP. Interestingly, importin α5 was verified to interact with M protein through binding importin β1. However, importin β1 or importin α5 depletion by siRNA resulted in different results, which showed the obviously cytoplasmic or nuclear accumulation of M protein and the remarkably decreased or increased replication ability and pathogenicity of NDV in chicken fibroblasts, respectively. Our findings therefore demonstrate for the first time the nuclear import mechanism of NDV M protein and the negative regulation role of importin α5 in importin β1-mediated nuclear import of M protein and the replication and pathogenicity of a paramyxovirus.

  20. Possible functional co-operation of palindromes hr3 and hr4 in the genome of Cydia pomonella granulovirus affects viral replication capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenofy, Wael H; Jehle, Johannes A

    2015-09-01

    After previous studies had shown that natural transposon insertion between the two homologous regions hr3 and hr4 of the genome of the Mexican (M) strain of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-M) resulted in a loss of viral competitiveness, the function of these homologous regions was investigated. A CpGV-based bacmid (CpBAC) was constructed and mutants with deleted hr3 and hr4 palindromes (CpBAChr3/hr4KO) and a construct (CpBAChr3-kan-hr4) with physically separated hr3 and hr4 repeats were generated to investigate their involvement in in vivo replication. Based on median lethal concentration (LC50) and median survival time (ST50) of the mutant viruses vCpBAChr3/hr4KO and vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 it was found that the infectivity of both mutants for codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lep.: Tortricidae) larvae was not influenced compared with the parental virus vCpBAC. Co-infection experiments with vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 and vCpBAC using different virus ratios revealed that vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 was efficiently out-competed by vCpBAC during in vivo replication. These findings suggested that the separation of hr3 and hr4 resulted in a replication disadvantage of the mutant similar to the observation made in previous co-infection experiments using the transposon-carrying mutant CpGV-MCp5 and WT CpGV-M. It was concluded that the palindromes hr3 and hr4 may play a non-essential but co-functional role in the replication of CpGV-M.

  1. Contribution of the C-terminal region within the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase to yeast lethality, chromatin binding and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zaikun; Zheng, Yingfeng; Ao, Zhujun; Clement, Martin; Mouland, Andrew J; Kalpana, Ganjam V; Belhumeur, Pierre; Cohen, Eric A; Yao, Xiaojian

    2008-11-14

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a key viral enzymatic molecule required for the integration of the viral cDNA into the genome. Additionally, HIV-1 IN has been shown to play important roles in several other steps during the viral life cycle, including reverse transcription, nuclear import and chromatin targeting. Interestingly, previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of HIV-1 IN induces the lethal phenotype in some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses of the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN in order to delineate the critical amino acid(s) and/or motif(s) required for the induction of the lethal phenotype in the yeast strain HP16, and to further elucidate the molecular mechanism which causes this phenotype. Our study identified three HIV-1 IN mutants, V165A, A179P and KR186,7AA, located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of IN that do not induce the lethal phenotype in yeast. Chromatin binding assays in yeast and mammalian cells demonstrated that these IN mutants were impaired for the ability to bind chromatin. Additionally, we determined that while these IN mutants failed to interact with LEDGF/p75, they retained the ability to bind Integrase interactor 1. Furthermore, we observed that VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 containing these IN mutants was unable to replicate in the C8166 T cell line and this defect was partially rescued by complementation with the catalytically inactive D64E IN mutant. Overall, this study demonstrates that three mutations located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN inhibit the IN-induced lethal phenotype in yeast by inhibiting the binding of IN to the host chromatin. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN is important for binding to host chromatin and is crucial for both viral replication and the promotion of the IN-induced lethal phenotype in yeast.

  2. Contribution of the C-terminal region within the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase to yeast lethality, chromatin binding and viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhumeur Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 integrase (IN is a key viral enzymatic molecule required for the integration of the viral cDNA into the genome. Additionally, HIV-1 IN has been shown to play important roles in several other steps during the viral life cycle, including reverse transcription, nuclear import and chromatin targeting. Interestingly, previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of HIV-1 IN induces the lethal phenotype in some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses of the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN in order to delineate the critical amino acid(s and/or motif(s required for the induction of the lethal phenotype in the yeast strain HP16, and to further elucidate the molecular mechanism which causes this phenotype. Results Our study identified three HIV-1 IN mutants, V165A, A179P and KR186,7AA, located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of IN that do not induce the lethal phenotype in yeast. Chromatin binding assays in yeast and mammalian cells demonstrated that these IN mutants were impaired for the ability to bind chromatin. Additionally, we determined that while these IN mutants failed to interact with LEDGF/p75, they retained the ability to bind Integrase interactor 1. Furthermore, we observed that VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 containing these IN mutants was unable to replicate in the C8166 T cell line and this defect was partially rescued by complementation with the catalytically inactive D64E IN mutant. Conclusion Overall, this study demonstrates that three mutations located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN inhibit the IN-induced lethal phenotype in yeast by inhibiting the binding of IN to the host chromatin. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN is important for binding to host chromatin and is crucial for both viral replication and the promotion of

  3. Noroviruses Co-opt the Function of Host Proteins VAPA and VAPB for Replication via a Phenylalanine-Phenylalanine-Acidic-Tract-Motif Mimic in Nonstructural Viral Protein NS1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Broc T; Tang, Wei; Lu, Jia; Eaglesham, James B; Thorne, Lucy; Mayer, Anne E; Condiff, Emily; Nice, Timothy J; Goodfellow, Ian; Krezel, Andrzej M; Virgin, Herbert W

    2017-07-11

    The Norovirus genus contains important human pathogens, but the role of host pathways in norovirus replication is largely unknown. Murine noroviruses provide the opportunity to study norovirus replication in cell culture and in small animals. The human norovirus nonstructural protein NS1/2 interacts with the host protein VAMP-associated protein A (VAPA), but the significance of the NS1/2-VAPA interaction is unexplored. Here we report decreased murine norovirus replication in VAPA- and VAPB-deficient cells. We characterized the role of VAPA in detail. VAPA was required for the efficiency of a step(s) in the viral replication cycle after entry of viral RNA into the cytoplasm but before the synthesis of viral minus-sense RNA. The interaction of VAPA with viral NS1/2 proteins is conserved between murine and human noroviruses. Murine norovirus NS1/2 directly bound the major sperm protein (MSP) domain of VAPA through its NS1 domain. Mutations within NS1 that disrupted interaction with VAPA inhibited viral replication. Structural analysis revealed that the viral NS1 domain contains a mimic of the phenylalanine-phenylalanine-acidic-tract (FFAT) motif that enables host proteins to bind to the VAPA MSP domain. The NS1/2-FFAT mimic region interacted with the VAPA-MSP domain in a manner similar to that seen with bona fide host FFAT motifs. Amino acids in the FFAT mimic region of the NS1 domain that are important for viral replication are highly conserved across murine norovirus strains. Thus, VAPA interaction with a norovirus protein that functionally mimics host FFAT motifs is important for murine norovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, but host factors involved in norovirus replication are incompletely understood. Murine noroviruses have been studied to define mechanisms of norovirus replication. Here we defined the importance of the interaction between the hitherto poorly studied NS1/2 norovirus protein and the

  4. Antigen-driven CD4+ T cell and HIV-1 dynamics: residual viral replication under highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, N. M.; DeWolf, F.; Ghani, A. C.; Fraser, C.; Donnelly, C. A.; Reiss, P.; Lange, J. M.; Danner, S. A.; Garnett, G. P.; Goudsmit, J.; Anderson, R. M.

    1999-01-01

    Antigen-induced stimulation of the immune system can generate heterogeneity in CD4+ T cell division rates capable of explaining the temporal patterns seen in the decay of HIV-1 plasma RNA levels during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Posttreatment increases in peripheral CD4+ T cell counts are

  5. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  6. CD8+ lymphocytes control viral replication in SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques without decreasing the lifespan of productively infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichole R Klatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While CD8+ T cells are clearly important in controlling virus replication during HIV and SIV infections, the mechanisms underlying this antiviral effect remain poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the in vivo effect of CD8+ lymphocyte depletion on the lifespan of productively infected cells during chronic SIVmac239 infection of rhesus macaques. We treated two groups of animals that were either CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted or controls with antiretroviral therapy, and used mathematical modeling to assess the lifespan of infected cells either in the presence or absence of CD8+ lymphocytes. We found that, in both early (day 57 post-SIV and late (day 177 post-SIV chronic SIV infection, depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes did not result in a measurable increase in the lifespan of either short- or long-lived productively infected cells in vivo. This result indicates that the presence of CD8+ lymphocytes does not result in a noticeably shorter lifespan of productively SIV-infected cells, and thus that direct cell killing is unlikely to be the main mechanism underlying the antiviral effect of CD8+ T cells in SIV-infected macaques with high virus replication.

  7. The Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein Affects Coronavirus RNA Accumulation Levels and Relocalizes Viral RNAs to Novel Cytoplasmic Domains Different from Replication-Transcription Sites ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Isabel; Galán, Carmen; Mateos-Gómez, Pedro A.; Palacio, Lorena; Zúñiga, Sonia; Cruz, Jazmina L.; Almazán, Fernando; Enjuanes, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The coronavirus (CoV) discontinuous transcription mechanism is driven by long-distance RNA-RNA interactions between transcription-regulating sequences (TRSs) located at the 5′ terminal leader (TRS-L) and also preceding each mRNA-coding sequence (TRS-B). The contribution of host cell proteins to CoV transcription needs additional information. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) was reproducibly identified in association with positive-sense RNAs of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) TRS-L and TRS-B by affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. A temporal regulation of PTB cytoplasmic levels was observed during infection, with a significant increase from 7 to 16 h postinfection being inversely associated with a decrease in viral replication and transcription. Silencing the expression of PTB with small interfering RNA in two cell lines (Huh7 and HEK 293T) led to a significant increase of up to 4-fold in mRNA levels and virus titer, indicating a negative effect of PTB on CoV RNA accumulation. During CoV infection, PTB relocalized from the nucleus to novel cytoplasmic structures different from replication-transcription sites in which stress granule markers T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) colocalized. PTB was detected in these modified stress granules in TGEV-infected swine testis cells but not in stress granules induced by oxidative stress. Furthermore, viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs were detected in association with PTB and TIAR. These cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes might be involved in posttranscriptional regulation of virus gene expression. PMID:21411518

  8. Interference with the production of infectious viral particles and bimodal inhibition of replication are broadly conserved antiviral properties of IFITMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartour, Kevin; Nguyen, Xuan-Nhi; Appourchaux, Romain; Assil, Sonia; Barateau, Véronique; Bloyet, Louis-Marie; Burlaud Gaillard, Julien; Confort, Marie-Pierre; Escudero-Perez, Beatriz; Gruffat, Henri; Hong, Saw See; Moroso, Marie; Reynard, Olivier; Reynard, Stéphanie; Decembre, Elodie; Ftaich, Najate; Rossi, Axel; Wu, Nannan; Arnaud, Frédérick; Baize, Sylvain; Dreux, Marlène; Gerlier, Denis; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Volchkov, Viktor; Roingeard, Philippe; Cimarelli, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    IFITMs are broad antiviral factors that block incoming virions in endosomal vesicles, protecting target cells from infection. In the case of HIV-1, we and others reported the existence of an additional antiviral mechanism through which IFITMs lead to the production of virions of reduced infectivity. However, whether this second mechanism of inhibition is unique to HIV or extends to other viruses is currently unknown. To address this question, we have analyzed the susceptibility of a broad spectrum of viruses to the negative imprinting of the virion particles infectivity by IFITMs. The results we have gathered indicate that this second antiviral property of IFITMs extends well beyond HIV and we were able to identify viruses susceptible to the three IFITMs altogether (HIV-1, SIV, MLV, MPMV, VSV, MeV, EBOV, WNV), as well as viruses that displayed a member-specific susceptibility (EBV, DUGV), or were resistant to all IFITMs (HCV, RVFV, MOPV, AAV). The swapping of genetic elements between resistant and susceptible viruses allowed us to point to specificities in the viral mode of assembly, rather than glycoproteins as dominant factors of susceptibility. However, we also show that, contrarily to X4-, R5-tropic HIV-1 envelopes confer resistance against IFITM3, suggesting that viral receptors add an additional layer of complexity in the IFITMs-HIV interplay. Lastly, we show that the overall antiviral effects ascribed to IFITMs during spreading infections, are the result of a bimodal inhibition in which IFITMs act both by protecting target cells from incoming viruses and in driving the production of virions of reduced infectivity. Overall, our study reports for the first time that the negative imprinting of the virion particles infectivity is a conserved antiviral property of IFITMs and establishes IFITMs as a paradigm of restriction factor capable of interfering with two distinct phases of a virus life cycle.

  9. Assessing Zika virus replication and the development of Zika-specific antibodies after a mid-gestation viral challenge in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierle, Craig J; Fernández-Alarcón, Claudia; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Zabeli, Jason C; Janus, Bradley C; Putri, Dira S; Schleiss, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    Primary Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that occur during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and profoundly disrupt fetal development. While the full range of developmental abnormalities associated with congenital Zika syndrome is not yet known, severe cases of the syndrome can present with microcephaly, extensive neurologic and ocular damage, and pronounced joint malformations. Animal models that accurately recapitulate congenital Zika syndrome are urgently needed for vaccine development and for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis. As guinea pigs have successfully been used to model transplacental infections by cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and Listeria monocytogenes, we sought to test whether ZIKV could productively infect guinea pigs and whether viral transmission with attendant fetal pathology would occur after a mid-gestation viral challenge. We found that guinea pig cells supported ZIKV replication in vitro. Experimental infection of non-pregnant animals did not result in overt disease but low-level, detectable viremia was observed. When pregnant guinea pigs were challenged with ZIKV at between 18 and 21 days gestational age, ZIKV was not detected in maternal or pup blood, plasma, or tissues and no significant differences in maternal weight gain or pup size were observed following challenge. Nonetheless, a robust antibody response against ZIKV was detected in both the pups and dams. These results suggest that, while guinea pigs can model aspects of the immune response to ZIKV infection during pregnancy, naturally circulating ZIKV strains are not pathogenic during the pregnancy of immunocompetent guinea pigs and do not interfere with normal pup development.

  10. Assessing Zika virus replication and the development of Zika-specific antibodies after a mid-gestation viral challenge in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig J Bierle

    Full Text Available Primary Zika virus (ZIKV infections that occur during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and profoundly disrupt fetal development. While the full range of developmental abnormalities associated with congenital Zika syndrome is not yet known, severe cases of the syndrome can present with microcephaly, extensive neurologic and ocular damage, and pronounced joint malformations. Animal models that accurately recapitulate congenital Zika syndrome are urgently needed for vaccine development and for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis. As guinea pigs have successfully been used to model transplacental infections by cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and Listeria monocytogenes, we sought to test whether ZIKV could productively infect guinea pigs and whether viral transmission with attendant fetal pathology would occur after a mid-gestation viral challenge. We found that guinea pig cells supported ZIKV replication in vitro. Experimental infection of non-pregnant animals did not result in overt disease but low-level, detectable viremia was observed. When pregnant guinea pigs were challenged with ZIKV at between 18 and 21 days gestational age, ZIKV was not detected in maternal or pup blood, plasma, or tissues and no significant differences in maternal weight gain or pup size were observed following challenge. Nonetheless, a robust antibody response against ZIKV was detected in both the pups and dams. These results suggest that, while guinea pigs can model aspects of the immune response to ZIKV infection during pregnancy, naturally circulating ZIKV strains are not pathogenic during the pregnancy of immunocompetent guinea pigs and do not interfere with normal pup development.

  11. Ocean acidification and viral replication cycles: Frequency of lytically infected and lysogenic cells during a mesocosm experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiola, Anastasia; Pitta, Paraskevi; Giannakourou, Antonia; Bourdin, Guillaume; Marro, Sophie; Maugendre, Laure; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Gazeau, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    The frequency of lytically infected and lysogenic cells (FLIC and FLC, respectively) was estimated during an in situ mesocosm experiment studying the impact of ocean acidification on the plankton community of a low nutrient low chlorophyll (LNLC) system in the north-western Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Villefranche, France) in February/March 2013. No direct effect of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) on viral replication cycles could be detected. FLC variability was negatively correlated to heterotrophic bacterial and net community production as well as the ambient bacterial abundance, confirming that lysogeny is a prevailing life strategy under unfavourable-for-the-hosts conditions. Further, the phytoplankton community, assessed by chlorophyll a concentration and the release of >0.4 μm transparent exopolymeric particles, was correlated with the occurrence of lysogeny, indicating a possible link between photosynthetic processes and bacterial growth. Higher FLC was found occasionally at the highest pCO2-treated mesocosm in parallel to subtle differences in the phytoplankton community. This observation suggests that elevated pCO2 could lead to short-term alterations in lysogenic dynamics coupled to phytoplankton-derived processes. Correlation of FLIC with any environmental parameter could have been obscured by the sampling time or the synchronization of lysis to microbial processes not assessed in this experiment. Furthermore, alterations in microbial and viral assemblage composition and gene expression could be a confounding factor. Viral-induced modifications in organic matter flow affect bacterial growth and could interact with ocean acidification with unpredictable ecological consequences.

  12. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurimoto, T.; Fujiyama, A.; Matsubara, K.

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes

  13. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurimoto, T; Fujiyama, A; Matsubara, K

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes.

  14. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  15. Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Coat Protein Is Essential for Cell-to-Cell and Long-Distance Movement but Not for Viral RNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shengniao; Gil-Salas, Francisco M.; Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Samales, Ashwin Kuppusamy; Johnson, John; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Wong, Sek-Man

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro. PMID:25402344

  16. Infection with equine infectious anemia virus vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 causes no visible histopathological lesions in target organs in association with restricted viral replication and unique cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xue-Feng; Xiao, Fei; Li, Li-Jia; Zhang, Jiao-Er; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Du, Cheng; He, Xi-Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The live equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 was developed by in vitro attenuation of a virulent strain, EIAVLN40, in the 1970s, and it has been demonstrated to induce protective immunity under laboratory and natural EIAV infection conditions. The detailed biological features of this attenuated virus remain to be further investigated. Experimental inoculation with EIAVDLV121 did not result in clinical symptoms even with immunosuppressive treatment in our previous studies. Here, we further investigated whether the replication of the vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 in experimentally infected horses causes histopathological lesions to develop in the targeted organs. Both the lungs and the spleen have been demonstrated to support EIAV replication. By evaluating the gross macroscopic and histological changes, we found that EIAVDLV121 did not cause detectable histopathological lesions and that it replicated several hundred times more slowly than its parental virulent strain, EIAVLN40, in tissues. Immunochemical assays of these tissues indicated that the primary target cells of EIAVDLV121 were monocytes/macrophages, but that EIAVLN40 also infected alveolar epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. In addition, both of these viral strains promoted the up- and down-regulation of the expression of various cytokines and chemokines, implicating the potential involvement of these cellular factors in the pathological outcomes of EIAV infection and host immune responses. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the EIAV vaccine strain does not cause obvious histopathological lesions or clinical symptoms and that it induces a unique cytokine response profile. These features are considered essential for EIAVDLV121 to function as an effective live vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Small RNAs targeting the 5' end of the viral polymerase gene segments specifically interfere with influenza type A virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Francesco; Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Parolin, Cristina; Azzi, Alberta; Palù, Giorgio; Giannecchini, Simone

    2015-09-20

    Human and avian influenza A viruses, associated with seasonal epidemics and occasionally with pandemics, have a high impact on public health. The development of new antivirals to counteract the emergence of drug resistant influenza virus variants is a main concern. The aim of this study was to develop systems for the efficient and stable expression of small therapeutic RNAs into influenza virus infected cells in order to get further insights on the efficacy of nucleic acid-based antiviral strategies. To this end, lentiviral vectors expressing either microRNAs or antisense-RNAs targeting the 5' end of the PA, PB1 and PB2 influenza virus genomic sequences were generated. Derivative recombinant lentiviral particles were employed to transduce the influenza virus highly susceptible human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells. The expression of both RNA molecules led to a reduction up to 3 logs of the viral titer when transduced A549 cells were challenged with different human and avian subtypes of influenza type A virus. Importantly, no inhibition of influenza type B virus was observed. Overall our data support the development of nucleic acid-based antiviral strategies to control human and avian influenza A virus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of ATM in the Formation of the Replication Compartment during Lytic Replication of Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Pok Man; Deng, Wen; Jia, Lin; Yang, Jie; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing; Huen, Michael Shing-Yan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a type of oncogenic herpesvirus, is associated with human malignancies. Previous studies have shown that lytic reactivation of EBV in latently infected cells induces an ATM-dependent DNA damage response (DDR). The involvement of ATM activation has been implicated in inducing viral lytic gene transcription to promote lytic reactivation. Its contribution to the formation of a replication compartment during lytic reactivation of EBV remains poorly defined. In this study, the role of ATM in viral DNA replication was investigated in EBV-infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. We observed that induction of lytic infection of EBV triggers ATM activation and localization of DDR proteins at the viral replication compartments. Suppression of ATM activity using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach or a specific chemical inhibitor profoundly suppressed replication of EBV DNA and production of infectious virions in EBV-infected cells induced to undergo lytic reactivation. We further showed that phosphorylation of Sp1 at the serine-101 residue is essential in promoting the accretion of EBV replication proteins at the replication compartment, which is crucial for replication of viral DNA. Knockdown of Sp1 expression by siRNA effectively suppressed the replication of viral DNA and localization of EBV replication proteins to the replication compartments. Our study supports an important role of ATM activation in lytic reactivation of EBV in epithelial cells, and phosphorylation of Sp1 is an essential process downstream of ATM activation involved in the formation of viral replication compartments. Our study revealed an essential role of the ATM-dependent DDR pathway in lytic reactivation of EBV, suggesting a potential antiviral replication strategy using specific DDR inhibitors. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with human malignancies, including undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which has a high

  19. Interferon-inducible ribonuclease ISG20 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication through directly binding to the epsilon stem-loop structure of viral RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV replicates its DNA genome through reverse transcription of a viral RNA pregenome. We report herein that the interferon (IFN stimulated exoribonuclease gene of 20 KD (ISG20 inhibits HBV replication through degradation of HBV RNA. ISG20 expression was observed at basal level and was highly upregulated upon IFN treatment in hepatocytes, and knock down of ISG20 resulted in elevation of HBV replication and attenuation of IFN-mediated antiviral effect. The sequence element conferring the susceptibility of HBV RNA to ISG20-mediated RNA degradation was mapped at the HBV RNA terminal redundant region containing epsilon (ε stem-loop. Furthermore, ISG20-induced HBV RNA degradation relies on its ribonuclease activity, as the enzymatic inactive form ISG20D94G was unable to promote HBV RNA decay. Interestingly, ISG20D94G retained antiviral activity against HBV DNA replication by preventing pgRNA encapsidation, resulting from a consequence of ISG20-ε interaction. This interaction was further characterized by in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and ISG20 was able to bind HBV ε directly in absence of any other cellular proteins, indicating a direct ε RNA binding capability of ISG20; however, cofactor(s may be required for ISG20 to efficiently degrade ε. In addition, the lower stem portion of ε is the major ISG20 binding site, and the removal of 4 base pairs from the bottom portion of ε abrogated the sensitivity of HBV RNA to ISG20, suggesting that the specificity of ISG20-ε interaction relies on both RNA structure and sequence. Furthermore, the C-terminal Exonuclease III (ExoIII domain of ISG20 was determined to be responsible for interacting with ε, as the deletion of ExoIII abolished in vitro ISG20-ε binding and intracellular HBV RNA degradation. Taken together, our study sheds light on the underlying mechanisms of IFN-mediated HBV inhibition and the antiviral mechanism of ISG20 in general.

