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Sample records for residual tumour tissue

  1. Residual tumour detection in post-treatment granulation tissue by using advanced diffusion models in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujima, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Sakashita, Tomohiro; Homma, Akihiro; Kudo, Kohsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the detectability of the residual tumour in post-treatment granulation tissue using parameters obtained with an advanced diffusion model in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated by chemoradiation therapy. We retrospectively evaluated 23 patients with HNSCC after the full course of chemoradiation therapy. The diffusion-weighted image (DWI) acquisition used single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging with 11 b-values (0-1000). We calculated 10 DWI parameters using a mono-exponential model, a bi-exponential model, a stretched exponential model (SEM), a diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) model and a statistical diffusion model (SDM) in the region of interest (ROI) placed on the post-treatment granulation tissue. The presence of residual tumour was determined by histological findings or clinical follow-up. Among the 23 patients, seven patients were revealed to have residual tumour. The univariate analysis revealed significant differences in six parameters between the patients with and without residual tumour. From the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the highest area under curve was detected in the