  20. A single-residue change in the HIV-1 V3 loop associated with maraviroc resistance impairs CCR5 binding affinity while increasing replicative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Javier; Staropoli, Isabelle; Azoulay, Stéphane; Heinrich, Jean-Thomas; Cascajero, Almudena; Colin, Philippe; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Alcami, Jose; Kellenberger, Esther; Lagane, Bernard

    2015-06-18

    Maraviroc (MVC) is an allosteric CCR5 inhibitor used against HIV-1 infection. While MVC-resistant viruses have been identified in patients, it still remains incompletely known how they adjust their CD4 and CCR5 binding properties to resist MVC inhibition while preserving their replicative capacity. It is thought that they maintain high efficiency of receptor binding. To date however, information about the binding affinities to receptors for inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 remains limited. Here, we show by means of viral envelope (gp120) binding experiments and virus-cell fusion kinetics that a MVC-resistant virus (MVC-Res) that had emerged as a dominant viral quasispecies in a patient displays reduced affinities for CD4 and CCR5 either free or bound to MVC, as compared to its MVC-sensitive counterpart isolated before MVC therapy. An alanine insertion within the GPG motif (G310_P311insA) of the MVC-resistant gp120 V3 loop is responsible for the decreased CCR5 binding affinity, while impaired binding to CD4 is due to sequence changes outside V3. Molecular dynamics simulations of gp120 binding to CCR5 further emphasize that the Ala insertion alters the structure of the V3 tip and weakens interaction with CCR5 ECL2. Paradoxically, infection experiments on cells expressing high levels of CCR5 also showed that Ala allows MVC-Res to use CCR5 efficiently, thereby improving viral fusion and replication efficiencies. Actually, although we found that the V3 loop of MVC-Res is required for high levels of MVC resistance, other regions outside V3 are sufficient to confer a moderate level of resistance. These sequence changes outside V3, however, come with a replication cost, which is compensated for by the Ala insertion in V3. These results indicate that changes in the V3 loop of MVC-resistant viruses can augment the efficiency of CCR5-dependent steps of viral entry other than gp120 binding, thereby compensating for their decreased affinity for entry receptors and improving their

  1. A mutation in the DNA polymerase accessory factor of herpes simplex virus 1 restores viral DNA replication in the presence of raltegravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth; Tang, Liang; Baines, Joel D

    2014-10-01

    Previous reports showed that raltegravir, a recently approved antiviral compound that targets HIV integrase, can inhibit the nuclease function of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV terminase) in vitro. In this study, subtoxic levels of raltegravir were shown to inhibit the replication of four different herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, HCMV, and mouse cytomegalovirus, by 30- to 700-fold, depending on the dose and the virus tested. Southern blotting and quantitative PCR revealed that raltegravir inhibits DNA replication of HSV-1 rather than cleavage of viral DNA. A raltegravir-resistant HSV-1 mutant was generated by repeated passage in the presence of 200 μM raltegravir. The genomic sequence of the resistant virus, designated clone 7, contained mutations in 16 open reading frames. Of these, the mutations F198S in unique long region 15 (UL15; encoding the large terminase subunit), A374V in UL32 (required for DNA cleavage and packaging), V296I in UL42 (encoding the DNA polymerase accessory factor), and A224S in UL54 (encoding ICP27, an important transcriptional regulator) were introduced independently into the wild-type HSV-1(F) genome, and the recombinant viruses were tested for raltegravir resistance. Viruses bearing both the UL15 and UL32 mutations inserted within the genome of the UL42 mutant were also tested. While the UL15, UL32, and UL54 mutant viruses were fully susceptible to raltegravir, any virus bearing the UL42 mutation was as resistant to raltegravir as clone 7. Overall, these results suggest that raltegravir may be a valuable therapeutic agent against herpesviruses and the antiviral activity targets the DNA polymerase accessory factor rather than the nuclease activity of the terminase. This paper shows that raltegravir, the antiretrovirus drug targeting integrase, is effective against various herpesviruses. Drug resistance mapped to the herpesvirus DNA polymerase accessory factor, which was an unexpected finding. Copyright © 2014

  2. Expression of an IRF-3 fusion protein and mouse estrogen receptor, inhibits hepatitis C viral replication in RIG-I-deficient Huh 7.5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF-3 plays a central role in the induction of interferon (IFN production and succeeding interferon-stimulated genes (ISG expression en route for restraining hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Here, we established a stable Huh7.5-IRF3ER cell line expressing a fusion protein of IRF-3 and mouse estrogen receptor (ER to examine IFN production and anti-HCV effects of IRF-3 in retinoic acid inducible-gene-I (RIG-I deficient Huh 7.5 cells. Homodimerization of the IRF-3ER fusion protein was detected by Western blotting after treatment with the estrogen receptor agonist 4-hydrotamoxifen (4-HT in Huh7.5-IRF3ER cells. Expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, and their inhibitory effects on HCV replication were demonstrated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Peak expression of IFN-α and IFN-β was achieved 24-hours post 4-HT treatment, coinciding with the appearance of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT proteins. Additionally, HCV viral replication declined in time-dependent fashion. In previous studies, a novel IFN-mediated pathway regulating expression of 1-8U and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP M inhibited HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES-dependent translation. When expression of ISGs such as 1-8U and hnRNP M were measured in 4-HT-treated Huh7.5-IRF3ER cells, both genes were positively regulated by activation of the IRF-3ER fusion protein. In conclusion, the anti-HCV effects of IRF-3ER homodimerization inhibited HCV RNA replication as well as HCV IRES-dependent translation in Huh7.5-IRF3ER cells. The results of this study indicate that IRF-3ER homodimerization is a key step to restore IFN expression in Huh7.5-IRF3ER cells and in achieving its anti-HCV effects.

  3. The intrinsically disordered N-terminal arm of the brome mosaic virus coat protein specifically recognizes the RNA motif that directs the initiation of viral RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Alexander; Hoover, Haley; Smith, Edward; Clemmer, David E; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Kao, C Cheng

    2018-01-09

    In the brome mosaic virus (BMV) virion, the coat protein (CP) selectively contacts the RNA motifs that regulate translation and RNA replication (Hoover et al., 2016. J. Virol. 90, 7748). We hypothesize that the unstructured N-terminal arm (NTA) of the BMV CP can specifically recognize RNA motifs. Using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that peptides containing the NTA of the CP were found to preferentially bind to an RNA hairpin motif that directs the initiation of BMV RNA synthesis. RNA binding causes the peptide to change from heterogeneous structures to a single family of structures. Fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence quenching and size exclusion chromatography experiments all confirm that the NTA can specific recognize the RNA motif. The peptide introduced into plants along with BMV virion increased accumulation of the BMV CP and accelerated the rate of minus-strand RNA synthesis. The intrinsically disordered BMV NTA could thus specifically recognize BMV RNAs to affect viral infection. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. GAPDH--a recruits a plant virus movement protein to cortical virus replication complexes to facilitate viral cell-to-cell movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kaido

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of virus movement protein (MP-containing punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum is required for efficient intercellular movement of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV, a bipartite positive-strand RNA plant virus. We found that these cortical punctate structures constitute a viral replication complex (VRC in addition to the previously reported aggregate structures that formed adjacent to the nucleus. We identified host proteins that interacted with RCNMV MP in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using a tandem affinity purification method followed by mass spectrometry. One of these host proteins was glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-A (NbGAPDH-A, which is a component of the Calvin-Benson cycle in chloroplasts. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A reduced RCNMV multiplication in the inoculated leaves, but not in the single cells, thereby suggesting that GAPDH-A plays a positive role in cell-to-cell movement of RCNMV. The fusion protein of NbGAPDH-A and green fluorescent protein localized exclusively to the chloroplasts. In the presence of RCNMV RNA1, however, the protein localized to the cortical VRC as well as the chloroplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and GST pulldown assay confirmed in vivo and in vitro interactions, respectively, between the MP and NbGAPDH-A. Furthermore, gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A inhibited MP localization to the cortical VRC. We discuss the possible roles of NbGAPDH-A in the RCNMV movement process.

  5. Inhibition of BmNPV replication in silkworm cells using inducible and regulated artificial microRNA precursors targeting the essential viral gene lef-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; He, Qian; Zhang, Chun-Dong; Chen, Xiang-Yun; Chen, Xue-Mei; Dong, Zhan-Qi; Li, Na; Kuang, Xiu-Xiu; Cao, Ming-Ya; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2014-04-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a major silkworm pathogen, causing substantial economic losses to the sericulture industry annually. We demonstrate a novel anti-BmNPV system expressing mature artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) targeting the viral lef-11 gene. The mature amiRNAs inhibited the lef-11 gene in silkworm BmN-SWU1 cells. Antiviral assays demonstrated that mature amiRNAs silenced the gene and inhibited BmNPV proliferation efficiently. As constitutive overexpression of mature amiRNAs may induce acute cellular toxicity, we further developed a novel virus-induced amiRNA expression system. The amiRNA cassette is regulated by a baculovirus-induced fusion promoter. This baculovirus-induced RNA interference system is strictly regulated by virus infection, which functions in a negative feedback loop to activate the expression of mature amiRNAs against lef-11 and subsequently control inhibition of BmNPV replication. Our study advances the use of a regulatable amiRNA cassette as a safe and effective tool for research of basic insect biology and antiviral application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced FasL expression in human monocytic cells and its implications for cell death, viral replication, and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannello, Alexandre; Debbeche, Olfa; El Arabi, Raoudha; Samarani, Suzanne; Hamel, David; Rozenberg, Flore; Heveker, Nikolaus; Ahmad, Ali

    2011-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitously occurring pathogen that infects humans early in childhood. The virus persists as a latent infection in dorsal root ganglia, especially of the trigeminal nerve, and frequently becomes reactivated in humans under conditions of stress. Monocytic cells constitute an important component of the innate and adaptive immune responses. We show here for the first time that HSV-1 stimulates human FasL promoter and induces de novo expression of FasL on the surface of human monocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages. This virus-induced FasL expression causes death of monocytic cells growing in suspension, but not in monolayers (e.g., macrophages). The addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, as well as anti-FasL antibodies, reduced cell death but increased viral replication in the virus-infected cell cultures. We also show here for the first time that the virus-induced de novo expression of FasL on the cell surface acts as an immune evasion mechanism by causing the death of interacting human CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Our study provides novel insights on FasL expression and cell death in HSV-infected human monocytic cells and their impact on interacting immune cells.

  7. Experimental infection with the Paderborn isolate of classical swine fever virus in 10-week-old pigs: determination of viral replication kinetics by quantitative RT-PCR, virus isolation and antigen ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We performed experimental infection in 10-week-old pigs with the Paderborn isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Despite being epidemiologically linked to the major CSFV outbreak in The Netherlands in 1997, the in vivo replication kinetics of this isolate have to our knowledge not been...... described in detail previously. We found that oronasal infection with 10(4.7) TCID50 produced mortality in three out of five pigs after 29-31 days, and severe clinical symptoms in one out of five pigs, while one out of five pigs exhibited no clinical symptoms. At this infection dose, pigs had viral RNA...... viral RNA in serum for more than 30 days, and exhibited only mild clinical symptoms. We observed an excellent correlation between clinical symptoms and viral RNA loads in serum, while serum antibody levels were low. Clinically affected pigs had up to 1000-fold higher serum viral RNA loads than did pigs...

  8. The effect of antiretroviral intensification with dolutegravir on residual virus replication in HIV-infected individuals: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Thomas A; McMahon, James H; Chang, J Judy; Audsley, Jennifer; Rhodes, Ajantha; Tennakoon, Surekha; Dantanarayana, Ashanti; Spelman, Tim; Schmidt, Tina; Kent, Stephen J; Morcilla, Vincent; Palmer, Sarah; Elliott, Julian H; Lewin, Sharon R

    2018-04-06

    Whether ongoing virus replication occurs in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear; therefore, whether residual virus replication is a barrier to achieving a cure for HIV is also unknown. We aimed to establish whether ART intensification with dolutegravir would reveal or affect residual virus replication in HIV-infected individuals on suppressive treatment. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we enrolled HIV-infected adults (aged 18 years and older) receiving combination ART (at least three agents) for at least 3 years from the Alfred Hospital and Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Eligible participants had fewer than 50 copies per mL HIV-1 plasma RNA for more than 3 years and fewer than 20 copies per mL at screening and two CD4 counts higher than 350 cells per μL in the previous 24 months including screening. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 50 mg oral dolutegravir or placebo once a day for 56 days in addition to background ART. Follow-up was done at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in frequency of 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles in peripheral blood CD4 cells at day 7. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02500446. Between Sept 21, 2015, and Sept 19, 2016, 46 individuals were screened for inclusion. 40 were eligible for inclusion and were randomly assigned to the dolutegravir (n=21) or placebo group (n=19). All enrolled participants completed the study procedures and no individuals were lost to follow up. All participants were on suppressive ART with 12% receiving protease inhibitors and the others non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Median 2-LTR circles fold-change from baseline to day 7 was -0·17 (IQR -0·90 to 0·90) in the dolutegravir group and -0·26 (-1·00 to 1·17) in the placebo group (p=0·17). The addition of dolutegravir to pre-existing ART regimens was safe and

  9. The conserved residue Arg46 in the N-terminal heptad repeat domain of HIV-1 gp41 is critical for viral fusion and entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    Full Text Available During the process of HIV-1 fusion with the target cell, the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR of gp41 interacts with the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR to form fusogenic six-helix bundle (6-HB core. We previously identified a crucial residue for 6-HB formation and virus entry--Lys63 (K63 in the C-terminal region of NHR (aa 54-70, which forms a hydrophobic cavity. It can form an important salt bridge with Asp121 (D121 in gp41 CHR. Here, we found another important conserved residue for virus fusion and entry, Arg46 (R46, in the N-terminal region of NHR (aa 35-53, which forms a hydrogen bond with a polar residue, Asn43 (N43, in NHR, as a part of the hydrogen-bond network. R46 can also form a salt bridge with a negatively charged residue, Glu137 (E137, in gp41 CHR. Substitution of R46 with the hydrophobic residue Ala (R46A or the negatively charged residue Glu (R46E resulted in disruption of the hydrogen bond network, breakage of the salt bridge and reduction of 6-HB's stability, leading to impairment of viral fusion and decreased inhibition of N36, an NHR peptide. Similarly, CHR peptide C34 with substitution of E137 for Ala (E137A or Arg (E137R also exhibited reduced inhibitory activity against HIV-1 infection and HIV-1-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. These results suggest that the positively charged residue R46 and its hydrogen bond network, together with the salt bridge between R46 and E137, are important for viral fusion and entry and may therefore serve as a target for designing novel HIV fusion/entry inhibitors.

  10. Serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the adenoviral L4-33K splicing enhancer protein is essential for function and reorganization of the protein to the periphery of viral replication centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestberg, Sara, E-mail: sara.ostberg@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Toermaenen Persson, Heidi, E-mail: heidi.tormanen.persson@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Akusjaervi, Goeran, E-mail: goran.akusjarvi@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-11-25

    The adenovirus L4-33K protein is a key regulator involved in the temporal shift from early to late pattern of mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit. L4-33K is a virus-encoded alternative splicing factor, which enhances processing of 3 Prime splice sites with a weak sequence context. Here we show that L4-33K expressed from a plasmid is localized at the nuclear margin of uninfected cells. During an infection L4-33K is relocalized to the periphery of E2A-72K containing viral replication centers. We also show that serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the conserved carboxy-terminus of L4-33K, which is critical for the splicing enhancer function of L4-33K, is necessary for the nuclear localization and redistribution of the protein to viral replication sites. Collectively, our results show a good correlation between the activity of L4-33K as a splicing enhancer protein and its localization to the periphery of viral replication centers.

  11. The expanding functions of cellular helicases: the tombusvirus RNA replication enhancer co-opts the plant eIF4AIII-like AtRH2 and the DDX5-like AtRH5 DEAD-box RNA helicases to promote viral asymmetric RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kovalev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. Several of the co-opted host factors bind to the viral RNA, which plays multiple roles, including mRNA function, as an assembly platform for the viral replicase (VRC, template for RNA synthesis, and encapsidation during infection. It is likely that remodeling of the viral RNAs and RNA-protein complexes during the switch from one step to another requires RNA helicases. In this paper, we have discovered a second group of cellular RNA helicases, including the eIF4AIII-like yeast Fal1p and the DDX5-like Dbp3p and the orthologous plant AtRH2 and AtRH5 DEAD box helicases, which are co-opted by tombusviruses. Unlike the previously characterized DDX3-like AtRH20/Ded1p helicases that bind to the 3' terminal promoter region in the viral minus-strand (-RNA, the other class of eIF4AIII-like RNA helicases bind to a different cis-acting element, namely the 5' proximal RIII(- replication enhancer (REN element in the TBSV (-RNA. We show that the binding of AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases to the TBSV (-RNA could unwind the dsRNA structure within the RIII(- REN. This unique characteristic allows the eIF4AIII-like helicases to perform novel pro-viral functions involving the RIII(- REN in stimulation of plus-strand (+RNA synthesis. We also show that AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases are components of the tombusvirus VRCs based on co-purification experiments. We propose that eIF4AIII-like helicases destabilize dsRNA replication intermediate within the RIII(- REN that promotes bringing the 5' and 3' terminal (-RNA sequences in close vicinity via long-range RNA-RNA base pairing. This newly formed RNA structure promoted by eIF4AIII helicase together with AtRH20 helicase might facilitate the recycling of the viral replicases for multiple rounds of (+-strand synthesis, thus resulting in asymmetrical viral replication.

  12. The expanding functions of cellular helicases: the tombusvirus RNA replication enhancer co-opts the plant eIF4AIII-like AtRH2 and the DDX5-like AtRH5 DEAD-box RNA helicases to promote viral asymmetric RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Nikolay; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. Several of the co-opted host factors bind to the viral RNA, which plays multiple roles, including mRNA function, as an assembly platform for the viral replicase (VRC), template for RNA synthesis, and encapsidation during infection. It is likely that remodeling of the viral RNAs and RNA-protein complexes during the switch from one step to another requires RNA helicases. In this paper, we have discovered a second group of cellular RNA helicases, including the eIF4AIII-like yeast Fal1p and the DDX5-like Dbp3p and the orthologous plant AtRH2 and AtRH5 DEAD box helicases, which are co-opted by tombusviruses. Unlike the previously characterized DDX3-like AtRH20/Ded1p helicases that bind to the 3' terminal promoter region in the viral minus-strand (-)RNA, the other class of eIF4AIII-like RNA helicases bind to a different cis-acting element, namely the 5' proximal RIII(-) replication enhancer (REN) element in the TBSV (-)RNA. We show that the binding of AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases to the TBSV (-)RNA could unwind the dsRNA structure within the RIII(-) REN. This unique characteristic allows the eIF4AIII-like helicases to perform novel pro-viral functions involving the RIII(-) REN in stimulation of plus-strand (+)RNA synthesis. We also show that AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases are components of the tombusvirus VRCs based on co-purification experiments. We propose that eIF4AIII-like helicases destabilize dsRNA replication intermediate within the RIII(-) REN that promotes bringing the 5' and 3' terminal (-)RNA sequences in close vicinity via long-range RNA-RNA base pairing. This newly formed RNA structure promoted by eIF4AIII helicase together with AtRH20 helicase might facilitate the recycling of the viral replicases for multiple rounds of (+)-strand synthesis, thus resulting in asymmetrical viral replication.

  13. Class A scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1 restricts hepatitis C virus replication by mediating toll-like receptor 3 recognition of viral RNAs produced in neighboring cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromichi Dansako

    Full Text Available Persistent infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV may result in life-threatening liver disease, including cirrhosis and cancer, and impose an important burden on human health. Understanding how the virus is capable of achieving persistence in the majority of those infected is thus an important goal. Although HCV has evolved multiple mechanisms to disrupt and block cellular signaling pathways involved in the induction of interferon (IFN responses, IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression is typically prominent in the HCV-infected liver. Here, we show that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 expressed within uninfected hepatocytes is capable of sensing infection in adjacent cells, initiating a local antiviral response that partially restricts HCV replication. We demonstrate that this is dependent upon the expression of class A scavenger receptor type 1 (MSR1. MSR1 binds extracellular dsRNA, mediating its endocytosis and transport toward the endosome where it is engaged by TLR3, thereby triggering IFN responses in both infected and uninfected cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of MSR1 expression blocks TLR3 sensing of HCV in infected hepatocyte cultures, leading to increased cellular permissiveness to virus infection. Exogenous expression of Myc-MSR1 restores TLR3 signaling in MSR1-depleted cells with subsequent induction of an antiviral state. A series of conserved basic residues within the carboxy-terminus of the collagen superfamily domain of MSR1 are required for binding and transport of dsRNA, and likely facilitate acidification-dependent release of dsRNA at the site of TLR3 expression in the endosome. Our findings reveal MSR1 to be a critical component of a TLR3-mediated pattern recognition receptor response that exerts an antiviral state in both infected and uninfected hepatocytes, thereby limiting the impact of HCV proteins that disrupt IFN signaling in infected cells and restricting the spread of HCV within the liver.

  14. Structure-function relationship of viral cis-acting RNA elements : the role of the OriI and OriR in enterovirus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooij, Martinus Johannes Maria van

    2007-01-01

    The genus Enterovirus belongs to Picornaviridae, a family of small, non-enveloped, lytic RNA viruses. They contain a single-stranded RNA genome of positive polarity of approximately 7,500 nucleotides. A viral protein VPg is specifically linked to the 5'terminus of the viral RNA. IRES-mediated

  15. Intracellular expression of Tat alters mitochondrial functions in T cells: a potential mechanism to understand mitochondrial damage during HIV-1 replication

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Mora, Sara; Mateos, Elena; Moran, María; Martín, Miguel Ángel; López, Juan Antonio; Calvo, Enrique; Terrón, María Carmen; Luque, Daniel; Muriaux, Delphine; Alcamí, José; Coiras, Mayte; López-Huertas, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-1 replication results in mitochondrial damage that is enhanced during antiretroviral therapy (ART). The onset of HIV-1 replication is regulated by viral protein Tat, a 101-residue protein codified by two exons that elongates viral transcripts. Although the first exon of Tat (aa 1–72) forms itself an active protein, the presence of the second exon (aa 73–101) results in a more competent transcriptional protein with additional functions. Results Mitochondrial overall functions we...

  16. Replication-uncoupled histone deposition during adenovirus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-06-01

    In infected cells, the chromatin structure of the adenovirus genome DNA plays critical roles in its genome functions. Previously, we reported that in early phases of infection, incoming viral DNA is associated with both viral core protein VII and cellular histones. Here we show that in late phases of infection, newly synthesized viral DNA is also associated with histones. We also found that the knockdown of CAF-1, a histone chaperone that functions in the replication-coupled deposition of histones, does not affect the level of histone H3 bound on viral chromatin, although CAF-1 is accumulated at viral DNA replication foci together with PCNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using epitope-tagged histone H3 demonstrated that histone variant H3.3, which is deposited onto the cellular genome in a replication-independent manner, is selectively associated with both incoming and newly synthesized viral DNAs. Microscopic analyses indicated that histones but not USF1, a transcription factor that regulates viral late gene expression, are excluded from viral DNA replication foci and that this is achieved by the oligomerization of the DNA binding protein (DBP). Taken together, these results suggest that histone deposition onto newly synthesized viral DNA is most likely uncoupled with viral DNA replication, and a possible role of DBP oligomerization in this replication-uncoupled histone deposition is discussed.

  17. Model of OSBP-Mediated Cholesterol Supply to Aichi Virus RNA Replication Sites Involving Protein-Protein Interactions among Viral Proteins, ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Sasaki, Kumiko; Nagashima, Shigeo; Taniguchi, Koki; Sasaki, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Positive-strand RNA viruses, including picornaviruses, utilize cellular machinery for genome replication. Previously, we reported that each of the 2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB proteins of Aichi virus (AiV), a picornavirus, forms a complex with the Golgi apparatus protein ACBD3 and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) at viral RNA replication sites (replication organelles [ROs]), enhancing PI4KB-dependent phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) production. Here, we demonstrate AiV hijacking of the cellular cholesterol transport system involving oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), a PI4P-binding cholesterol transfer protein. AiV RNA replication was inhibited by silencing cellular proteins known to be components of this pathway, OSBP, the ER membrane proteins VAPA and VAPB (VAP-A/B), the PI4P-phosphatase SAC1, and PI-transfer protein β. OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1 were present at RNA replication sites. We also found various previously unknown interactions among the AiV proteins (2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB), ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1, and the interactions were suggested to be involved in recruiting the component proteins to AiV ROs. Importantly, the OSBP-2B interaction enabled PI4P-independent recruitment of OSBP to AiV ROs, indicating preferential recruitment of OSBP among PI4P-binding proteins. Protein-protein interaction-based OSBP recruitment has not been reported for other picornaviruses. Cholesterol was accumulated at AiV ROs, and inhibition of OSBP-mediated cholesterol transfer impaired cholesterol accumulation and AiV RNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that AiV-induced vesicle-like structures were close to ER membranes. Altogether, we conclude that AiV directly recruits the cholesterol transport machinery through protein-protein interactions, resulting in formation of membrane contact sites between the ER and AiV ROs and cholesterol supply to the ROs. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses utilize host pathways to modulate the lipid composition of

  18. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3′ end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies. PMID:23966403

  19. Reduction of hepatitis C virus NS5A hyperphosphorylation by selective inhibition of cellular kinases activates viral RNA replication in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neddermann, Petra; Quintavalle, Manuela; Di Pietro, Chiara; Clementi, Angelica; Cerretani, Mauro; Altamura, Sergio; Bartholomew, Linda; De Francesco, Raffaele

    2004-12-01

    Efficient replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic RNA in cell culture requires the introduction of adaptive mutations. In this report we describe a system which enables efficient replication of the Con1 subgenomic replicon in Huh7 cells without the introduction of adaptive mutations. The starting hypothesis was that high amounts of the NS5A hyperphosphorylated form, p58, inhibit replication and that reduction of p58 by inhibition of specific kinase(s) below a certain threshold enables HCV replication. Upon screening of a panel of kinase inhibitors, we selected three compounds which inhibited NS5A phosphorylation in vitro and the formation of NS5A p58 in cell culture. Cells, transfected with the HCV Con1 wild-type sequence, support HCV RNA replication upon addition of any of the three compounds. The effect of the kinase inhibitors was found to be synergistic with coadaptive mutations in NS3. This is the first direct demonstration that the presence of high amounts of NS5A-p58 causes inhibition of HCV RNA replication in cell culture and that this inhibition can be relieved by kinase inhibitors.

  20. The utility of siRNA transcripts produced by RNA polymerase i in down regulating viral gene expression and replication of negative- and positive-strand RNA viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, Matthew; Diamond, Michael S.; Pekosz, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Short interfering double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs) expressed under the control of an RNA polymerase I promoter system were used to target gene expression of influenza A and West Nile virus. Decreased RNA and protein expression was induced in a sequence-specific manner--reducing sequence complementarity from 21 to 17 nucleotides abrogated the siRNA effect. Reduced M 2 expression resulted in a decrease in total and infectious influenza A virus production. WNV protein expression, genomic RNA, and infectious virus production were all dramatically reduced by siRNAs targeting two distinct viral sequences. The data demonstrate the utility of plasmid-driven siRNAs in regulating the expression of single viral genes, global viral gene expression, as a potential antiviral treatment, and as a genetic tool for viruses whose genomes are difficult to manipulate

  1. The virion-associated open reading frame 49 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 promotes viral replication both in vitro and in vivo as a derepressor of RTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Hye-Jeong; Kang, Hye-Ri; Jin, Hyun Yong; Lee, Shaoying; Deng, Hongyu; Wu, Ting-Ting; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Sun, Ren; Song, Moon Jung

    2012-01-01

    Replication and transcription activator (RTA), an immediate-early gene, is a key molecular switch to evoke lytic replication of gammaherpesviruses. Open reading frame 49 (ORF49) is conserved among gammaherpesviruses and shown to cooperate with RTA in regulating virus lytic replication. Here we show a molecular mechanism and in vivo functions of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 or γHV-68) ORF49. MHV-68 ORF49 was transcribed and translated as a late gene. The ORF49 protein was associated with a virion, interacting with the ORF64 large tegument protein and the ORF25 capsid protein. Moreover, ORF49 directly bound to RTA and its negative cellular regulator, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and disrupted the interactions of RTA and PARP-1. Productive replication of an ORF49-deficient mutant virus (49S) was attenuated in vivo as well as in vitro. Likewise, latent infection was also impaired in the spleen of 49S-infected mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the virion-associated ORF49 protein may promote virus replication both in vitro and in vivo by providing an optimal environment in the early phase of virus infection as a derepressor of RTA.

  2. Transcriptional profiling reveals molecular signatures associated with HIV permissiveness in Th1Th17 cells and identifies Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma as an intrinsic negative regulator of viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that primary Th1Th17 cells are highly permissive to HIV-1, whereas Th1 cells are relatively resistant. Molecular mechanisms underlying these differences remain unknown. Results Exposure to replication competent and single-round VSV-G pseudotyped HIV strains provide evidence that superior HIV replication in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells was regulated by mechanisms located at entry and post-entry levels. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling identified transcripts upregulated (n = 264) and downregulated (n = 235) in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells (p-value Th17 (nuclear receptors, trafficking, p38/MAPK, NF-κB, p53/Ras, IL-23) vs. Th1 cells (proteasome, interferon α/β). Differentially expressed genes were classified into biological categories using Gene Ontology. Th1Th17 cells expressed typical Th17 markers (IL-17A/F, IL-22, CCL20, RORC, IL-26, IL-23R, CCR6) and transcripts functionally linked to regulating cell trafficking (CEACAM1, MCAM), activation (CD28, CD40LG, TNFSF13B, TNFSF25, PTPN13, MAP3K4, LTB, CTSH), transcription (PPARγ, RUNX1, ATF5, ARNTL), apoptosis (FASLG), and HIV infection (CXCR6, FURIN). Differential expression of CXCR6, PPARγ, ARNTL, PTPN13, MAP3K4, CTSH, SERPINB6, PTK2, and ISG20 was validated by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and/or confocal microscopy. The nuclear receptor PPARγ was preferentially expressed by Th1Th17 cells. PPARγ RNA interference significantly increased HIV replication at levels post-entry and prior HIV-DNA integration. Finally, the activation of PPARγ pathway via the agonist Rosiglitazone induced the nuclear translocation of PPARγ and a robust inhibition of viral replication. Conclusions Thus, transcriptional profiling in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells demonstrated that HIV permissiveness is associated with a superior state of cellular activation and limited antiviral properties and identified PPARγ as an intrinsic negative regulator of viral replication. Therefore, triggering PPARγ pathway via non

  3. Modification of picornavirus genomic RNA using 'click' chemistry shows that unlinking of the VPg peptide is dispensable for translation and replication of the incoming viral RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langereis, Martijn A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823597; Feng, Qian; Nelissen, Frank H T; Virgen-Slane, Richard; van der Heden van Noort, Gerbrand J; Maciejewski, Sonia; Filippov, Dmitri V; Semler, Bert L; van Delft, Floris L; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156614723

    Picornaviruses constitute a large group of viruses comprising medically and economically important pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus 71 and foot-and-mouth disease virus. A unique characteristic of these viruses is the use of a viral peptide (VPg) as primer for

  4. Conserved retinoblastoma protein-binding motif in human cytomegalovirus UL97 kinase minimally impacts viral replication but affects susceptibility to maribavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Sunwen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The UL97 kinase has been shown to phosphorylate and inactivate the retinoblastoma protein (Rb and has three consensus Rb-binding motifs that might contribute to this activity. Recombinant viruses containing mutations in the Rb-binding motifs generally replicated well in human foreskin fibroblasts with only a slight delay in replication kinetics. Their susceptibility to the specific UL97 kinase inhibitor, maribavir, was also examined. Mutation of the amino terminal motif, which is involved in the inactivation of Rb, also renders the virus hypersensitive to the drug and suggests that the motif may play a role in its mechanism of action.

  5. The Combination of the R263K and T66I Resistance Substitutions in HIV-1 Integrase Is Incompatible with High-Level Viral Replication and the Development of High-Level Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiaming; Mesplède, Thibault; Oliveira, Maureen; Anstett, Kaitlin; Wainberg, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    The R263K substitution in integrase has been selected in tissue culture with dolutegravir (DTG) and has been reported for several treatment-experienced individuals receiving DTG as part of salvage therapy. The R263K substitution seems to be incompatible with the presence of common resistance mutations associated with raltegravir (RAL), a different integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI). T66I is a substitution that is common in individuals who have developed resistance against a different INSTI termed elvitegravir (EVG), but it is not known whether these two mutations might be compatible in the context of resistance against DTG or what impact the combination of these substitutions might have on resistance against INSTIs. E138K is a common secondary substitution observed with various primary resistance substitutions in RAL- and EVG-treated individuals. Viral infectivity, replicative capacity, and resistance against INSTIs were measured in cell-based assays. Strand transfer and 3' processing activities were measured biochemically. The combination of the R263K and T66I substitutions decreased HIV-1 infectivity, replicative capacity, and strand transfer activity. The addition of the E138K substitution partially compensated for these deficits and resulted in high levels of resistance against EVG but not against DTG or RAL. These findings suggest that the presence of the T66I substitution will not compromise the activity of DTG and may also help to prevent the additional generation of the R263K mutation. Our observations support the use of DTG in second-line therapy for individuals who experience treatment failure with EVG due to the T66I substitution. The integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) elvitegravir and dolutegravir are newly developed inhibitors against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV drug-resistant mutations in integrase that can arise in individuals treated with elvitegravir commonly include the T66I substitution, whereas R263K is a

  6. Genomic polymorphism of the pandemic A (H1N1 influenza viruses correlates with viral replication, virulence, and pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xu

    Full Text Available The novel pandemic A (H1N1 virus was first identified in Mexico in April 2009 and quickly spread worldwide. Like all influenzas, the H1N1 strain-specific properties of replication, virulence, and pathogenicity are a result of the particular genomic sequence and concerted expression of multiple genes. Thus, specific mutations may support increased virulence and may be useful as biomarkers of potential threat to human health. We performed comparative genomic analysis of ten strains of the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1 influenza viruses to determine whether genotypes associated with clinical phenotypes, which ranged from mild to severe illness and up to lethal. Virus replication capacity was tested for each strain in vitro using cultured epithelial cells, while virulence and pathogenicity were investigated in vivo using the BALB/c mouse model. The results indicated that A/Sichuan/1/2009 strain had significantly higher replication ability and virulence than the other strains, and five unique non-synonymous mutations were identified in important gene-encoding sequences. These mutations led to amino acid substitutions in HA (L32I, PA (A343T, PB1 (K353R and T566A, and PB2 (T471M, and may be critical molecular determinants for replication, virulence, and pathogenicity. Our results suggested that the replication capacity in vitro and virulence in vivo of the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1 viruses were not associated with the clinical phenotypes. This study offers new insights into the transmission and evolution of the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1 virus.

  7. The Glycoprotein and the Matrix Protein of Rabies Virus Affect Pathogenicity by Regulating Viral Replication and Facilitating Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Li, Jianwei; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    While the glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is known to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of rabies, the function of the RV matrix protein (M) in RV pathogenicity is not completely clear. To further investigate the roles of these proteins in viral pathogenicity, we constructed chimeric recombinant viruses by exchanging the G and M genes of the attenuated SN strain with those of the highly pathogenic SB strain. Infection of mice with these chimeric viruses revealed a significant ...

  8. Replicative homeostasis II: Influence of polymerase fidelity on RNA virus quasispecies biology: Implications for immune recognition, viral autoimmunity and other "virus receptor" diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sallie, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Much of the worlds' population is in active or imminent danger from established infectious pathogens, while sporadic and pandemic infections by these and emerging agents threaten everyone. RNA polymerases (RNApol) generate enormous genetic and consequent antigenic heterogeneity permitting both viruses and cellular pathogens to evade host defences. Thus, RNApol causes more morbidity and premature mortality than any other molecule. The extraordinary genetic heterogeneity defining viral...

  9. Crystal structure of the gamma-2 herpesvirus LANA DNA binding domain identifies charged surface residues which impact viral latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Correia

    Full Text Available Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA mediates γ2-herpesvirus genome persistence and regulates transcription. We describe the crystal structure of the murine gammaherpesvirus-68 LANA C-terminal domain at 2.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals an alpha-beta fold that assembles as a dimer, reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1. A predicted DNA binding surface is present and opposite this interface is a positive electrostatic patch. Targeted DNA recognition substitutions eliminated DNA binding, while certain charged patch mutations reduced bromodomain protein, BRD4, binding. Virus containing LANA abolished for DNA binding was incapable of viable latent infection in mice. Virus with mutations at the charged patch periphery exhibited substantial deficiency in expansion of latent infection, while central region substitutions had little effect. This deficiency was independent of BRD4. These results elucidate the LANA DNA binding domain structure and reveal a unique charged region that exerts a critical role in viral latent infection, likely acting through a host cell protein(s.

  10. Conserved Features of the PB2 627 Domain Impact Influenza Virus Polymerase Function and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirui, James; Bucci, Michael D.; Poole, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Successful replication of influenza virus requires the coordinated expression of viral genes and replication of the genome by the viral polymerase, composed of the subunits PA, PB1, and PB2. Polymerase activity is regulated by both viral and host factors, yet the mechanisms of regulation and how they contribute to viral pathogenicity and tropism are poorly understood. To characterize these processes, we created a series of mutants in the 627 domain of the PB2 subunit. This domain contains a conserved “P[F/P]AAAPP” sequence motif and the well-described amino acid 627, whose identity regulates host range. A lysine present at position 627 in most mammalian viral isolates creates a basic face on the domain surface and confers high-level activity in humans compared to the glutamic acid found at this position in avian isolates. Mutation of the basic face or the P[F/P]AAAPP motif impaired polymerase activity, assembly of replication complexes, and viral replication. Most of these residues are required for general polymerase activity, whereas PB2 K586 and R589 were preferentially required for function in human versus avian cells. Thus, these data identify residues in the 627 domain and other viral proteins that regulate polymerase activity, highlighting the importance of the surface charge and structure of this domain for virus replication and host adaptation. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus faces barriers to transmission across species as it emerges from its natural reservoir in birds to infect mammals. The viral polymerase is an important regulator of this process and undergoes discrete changes to adapt to replication in mammals. Many of these changes occur in the polymerase subunit PB2. Here we describe the systematic analysis of a key region in PB2 that controls species-specific polymerase activity. We report the importance of conserved residues that contribute to the overall charge of the protein as well as those that likely affect protein structure. These

  11. A novel class of anti-HIV agents with multiple copies of enfuvirtide enhances inhibition of viral replication and cellular transmission in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Chang

    Full Text Available We constructed novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitors that may overcome the current limitations of enfuvirtide, the first such therapeutic in this class. The three prototypes generated by the Dock-and-Lock (DNL technology to comprise four copies of enfuvirtide tethered site-specifically to the Fc end of different humanized monoclonal antibodies potently neutralize primary isolates (both R5-tropic and X4-tropic, as well as T-cell-adapted strains of HIV-1 in vitro. All three prototypes show EC(50 values in the subnanomolar range, which are 10- to 100-fold lower than enfuvirtide and attainable whether or not the constitutive antibody targets HIV-1. The potential of such conjugates to purge latently infected cells was also demonstrated in a cell-to-cell viral inhibition assay by measuring their efficacy to inhibit the spread of HIV-1(LAI from infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Jurkat T cells over a period of 30 days following viral activation with 100 nM SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. The IgG-like half-life was not significantly different from that of the parental antibody, as shown by the mean serum concentration of one prototype in mice at 72 h. These encouraging results provide a rationale to develop further novel anti-HIV agents by coupling additional antibodies of interest with alternative HIV-inhibitors via recombinantly-produced, self-assembling, modules.

  12. Addition of E138K to R263K in HIV integrase increases resistance to dolutegravir, but fails to restore activity of the HIV integrase enzyme and viral replication capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesplède, Thibault; Osman, Nathan; Wares, Melissa; Quashie, Peter K; Hassounah, Said; Anstett, Kaitlin; Han, Yingshan; Singhroy, Diane N; Wainberg, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    The results of several clinical trials suggest that the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir may be less prone than other drugs to the emergence of HIV drug resistance mutations in treatment-naive patients. We have shown that the R263K mutation commonly emerged during tissue culture selection studies with dolutegravir and conferred low levels of resistance to this drug while simultaneously diminishing both HIV replication capacity and integrase enzymatic activity. E138K has been identified as a secondary mutation for dolutegravir in selection studies and has also been observed as a secondary mutation in the clinic for the integrase inhibitors raltegravir and elvitegravir. We used biochemical cell-free strand-transfer assays and tissue culture assays to characterize the effects of the E138K/R263K combination of mutations on resistance to dolutegravir, integrase enzyme activity and HIV-1 replication capacity. We show here that the addition of the E138K substitution to R263K increased the resistance of HIV-1 to dolutegravir but failed to restore viral replication capacity, integrase strand-transfer activity and integration within cellular DNA. We also show that the addition of E138K to R263K did not increase the resistance to raltegravir or elvitegravir. The addition of the E138K substitution to R263K was also less detrimental to integrase strand-transfer activity and integration than a different secondary mutation at position H51Y that had also been selected in culture. The E138K substitution failed to restore the defect in viral replication capacity that is associated with R263K, confirming previous selection studies that failed to identify compensatory mutation(s) for the latter primary mutation. This study suggests that the R263K resistance pathway may represent an evolutionary dead end for HIV in treatment-naive individuals who are treated with dolutegravir and will need to be confirmed by the long-term use of dolutegravir in the clinic. © The Author 2014. Published

  13. Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside Present in Lettuce Extracts Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Production and Viral Replication by Human Hepatoma Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xian Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in Asia and chronic hepatitis B (CHB is a major public health issue worldwide. Current treatment strategies for CHB are not satisfactory as they induce a low rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg loss. Extracts were prepared from lettuce hydroponically cultivated in solutions containing glycine or nitrate as nitrogen sources. The lettuce extracts exerted potent anti-HBV effects in HepG2 cell lines in vitro, including significant HBsAg inhibition, HBV replication and transcription inhibition, without exerting cytotoxic effects. When used in combination interferon-alpha 2b (IFNα-2b or lamivudine (3TC, the lettuce extracts synergistically inhibited HBsAg expression and HBV replication. By using differential metabolomics analysis, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified and confirmed as a functional component of the lettuce extracts and exhibited similar anti-HBV activity as the lettuce extracts in vitro. The inhibition rate on HBsAg was up to 77.4%. Moreover, both the lettuce extracts and luteolin-7-O-glucoside functioned as organic antioxidants and, significantly attenuated HBV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside also normalized ROS-induced mitochondrial membrane potential damage, which suggests luteolin-7-O-glucoside inhibits HBsAg and HBV replication via a mechanism involving the mitochondria. Our findings suggest luteolin-7-O-glucoside may have potential value for clinical application in CHB and may enhance HBsAg and HBV clearance when used as a combination therapy.

  14. Interplay Among Constitutes of Ebola Virus: Nucleoprotein, Polymerase L, Viral Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minchuan; He, Peiming; Su, Jing; Singh, Dadabhai T.; Su, Hailei; Su, Haibin

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal filovirus, claimed thousands of people in its recent outbreak. Seven viral proteins constitute ebola viral structure, and four of them (nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase L, VP35 and VP30) participate majorly in viral replication and transcription. We have elucidated a conformation change of NP cleft by VP35 NP-binding protein domains through superimposing two experimental NP structure images and discussed the function of this conformation change in the replication and transcription with polymerase complex (L, VP35 and VP30). The important roles of VP30 in viral RNA synthesis have also been discussed. A “tapping” model has been proposed in this paper for a better understanding of the interplay among the four viral proteins (NP, polymerase L, VP35 and VP30). Moreover, we have pinpointed some key residue changes on NP (both NP N- and C-terminal) and L between Reston and Zaire by computational studies. Together, this paper provides a description of interactions among ebola viral proteins (NP, L, VP35, VP30 and VP40) in viral replication and transcription, and sheds light on the complex system of viral reproduction.

  15. Simian virus 40 large T-antigen point mutants that are defective in viral DNA replication but competent in oncogenic transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Manos, M M; Gluzman, Y

    1984-01-01

    The large T antigen of simian virus 40 (SV40) is a multifunctional protein that is essential in both the virus lytic cycle and the oncogenic transformation of cells by SV40. To investigate the role of the numerous biochemical and physiological activities of T antigen in the lytic and transformation processes, we have studied DNA replication-deficient, transformation-competent large T-antigen mutants. Here we describe the genetic and biochemical analyses of two such mutants, C2/SV40 and C11/SV...

  16. Effect of ambient temperature on viral replication and serum antibody titers following administration of a commercial intranasal modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-parainfluenza-3 virus vaccine to beef cattle housed in high- and moderate-ambient temperature environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, Gretchen P; White, Brad J; Anderson, David E; Larson, Robert E; Miesner, Matt D

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of ambient temperature on viral replication and serum antibody titers following administration of an intranasal modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)-parainfluenza-3 (PI3) virus vaccine to beef calves housed in high- (> 32°C) and moderate- (21°C) ambient temperature environments. 28 calves (mean weight, 206.8 kg). Calves were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups (housed outdoors during high ambient temperature with [HAT; n = 10] or without [HAC; 4] vaccination or housed indoors in a moderate ambient temperature with [MAT; 10] or without [MAC; 4] vaccination). Rectal and nasal mucosal temperatures were recorded every 2 hours from 8 AM to 8 PM on days 0 (vaccination) and 1. Nasal swab specimens were obtained on days 0 through 7 for virus isolation. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 28 for determination of antibody titers. Mean rectal temperature did not differ among the treatment groups. Mean nasal temperature for the HAT group was significantly higher than that for the MAT group at 6, 24, 30, 32, and 38 hours after vaccination. Viable IBR virus was isolated from all vaccinated calves on days 1 through 6. Two weeks after vaccination, vaccinated calves had anti-IBR antibody titers that were significantly greater than those for unvaccinated calves. Mean anti-IBR antibody titers did not differ significantly between the HAT and MAT groups. Results indicated that, following vaccination with an intranasal modified-live IBR-PI3 virus vaccine, IBR viral replication and serum antibody titers did not differ significantly between calves housed in high- and moderate-ambient temperature environments.

  17. Mode of transgene expression after fusion to early or late viral genes of a conditionally replicating adenovirus via an optimized internal ribosome entry site in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Angel A.; Wang Minghui; Suzuki, Kaori; Uil, Taco G.; Krasnykh, Victor; Curiel, David T.; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.

    2004-01-01

    The expression of therapeutic genes by oncolytic viruses is a promising strategy to improve viral oncolysis, to augment gene transfer compared with a nonreplicating adenoviral vector, or to combine virotherapy and gene therapy. Both the mode of transgene expression and the locale of transgene insertion into the virus genome critically determine the efficacy of this approach. We report here on the properties of oncolytic adenoviruses which contain the luciferase cDNA fused via an optimized internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to the immediate early adenoviral gene E1A (AdΔE1AIL), the early gene E2B (AdΔE2BIL), or the late fiber gene (AdΔfiberIL). These viruses showed distinct kinetics of transgene expression and luciferase activity. Early after infection, luciferase activities were lower for these viruses, especially for AdΔE2BIL, compared with nonreplicating AdTL, which contained the luciferase gene expressed from the strong CMV promoter. However, 6 days after infection, luciferase activities were approximately four (AdΔE1AIL) to six (AdΔfiberIL) orders of magnitude higher than for AdTL, reflecting virus replication and efficient transgene expression. Similar results were obtained in vivo after intratumoral injection of AdΔE2BIL, AdΔfiberIL, and AdTL. AdΔfiberIL and the parental virus, Ad5-Δ24, resulted in similar cytotoxicity, but AdΔE2BIL and AdΔE1AIL were slightly attenuated. Disruption of the expression of neighboring viral genes by insertion of the transgene was minimal for AdΔE2BIL and AdΔfiberIL, but substantial for AdΔE1AIL. Our observations suggest that insertion of IRES-transgene cassettes into viral transcription units is an attractive strategy for the development of armed oncolytic adenoviruses with defined kinetics and strength of transgene expression

  18. A selective barrier to horizontal gene transfer in the T4-type bacteriophages that has preserved a core genome with the viral replication and structural genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filée, Jonathan; Bapteste, Eric; Susko, Edward; Krisch, H M

    2006-09-01

    Genomic analysis of bacteriophages frequently reveals a mosaic structure made up from modules that come from disparate sources. This fact has led to the general acceptance of the notion that rampant and promiscuous lateral gene transfer (LGT) plays a critical role in phage evolution. However, recent sequencing of a series of the T4-type phages has revealed that these large and complex genomes all share 2 substantial syntenous blocks of genes encoding the replication and virion structural genes. To analyze the pattern of inheritance of this core T4 genome, we compared the complete genome sequences of 16 T4-type phages. We identified a set of 24 genes present in all these T4-type genomes. Somewhat surprisingly, only one of these genes, that encodes for ribonucleotide reductase (NrdA), displayed evidence of LGT with the bacterial host. We test the congruence of the inheritance of the other 23 markers using heat map analyses and comparison of a reference topology with the 23 individual gene phylogenies. The vast majority of these core genes share a common evolutionary history. In contrast, analyses of all the noncore genes present in the same 16 genomes, located in the hyperplastic regions of the genome, show considerable evidence of frequent LGT. The similar evolution of the core replication and virion structural genes in the T4-type phage genomes suggests that, unlike the situation in many other phage groups, such portions of T4-type genome have been inherited as a block, without significant LGT, from a distant common ancestor. The preservation of the synteny of the core T4 genome could result from several factors acting in synergy, such as the constraints imposed by the sophisticated regulation of the transcription. Moreover, numerous and complex protein-protein interactions during virion morphogenesis could also impose a supplementary barrier against LGT. Finally, there may be some real evolutionary advantage to maintaining large regions of conserved sequence. Such

  19. Exon level transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T cells reveals virus-induced genes and host environment favorable for viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Imbeault

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is extremely specialized since, even amongst CD4(+ T lymphocytes (its major natural reservoir in peripheral blood, the virus productively infects only a small proportion of cells under an activated state. As the percentage of HIV-1-infected cells is very low, most studies have so far failed to capture the precise transcriptomic profile at the whole-genome scale of cells highly susceptible to virus infection. Using Affymetrix Exon array technology and a reporter virus allowing the magnetic isolation of HIV-1-infected cells, we describe the host cell factors most favorable for virus establishment and replication along with an overview of virus-induced changes in host gene expression occurring exclusively in target cells productively infected with HIV-1. We also establish that within a population of activated CD4(+ T cells, HIV-1 has no detectable effect on the transcriptome of uninfected bystander cells at early time points following infection. The data gathered in this study provides unique insights into the biology of HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T cells and identifies genes thought to play a determinant role in the interplay between the virus and its host. Furthermore, it provides the first catalogue of alternative splicing events found in primary human CD4(+ T cells productively infected with HIV-1.

  20. Replication Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Luis; Neelsen, Kai John; Lukas, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Proliferating cells rely on the so-called DNA replication checkpoint to ensure orderly completion of genome duplication, and its malfunction may lead to catastrophic genome disruption, including unscheduled firing of replication origins, stalling and collapse of replication forks, massive DNA...... increased DNA replication stress....

  1. Host factors involved in chikungunya virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Florine Elisabeth Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the interplay of CHIKV with cellular (host) factors involved in its replication is addressed. An in-depth understanding of the interactions between the viral proteins and those of their host is required for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying viral replication. A

  2. The NS1 Glycoprotein Can Generate Dramatic Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Viral Replication in Normal Out-Bred Mice Resulting in Lethal Multi-Organ Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconar, Andrew K. I.; Martinez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-enhanced replication (AER) of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2) strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED) was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C) or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E) glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) resulting from i) dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii) some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii) copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv) some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v) DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human “severe dengue” cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines, particularly against DENV strains that contain multiple mutations or genetic recombination within or between their

  3. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  4. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Inhibits Mucin Synthesis and Viral Replication by Suppression of AP-1 and NF-κB via p38 MAPKs/JNK Signaling Pathways in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected A549 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young Il; Im, Chang-Nim; Kim, Sung Wan; Kim, Su Jin; Min, Seoyeon; Joo, Yong Hoon; Yim, Sung-Vin; Chung, Namhyun

    2017-06-07

    Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins instigate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated. After pretreatment of the cells with or without exposure to RSV with 5-10 μg GSP/mL, the expression of various mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC8) was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting, as well as confocal microscopy. We found that GSP significantly decreased RSV-induced mucin synthesis at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, GSP suppressed the RSV-induced signaling pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, together with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activating protein-1 family members (c-Jun and c-Fos). Concomitantly, GSP inhibited the replication of RSV within A549 cells. Taken together, all our results suggest that GSP could be a potent therapeutic agent to suppress excessive mucus production and viral replication in RSV-induced airway inflammatory disorders.

  5. Viral strategies for studying the brain, including a replication-restricted self-amplifying delta-G vesicular stomatis virus that rapidly expresses transgenes in brain and can generate a multicolor golgi-like expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Pol, Anthony N; Ozduman, Koray; Wollmann, Guido; Ho, Winson S C; Simon, Ian; Yao, Yang; Rose, John K; Ghosh, Prabhat

    2009-10-20

    Viruses have substantial value as vehicles for transporting transgenes into neurons. Each virus has its own set of attributes for addressing neuroscience-related questions. Here we review some of the advantages and limitations of herpes, pseudorabies, rabies, adeno-associated, lentivirus, and others to study the brain. We then explore a novel recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (dG-VSV) with the G-gene deleted and transgenes engineered into the first position of the RNA genome, which replicates only in the first brain cell infected, as corroborated with ultrastructural analysis, eliminating spread of virus. Because of its ability to replicate rapidly and to express multiple mRNA copies and additional templates for more copies, reporter gene expression is amplified substantially, over 500-fold in 6 hours, allowing detailed imaging of dendrites, dendritic spines, axons, and axon terminal fields within a few hours to a few days after inoculation. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is first detected within 1 hour of inoculation. The virus generates a Golgi-like appearance in all neurons or glia of regions of the brain tested. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, calcium digital imaging with fura-2, and time-lapse digital imaging showed that neurons appeared physiologically normal after expressing viral transgenes. The virus has a wide range of species applicability, including mouse, rat, hamster, human, and Drosophila cells. By using dG-VSV, we show efferent projections from the suprachiasmatic nucleus terminating in the periventricular region immediately dorsal to the nucleus. DG-VSVs with genes coding for different color reporters allow multicolor visualization of neurons wherever applied.

  6. Compensation by the E138K Mutation in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase for Deficits in Viral Replication Capacity and Enzyme Processivity Associated with the M184I/V Mutations▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Asahchop, Eugene L.; Oliveira, Maureen; Quashie, Peter K.; Quan, Yudong; Brenner, Bluma G.; Wainberg, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, several phase 3 clinical trials (ECHO and THRIVE) showed that E138K and M184I were the most frequent mutations to emerge in patients who failed therapy with rilpivirine (RPV) together with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TDF). To investigate the basis for the copresence of E138K and M184I, we generated recombinant mutated and wild-type (WT) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzymes and HIV-1NL4-3 infectious clones. Drug susceptibilities were determined in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). Structural modeling was performed to analyze any impact on deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) binding. The results of phenotyping showed that viruses containing both the E138K and M184V mutations were more resistant to each of FTC, 3TC, and ETR than viruses containing E138K and M184I. Viruses with E138K displayed only modest resistance to ETR, little resistance to efavirenz (EFV), and no resistance to either FTC or 3TC. E138K restored viral replication capacity (RC) in the presence of M184I/V, and this was confirmed in cell-free RT processivity assays. RT enzymes containing E138K, E138K/184I, or E138K/184V exhibited higher processivity than WT RT at low dNTP concentrations. Steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrated that the E138K mutation resulted in decreased Kms for dNTPs. In contrast, M184I/V resulted in an increased Km for dNTPs compared to those for WT RT. These results indicate that the E138K mutation compensates for both the deficit in dNTP usage and impairment in replication capacity by M184I/V. Structural modeling shows that the addition of E138K to M184I/V promotes tighter dNTP binding. PMID:21849444

  7. Compensation by the E138K mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase for deficits in viral replication capacity and enzyme processivity associated with the M184I/V mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Asahchop, Eugene L; Oliveira, Maureen; Quashie, Peter K; Quan, Yudong; Brenner, Bluma G; Wainberg, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Recently, several phase 3 clinical trials (ECHO and THRIVE) showed that E138K and M184I were the most frequent mutations to emerge in patients who failed therapy with rilpivirine (RPV) together with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TDF). To investigate the basis for the copresence of E138K and M184I, we generated recombinant mutated and wild-type (WT) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzymes and HIV-1(NL4-3) infectious clones. Drug susceptibilities were determined in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). Structural modeling was performed to analyze any impact on deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) binding. The results of phenotyping showed that viruses containing both the E138K and M184V mutations were more resistant to each of FTC, 3TC, and ETR than viruses containing E138K and M184I. Viruses with E138K displayed only modest resistance to ETR, little resistance to efavirenz (EFV), and no resistance to either FTC or 3TC. E138K restored viral replication capacity (RC) in the presence of M184I/V, and this was confirmed in cell-free RT processivity assays. RT enzymes containing E138K, E138K/184I, or E138K/184V exhibited higher processivity than WT RT at low dNTP concentrations. Steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrated that the E138K mutation resulted in decreased K(m)s for dNTPs. In contrast, M184I/V resulted in an increased K(m) for dNTPs compared to those for WT RT. These results indicate that the E138K mutation compensates for both the deficit in dNTP usage and impairment in replication capacity by M184I/V. Structural modeling shows that the addition of E138K to M184I/V promotes tighter dNTP binding.

  8. The connection domain mutation N348I in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase enhances resistance to etravirine and rilpivirine but restricts the emergence of the E138K resistance mutation by diminishing viral replication capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Oliveira, Maureen; Han, Yingshan; Quan, Yudong; Zanichelli, Veronica; Wainberg, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Clinical resistance to rilpivirine (RPV), a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI), is associated an E-to-K mutation at position 138 (E138K) in RT together with an M184I/V mutation that confers resistance against emtricitabine (FTC), a nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) that is given together with RPV in therapy. These two mutations can compensate for each other in regard to fitness deficits conferred by each mutation alone, raising the question of why E138K did not arise spontaneously in the clinic following lamivudine (3TC) use, which also selects for the M184I/V mutations. In this context, we have investigated the role of a N348I connection domain mutation that is prevalent in treatment-experienced patients. N348I confers resistance to both the NRTI zidovudine (ZDV) and the NNRTI nevirapine (NVP) and was also found to be associated with M184V and to compensate for deficits associated with the latter mutation. Now, we show that both N348I alone and N348I/M184V can prevent or delay the emergence of E138K under pressure with RPV or a related NNRTI, termed etravirine (ETR). N348I also enhanced levels of resistance conferred by E138K against RPV and ETR by 2.2- and 2.3-fold, respectively. The presence of the N348I or M184V/N348I mutation decreased the replication capacity of E138K virus, and biochemical assays confirmed that N348I, in a background of E138K, impaired RT catalytic efficiency and RNase H activity. These findings help to explain the low viral replication capacity of viruses containing the E138K/N348I mutations and how N348I delayed or prevented the emergence of E138K in patients with M184V-containing viruses.

  9. Cytosine methylation inhibits replication of African cassava mosaic virus by two distinct mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Ermak, G; Paszkowski, U; Wohlmuth, M; Scheid, O M; Paszkowski, J

    1993-01-01

    Extrachromosomally replicating viral DNA is usually free of cytosine methylation and viral templates methylated in vitro are poor substrates when used in replication assays. We have investigated the mechanism of inhibition of viral replication by DNA methylation using as a model the DNA A of African cassava mosaic virus. We have constructed two component helper systems which allow for separation of the transcriptional inhibition of viral genes necessary for replication from replication inhibi...

  10. SUMO and KSHV Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Pei-Ching [Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Kung, Hsing-Jien, E-mail: hkung@nhri.org.tw [Institute for Translational Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); UC Davis Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-29

    Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier (SUMO) modification was initially identified as a reversible post-translational modification that affects the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein trafficking, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair. Increasing evidence suggests that the SUMO system also plays an important role in regulating chromatin organization and transcription. It is thus not surprising that double-stranded DNA viruses, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), have exploited SUMO modification as a means of modulating viral chromatin remodeling during the latent-lytic switch. In addition, SUMO regulation allows the disassembly and assembly of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), an intrinsic antiviral host defense, during the viral replication cycle. Overcoming PML-NB-mediated cellular intrinsic immunity is essential to allow the initial transcription and replication of the herpesvirus genome after de novo infection. As a consequence, KSHV has evolved a way as to produce multiple SUMO regulatory viral proteins to modulate the cellular SUMO environment in a dynamic way during its life cycle. Remarkably, KSHV encodes one gene product (K-bZIP) with SUMO-ligase activities and one gene product (K-Rta) that exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) activity. In addition, at least two viral products are sumoylated that have functional importance. Furthermore, sumoylation can be modulated by other viral gene products, such as the viral protein kinase Orf36. Interference with the sumoylation of specific viral targets represents a potential therapeutic strategy when treating KSHV, as well as other oncogenic herpesviruses. Here, we summarize the different ways KSHV exploits and manipulates the cellular SUMO system and explore the multi-faceted functions of SUMO during KSHV’s life cycle and pathogenesis.

  11. Development of a Novel Anti-HIV-1 Agent from within: Effect of Chimeric Vpr-Containing Protease Cleavage Site Residues on Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, D.; Rizvi, T. A.; Cartas, M.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Weber, I. T.; Koprowski, H.; Srinivasan, A.

    1997-04-01

    Effective antiviral agents will be of great value in controlling virus replication and delaying the onset of HIV-1-related disease symptoms. Current therapy involves the use of antiviral agents that target the enzymatic functions of the virus, resulting in the emergence of resistant viruses to these agents, thus lowering their effectiveness. To overcome this problem, we have considered the idea of developing novel agents from within HIV-1 as inhibitors of virus replication. The specificity of the Vpr protein for the HIV-1 virus particle makes it an attractive molecule for the development of antiviral agents targeting the events associated with virus maturation. We have generated chimeric Vpr proteins containing HIV-1-specific sequences added to the C terminus of Vpr. These sequences correspond to nine cleavage sites of the Gag and Gag-Pol precursors of HIV-1. The chimeric Vpr constructs were introduced into HIV-1 proviral DNA to assess their effect on virus infectivity using single- and multiple-round replication assays. The virus particles generated exhibited a variable replication pattern depending on the protease cleavage site used as a fusion partner. Interestingly, the chimeric Vpr containing the cleavage sequences from the junction of p24 and p2, 24/2, completely abolished virus infectivity. These results show that chimeric proteins generated from within HIV-1 have the ability to suppress HIV-1 replication and make ideal agents for gene therapy or intracellular immunization to treat HIV-1 infection.

  12. Active RNA replication of hepatitis C virus downregulates CD81 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Ke

    Full Text Available So far how hepatitis C virus (HCV replication modulates subsequent virus growth and propagation still remains largely unknown. Here we determine the impact of HCV replication status on the consequential virus growth by comparing normal and high levels of HCV RNA expression. We first engineered a full-length, HCV genotype 2a JFH1 genome containing a blasticidin-resistant cassette inserted at amino acid residue of 420 in nonstructural (NS protein 5A, which allowed selection of human hepatoma Huh7 cells stably-expressing HCV. Short-term establishment of HCV stable cells attained a highly-replicating status, judged by higher expressions of viral RNA and protein as well as higher titer of viral infectivity as opposed to cells harboring the same genome without selection. Interestingly, maintenance of highly-replicating HCV stable cells led to decreased susceptibility to HCV pseudotyped particle (HCVpp infection and downregulated cell surface level of CD81, a critical HCV entry (coreceptor. The decreased CD81 cell surface expression occurred through reduced total expression and cytoplasmic retention of CD81 within an endoplasmic reticulum -associated compartment. Moreover, productive viral RNA replication in cells harboring a JFH1 subgenomic replicon containing a similar blasticidin resistance gene cassette in NS5A and in cells robustly replicating full-length infectious genome also reduced permissiveness to HCVpp infection through decreasing the surface expression of CD81. The downregulation of CD81 surface level in HCV RNA highly-replicating cells thus interfered with reinfection and led to attenuated viral amplification. These findings together indicate that the HCV RNA replication status plays a crucial determinant in HCV growth by modulating the expression and intracellular localization of CD81.

  13. Identification of the adenovirus E4orf4 protein binding site on the B55α and Cdc55 regulatory subunits of PP2A: Implications for PP2A function, tumor cell killing and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Z Mui

    Full Text Available Adenovirus E4orf4 protein induces the death of human cancer cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Binding of E4orf4 to the B/B55/Cdc55 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is required, and such binding inhibits PP2A(B55 activity leading to dose-dependent cell death. We found that E4orf4 binds across the putative substrate binding groove predicted from the crystal structure of B55α such that the substrate p107 can no longer interact with PP2A(B55α. We propose that E4orf4 inhibits PP2A(B55 activity by preventing access of substrates and that at high E4orf4 levels this inhibition results in cell death through the failure to dephosphorylate substrates required for cell cycle progression. However, E4orf4 is expressed at much lower and less toxic levels during a normal adenovirus infection. We suggest that in this context E4orf4 largely serves to recruit novel substrates such as ASF/SF2/SRSF1 to PP2A(B55 to enhance adenovirus replication. Thus E4orf4 toxicity probably represents an artifact of overexpression and does not reflect the evolutionary function of this viral product.

  14. Genetic determinants in HIV-1 Gag and Env V3 are related to viral response to combination antiretroviral therapy with a protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sarah K; Perez, Elena E; Rose, Stephanie L; Coman, Roxana M; Lowe, Amanda C; Hou, Wei; Ma, Changxing; Lawrence, Robert M; Dunn, Ben M; Sleasman, John W; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2009-08-24

    To identify novel viral determinants in HIV-1 protease, Gag, and envelope V3 that relate to outcomes to initial protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. A longitudinal cohort study of protease inhibitor-naive, HIV-infected individuals was designed to identify genetic variables in viral Gag and envelope sequences associated with response to antiretroviral therapy. Genetic and statistical models, including amino acid profiles, phylogenetic analyses, receiver operating characteristic analyses, and covariation analyses, were used to evaluate viral sequences and clinical variables from individuals who developed immune reconstitution with or without suppression of viral replication. Pretherapy chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4-using V3 regions had significant associations with viral failure (P = 0.04). Amino acid residues in protease covaried with Gag residues, particularly in p7(NC), independent of cleavage sites. Pretherapy V3 charge combined with p6(Pol) and p2/p7(NC) cleavage site genotypes produced the best three-variable model to predict viral suppression in 88% of individuals. Combinations of baseline CD4 cell percentage with genetic determinants in Gag-protease predicted viral fitness in 100% of individuals who failed to suppress viral replication. Baseline genetic determinants in Gag p6(Pol) and p2/p7(NC), as well as envelope, provide novel combinations of biomarkers for predicting emergence of viral resistance to initial therapy regimens.

  15. Origin-independent plasmid replication occurs in vaccinia virus cytoplasmic factories and requires all five known poxvirus replication factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Bernard

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replication of the vaccinia virus genome occurs in cytoplasmic factory areas and is dependent on the virus-encoded DNA polymerase and at least four additional viral proteins. DNA synthesis appears to start near the ends of the genome, but specific origin sequences have not been defined. Surprisingly, transfected circular DNA lacking specific viral sequences is also replicated in poxvirus-infected cells. Origin-independent plasmid replication depends on the viral DNA polymerase, but neither the number of additional viral proteins nor the site of replication has been determined. Results Using a novel real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, we detected a >400-fold increase in newly replicated plasmid in cells infected with vaccinia virus. Studies with conditional lethal mutants of vaccinia virus indicated that each of the five proteins known to be required for viral genome replication was also required for plasmid replication. The intracellular site of replication was determined using a plasmid containing 256 repeats of the Escherichia coli lac operator and staining with an E. coli lac repressor-maltose binding fusion protein followed by an antibody to the maltose binding protein. The lac operator plasmid was localized in cytoplasmic viral factories delineated by DNA staining and binding of antibody to the viral uracil DNA glycosylase, an essential replication protein. In addition, replication of the lac operator plasmid was visualized continuously in living cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the lac repressor fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein. Discrete cytoplasmic fluorescence was detected in cytoplasmic juxtanuclear sites at 6 h after infection and the area and intensity of fluorescence increased over the next several hours. Conclusion Replication of a circular plasmid lacking specific poxvirus DNA sequences mimics viral genome replication by occurring in cytoplasmic viral factories

  16. A short sequence immediately upstream of the internal repeat elements is critical for KSHV LANA mediated DNA replication and impacts episome persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León Vázquez, Erika; Juillard, Franceline; Rosner, Bernard; Kaye, Kenneth M

    2014-01-05

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA (1162 residues) mediates episomal persistence of viral genomes during latency. LANA mediates viral DNA replication and segregates episomes to daughter nuclei. A 59 residue deletion immediately upstream of the internal repeat elements rendered LANA highly deficient for DNA replication and modestly deficient for the ability to segregate episomes, while smaller deletions did not. The 59 amino acid deletion reduced LANA episome persistence by ~14-fold, while sequentially smaller deletions resulted in ~3-fold, or no deficiency. Three distinct LANA regions reorganized heterochromatin, one of which contains the deleted sequence, but the deletion did not abolish LANA's ability to alter chromatin. Therefore, this work identifies a short internal LANA sequence that is critical for DNA replication, has modest effects on episome segregation, and substantially impacts episome persistence; this region may exert its effects through an interacting host cell protein(s). © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Linchpin DNA-binding residues serve as go/no-go controls in the replication factor C-catalyzed clamp-loading mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Zhou, Yayan; Hingorani, Manju M

    2017-09-22

    DNA polymerases depend on circular sliding clamps for processive replication. Clamps must be loaded onto primer-template DNA (ptDNA) by clamp loaders that open and close clamps around ptDNA in an ATP-fueled reaction. All clamp loaders share a core structure in which five subunits form a spiral chamber that binds the clamp at its base in a twisted open form and encloses ptDNA within, while binding and hydrolyzing ATP to topologically link the clamp and ptDNA. To understand how clamp loaders perform this complex task, here we focused on conserved arginines that might play a central coordinating role in the mechanism because they can alternately contact ptDNA or Walker B glutamate in the ATPase site and lie close to the clamp loader-clamp-binding interface. We mutated Arg-84, Arg-88, and Arg-101 in the ATPase-active B, C, and D subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader, respectively, and assessed the impact on multiple transient events in the reaction: proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp binding/opening/closure/release, ptDNA binding/release, and ATP hydrolysis/product release. The results show that these arginines relay critical information between the PCNA-binding, DNA-binding, and ATPase sites at all steps of the reaction, particularly at a checkpoint before RFC commits to ATP hydrolysis. Moreover, their actions are subunit-specific with RFC-C Arg-88 serving as an accelerator that enables rapid ATP hydrolysis upon contact with ptDNA and RFC-D Arg-101 serving as a brake that confers specificity for ptDNA as the correct substrate for loading PCNA. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  19. Database Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cristian MAZILU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For someone who has worked in an environment in which the same database is used for data entry and reporting, or perhaps managed a single database server that was utilized by too many users, the advantages brought by data replication are clear. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize those advantages as well as presenting the different types of Database Replication and the cases in which their use is recommended.

  20. Host factors in HIV-1 replication: The good, the bad and the ugly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booiman, T.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of HIV-1 to replicate in its target cells is influenced by numerous host factors that act on different steps of the viral replication cycle. The effects of these host factors on the replication cycle can be cell type specific and they can either support or restrict viral replication.

  1. Comparative analysis of measures of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 eradication studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eriksson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+ T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical trials, well-validated high-throughput assays that quantify this reservoir are urgently needed. Here we compare eleven different approaches for quantitating persistent HIV-1 in 30 patients on HAART, using the original viral outgrowth assay for resting CD4(+ T cells carrying inducible, replication-competent viral genomes as a standard for comparison. PCR-based assays for cells containing HIV-1 DNA gave infected cell frequencies at least 2 logs higher than the viral outgrowth assay, even in subjects who started HAART during acute/early infection. This difference may reflect defective viral genomes. The ratio of infected cell frequencies determined by viral outgrowth and PCR-based assays varied dramatically between patients. Although strong correlations with the viral outgrowth assay could not be formally excluded for most assays, correlations achieved statistical significance only for integrated HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HIV-1 RNA/DNA ratio in rectal CD4(+ T cells. Residual viremia was below the limit of detection in many subjects and did not correlate with the viral outgrowth assays. The dramatic differences in infected cell frequencies and the lack of a precise correlation between culture and PCR-based assays raise the possibility that the successful clearance of latently infected cells may be masked by a larger and variable pool of cells with defective proviruses. These defective proviruses are detected by PCR but may not be affected by reactivation strategies and may not require eradication to accomplish an effective cure. A molecular understanding of the discrepancy

  2. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. Th...

  3. Methadone enhances human influenza A virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Ta; Chien, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that opioids enhance replication of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in target cells. However, it is unknown whether opioids can enhance replication of other clinically important viral pathogens. In this study, the interaction of opioid agonists and human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus was examined in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Cells were exposed to morphine, methadone or buprenorphine followed by human H1N1 viral infection. Exposure to methadone differentially enhanced viral propagation, consistent with an increase in virus adsorption, susceptibility to virus infection and viral protein synthesis. In contrast, morphine or buprenorphine did not alter H1N1 replication. Because A549 cells do not express opioid receptors, methadone-enhanced H1N1 replication in human lung cells may not be mediated through these receptors. The interaction of methadone and H1N1 virus was also examined in adult mice. Treatment with methadone significantly increased H1N1 viral replication in lungs. Our data suggest that use of methadone facilitates influenza A viral infection in lungs and might raise concerns regarding the possible consequence of an increased risk of serious influenza A virus infection in people who receive treatment in methadone maintenance programs. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Pemasaran ViralViral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, James Rianto

    2010-01-01

    Viral marketing is an extremely powerful and effective form of internet marketing. Itis a new form of word-of-mouth through internet. In viral marketing, someone passeson a marketing message to someone else and so on. Viral marketing proposes thatmessages can be rapidly disseminated from consumer to consumer leading to largescale market acceptance. The analogy of a virus is used to described the exponentialdiffusion of information in an electronic environment and should not be confusedwith th...

  5. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  6. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  7. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Cotmore, Susan F. [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tattersall, Peter [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Departments of Genetics, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Zhao, Haiyan, E-mail: zhaohy@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tangl@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.

  8. Green Tea Catechin-Inactivated Viral Vaccine Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun H. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, chemical agents such as formalin (FA and β-propiolactone (BPL have long been used for the preparation of inactivated vaccines or toxoids. It has been shown that FA extensively modifies vaccine antigens and thus affects immunogenicity profiles, sometimes compromising the protective efficacy of the vaccines or even exacerbating the disease upon infection. In this study, we show that natural catechins from green tea extracts (GT can be used as an inactivating agent to prepare inactivated viral vaccines. GT treatment resulted in complete and irreversible inactivation of influenza virus as well as dengue virus. In contrast to FA that reacted extensively with multiple amino acids including lysine, a major anchor residue for epitope binding to MHC molecules, GT catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG crosslinked primarily with cysteine residues and thus preserved the major epitopes of the influenza hemagglutinin. In a mouse model, vaccination with GT-inactivated influenza virus (GTi virus elicited higher levels of viral neutralizing antibodies than FA-inactivated virus (FAi virus. The vaccination completely protected the mice from a lethal challenge and restricted the challenge viral replication in the lungs. Of note, the quality of antibody responses of GTi virus was superior to that with FAi virus, in terms of the magnitude of antibody titer, cross-reactivity to hetero-subtypes of influenza viruses, and the avidity to viral antigens. As the first report of using non-toxic natural compounds for the preparation of inactivated viral vaccines, the present results could be translated into a clinically relevant vaccine platform with improved efficacy, safety, productivity, and public acceptance.

  9. Roles of three amino acids of capsid proteins in mink enteritis parvovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Zhang, Xiaomei; Hou, Qiang; Bian, Dawei; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-15

    Virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) strain MEV-LHV replicated to higher titers in feline F81 cells than attenuated strain MEV-L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the VP2 gene of MEV-LHV, MEV-L and other strains in GenBank revealed two evolutionary branches separating virulent and attenuated strains. Three residues, 101, 232 and 411, differed between virulent and attenuated strains but were conserved within the two branches. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of infectious plasmids of attenuated strain MEV-L respectively replacing residues 101 Ile and 411 Ala with Thr and Glu of virulent strains (MEV-L I101T and MEV-L A411E) increased replication efficiency but still to lower levels than MEV-LHV. However, viruses with mutation of residue 232 (MEV-L I232V and MEV-L I101T/I232V/A411E) decreased viral transcription and replication levels. The three VP2 residues 101, 232 and 411, located on or near the capsid surface, played different roles in the infection processes of MEV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Viral reproductive pathogens of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Carmichael, Leland E; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews the current literature on the viral agents that cause reproductive failures in domestic carnivores (dogs and cats). A meaningful update is provided on the etiologic, clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and prophylactic aspects of the viral infections impacting canine and feline reproduction as a consequence of either direct virus replication or severe debilitation of pregnant animals.

  11. Modeling latently infected cell activation: viral and latent reservoir persistence, and viral blips in HIV-infected patients on potent therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Rong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although potent combination therapy is usually able to suppress plasma viral loads in HIV-1 patients to below the detection limit of conventional clinical assays, a low level of viremia frequently can be detected in plasma by more sensitive assays. Additionally, many patients experience transient episodes of viremia above the detection limit, termed viral blips, even after being on highly suppressive therapy for many years. An obstacle to viral eradication is the persistence of a latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4(+ T cells. The mechanisms underlying low viral load persistence, slow decay of the latent reservoir, and intermittent viral blips are not fully characterized. The quantitative contributions of residual viral replication to viral and the latent reservoir persistence remain unclear. In this paper, we probe these issues by developing a mathematical model that considers latently infected cell activation in response to stochastic antigenic stimulation. We demonstrate that programmed expansion and contraction of latently infected cells upon immune activation can generate both low-level persistent viremia and intermittent viral blips. Also, a small fraction of activated T cells revert to latency, providing a potential to replenish the latent reservoir. By this means, occasional activation of latently infected cells can explain the variable decay characteristics of the latent reservoir observed in different clinical studies. Finally, we propose a phenomenological model that includes a logistic term representing homeostatic proliferation of latently infected cells. The model is simple but can robustly generate the multiphasic viral decline seen after initiation of therapy, as well as low-level persistent viremia and intermittent HIV-1 blips. Using these models, we provide a quantitative and integrated prospective into the long-term dynamics of HIV-1 and the latent reservoir in the setting of potent antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Pharyngitis - viral URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  13. Viral gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  14. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong, E-mail: yerong24@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  15. ATM and ATR Activities Maintain Replication Fork Integrity during SV40 Chromatin Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Li, Nancy Yan; Fanning, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Mutation of DNA damage checkpoint signaling kinases ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) or ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) results in genomic instability disorders. However, it is not well understood how the instability observed in these syndromes relates to DNA replication/repair defects and failed checkpoint control of cell cycling. As a simple model to address this question, we have studied SV40 chromatin replication in infected cells in the presence of inhibitors of ATM and ATR activities. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and southern blotting of SV40 chromatin replication products reveal that ATM activity prevents accumulation of unidirectional replication products, implying that ATM promotes repair of replication-associated double strand breaks. ATR activity alleviates breakage of a functional fork as it converges with a stalled fork. The results suggest that during SV40 chromatin replication, endogenous replication stress activates ATM and ATR signaling, orchestrating the assembly of genome maintenance machinery on viral replication intermediates. PMID:23592994

  16. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  17. Cytotoxicity of replication-competent adenoviruses powered by an exogenous regulatory region is not linearly correlated with the viral infectivity/gene expression or with the E1A-activating ability but is associated with the p53 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Suguru; Zhong, Boya; Kawamura, Kiyoko; Yang, Shan; Kubo, Shuji; Shingyoji, Masato; Sekine, Ikuo; Tada, Yuji; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Shimada, Hideaki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2017-09-05

    Replication-competent adenoviruses (Ad) produced cytotoxic effects on infected tumors and have been examined for the clinical applicability. A biomarkers to predict the cytotoxicity is valuable in a clinical setting. We constructed type 5 Ad (Ad5) of which the expression of E1A gene was activated by a 5' regulatory sequences of survivin, midkine or cyclooxygenase-2, which were highly expressed in human tumors. We also produced the same replication-competent Ad of which the fiber-knob region was replaced by that of Ad35 (AdF35). The cytotoxicity was examined by a colorimetric assay with human tumor cell lines, 4 kinds of pancreatic, 9 esophageal carcinoma and 5 mesothelioma. Ad infectivity and Ad-mediated gene expression were examined with replication-incompetent Ad5 and AdF35 which expressed the green fluorescence protein gene. Expression of cellular receptors for Ad5 and AdF35 was also examined with flow cytometry. A transcriptional activity of the regulatory sequences was investigated with a luciferase assay in the tumor cells. We then investigated a possible correlation between Ad-mediated cytotoxicity and the infectivity/gene expression, the transcriptional activity or the p53 genotype. We found that the cytotoxicity was greater with AdF35 than with Ad5 vectors, but was not correlated with the Ad infectivity/gene expression irrespective of the fiber-knob region or the E1A-activating transcriptional activity. In contrast, replication-competent Ad produced greater cytotoxicity in p53 mutated than in wild-type esophageal carcinoma cells, suggesting a possible association between the cytotoxicity and the p53 genotype. Sensitivity to Ad-mediated cytotoxic activity was linked with the p53 genotype but was not lineally correlated with the infectivity/gene expression or the E1A expression.

  18. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinson, Tormi; Henno, Liisi; Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV) vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research.

  19. CENTRIOLE REPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Ikuko; Gall, Joseph

    1966-01-01

    Sperm formation was studied in the fern, Marsilea, and the cycad, Zamia, with particular emphasis on the centrioles. In Marsilea, the mature sperm possesses over 100 flagella, the basal bodies of which have the typical cylindrical structure of centrioles. Earlier observations by light microscopy suggested that these centrioles arise by fragmentation of a body known as the blepharoplast. In the youngest spermatids the blepharoplast is a hollow sphere approximately 0.8 µ in diameter. Its wall consists of closely packed immature centrioles, or procentrioles. The procentrioles are short cylinders which progressively lengthen during differentiation of the spermatid. At the same time they migrate to the surface of the cell, where each of them puts out a flagellum. A blepharoplast is found at each pole of the spindle during the last antheridial mitosis, and two blepharoplasts are found in the cytoplasm before this mitosis. Blepharoplasts are also found in the preceding cell generation, but their ultimate origin is obscure. Before the last mitosis the blepharoplasts are solid, consisting of a cluster of radially arranged tubules which bear some structural similarity to centrioles. In Zamia, similar stages are found during sperm formation, although here the number of flagella on each sperm is close to 20,000 and the blepharoplast measures about 10 µ in diameter. These observations are discussed in relation to theories of centriole replication. PMID:5950730

  20. Glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain SD16 inhibits viral replication and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest, but does not induce cellular apoptosis in Marc-145 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yang, E-mail: muyang@nwsuaf.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Liangliang, E-mail: lifeiyang2007@126.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Zhang, Beibei, E-mail: diana851218@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Huang, Baicheng, E-mail: hbch228@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Gao, Jiming, E-mail: jimingao2006@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); and others

    2015-10-15

    Cell apoptosis is common after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV GP5 has been reported to induce cell apoptosis. To further understand the role of GP5 in PRRSV induced cell apoptosis, we established Marc-145 cell lines stably expressing full-length GP5, GP5{sup Δ84-96} (aa 84-96 deletion), and GP5{sup Δ97-119} (aa 97-119 deletion). Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell apoptosis and virus replication in these cell lines were evaluated. Neither truncated nor full-length GP5 induced cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells. However, GP5{sup Δ97-119}, but not full-length or GP5{sup Δ84-96}, induced a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase resulting in a reduction in the growth of Marc-145 cells. Additionally, GP5{sup Δ84-96} inhibited the replication of PRRSV in Marc-145 cells through induction of IFN-β. These findings suggest that PRRSV GP5 is not responsible for inducing cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells under these experimental conditions; however it has other important roles in virus/host cell biology. - Highlights: • Marc-145 cell lines stable expression PRRSV GP5 or truncated GP5 were constructed. • GP5{sup Δ97-119} expression in Marc-145 cell induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. • Expression of GP5 and truncated GP5 could not induce Marc-145 cells apoptosis. • PRRSV replication in Marc-145-GP5{sup Δ84-96} was significantly inhibited.

  1. Viral persistence, latent reservoir, and blips: a review on HIV-1 dynamics and modeling during HAART and related treatment implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Libin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    HIV-1 eradication from infected individuals has not been achieved with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for a prolonged period of time. The cellular reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4{sup +} T cells remains a major obstacle to viral elimination. The reservoir does not decay significantly over long periods of time as is able to release replication competent HIV-1 upon cell activation. Residual ongoing viral replication may likely occur in many patients because low levels of virus can be detected in plasma by sensitive assays and transient episodes of viremia, or HIV-1 blips, are often observed in patients even with successful viral suppression for many years. Here we review our current knowledge of the factors contributing to viral persistence, the latent reservoir, and blips, and mathematical models developed to explore them and their relationships. We show how mathematical modeling can help improve our understanding of HIV-1 dynamics in patients on HAART and the quantitative events underlying HIV-1 latency, reservoir stability, low-level viremic persistence, and emergence of intermittent viral blips. We also discuss treatment implications related to these studies.

  2. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA recruits topoisomerase IIβ for latent DNA replication of the terminal repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; McDowell, Maria E; McGuinness, James; Salas, Ruth; Rumjahn, Sharif M; Verma, Subhash C

    2012-09-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a major role in maintaining latency and is critical for the perpetual segregation of viral episomes to the progeny nuclei of newly divided cells. LANA binds to KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA and tethers the viral episomes to host chromosomes through the association of chromatin-bound cellular proteins. TR elements serve as potential origin sites of KSHV replication and have been shown to play important roles in latent DNA replication and transcription of adjacent genes. Affinity chromatography and proteomics analysis using KSHV TR DNA and the LANA binding site as the affinity column identified topoisomerase IIβ (TopoIIβ) as a LANA-interacting protein. Here, we show that TopoIIβ forms complexes with LANA that colocalize as punctuate bodies in the nucleus of KSHV-infected cells. The specific TopoIIβ binding region of LANA has been identified to its N terminus and the first 32 amino acid residues containing the nucleosome-binding region crucial for binding. Moreover, this region could also act as a dominant negative to disrupt association of TopoIIβ with LANA. TopoIIβ plays an important role in LANA-dependent latent DNA replication, as addition of ellipticine, a selective inhibitor of TopoII, negatively regulated replication mediated by the TR. DNA break labeling and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using biotin-16-dUTP and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase showed that TopoIIβ mediates a transient DNA break on viral DNA. These studies confirm that LANA recruits TopoIIβ at the origins of latent replication to unwind the DNA for replication.

  3. Annotating Protein Functional Residues by Coupling High-Throughput Fitness Profile and Homologous-Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushen Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification and annotation of functional residues are fundamental questions in protein sequence analysis. Sequence and structure conservation provides valuable information to tackle these questions. It is, however, limited by the incomplete sampling of sequence space in natural evolution. Moreover, proteins often have multiple functions, with overlapping sequences that present challenges to accurate annotation of the exact functions of individual residues by conservation-based methods. Using the influenza A virus PB1 protein as an example, we developed a method to systematically identify and annotate functional residues. We used saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing to measure the replication capacity of single nucleotide mutations across the entire PB1 protein. After predicting protein stability upon mutations, we identified functional PB1 residues that are essential for viral replication. To further annotate the functional residues important to the canonical or noncanonical functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp, we performed a homologous-structure analysis with 16 different vRdRp structures. We achieved high sensitivity in annotating the known canonical polymerase functional residues. Moreover, we identified a cluster of noncanonical functional residues located in the loop region of the PB1 β-ribbon. We further demonstrated that these residues were important for PB1 protein nuclear import through the interaction with Ran-binding protein 5. In summary, we developed a systematic and sensitive method to identify and annotate functional residues that are not restrained by sequence conservation. Importantly, this method is generally applicable to other proteins about which homologous-structure information is available.

  4. Murine leukemia virus (MLV replication monitored with fluorescent proteins

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    Bittner Alexandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer gene therapy will benefit from vectors that are able to replicate in tumor tissue and cause a bystander effect. Replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MLV has been described to have potential as cancer therapeutics, however, MLV infection does not cause a cytopathic effect in the infected cell and viral replication can only be studied by immunostaining or measurement of reverse transcriptase activity. Results We inserted the coding sequences for green fluorescent protein (GFP into the proline-rich region (PRR of the ecotropic envelope protein (Env and were able to fluorescently label MLV. This allowed us to directly monitor viral replication and attachment to target cells by flow cytometry. We used this method to study viral replication of recombinant MLVs and split viral genomes, which were generated by replacement of the MLV env gene with the red fluorescent protein (RFP and separately cloning GFP-Env into a retroviral vector. Co-transfection of both plasmids into target cells resulted in the generation of semi-replicative vectors, and the two color labeling allowed to determine the distribution of the individual genomes in the target cells and was indicative for the occurrence of recombination events. Conclusions Fluorescently labeled MLVs are excellent tools for the study of factors that influence viral replication and can be used to optimize MLV-based replication-competent viruses or vectors for gene therapy.

  5. Reverse Genetics for Fusogenic Bat-Borne Orthoreovirus Associated with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: Role of Outer Capsid Protein σC in Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

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    Takahiro Kawagishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses and possess 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. NBV was first isolated from a fruit bat in Australia more than 40 years ago, but it was not associated with any disease. However, several NBV strains have been recently identified as causative agents for respiratory tract infections in humans. Isolation of these pathogenic bat reoviruses from patients suggests that NBVs have evolved to propagate in humans in the form of zoonosis. To date, no strategy has been developed to rescue infectious viruses from cloned cDNA for any member of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses. In this study, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system free of helper viruses and independent of any selection for NBV isolated from humans with acute respiratory infection. cDNAs corresponding to each of the 10 full-length RNA gene segments of NBV were cotransfected into culture cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and viable NBV was isolated using a plaque assay. The growth kinetics and cell-to-cell fusion activity of recombinant strains, rescued using the reverse genetics system, were indistinguishable from those of native strains. We used the reverse genetics system to generate viruses deficient in the cell attachment protein σC to define the biological function of this protein in the viral life cycle. Our results with σC-deficient viruses demonstrated that σC is dispensable for cell attachment in several cell lines, including murine fibroblast L929 cells but not in human lung epithelial A549 cells, and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. We also used the system to rescue a virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. The reverse genetics system developed in this study can be applied to study the propagation and pathogenesis of pathogenic NBVs and in the generation of recombinant NBVs for future vaccines and therapeutics.

  6. Tumour necrosis factor-α stimulates HIV-1 replication in single-cycle infection of human term placental villi fragments in a time, viral dose and envelope dependent manner

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    Barré-Sinoussi Françoise

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The placenta plays an important role in the control of in utero HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Proinflammatory cytokines in the placental environment are particularly implicated in this control. We thus investigated the effect of TNF-α on HIV-1 expression in human placental tissues in vitro. Results Human placental chorionic villi fragments were infected with varying doses of luciferase reporter HIV-1 pseudotypes with the R5, X4-Env or the vesicular stomatitis virus protein G (VSV-G. Histocultures were then performed in the presence or absence of recombinant human TNF-α. Luciferase activity was measured at different time points in cell lysates or on whole fragments using ex vivo imaging systems. A significant increase in viral expression was detected in placental fragments infected with 0.2 ng of p24 antigen/fragment (P = 0.002 of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 in the presence of TNF-α seen after 120 hours of culture. A time independent significant increase of viral expression by TNF-α was observed with higher doses of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1. When placental fragments were infected with R5-Env pseudotyped HIV-1, a low level of HIV expression at 168 hours of culture was detected for 3 of the 5 placentas tested, with no statistically significant enhancement by TNF-α. Infection with X4-Env pseudotyped HIV-1 did not lead to any detectable luciferase activity at any time point in the absence or in the presence of TNF-α. Conclusion TNF-α in the placental environment increases HIV-1 expression and could facilitate MTCT of HIV-1, particularly in an inflammatory context.

  7. Cellular sensing of viral DNA and viral evasion mechanisms.

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    Orzalli, Megan H; Knipe, David M

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells detect foreign DNA introduced as free DNA or as a result of microbial infection, leading to the induction of innate immune responses that block microbial replication and the activation of mechanisms that epigenetically silence the genes encoded by the foreign DNA. A number of DNA sensors localized to a variety of sites within the cell have been identified, and this review focuses on the mechanisms that detect viral DNA and how the resulting responses affect viral infections. Viruses have evolved mechanisms that inhibit these host sensors and signaling pathways, and the study of these antagonistic viral strategies has provided insight into the mechanisms of these host responses. The field of cellular sensing of foreign DNA is in its infancy, but our currently limited knowledge has raised a number of important questions for study.

  8. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

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    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton. : Cortese et al. show that ZIKV infection in both human hepatoma and neuronal progenitor cells induces drastic structural modification of the cellular architecture. Microtubules and intermediate filaments surround the viral replication factory composed of vesicles corresponding to ER membrane invagination toward the ER lumen. Importantly, alteration of microtubule flexibility impairs ZIKV replication. Keywords: Zika virus, flavivirus, human neural progenitor cells, replication factories, replication organelles, microtubules, intermediate filaments, electron microscopy, electron tomography, live-cell imaging

  9. Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication

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    Antonio Postigo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Consistent with this, pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of canonical ATR signaling suppresses genome replication. RPA and the sliding clamp PCNA interact with the viral polymerase E9 and are required for DNA replication. Moreover, the ATR activator TOPBP1 promotes genome replication and associates with the viral replisome component H5. Our study suggests that, in contrast to long-held beliefs, vaccinia recruits conserved components of the eukaryote DNA replication and repair machinery to amplify its genome in the host cytoplasm.

  10. Template role of double-stranded RNA in tombusvirus replication.

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    Kovalev, Nikolay; Pogany, Judit; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-05-01

    Replication of plus-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses of plants is a relatively simple process that involves complementary minus-strand RNA [(-)RNA] synthesis and subsequent (+)RNA synthesis. However, the actual replicative form of the (-)RNA template in the case of plant (+)RNA viruses is not yet established unambiguously. In this paper, using a cell-free replication assay supporting a full cycle of viral replication, we show that replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) leads to the formation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Using RNase digestion, DNAzyme, and RNA mobility shift assays, we demonstrate the absence of naked (-)RNA templates during replication. Time course experiments showed the rapid appearance of dsRNA earlier than the bulk production of new (+)RNAs, suggesting an active role for dsRNA in replication. Radioactive nucleotide chase experiments showed that the mechanism of TBSV replication involves the use of dsRNA templates in strand displacement reactions, where the newly synthesized plus strand replaces the original (+)RNA in the dsRNA. We propose that the use of dsRNA as a template for (+)RNA synthesis by the viral replicase is facilitated by recruited host DEAD box helicases and the viral p33 RNA chaperone protein. Altogether, this replication strategy allows TBSV to separate minus- and plus-strand syntheses in time and regulate asymmetrical RNA replication that leads to abundant (+)RNA progeny. Positive-stranded RNA viruses of plants use their RNAs as the templates for replication. First, the minus strand is synthesized by the viral replicase complex (VRC), which then serves as a template for new plus-strand synthesis. To characterize the nature of the (-)RNA in the membrane-bound viral replicase, we performed complete RNA replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in yeast cell-free extracts and in plant extracts. The experiments demonstrated that the TBSV (-)RNA is present as a double-stranded RNA that serves as the template for TBSV

  11. Mechanistic studies of ionizing radiation and oxidative mutagenesis: Genetic effects of a single 8-hydroxyguanine (7-hydro-8-oxoguanine) residue inserted at a unique site in a viral genome

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    Wood, M.L.; Essigmann, J.M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA)); Dizdaroglu, M.; Gajewski, E. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1990-07-31

    T4 RNA ligase was used to construct a deoxypentanucleotide containing a single 8-hydroxyguanine (7-hydro-8-oxoguanine; G{sup 8-OH}) residue, which is one of the putatively mutagenic DNA adducts produced by oxidants and ionizing radiation. The pentamer d(GCTAG{sup 8-OH})p was prepared by the ligation of a chemically synthesized acceptor molecule, d(GCTA), to an adducted donor, 8-hydroxy-2{prime}-deoxyguanosine 5{prime},3{prime}-bisphosphate. Following 3{prime}-dephosphorylation, the pentamer was characterized by UV spectroscopy, by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the nucleosides released by enzymatic hydrolysis. Both d(GCTAG{sup 8-OH}) and an unmodified control were 5{prime}-phosphorylated by using ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP and incorporated covalently by DNA ligase into a five-base gap at a unique NheI restriction site in the otherwise duplex genome of an M13mp19 derivative. The adduct was part of a nonsense codon in a unique restriction site in order to facilitate the identification and selection of mutants generated by the replication of the modified genome in Escherichia coli. Both control and adducted pentamers ligated into the genome at 50% of the maximum theoretical efficiency, and nearly all of the site-specifically adducted products possessed pentanucleotides that were covalently linked at both 5{prime} and 3{prime} termini. Transformation of E. coli strain DL7 with the uniquely modified single-stranded genome resulted in {approximately}0.5-1.0% of the progeny phase showing the G {yields} T transversion mutation at the original position of G{sup 8-OH}. The vector containing G{sup 8-OH} also transformed 50-90% as efficiently as the unmodified control, indicating that the adduct can be both weakly cytotoxic and mutagenic to the phase genome.

  12. A restriction enzyme based cloning method to assess the in vitro replication capacity of HIV-1 subtype C Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, Daniel T; Prince, Jessica L; Hunter, Eric

    2014-08-31

    The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro replication of chronically derived gag-pro sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.

  13. Viral phosphodiesterases that antagonize double-stranded RNA signaling to RNase L by degrading 2-5A.

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    Silverman, Robert H; Weiss, Susan R

    2014-06-01

    The host interferon (IFN) antiviral response involves a myriad of diverse biochemical pathways that disrupt virus replication cycles at many different levels. As a result, viruses have acquired and evolved genes that antagonize the host antiviral proteins. IFNs inhibit viral infections in part through the 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase (OAS)/RNase L pathway. OAS proteins are pathogen recognition receptors that exist at different basal levels in different cell types and that are IFN inducible. Upon activation by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern viral double-stranded RNA, certain OAS proteins synthesize 2-5A from ATP. 2-5A binds to the antiviral enzyme RNase L causing its dimerization and activation. Recently, disparate RNA viruses, group 2a betacoronaviruses, and group A rotaviruses, have been shown to produce proteins with 2',5'-phosphodiesterase (PDE) activities that eliminate 2-5A thereby evading the antiviral activity of the OAS/RNase L pathway. These viral proteins are members of the eukaryotic-viral LigT-like group of 2H phosphoesterases, so named for the presence of 2 conserved catalytic histidine residues. Here, we will review the biochemistry, biology, and implications of viral and cellular 2',5'-PDEs that degrade 2-5A. In addition, we discuss alternative viral and cellular strategies for limiting the activity of OAS/RNase L.

  14. [Viral interactions with the host's immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humlová, Z

    2001-01-01

    Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites, which differ in their structure and strategy of replication. The establishment of an antiviral state in uninfected cells and the elimination of virally infected cells are critical tasks in the host defence. Against the extensive array of immune modalities, viruses have successfully learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanisms. The study of viral strategies of immune evasion can provide insights into host-virus interactions and also illuminates essential functions of the immune system.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus Replication Depends on Endosomal Cholesterol Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Ina Karen; Lee, Ji-Young; Tabata, Keisuke; Romero-Brey, Inés; Paul, David; Schult, Philipp; Lohmann, Volker; Kaderali, Lars; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes massive rearrangements of intracellular membranes, resulting in a membranous web (MW) composed of predominantly double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), the presumed sites of RNA replication. DMVs are enriched for cholesterol, but mechanistic details on the source and recruitment of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle are only partially known. Here we focused on selected lipid transfer proteins implicated in direct lipid transfer at various endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane contact sites. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown identified several hitherto unknown HCV dependency factors, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain protein 3 (STARD3), oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1A and -B (OSBPL1A and -B), and Niemann-Pick-type C1 (NPC1), all residing at late endosome and lysosome membranes and required for efficient HCV RNA replication but not for replication of the closely related dengue virus. Focusing on NPC1, we found that knockdown or pharmacological inhibition caused cholesterol entrapment in lysosomal vesicles concomitant with decreased cholesterol abundance at sites containing the viral replicase factor NS5A. In untreated HCV-infected cells, unesterified cholesterol accumulated at the perinuclear region, partially colocalizing with NS5A at DMVs, arguing for NPC1-mediated endosomal cholesterol transport to the viral replication organelle. Consistent with cholesterol being an important structural component of DMVs, reducing NPC1-dependent endosomal cholesterol transport impaired MW integrity. This suggests that HCV usurps lipid transfer proteins, such as NPC1, at ER-late endosome/lysosome membrane contact sites to recruit cholesterol to the viral replication organelle, where it contributes to MW functionality. IMPORTANCE A key feature of the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of the host cell

  16. Functional roles of equine infectious anemia virus Gag p9 in viral budding and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Li, F; Montelaro, R C

    2001-10-01

    Previous studies utilizing Gag polyprotein budding assays with transfected cells reveal that the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Gag p9 protein provides a late assembly function mediated by a critical Y(23)P(24)D(25)L(26) motif (L-domain) to release viral particles from the plasma membrane. To elucidate further the role of EIAV p9 in virus assembly and replication, we have examined the replication properties of a defined series of p9 truncation and site-directed mutations in the context of a reference infectious molecular proviral clone, EIAV(uk). Characterization of these p9 proviral mutants revealed new functional properties of p9 in EIAV replication, not previously elucidated by Gag polyprotein budding assays. The results of these studies demonstrated that only the N-terminal 31 amino acids of a total of 51 residues in the complete p9 protein were required to maintain replication competence in transfected equine cells; proviral mutants with p9 C-terminal truncations of 20 or fewer amino acids remained replication competent, while mutants with truncations of 21 or more residues were completely replication defective. The inability of the defective p9 proviral mutations to produce infectious virus could not be attributed to defects in Gag polyprotein expression or processing, in virion RT activity, or in virus budding. While proviral replication competence appeared to be associated with the presence of a K(30)K(31) motif and potential ubiquitination of the EIAV p9 protein, mutations of these lysine residues to methionines produced variant proviruses that replicated as well as the parental EIAV(uk) in transfected ED cells. Thus, these observations reveal for the first time that EIAV p9 is not absolutely required for virus budding in the context of proviral gene expression, suggesting that other EIAV proteins can at least in part mediate late budding functions previously associated with the p9 protein. In addition, the data define a function for EIAV p9 in the

  17. Enterovirus 71 protease 2Apro targets MAVS to inhibit anti-viral type I interferon responses.

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    Bei Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Its pathogenicity is not fully understood, but innate immune evasion is likely a key factor. Strategies to circumvent the initiation and effector phases of anti-viral innate immunity are well known; less well known is whether EV71 evades the signal transduction phase regulated by a sophisticated interplay of cellular and viral proteins. Here, we show that EV71 inhibits anti-viral type I interferon (IFN responses by targeting the mitochondrial anti-viral signaling (MAVS protein--a unique adaptor molecule activated upon retinoic acid induced gene-I (RIG-I and melanoma differentiation associated gene (MDA-5 viral recognition receptor signaling--upstream of type I interferon production. MAVS was cleaved and released from mitochondria during EV71 infection. An in vitro cleavage assay demonstrated that the viral 2A protease (2A(pro, but not the mutant 2A(pro (2A(pro-110 containing an inactivated catalytic site, cleaved MAVS. The Protease-Glo assay revealed that MAVS was cleaved at 3 residues between the proline-rich and transmembrane domains, and the resulting fragmentation effectively inactivated downstream signaling. In addition to MAVS cleavage, we found that EV71 infection also induced morphologic and functional changes to the mitochondria. The EV71 structural protein VP1 was detected on purified mitochondria, suggesting not only a novel role for mitochondria in the EV71 replication cycle but also an explanation of how EV71-derived 2A(pro could approach MAVS. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel strategy employed by EV71 to escape host anti-viral innate immunity that complements the known EV71-mediated immune-evasion mechanisms.

  18. A skeptical look at viral immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, I A; Rouse, B T

    1997-12-01

    In the past several years, many viral gene products have been found to encode proteins which interfere with immune defense mechanisms. Whether these interactions between virus and immune system components are actually evasion mechanisms used during viral infections in their natural hosts remains to be proven. In vitro studies do, however, reveal several tactics which may aid viral replication and dissemination by interfering with components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this manuscript, we discuss the more intensively studied of these putative in vitro evasion tactics and ponder their relevance in in vivo situations.

  19. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Jason; Wang, Xin; Tsang, Sabrina H.; Jiao, Jing; You, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells

  20. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

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    Jason Diaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells.

  1. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Jason; Wang, Xin; Tsang, Sabrina H. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiao, Jing [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); You, Jianxin, E-mail: jianyou@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2014-07-08

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells.

  2. Selective recruitment of nuclear factors to productively replicating herpes simplex virus genomes.

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    Jill A Dembowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Much of the HSV-1 life cycle is carried out in the cell nucleus, including the expression, replication, repair, and packaging of viral genomes. Viral proteins, as well as cellular factors, play essential roles in these processes. Isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND was developed to label and purify cellular replication forks. We adapted aspects of this method to label viral genomes to both image, and purify replicating HSV-1 genomes for the identification of associated proteins. Many viral and cellular factors were enriched on viral genomes, including factors that mediate DNA replication, repair, chromatin remodeling, transcription, and RNA processing. As infection proceeded, packaging and structural components were enriched to a greater extent. Among the more abundant proteins that copurified with genomes were the viral transcription factor ICP4 and the replication protein ICP8. Furthermore, all seven viral replication proteins were enriched on viral genomes, along with cellular PCNA and topoisomerases, while other cellular replication proteins were not detected. The chromatin-remodeling complexes present on viral genomes included the INO80, SWI/SNF, NURD, and FACT complexes, which may prevent chromatinization of the genome. Consistent with this conclusion, histones were not readily recovered with purified viral genomes, and imaging studies revealed an underrepresentation of histones on viral genomes. RNA polymerase II, the mediator complex, TFIID, TFIIH, and several other transcriptional activators and repressors were also affinity purified with viral DNA. The presence of INO80, NURD, SWI/SNF, mediator, TFIID, and TFIIH components is consistent with previous studies in which these complexes copurified with ICP4. Therefore, ICP4 is likely involved in the recruitment of these key cellular chromatin remodeling and transcription factors to viral genomes. Taken together, iPOND is a valuable method for the study of viral genome dynamics

  3. Bim nuclear translocation and inactivation by viral interferon regulatory factor.

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    Young Bong Choi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication efficiency is in large part governed by the ability of viruses to counteract pro-apoptotic signals induced by infection of the host cell. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 uses several strategies to block the host's innate antiviral defenses via interference with interferon and apoptotic signaling. Contributors include the four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4, which function in dominant negative fashion to block cellular IRF activities in addition to targeting IRF signaling-induced proteins such as p53 and inhibiting other inducers of apoptosis such as TGFbeta receptor-activated Smad transcription factors. Here we identify direct targeting by vIRF-1 of BH3-only pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim, a key negative regulator of HHV-8 replication, to effect its inactivation via nuclear translocation. vIRF-1-mediated relocalization of Bim was identified in transfected cells, by both immunofluorescence assay and western analysis of fractionated cell extracts. Also, co-localization of vIRF-1 and Bim was detected in nuclei of lytically infected endothelial cells. In vitro co-precipitation assays using purified vIRF-1 and Bim revealed direct interaction between the proteins, and Bim-binding residues of vIRF-1 were mapped by deletion and point mutagenesis. Generation and experimental utilization of Bim-refractory vIRF-1 variants revealed the importance of vIRF-1:Bim interaction, specifically, in pro-replication and anti-apoptotic activity of vIRF-1. Furthermore, blocking of the interaction with cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the Bim-binding region of vIRF-1 confirmed the relevance of vIRF-1:Bim association to vIRF-1 pro-replication activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an IRF protein that interacts with a Bcl-2 family member and of nuclear sequestration of Bim or any other member of the family as a means of inactivation. The data presented reveal a novel mechanism utilized by a virus to control

  4. Inhibition of Monkeypox virus replication by RNA interference

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    Jahrling Peter B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Orthopoxvirus genus of Poxviridae family is comprised of several human pathogens, including cowpox (CPXV, Vaccinia (VACV, monkeypox (MPV and Variola (VARV viruses. Species of this virus genus cause human diseases with various severities and outcome ranging from mild conditions to death in fulminating cases. Currently, vaccination is the only protective measure against infection with these viruses and no licensed antiviral drug therapy is available. In this study, we investigated the potential of RNA interference pathway (RNAi as a therapeutic approach for orthopox virus infections using MPV as a model. Based on genome-wide expression studies and bioinformatic analysis, we selected 12 viral genes and targeted them by small interference RNA (siRNA. Forty-eight siRNA constructs were developed and evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit viral replication. Two genes, each targeted with four different siRNA constructs in one pool, were limiting to viral replication. Seven siRNA constructs from these two pools, targeting either an essential gene for viral replication (A6R or an important gene in viral entry (E8L, inhibited viral replication in cell culture by 65-95% with no apparent cytotoxicity. Further analysis with wild-type and recombinant MPV expressing green fluorescence protein demonstrated that one of these constructs, siA6-a, was the most potent and inhibited viral replication for up to 7 days at a concentration of 10 nM. These results emphasis the essential role of A6R gene in viral replication, and demonstrate the potential of RNAi as a therapeutic approach for developing oligonucleotide-based drug therapy for MPV and other orthopox viruses.

  5. Annotating Protein Functional Residues by Coupling High-Throughput Fitness Profile and Homologous-Structure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yushen; Wu, Nicholas C; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Tianhao; Gong, Danyang; Shu, Sara; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2016-11-01

    Identification and annotation of functional residues are fundamental questions in protein sequence analysis. Sequence and structure conservation provides valuable information to tackle these questions. It is, however, limited by the incomplete sampling of sequence space in natural evolution. Moreover, proteins often have multiple functions, with overlapping sequences that present challenges to accurate annotation of the exact functions of individual residues by conservation-based methods. Using the influenza A virus PB1 protein as an example, we developed a method to systematically identify and annotate functional residues. We used saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing to measure the replication capacity of single nucleotide mutations across the entire PB1 protein. After predicting protein stability upon mutations, we identified functional PB1 residues that are essential for viral replication. To further annotate the functional residues important to the canonical or noncanonical functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp), we performed a homologous-structure analysis with 16 different vRdRp structures. We achieved high sensitivity in annotating the known canonical polymerase functional residues. Moreover, we identified a cluster of noncanonical functional residues located in the loop region of the PB1 β-ribbon. We further demonstrated that these residues were important for PB1 protein nuclear import through the interaction with Ran-binding protein 5. In summary, we developed a systematic and sensitive method to identify and annotate functional residues that are not restrained by sequence conservation. Importantly, this method is generally applicable to other proteins about which homologous-structure information is available. To fully comprehend the diverse functions of a protein, it is essential to understand the functionality of individual residues. Current methods are highly dependent on evolutionary sequence conservation, which is

  6. Engineering attenuated virus vaccines by controlling replication fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignuzzi, Marco; Wendt, Emily; Andino, Raul

    2008-02-01

    Long-lasting protection against viral infection is best achieved by vaccination with attenuated viruses. Obtaining stably attenuated vaccine strains has traditionally been an empirical process, which greatly restricts the number of effective vaccines for viral diseases. Here we describe a rational approach for engineering stably attenuated viruses that can serve as safe and effective vaccines. Our approach exploits the observation that restricting viral population diversity by increasing replication fidelity greatly reduces viral tissue tropism and pathogenicity. We show that poliovirus variants with reduced genetic diversity elicit a protective immune response in an animal model of infection. Indeed, these novel vaccine candidates are comparable in efficacy to the currently available Sabin type 1 vaccine strain, but have the added advantage of being more stable, as their increased replication fidelity prevents reversion to the pathogenic wild-type phenotype. We propose that restricting viral quasispecies diversity provides a general approach for the rational design of stable, attenuated vaccines for a wide variety of viruses.

  7. Effect of Phosphorylation of CM2 Protein on Influenza C Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takanari; Shimotai, Yoshitaka; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Muraki, Yasushi; Sho, Ri; Sugawara, Kanetsu; Hongo, Seiji

    2017-11-15

    CM2 is the second membrane protein of the influenza C virus and has been demonstrated to play a role in the uncoating and genome packaging processes in influenza C virus replication. Although the effects of N-linked glycosylation, disulfide-linked oligomerization, and palmitoylation of CM2 on virus replication have been analyzed, the effect of the phosphorylation of CM2 on virus replication remains to be determined. In this study, a phosphorylation site(s) at residue 78 and/or 103 of CM2 was replaced with an alanine residue(s), and the effects of the loss of phosphorylation on influenza C virus replication were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the packaging of the reporter gene between influenza C virus-like particles (VLPs) produced from 293T cells expressing wild-type CM2 and those from the cells expressing the CM2 mutants lacking the phosphorylation site(s). Reporter gene expression in HMV-II cells infected with VLPs containing the CM2 mutants was inhibited in comparison with that in cells infected with wild-type VLPs. The virus production of the recombinant influenza C virus possessing CM2 mutants containing a serine-to-alanine change at residue 78 was significantly lower than that of wild-type recombinant influenza C virus. Furthermore, the virus growth of the recombinant viruses possessing CM2 with a serine-to-aspartic acid change at position 78, to mimic constitutive phosphorylation, was virtually identical to that of the wild-type virus. These results suggest that phosphorylation of CM2 plays a role in efficient virus replication, probably through the addition of a negative charge to the Ser78 phosphorylation site. IMPORTANCE It is well-known that many host and viral proteins are posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which plays a role in the functions of these proteins. In influenza A and B viruses, phosphorylation of viral proteins NP, M1, NS1, and the nuclear export protein (NEP), which are not integrated into the

  8. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  9. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages.

  10. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara W. Bird

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed. The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference.

  11. Identification of the determinants of efficient Pestivirus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian

    with a description of the molecular methods used for viral cDNA manipulation, bio-engineering approaches, description of viral reporters and so forth. Part 2, "Pestiviruses: Infection and requirements for viral RNA replication " is meant as a walk through the literature describing Pestivirus/Classical swine fever......, gives a general introduction to RNA viruses, with the focus on viruses classified within the Flaviviridae. Next, pestiviruses are described with special attention to classical swine fever virus and the disease it is responsible for. A brief history of types of viral vaccines is provided, finishing...

  12. Comparison of HIV-1 viral loads and effects of praziquantel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Humphrey

    Abstract. Background: It is hypothesised that Th2 immunological environment associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection might favour replication of HIV-1 in co-infected individuals, results in increased viral loads. On the other hand, deworming using praziquantel might result in reduction of HIV-1 viral loads and ...

  13. Replicating viruses for gynecologic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J W; Kim, M

    2016-01-01

    Despite advanced therapeutic treatments, gynecologic malignancies such as cervical and ovarian cancers are still the top ten leading cause of cancer death among women in South Korea. Thus a novel and innovative approach is urgently needed. Naturally occurring viruses are live, replication-proficient viruses that specifically infect human cancer cells while sparing normal cell counterparts. Since the serendipitous discovery of the naturally oncotropic virus targeting gynecologic cancer in 1920s, various replicating viruses have shown various degrees of safety and efficacy in preclinical or clinical applications for gynecologic cancer therapy. Cellular oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which are frequently dysregulated in gynecologic malignancies, play an important role in determining viral oncotropism. Published articles describing replicating, oncolytic viruses for gynecologic cancers are thoroughly reviewed. This review outlines the discovery of replication-proficient virus strains for targeting gynecologic malignancies, recent progresses elucidating molecular connections between oncogene/tumor suppressor gene abnormalities and viral oncotropism, and the associated preclinical/clinical implications. The authors would also like to propose future directions in the utility of the replicating viruses for gynecologic cancer therapy.

  14. COPI is required for enterovirus 71 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11, is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

  15. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape viral variants: how important are they in viral evasion of immune clearance in vivo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, P; Shaw, G M

    1998-08-01

    Although viral variants which are not recognized by epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been shown to arise during a number of persistent virus infections, in many cases their significance remains controversial: it has been argued that the immune response is sufficiently plastic to contain their replication. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which amino acid changes in viral proteins may affect epitope recognition by virus-specific CTL, and discuss the viral and immunological basis for the emergence of viral variants bearing such amino acid changes during infection. We then consider the impact that viral variation may have on the host CTL response and its ability to contain virus replication. We argue that the emergence of a viral variant demonstrates that it must have an in vivo replicative advantage, and that as such, the variant must tip the balance between virus replication and immune control somewhat in favor of the virus. Further, we suggest that although the immune response can evolve to recognize new viral epitopes, the CTL generated following such evolution frequently have a reduced ability to contain virus replication. We conclude that this escape mechanism likely does make a significant contribution to persistence/pathogenesis during a number of different virus infections.

  16. Construction of self-replicating subgenomic West Nile virus replicons for screening antiviral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Reichert, Erin Donohue; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne flavivirus RNA genomes encode one long open reading frame flanking 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-UTRs) which contain cis-acting RNA elements playing important roles for viral RNA translation and replication. The viral RNA encodes a single polyprotein, which is processed into three structural proteins and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins. The regions coding for the seven NS proteins are sufficient for replication of the RNA. The sequences encoding the structural genes can be deleted except for two short regions. The first one encompasses 32 amino acid (aa) residues from the N-terminal coding sequence of capsid (C) and the second, 27 aa region from the C-terminus of envelope (E) protein. The deleted region can be substituted with a gene coding for a readily quantifiable reporter to give rise to a subgenomic reporter replicon. Replicons containing a variety of reporter genes and marker genes for construction of stable mammalian cell lines are valuable reagents for studying the effects of mutations in translation and/or replication in isolation from processes like the entry and assembly of the virus particles. Here we describe the construction of two West Nile virus (WNV) replicons by overlap extension PCR and standard recombinant DNA techniques. One has a Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter gene followed by an internal ribosome entry site (element) for cap-independent translation of the open reading frame encompassing the carboxy-terminal sequence of E to NS5. The second replicon has in tandem the Rluc gene, foot and mouth disease virus 2A, and neomycin phosphotransferase gene that allows establishment of a stable mammalian cell line expressing the Rluc reporter in the presence of the neomycin analog, G418. The stable replicon-expressing Vero cell line has been used for cell-based screening and determination of EC50 values for antiviral compounds that inhibited WNV replication.

  17. Involvement of Autophagy in Coronavirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Britton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses are single stranded, positive sense RNA viruses, which induce the rearrangement of cellular membranes upon infection of a host cell. This provides the virus with a platform for the assembly of viral replication complexes, improving efficiency of RNA synthesis. The membranes observed in coronavirus infected cells include double membrane vesicles. By nature of their double membrane, these vesicles resemble cellular autophagosomes, generated during the cellular autophagy pathway. In addition, coronavirus infection has been demonstrated to induce autophagy. Here we review current knowledge of coronavirus induced membrane rearrangements and the involvement of autophagy or autophagy protein microtubule associated protein 1B light chain 3 (LC3 in coronavirus replication.

  18. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  19. The cellular Mre11 protein interferes with adenovirus E4 mutant DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) relocalizes and degrades the host DNA repair protein Mre11, and efficiently initiates viral DNA replication. Mre11 associates with Ad E4 mutant DNA replication centers and is important for concatenating viral genomes. We have investigated the role of Mre11 in the E4 mutant DNA replication defect. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mre11 dramatically rescues E4 mutant DNA replication in cells that do or do not concatenate viral genomes, suggesting that Mre11 inhibits DNA replication independent of genome concatenation. The mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) protein is involved in recruiting and sustaining Mre11 at sites of DNA damage following ionizing radiation. We observe foci formation by Mdc1 in response to viral infection, indicating that this damage response protein is activated. However, knockdown of Mdc1 does not prevent Mre11 from localizing at viral DNA replication foci or rescue E4 mutant DNA replication. Our results are consistent with a model in which Mre11 interferes with DNA replication when it is localized at viral DNA replication foci

  20. Phosphorylated STAT5 directly facilitates parvovirus B19 DNA replication in human erythroid progenitors through interaction with the MCM complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Safder S; Zou, Wei; Xu, Peng; Deng, Xuefeng; Kleiboeker, Steve; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-05-01

    Productive infection of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) exhibits high tropism for burst forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) and colony forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) progenitor cells in human bone marrow and fetal liver. This exclusive restriction of the virus replication to human erythroid progenitor cells is partly due to the intracellular factors that are essential for viral DNA replication, including erythropoietin signaling. Efficient B19V replication also requires hypoxic conditions, which upregulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathway, and phosphorylated STAT5 is essential for virus replication. In this study, our results revealed direct involvement of STAT5 in B19V DNA replication. Consensus STAT5-binding elements were identified adjacent to the NS1-binding element within the minimal origins of viral DNA replication in the B19V genome. Phosphorylated STAT5 specifically interacted with viral DNA replication origins both in vivo and in vitro, and was actively recruited within the viral DNA replication centers. Notably, STAT5 interacted with minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, suggesting that STAT5 directly facilitates viral DNA replication by recruiting the helicase complex of the cellular DNA replication machinery to viral DNA replication centers. The FDA-approved drug pimozide dephosphorylates STAT5, and it inhibited B19V replication in ex vivo expanded human erythroid progenitors. Our results demonstrated that pimozide could be a promising antiviral drug for treatment of B19V-related diseases.

  1. SMC1-mediated intra-S-phase arrest facilitates bocavirus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Deng, Xuefeng; Cheng, Fang; Li, Yi; Qiu, Jianming

    2013-04-01

    Activation of a host DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for DNA replication of minute virus of canines (MVC), a member of the genus Bocavirus of the Parvoviridae family; however, the mechanism by which DDR contributes to viral DNA replication is unknown. In the current study, we demonstrate that MVC infection triggers the intra-S-phase arrest to slow down host cellular DNA replication and to recruit cellular DNA replication factors for viral DNA replication. The intra-S-phase arrest is regulated by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase) signaling in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that SMC1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1) is the key regulator of the intra-S-phase arrest induced during infection. Either knockdown of SMC1 or complementation with a dominant negative SMC1 mutant blocks both the intra-S-phase arrest and viral DNA replication. Finally, we show that the intra-S-phase arrest induced during MVC infection was caused neither by damaged host cellular DNA nor by viral proteins but by replicating viral genomes physically associated with the DNA damage sensor, the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex. In conclusion, the feedback loop between MVC DNA replication and the intra-S-phase arrest is mediated by ATM-SMC1 signaling and plays a critical role in MVC DNA replication. Thus, our findings unravel the mechanism underlying DDR signaling-facilitated MVC DNA replication and demonstrate a novel strategy of DNA virus-host interaction.

  2. Molecular Biology of Rotavirus Entry and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marie Christine; Leon, Theresa; Diaz, Yuleima; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    Rotavirus is a nonenveloped, double-stranded, RNA virus belonging to the Reoviridae family and is the major etiological agent of viral gastroenteritis in young children and young animals. Remarkable progress in the understanding of the rotavirus cycle has been made in the last 10 years. The knowledge of viral replication thus far acquired is based on structural studies, the expression and coexpression of individual viral proteins, silencing of individual genes by siRNAs, and the effects that these manipulations have on the physiology of the infected cell. The functions of the individual rotavirus proteins have been largely dissected; however, the interactions between them and with cell proteins, and the molecular mechanisms of virus replication, are just beginning to be understood. These advancements represent the basis for the development of effective vaccination and rational therapeutic strategies to combat rotavirus infection and diarrhea syndromes. In this paper, we review and try to integrate the new knowledge about rotavirus entry, replication, and assembly, and pose some of the questions that remain to be solved. PMID:20024520

  3. Stable cytotoxic T cell escape mutation in hepatitis C virus is linked to maintenance of viral fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Uebelhoer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV evades cellular immunity to establish persistence in chronically infected individuals are not clear. Mutations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I-restricted epitopes targeted by CD8(+ T cells are associated with persistence, but the extent to which these mutations affect viral fitness is not fully understood. Previous work showed that the HCV quasispecies in a persistently infected chimpanzee accumulated multiple mutations in numerous class I epitopes over a period of 7 years. During the acute phase of infection, one representative epitope in the C-terminal region of the NS3/4A helicase, NS3(1629-1637, displayed multiple serial amino acid substitutions in major histocompatibility complex (MHC anchor and T cell receptor (TCR contact residues. Only one of these amino acid substitutions at position 9 (P9 of the epitope was stable in the quasispecies. We therefore assessed the effect of each mutation observed during in vivo infection on viral fitness and T cell responses using an HCV subgenomic replicon system and a recently developed in vitro infectious virus cell culture model. Mutation of a position 7 (P7 TCR-contact residue, I1635T, expectedly ablated the T cell response without affecting viral RNA replication or virion production. In contrast, two mutations at the P9 MHC-anchor residue abrogated antigen-specific T cell responses, but additionally decreased viral RNA replication and virion production. The first escape mutation, L1637P, detected in vivo only transiently at 3 mo after infection, decreased viral production, and reverted to the parental sequence in vitro. The second P9 variant, L1637S, which was stable in vivo through 7 years of follow-up, evaded the antigen-specific T cell response and did not revert in vitro despite being less optimal in virion production compared to the parental virus. These studies suggest that HCV escape mutants emerging early in infection are not necessarily

  4. Dual function of the nuclear export signal of the Borna disease virus nucleoprotein in nuclear export activity and binding to viral phosphoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Mako; Sakai, Madoka; Makino, Akiko; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2017-07-11

    Borna disease virus (BoDV), which has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, causes persistent infection in the cell nucleus. The nuclear export signal (NES) of the viral nucleoprotein (N) consisting of leucine at positions 128 and 131 and isoleucine at positions 133 and 136 overlaps with one of two predicted binding sites for the viral phosphoprotein (P). A previous study demonstrated that higher expression of BoDV-P inhibits nuclear export of N; however, the function of N NES in the interaction with P remains unclear. We examined the subcellular localization, viral polymerase activity, and P-binding ability of BoDV-N NES mutants. We also characterized a recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) harboring an NES mutation of N. BoDV-N with four alanine-substitutions in the leucine and isoleucine residues of the NES impaired its cytoplasmic localization and abolished polymerase activity and P-binding ability. Although an alanine-substitution at position 131 markedly enhanced viral polymerase activity as determined by a minigenome assay, rBoDV harboring this mutation showed expression of viral RNAs and proteins relative to that of wild-type rBoDV. Our results demonstrate that BoDV-N NES has a dual function in BoDV replication, i.e., nuclear export of N and an interaction with P, affecting viral polymerase activity in the nucleus.

  5. Intrinsic Stability of Episomal Circles Formed during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, TheodoreC.; Kieffer, Tara L.; Ruff, Christian T.; Buck, Christopher; Gange, Stephen J.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of surrogate markers capable of detecting residual ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy is an important step in understanding viral dynamics and in developing new treatment strategies. In this study, we evaluated the utility of circular forms of the viral genome for the detection of recent infection of cells by HIV-1. We measured the fate of both one-long terminal repeat (1-LTR) and 2-LTR circles following in vitro infection of logarithmically growing CD4+ T cells under conditions in which cell death was not a significant contributing factor. Circular forms of the viral genome were found to be highly stable and to decrease in concentration only as a function of dilution resulting from cell division. We conclude that these DNA circles are not intrinsically unstable in all cell types and suggest that the utility of 2-LTR circle assays in measuring recent HIV-1 infection of susceptible cells in vivo needs to be reevaluated. PMID:11907256

  6. Mutagenesis in ORF AV2 affects viral replication in Mungbean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a whitefly-transmitted begomovirus with a bipartite genome. .... 1996) and in Indian cassava mosaic virus (Rothenstein et al. 2007). The ability of AV2 of another bipartite begomovirus, East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus ...... (New York: WH Freeman and Company).

  7. DNA Damage Reduces the Quality, but Not the Quantity of Human Papillomavirus 16 E1 and E2 DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly L. Bristol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are causative agents in almost all cervical carcinomas. HPVs are also causative agents in head and neck cancer, the cases of which are increasing rapidly. Viral replication activates the DNA damage response (DDR pathway; associated proteins are recruited to replication foci, and this pathway may serve to allow for viral genome amplification. Likewise, HPV genome double-strand breaks (DSBs could be produced during replication and could lead to linearization and viral integration. Many studies have shown that viral integration into the host genome results in unregulated expression of the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, promoting HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Previously, we have demonstrated that DNA-damaging agents, such as etoposide, or knocking down viral replication partner proteins, such as topoisomerase II β binding protein I (TopBP1, does not reduce the level of DNA replication. Here, we investigated whether these treatments alter the quality of DNA replication by HPV16 E1 and E2. We confirm that knockdown of TopBP1 or treatment with etoposide does not reduce total levels of E1/E2-mediated DNA replication; however, the quality of replication is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate that E1 and E2 continue to replicate under genomically-stressed conditions and that this replication is mutagenic. This mutagenesis would promote the formation of substrates for integration of the viral genome into that of the host, a hallmark of cervical cancer.

  8. Avances recientes en HIV/SIDA: Patogénesis, historia natural y carga viral

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael E Campo; Ernesto G Scerpella

    1996-01-01

    Results of recent investigations have given us a new understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection. This findings provide us with a kinetic model of pathogenesis in which continuous, high-grade viral replication. This findings provide us with a kinetic model of pathogenesis in which continuous, high-grade viral replication is the principal force driving the destruction of CD4 lymphocytes. This knowledge will lead us to design better treatment strategies directed to curtail viral replicat...

  9. Inhibitors of Nucleotidyltransferase Superfamily Enzymes Suppress Herpes Simplex Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E.; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L.; Wold, William S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family. PMID:25267681

  10. Viral infections of the folds (intertriginous areas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adışen, Esra; Önder, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for the cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Though the cutaneous manifestations of viral infections are closely related to the type and the transmission route of the virus, viral skin diseases may occur in almost any part of the body. In addition to friction caused by skin-to-skin touch, skin folds are warm and moist areas of the skin that have limited air circulation. These features provide a fertile breeding ground for many kinds of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. In contrast to specific bacterial and fungal agents that have an affinity for the skin folds, except for viral diseases of the anogenital area, which have well-known presentations, viral skin infections that have a special affinity to the skin folds are not known. Many viral exanthems may affect the skin folds during the course of the infection, but here we focus only on the ones that usually affect the fold areas and also on the less well-known conditions or recently described associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ViralZone: a knowledge resource to understand virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulo, Chantal; de Castro, Edouard; Masson, Patrick; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis; Le Mercier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The molecular diversity of viruses complicates the interpretation of viral genomic and proteomic data. To make sense of viral gene functions, investigators must be familiar with the virus host range, replication cycle and virion structure. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive resource bridging together textbook knowledge with genomic and proteomic sequences. ViralZone web resource (www.expasy.org/viralzone/) provides fact sheets on all known virus families/genera with easy access to sequence data. A selection of reference strains (RefStrain) provides annotated standards to circumvent the exponential increase of virus sequences. Moreover ViralZone offers a complete set of detailed and accurate virion pictures.

  12. Molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have made their mark on the cancer world as a potential therapeutic option, with the possible advantages of reduced side effects and strengthened treatment efficacy due to higher tumor selectivity. Results have been so promising, that oncolytic viral treatments have now been approved for clinical trials in several countries. However, clinical studies may benefit from the ability to noninvasively and serially identify sites of viral targeting via molecular imaging in order to provide safety, efficacy, and toxicity information. Furthermore, molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy may provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic technique to detect tumor origin and, more importantly, presence of metastases. Several strategies have been investigated for molecular imaging of viral replication broadly categorized into optical and deep tissue imaging, utilizing several reporter genes encoding for fluorescence proteins, conditional enzymes, and membrane protein and transporters. Various imaging methods facilitate molecular imaging, including computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, gamma-scintigraphy, and photoacoustic imaging. In addition, several molecular probes are used for medical imaging, which act as targeting moieties or signaling agents. This review will explore the preclinical and clinical use of in vivo molecular imaging of replication-competent oncolytic viral therapy.

  13. Replication of the plasmid pBR322 under the control of a cloned replication origin from the single-stranded DNA phage M13.

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, J M; Ray, D S

    1980-01-01

    The replication origins of viral and complementary strands of bacteriophage M13 DNA are contained within a 507-nucleotide intergenic region of the viral genome. Chimeric plasmids have been constructed by inserting restriction endonuclease fragments of the M13 intergenic region into the plasmid pBR322. Replication of these hybrid plasmids, under conditions not permissive for the plasmid replicon, depends on specific segments of the M13 origin region and on the presence of M13 helper virus. Thu...

  14. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    acids. We use single molecule DNA stretching to show that the nucleocapsid protein (NC) of the yeast retrotransposon Ty3, which is likely to be an ancestor of HIV NC, has optimal nucleic acid chaperone activity with only a single zinc finger. We also show that the chaperone activity of the ORF1 protein is responsible for successful replication of the mouse LINE-1 retrotransposon. LINE-1 is also 17% of the human genome, where it generates insertion mutations and alters gene expression. Retrotransposons such as LINE-1 and Ty3 are likely to be ancestors of retroviruses such as HIV. Human APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits HIV-1 replication via cytidine deamination of the viral ssDNA genome, as well as via a distinct deamination-independent mechanism. Efficient deamination requires rapid on-off binding kinetics, but a slow dissociation rate is required for the proposed deaminase-independent mechanism. We resolve this apparent contradiction with a new quantitative single molecule method, which shows that A3G initially binds ssDNA with fast on-off rates and subsequently converts to a slow binding mode. This suggests that oligomerization transforms A3G from a fast enzyme to a slow binding protein, which is the biophysical mechanism that allows A3G to inhibit HIV replication. A complete understanding of the mechanism of A3G-mediated antiviral activity is required to design drugs that disrupt the viral response to A3G, enhance A3G packaging inside the viral core, and other potential strategies for long-term treatment of HIV infection. We use single molecule biophysics to explore the function of proteins involved in bacterial DNA replication, endogenous retrotransposition of retroelements in eukaryotic hosts such yeast and mice, and HIV replication in human cells. Our quantitative results provide insight into protein function in a range of complex biological systems and have wide-ranging implications for human health.

  15. Acral manifestations of viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adışen, Esra; Önder, Meltem

    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Herpetic whitlow should be considered under the title of special viral infections of the acral region, where surgical incision is not recommended; along with verruca plantaris with its resistance to treatment and the search for a new group of treatments, including human papillomavirus vaccines; HIV with maculopapular eruptions and palmoplantar desquamation; orf and milker's nodule with its nodular lesions; papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome with its typical clinical presentation; necrolytic acral erythema with its relationship with zinc; and hand, foot, and mouth disease with its characteristics of causing infection with its strains, with high risk for complication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David C; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria; Voellmy, Richard

    2015-10-01

    We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate, stringent regulation of

  17. Essential Role of Rta in Lytic DNA Replication of Epstein-Barr Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassi-Nejad, Maryam; Golden, Sean; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2013-01-01

    Two transcription factors, ZEBRA and Rta, switch Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from the latent to the lytic state. While ZEBRA also plays an obligatory role as an activator of replication, it is not known whether Rta is directly required for replication. Rta is dispensable for amplification of an oriLyt-containing plasmid in a transient-replication assay. Here, we assessed the requirement for Rta in activation of viral DNA synthesis from the endogenous viral genome, a function that has not been established. Initially, we searched for a ZEBRA mutant that supports viral replication but not transcription. We found that Z(S186A), a mutant of ZEBRA unable to activate transcription of Rta or viral genes encoding replication proteins, is competent to bind to oriLyt and to function as an origin recognition protein. Ectopic expression of the six components of the EBV lytic replication machinery failed to rescue replication by Z(S186A). However, addition of Rta to Z(S186A) and the mixture of replication factors activated viral replication and late gene expression. Deletion mutagenesis of Rta indicated that the C-terminal 10 amino acids (aa) were essential for the function of Rta in replication. In vivo DNA binding studies revealed that Rta interacted with the enhancer region of oriLyt. In addition, expression of Rta and Z(S186A) together, but not individually, activated synthesis of the BHLF1 transcript, a lytic transcript required for the process of viral DNA replication. Our findings demonstrate that Rta plays an indispensable role in the process of lytic DNA replication. PMID:23077295

  18. Small molecule inhibitors of HCV replication from Pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Uma; Mullick, Ranajoy; Kumar, Anuj; Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Das, Saumitra

    2014-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of end-stage liver disease. Recent advances in the last decade in anti HCV treatment strategies have dramatically increased the viral clearance rate. However, several limitations are still associated, which warrant a great need of novel, safe and selective drugs against HCV infection. Towards this objective, we explored highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors, the ellagitannins, from the crude extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit peel. The pure compounds, punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid isolated from the extract specifically blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activity in vitro. Structural analysis using computational approach also showed that ligand molecules interact with the catalytic and substrate binding residues of NS3/4A protease, leading to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Further, punicalagin and punicalin significantly reduced the HCV replication in cell culture system. More importantly, these compounds are well tolerated ex vivo and`no observed adverse effect level' (NOAEL) was established upto an acute dose of 5000 mg/kg in BALB/c mice. Additionally, pharmacokinetics study showed that the compounds are bioavailable. Taken together, our study provides a proof-of-concept approach for the potential use of antiviral and non-toxic principle ellagitannins from pomegranate in prevention and control of HCV induced complications.

  19. Dicer-2 processes diverse viral RNA species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah R Sabin

    Full Text Available RNA silencing pathways play critical roles in gene regulation, virus infection, and transposon control. RNA interference (RNAi is mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, which are liberated from double-stranded (dsRNA precursors by Dicer and guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC to targets. Although principles governing small RNA sorting into RISC have been uncovered, the spectrum of RNA species that can be targeted by Dicer proteins, particularly the viral RNAs present during an infection, are poorly understood. Dicer-2 potently restricts viral infection in insects by generating virus-derived siRNAs from viral RNA. To better characterize the substrates of Dicer-2, we examined the virus-derived siRNAs produced during the Drosophila antiviral RNAi response to four different viruses using high-throughput sequencing. We found that each virus was uniquely targeted by the RNAi pathway; dicing substrates included dsRNA replication intermediates and intramolecular RNA stem loops. For instance, a putative intergenic RNA hairpin encoded by Rift Valley Fever virus generates abundant small RNAs in both Drosophila and mosquito cells, while repetitive sequences within the genomic termini of Vaccinia virus, which give rise to abundant small RNAs in Drosophila, were found to be transcribed in both insect and mammalian cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that the RNA species targeted by Dicer-2 can be modulated by the presence of a viral suppressor of RNAi. This study uncovered several novel, heavily targeted features within viral genomes, offering insight into viral replication, viral immune evasion strategies, and the mechanism of antiviral RNAi.

  20. Sp100 colocalizes with HPV replication foci and restricts the productive stage of the infectious cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley H Stepp

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that Sp100 (a component of the ND10 nuclear body represses transcription, replication and establishment of incoming human papillomavirus (HPV DNA in the early stages of infection. In this follow up study, we show that Sp100 does not substantially regulate viral infection in the maintenance phase, however at late stages of infection Sp100 interacts with amplifying viral genomes to repress viral processes. We find that Sp100 localizes to HPV16 replication foci generated in primary keratinocytes, to HPV31 replication foci that form in differentiated cells, and to HPV16 replication foci in CIN 1 cervical biopsies. To analyze this further, Sp100 was down regulated by siRNA treatment of differentiating HPV31 containing cells and levels of viral transcription and replication were assessed. This revealed that Sp100 represses viral transcription and replication in differentiated cells. Analysis of Sp100 binding to viral chromatin showed that Sp100 bound across the viral genome, and that binding increased at late stages of infection. Therefore, Sp100 represses the HPV life cycle at both early and late stages of infection.

  1. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  2. A small-RNA enhancer of viral polymerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jasmine T; Zlatev, Ivan; Aggarwal, Shilpa; Subramanian, Sailakshmi; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Kim, Baek; Manoharan, Muthiah; tenOever, Benjamin R

    2012-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is an unremitting virus that results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Key to the viral life cycle is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a heterotrimeric complex responsible for both transcription and replication of the segmented genome. Here, we demonstrate that the viral polymerase utilizes a small RNA enhancer to regulate enzymatic activity and maintain stoichiometric balance of the viral genome. We demonstrate that IAV synthesizes small viral RNAs (svRNAs) that interact with the viral RdRp in order to promote genome replication in a segment-specific manner. svRNAs localize to the nucleus, the site of IAV replication, are synthesized from the positive-sense genomic intermediate, and interact within a novel RNA binding channel of the polymerase PA subunit. Synthetic svRNAs promote polymerase activity in vitro, while loss of svRNA inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a segment-specific manner. Taking these observations together, we mechanistically define svRNA as a small regulatory enhancer RNA, which functions to promote genome replication and maintain segment balance through allosteric modulation of polymerase activity.

  3. DNA intercalator stimulates influenza transcription and virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poon Leo LM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza A virus uses its host transcription machinery to facilitate viral RNA synthesis, an event that is associated with cellular RNA polymerase II (RNAPII. In this study, various RNAPII transcription inhibitors were used to investigate the effect of RNAPII phosphorylation status on viral RNA transcription. A low concentration of DNA intercalators, such as actinomycin D (ActD, was found to stimulate viral polymerase activity and virus replication. This effect was not observed in cells treated with RNAPII kinase inhibitors. In addition, the loss of RNAPIIa in infected cells was due to the shift of nonphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPIIa to hyperphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPIIo.

  4. Asymmetric Assembly of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T-Antigen Origin Binding Domains at the Viral Origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Harrison; G Meinke; H Kwun; H Rogalin; P Phelan; P Bullock; Y Chang; P Moore; A Bohm

    2011-12-31

    The double-stranded DNA polyomavirus Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes Merkel cell carcinoma, an aggressive but rare human skin cancer that most often affects immunosuppressed and elderly persons. As in other polyomaviruses, the large T-antigen of MCV recognizes the viral origin of replication by binding repeating G(A/G)GGC pentamers. The spacing, number, orientation, and necessity of repeats for viral replication differ, however, from other family members such as SV40 and murine polyomavirus. We report here the 2.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of the MCV large T-antigen origin binding domain (OBD) in complex with a DNA fragment from the MCV origin of replication. Consistent with replication data showing that three of the G(A/G)GGC-like binding sites near the center of the origin are required for replication, the crystal structure contains three copies of the OBD. This stoichiometry was verified using isothermal titration calorimetry. The affinity for G(A/G)GGC-containing double-stranded DNA was found to be {approx} 740 nM, approximately 8-fold weaker than the equivalent domain in SV40 for the analogous region of the SV40 origin. The difference in affinity is partially attributable to DNA-binding residue Lys331 (Arg154 in SV40). In contrast to SV40, a small protein-protein interface is observed between MCV OBDs when bound to the central region of the origin. This protein-protein interface is reminiscent of that seen in bovine papilloma virus E1 protein. Mutational analysis indicates, however, that this interface contributes little to DNA binding energy.

  5. APOBEC3G inhibits HIV-1 RNA elongation by inactivating the viral trans-activation response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-07-29

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. dC-to-dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defense against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. We further show that free single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3'+5' ends is sufficient for A3G deamination. These results identify A3G as an efficient mutator and that deamination of (-)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The importance of lytic and nonlytic immune responses in viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2002-01-01

    of the two types of component depend on the cytopathicity of the virus relative to its rate of replication. If the viral cytopathicity is low relative to the rate of viral replication, the model predicts that a combination of lytic and nonlytic effector mechanisms is likely to be required to resolve...... the disease, particularly if the virus replicates at a fast rate. By contrast, if viral cytopathicity is high relative to the replication rate of the virus, then lytic and nonlytic mechanisms can, in principle, resolve the infection independently. We discuss our findings in the context of specific viral......Antiviral immune effector mechanisms can be divided broadly into lytic and nonlytic components. We use mathematical models to investigate the fundamental question of which type of response is required to combat different types of viral infection. According to our model, the relative roles...

  7. Avances recientes en HIV/SIDA: Patogénesis, historia natural y carga viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E Campo

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of recent investigations have given us a new understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection. This findings provide us with a kinetic model of pathogenesis in which continuous, high-grade viral replication. This findings provide us with a kinetic model of pathogenesis in which continuous, high-grade viral replication is the principal force driving the destruction of CD4 lymphocytes. This knowledge will lead us to design better treatment strategies directed to curtail viral replication and prevent the emergence of viral resistance, and the use of combination antiretroviral therapy is a first example of these new strategies. The concept of viral load is introduced, and we discuss the usefulness of viral load in the clinical prognosis of this disease, and its use as an aid in the decision-making process when starling or mordifyng antiretroviral therapy in our patients. (Rev Med Hered 1996; 7: 182-188.

  8. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  9. Cross talk between nucleotide synthesis pathways with cellular immunity in constraining hepatitis e virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yijin); W. Wang (Wenshi); L. Xu (Lei); X. Zhou (Xinying); E. Shokrollahi (Ehsan); K. Felczak (K.); L.J.W. van der Laan (Luc); K.W. Pankiewicz (Krzysztof W.); D. Sprengers (Dave); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); H.J. Metselaar (Herold); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); Q. Pan (Qiuwei)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractiruses are solely dependent on host cells to propagate; therefore, understanding virus-host interaction is important for antiviral drug development. Since de novo nucleotide biosynthesis is essentially required for both host cell metabolism and viral replication, specific catalytic

  10. Adenovirus DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, Rob C.; Uil, Taco G.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses have attracted much attention as probes to study biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and cellular transformation. More recently these viruses have been used as gene-transfer vectors and oncolytic agents. On the other hand, adenoviruses are notorious pathogens in people with compromised immune functions. This article will briefly summarize the basic replication strategy of adenoviruses and the key proteins involved and will deal with the new developments since 2006. In addition, we will cover the development of antivirals that interfere with human adenovirus (HAdV) replication and the impact of HAdV on human disease. PMID:23388625

  11. An Adenovirus DNA Replication Factor, but Not Incoming Genome Complexes, Targets PML Nuclear Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke; Wodrich, Harald

    2016-02-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are subnuclear domains implicated in cellular antiviral responses. Despite the antiviral activity, several nuclear replicating DNA viruses use the domains as deposition sites for the incoming viral genomes and/or as sites for viral DNA replication, suggesting that PML-NBs are functionally relevant during early viral infection to establish productive replication. Although PML-NBs and their components have also been implicated in the adenoviral life cycle, it remains unclear whether incoming adenoviral genome complexes target PML-NBs. Here we show using immunofluorescence and live-cell imaging analyses that incoming adenovirus genome complexes neither localize at nor recruit components of PML-NBs during early phases of infection. We further show that the viral DNA binding protein (DBP), an early expressed viral gene and essential DNA replication factor, independently targets PML-NBs. We show that DBP oligomerization is required to selectively recruit the PML-NB components Sp100 and USP7. Depletion experiments suggest that the absence of one PML-NB component might not affect the recruitment of other components toward DBP oligomers. Thus, our findings suggest a model in which an adenoviral DNA replication factor, but not incoming viral genome complexes, targets and modulates PML-NBs to support a conducive state for viral DNA replication and argue against a generalized concept that PML-NBs target incoming viral genomes. The immediate fate upon nuclear delivery of genomes of incoming DNA viruses is largely unclear. Early reports suggested that incoming genomes of herpesviruses are targeted and repressed by PML-NBs immediately upon nuclear import. Genome localization and/or viral DNA replication has also been observed at PML-NBs for other DNA viruses. Thus, it was suggested that PML-NBs may immediately sense and target nuclear viral genomes and hence serve as sites for deposition of incoming viral genomes and

  12. A novel role for RAD54: this host protein modulates geminiviral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliappan, Kosalai; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Suyal, Geetika; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Geminiviruses primarily encode only few factors, such as replication initiator protein (Rep), and need various host cellular machineries for rolling-circle replication (RCR) and/or recombination-dependent replication (RDR). We have identified a host factor, RAD54, in a screen for Rep-interacting partners and observed its role in DNA replication of the geminivirus mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV). We identified the interacting domains ScRAD54 and MYMIV-Rep and observed that ScRAD54 enhanced MYMIV-Rep nicking, ATPase, and helicase activities. An in vitro replication assay demonstrated that the geminiviral DNA replication reaction depends on the viral Rep protein, viral origin of replication sequences, and host cell-cycle proteins. Rad54-deficient yeast nuclear extract did not support in vitro viral DNA replication, while exogenous addition of the purified ScRAD54 protein enhanced replication. The role of RAD54 in in planta replication was confirmed by the transient replication assay; i.e., agroinoculation studies. RAD54 is a well-known recombination/repair protein that uses its DNA-dependent ATPase activity in conjunction with several other host factors. However, this study demonstrates for the first time that the eukaryotic rolling-circle replicon depends on the RAD54 protein.

  13. Replication and transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses in ferrets: evaluation of pandemic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongquan Wan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza A viruses are endemic in poultry of many Eurasian countries and have caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. To evaluate the potential threat of H9N2 viruses to humans, we investigated the replication and transmission efficiency of H9N2 viruses in the ferret model. Five wild-type (WT H9N2 viruses, isolated from different avian species from 1988 through 2003, were tested in vivo and found to replicate in ferrets. However these viruses achieved mild peak viral titers in nasal washes when compared to those observed with a human H3N2 virus. Two of these H9N2 viruses transmitted to direct contact ferrets, however no aerosol transmission was detected in the virus displaying the most efficient direct contact transmission. A leucine (Leu residue at amino acid position 226 in the hemagglutinin (HA receptor-binding site (RBS, responsible for human virus-like receptor specificity, was found to be important for the transmission of the H9N2 viruses in ferrets. In addition, an H9N2 avian-human reassortant virus, which contains the surface glycoprotein genes from an H9N2 virus and the six internal genes of a human H3N2 virus, showed enhanced replication and efficient transmission to direct contacts. Although no aerosol transmission was observed, the virus replicated in multiple respiratory tissues and induced clinical signs similar to those observed with the parental human H3N2 virus. Our results suggest that the establishment and prevalence of H9N2 viruses in poultry pose a significant threat for humans.

  14. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Esteban, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase...... and that maintaining diversity is important for the establishment of infection. This work supports the hypothesis that the reduced polymerase fidelity of the pandemic GII.4 human norovirus isolates may contribute to their global dominance....

  15. Electron microscopic analysis of rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Crystal E.; Kelly, Deborah F. [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); McDonald, Sarah M., E-mail: mcdonaldsa@vtc.vt.edu [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia—Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Rotaviruses (RVs) replicate their segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. In this study, we sought to gain insight into the ultrastructure of RV assembly-replication intermediates (RIs) using transmission electron microscopy (EM). Specifically, we examined a replicase-competent, subcellular fraction that contains all known RV RIs. Three never-before-seen complexes were visualized in this fraction. Using in vitro reconstitution, we showed that ~15-nm doughnut-shaped proteins in strings were nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) bound to viral RNA transcripts. Moreover, using immunoaffinity-capture EM, we revealed that ~20-nm pebble-shaped complexes contain the viral RNA polymerase (VP1) and RNA capping enzyme (VP3). Finally, using a gel purification method, we demonstrated that ~30–70-nm electron-dense, particle-shaped complexes represent replicase-competent core RIs, containing VP1, VP3, and NSP2 as well as capsid proteins VP2 and VP6. The results of this study raise new questions about the interactions among viral proteins and RNA during the concerted assembly–replicase process. - Highlights: • Rotaviruses replicate their genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. • Little is known about rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates. • Assembly-replication intermediates were imaged using electron microscopy.

  16. Nuclear Actin and Lamins in Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, Jakub; Fraiberk, Martin; Forstova, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Lamins are the best characterized cytoskeletal components of the cell nucleus that help to maintain the nuclear shape and participate in diverse nuclear processes including replication or transcription. Nuclear actin is now widely accepted to be another cytoskeletal protein present in the nucleus that fulfills important functions in the gene expression. Some viruses replicating in the nucleus evolved the ability to interact with and probably utilize nuclear actin for their replication, e.g., for the assembly and transport of capsids or mRNA export. On the other hand, lamins play a role in the propagation of other viruses since nuclear lamina may represent a barrier for virions entering or escaping the nucleus. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the roles of nuclear actin and lamins in viral infections. PMID:22590674

  17. Effects of morphine on replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2009-05-17

    May 17, 2009 ... virus genome has a double strand DNA which codes over. 70 gene products. HSV infection is the most ... essential for viral replication, unlike viral DNA poly- merase. It seems that an alternative method of ... tral red was used and plaques were counted after 12 h. Determination of morphine cytotoxicity.

  18. A carboxy-terminally truncated human CPSF6 lacking residues encoded by exon 6 inhibits HIV-1 cDNA synthesis and promotes capsid disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Takanori; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Saito, Hideki; Sakuma, Ryuta; Inagaki, Yoshio; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2013-07-01

    Since HIV-1 replication is modulated at multiple stages by host cell factors, identification and characterization of those host cell factors are expected to contribute to the development of novel anti-HIV therapeutics. Previous studies showed that a C-terminally truncated cytosolic form of cleavage and polyadenylation-specific factor 6 (CPSF6-358) inhibits HIV-1 infection through interference with HIV-1 trafficking to the nucleus. Here we identified and characterized a different configuration of C-terminally truncated human CPSF6 (hCPSF6-375) through cDNA expression cloning coupled with ganciclovir-mediated lethal selection. Notably, hCPSF6-375, but not mouse CPSF6-358 (mCPSF6-358) as previously reported, remarkably interfered with viral cDNA synthesis after HIV-1 infection. Moreover, we found that hCPSF6-375 aberrantly accelerated the disassembly of the viral capsid in target cells, while CPSF6-358 did not. Sequence comparison of CPSF6-375 and CPSF6-358 cDNAs showed a lack of exon 6 and additional coding sequence for 54 amino acid residues in the C terminus of hCPSF6-375. Mutational analyses revealed that the residues encoded by exon 6, but not the C-terminal 54 residues in hCPSF6-375, is responsible for impaired viral cDNA synthesis by hCPSF6-375. This is the first report demonstrating a novel mode of HIV-1 inhibition by truncated forms of CPSF6 that involves rapid capsid disassembly and inhibition of viral cDNA synthesis. These findings could facilitate an increased understanding of viral cDNA synthesis in light of the viral capsid disassembly.

  19. The Host E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 Ubiquitinates the Ebola Virus VP35 Protein and Promotes Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharaj, Preeti; Atkins, Colm; Luthra, Priya; Giraldo, Maria Isabel; Dawes, Brian E; Miorin, Lisa; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Krogan, Nevan J; Basler, Christopher F; Freiberg, Alexander N; Rajsbaum, Ricardo

    2017-09-15

    Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae family, is a highly pathogenic virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and is responsible for epidemics throughout sub-Saharan, central, and West Africa. The EBOV genome encodes VP35, an important viral protein involved in virus replication by acting as an essential cofactor of the viral polymerase as well as a potent antagonist of the host antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) system. By using mass spectrometry analysis and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we show here that VP35 is ubiquitinated on lysine 309 (K309), a residue located on its IFN antagonist domain. We also found that VP35 interacts with TRIM6, a member of the E3-ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif (TRIM) family. We recently reported that TRIM6 promotes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, to induce efficient antiviral IFN-I-mediated responses. Consistent with this notion, VP35 also associated noncovalently with polyubiquitin chains and inhibited TRIM6-mediated IFN-I induction. Intriguingly, we also found that TRIM6 enhances EBOV polymerase activity in a minigenome assay and TRIM6 knockout cells have reduced replication of infectious EBOV, suggesting that VP35 hijacks TRIM6 to promote EBOV replication through ubiquitination. Our work provides evidence that TRIM6 is an important host cellular factor that promotes EBOV replication, and future studies will focus on whether TRIM6 could be targeted for therapeutic intervention against EBOV infection. IMPORTANCE EBOV belongs to a family of highly pathogenic viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals with high mortality rates (40 to 90%). Because of its high pathogenicity and lack of licensed antivirals and vaccines, EBOV is listed as a tier 1 select-agent risk group 4 pathogen. An important mechanism for the severity of EBOV infection is its suppression of innate immune responses. The EBOV VP35

  20. Autophagy Proteins in Viral Exocytosis and Anti-Viral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Münz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Autophagy-related (Atg gene-encoded proteins were originally described for their crucial role in macroautophagy, a catabolic pathway for cytoplasmic constituent degradation in lysosomes. Recently it has become clear that modules of this machinery can also be used to influence endo- and exocytosis. This mini review discusses how these alternative Atg functions support virus replication and viral antigen presentation on major histocompatibility (MHC class I and II molecules. A better understanding of the modular use of the macroautophagy machinery might enable us to manipulate these alternative functions of Atg proteins during anti-viral therapies and to attenuate virus-induced immune pathologies.

  1. Hepatitis C virus translation preferentially depends on active RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Minyi Liu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA initiates its replication on a detergent-resistant membrane structure derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in the HCV replicon cells. By performing a pulse-chase study of BrU-labeled HCV RNA, we found that the newly-synthesized HCV RNA traveled along the anterograde-membrane traffic and moved away from the ER. Presumably, the RNA moved to the site of translation or virion assembly in the later steps of viral life cycle. In this study, we further addressed how HCV RNA translation was regulated by HCV RNA trafficking. When the movement of HCV RNA from the site of RNA synthesis to the Golgi complex was blocked by nocodazole, an inhibitor of ER-Golgi transport, HCV protein translation was surprisingly enhanced, suggesting that the translation of viral proteins occurred near the site of RNA synthesis. We also found that the translation of HCV proteins was dependent on active RNA synthesis: inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by an NS5B inhibitor resulted in decreased HCV viral protein synthesis even when the total amount of intracellular HCV RNA remained unchanged. Furthermore, the translation activity of the replication-defective HCV replicons or viral RNA with an NS5B mutation was greatly reduced as compared to that of the corresponding wildtype RNA. By performing live cell labeling of newly synthesized HCV RNA and proteins, we further showed that the newly synthesized HCV proteins colocalized with the newly synthesized viral RNA, suggesting that HCV RNA replication and protein translation take place at or near the same site. Our findings together indicate that the translation of HCV RNA is coupled to RNA replication and that the both processes may occur at the same subcellular membrane compartments, which we term the replicasome.

  2. Characterization of a viral phosphoprotein binding site on the surface of the respiratory syncytial nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloux, Marie; Tarus, Bogdan; Blazevic, Ilfad; Fix, Jenna; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Eléouët, Jean-François

    2012-08-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) genome is composed of a negative-sense single-stranded RNA that is tightly associated with the nucleoprotein (N). This ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex is the template for replication and transcription by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. RNP recognition by the viral polymerase involves a specific interaction between the C-terminal domain of the phosphoprotein (P) (P(CTD)) and N. However, the P binding region on N remains to be identified. In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays were used to identify the N-terminal core domain of HRSV N (N(NTD)) as a P binding domain. A biochemical characterization of the P(CTD) and molecular modeling of the N(NTD) allowed us to define four potential candidate pockets on N (pocket I [PI] to PIV) as hydrophobic sites surrounded by positively charged regions, which could constitute sites complementary to the P(CTD) interaction domain. The role of selected amino acids in the recognition of the N-RNA complex by P was first screened for by site-directed mutagenesis using a polymerase activity assay, based on an HRSV minigenome containing a luciferase reporter gene. When changed to Ala, most of the residues of PI were found to be critical for viral RNA synthesis, with the R132A mutant having the strongest effect. These mutations also reduced or abolished in vitro and in vivo P-N interactions, as determined by GST pulldown and immunoprecipitation experiments. The pocket formed by these residues is critical for P binding to the N-RNA complex, is specific for pneumovirus N proteins, and is clearly distinct from the P binding sites identified so far for other nonsegmented negative-strand viruses.

  3. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages. PMID:8523576

  4. Rapid transient production in plants by replicating and non-replicating vectors yields high quality functional anti-HIV antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sainsbury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product.To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell-produced 2G12.Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for

  5. A crystal structure of the Dengue virus NS5 protein reveals a novel inter-domain interface essential for protein flexibility and virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqian Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavivirus RNA replication occurs within a replication complex (RC that assembles on ER membranes and comprises both non-structural (NS viral proteins and host cofactors. As the largest protein component within the flavivirus RC, NS5 plays key enzymatic roles through its N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase and C-terminal RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp domains, and constitutes a major target for antivirals. We determined a crystal structure of the full-length NS5 protein from Dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3 at a resolution of 2.3 Å in the presence of bound SAH and GTP. Although the overall molecular shape of NS5 from DENV3 resembles that of NS5 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV, the relative orientation between the MTase and RdRp domains differs between the two structures, providing direct evidence for the existence of a set of discrete stable molecular conformations that may be required for its function. While the inter-domain region is mostly disordered in NS5 from JEV, the NS5 structure from DENV3 reveals a well-ordered linker region comprising a short 310 helix that may act as a swivel. Solution Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS analysis reveals an increased mobility of the thumb subdomain of RdRp in the context of the full length NS5 protein which correlates well with the analysis of the crystallographic temperature factors. Site-directed mutagenesis targeting the mostly polar interface between the MTase and RdRp domains identified several evolutionarily conserved residues that are important for viral replication, suggesting that inter-domain cross-talk in NS5 regulates virus replication. Collectively, a picture for the molecular origin of NS5 flexibility is emerging with profound implications for flavivirus replication and for the development of therapeutics targeting NS5.

  6. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  7. Bromodomain Protein Brd4 Plays a Key Role in Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Jiao, Jing; Buck, Christopher B.; You, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is the first human polyomavirus to be definitively linked to cancer. The mechanisms of MCV-induced oncogenesis and much of MCV biology are largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) interacts with MCV large T antigen (LT) and plays a critical role in viral DNA replication. Brd4 knockdown inhibits MCV replication, which can be rescued by recombinant Brd4. Brd4 colocalizes with the MCV LT/replication origin complex in the nucleus and recruits replication factor C (RFC) to the viral replication sites. A dominant negative inhibitor of the Brd4-MCV LT interaction can dissociate Brd4 and RFC from the viral replication complex and abrogate MCV replication. Furthermore, obstructing the physiologic interaction between Brd4 and host chromatin with the chemical compound JQ1(+) leads to enhanced MCV DNA replication, demonstrating that the role of Brd4 in MCV replication is distinct from its role in chromatin-associated transcriptional regulation. Our findings demonstrate mechanistic details of the MCV replication machinery; providing novel insight to elucidate the life cycle of this newly discovered oncogenic DNA virus. PMID:23144621

  8. Bromodomain protein Brd4 plays a key role in Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV is the first human polyomavirus to be definitively linked to cancer. The mechanisms of MCV-induced oncogenesis and much of MCV biology are largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4 interacts with MCV large T antigen (LT and plays a critical role in viral DNA replication. Brd4 knockdown inhibits MCV replication, which can be rescued by recombinant Brd4. Brd4 colocalizes with the MCV LT/replication origin complex in the nucleus and recruits replication factor C (RFC to the viral replication sites. A dominant negative inhibitor of the Brd4-MCV LT interaction can dissociate Brd4 and RFC from the viral replication complex and abrogate MCV replication. Furthermore, obstructing the physiologic interaction between Brd4 and host chromatin with the chemical compound JQ1(+ leads to enhanced MCV DNA replication, demonstrating that the role of Brd4 in MCV replication is distinct from its role in chromatin-associated transcriptional regulation. Our findings demonstrate mechanistic details of the MCV replication machinery; providing novel insight to elucidate the life cycle of this newly discovered oncogenic DNA virus.

  9. The Barley stripe mosaic virus γb protein promotes chloroplast-targeted replication by enhancing unwinding of RNA duplexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RNA viruses encode various RNA binding proteins that function in many steps of viral infection cycles. These proteins function as RNA helicases, methyltransferases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, RNA silencing suppressors, RNA chaperones, movement proteins, and so on. Although many of the proteins bind the viral RNA genome during different stages of infection, our knowledge about the coordination of their functions is limited. In this study, we describe a novel role for the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV γb as an enhancer of αa RNA helicase activity, and we show that the γb protein is recruited by the αa viral replication protein to chloroplast membrane sites of BSMV replication. Mutagenesis or deletion of γb from BSMV resulted in reduced positive strand (+ RNAα accumulation, but γb mutations abolishing viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR activity did not completely eliminate genomic RNA replication. In addition, cis- or trans-expression of the Tomato bushy stunt virus p19 VSR protein failed to complement the γb replication functions, indicating that the direct involvement of γb in BSMV RNA replication is independent of VSR functions. These data support a model whereby two BSMV-encoded RNA-binding proteins act coordinately to regulate viral genome replication and provide new insights into strategies whereby double-stranded viral RNA unwinding is regulated, as well as formation of viral replication complexes.

  10. The Barley stripe mosaic virus γb protein promotes chloroplast-targeted replication by enhancing unwinding of RNA duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Liu, Songyu; Li, Zhenggang; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin

    2017-01-01

    RNA viruses encode various RNA binding proteins that function in many steps of viral infection cycles. These proteins function as RNA helicases, methyltransferases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, RNA silencing suppressors, RNA chaperones, movement proteins, and so on. Although many of the proteins bind the viral RNA genome during different stages of infection, our knowledge about the coordination of their functions is limited. In this study, we describe a novel role for the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb as an enhancer of αa RNA helicase activity, and we show that the γb protein is recruited by the αa viral replication protein to chloroplast membrane sites of BSMV replication. Mutagenesis or deletion of γb from BSMV resulted in reduced positive strand (+) RNAα accumulation, but γb mutations abolishing viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) activity did not completely eliminate genomic RNA replication. In addition, cis- or trans-expression of the Tomato bushy stunt virus p19 VSR protein failed to complement the γb replication functions, indicating that the direct involvement of γb in BSMV RNA replication is independent of VSR functions. These data support a model whereby two BSMV-encoded RNA-binding proteins act coordinately to regulate viral genome replication and provide new insights into strategies whereby double-stranded viral RNA unwinding is regulated, as well as formation of viral replication complexes. PMID:28388677

  11. Animal Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Grzegorz L.; Oliveira, Marcos T.; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication highlight the diversity of both the mechanisms utilized and the structural and functional organization of the proteins at mtDNA replication fork, despite the simplicity of the animal mtDNA genome. DNA polymerase γ, mtDNA helicase and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein- the key replisome proteins, have evolved distinct structural features and biochemical properties. These appear to be correlated with mtDNA genomic features in different metazoan taxa and with their modes of DNA replication, although a substantial integrative research is warranted to establish firmly these links. To date, several modes of mtDNA replication have been described for animals: rolling circle, theta, strand-displacement, and RITOLS/bootlace. Resolution of a continuing controversy relevant to mtDNA replication in mammals/vertebrates will have a direct impact on the mechanistic interpretation of mtDNA-related human diseases. Here we review these subjects, integrating earlier and recent data to provide a perspective on the major challenges for future research. PMID:27241933

  12. H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage kinase activity are dispensable for herpes simplex virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Carolyn; Lu, Xu; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2016-01-27

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can establish both lytic and latent infections in humans. The phosphorylation of histone H2AX, a common marker of DNA damage, during lytic infection by HSV-1 is well established. However, the role(s) of H2AX phosphorylation in lytic infection remain unclear. Following infection of human foreskin fibroblasts by HSV-1 or HSV-2, we assayed the phosphorylation of H2AX in the presence of inhibitors of transcription, translation, or viral DNA replication, or in the presence of inhibitors of ATM and ATR kinases (KU-55933 and VE-821, respectively). We also assayed viral replication in fibroblasts in the presence of the kinase inhibitors or siRNAs specific for ATM and ATR, as well as in cell lines deficient for either ATR or ATM. The expression of viral immediate-early and early proteins (including the viral DNA polymerase), but not viral DNA replication or late protein expression, were required for H2AX phosphorylation following HSV-1 infection. Inhibition of ATM kinase activity prevented HSV-stimulated H2AX phosphorylation but had only a minor effect on DNA replication and virus yield in HFF cells. These results differ from previous reports of a dramatic reduction in viral yield following chemical inhibition of ATM in oral keratinocytes or following infection of ATM(-/-) cells. Inhibition of the closely related kinase ATR (whether by chemical inhibitor or siRNA disruption) had no effect on H2AX phosphorylation and reduced viral DNA replication only moderately. During infection by HSV-2, H2AX phosphorylation was similarly dispensable but was dependent on both ATM activity and viral DNA replication. H2AX phosphorylation represents a cell type-specific and virus type-specific host response to HSV infection with little impact on viral infection.

  13. Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro is stimulated by RNA from uninfected HeLa cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P.C. van der; Dam, D. van; Kwant, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Adenovirus DNA replication was studied in a partially reconstituted system consisting of purified viral proteins (DNA-binding protein, precursor terminal protein and Ad DNA polymerase) and a nuclear extract from uninfected HeLa cells. Optimal DNA replication required the presence of a heat-stable,

  14. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana, E-mail: skangina@iu.edu [Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); DeSmet, Marsha, E-mail: mdesmet@iupui.edu [Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Thomas, Yanique, E-mail: ysthomas@umail.iu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Morgan, Iain M., E-mail: immorgan@vcu.edu [VCU Philips Institute for Oral Health Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Androphy, Elliot J., E-mail: eandro@iu.edu [Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.

  15. Phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D promotes RNA replication of a plant RNA virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu Hyodo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA, a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids, but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV. We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate.

  16. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  17. Registered Replication Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwmeester, S.; Verkoeijen, P. P.J.L.; Aczel, B.

    2017-01-01

    In an anonym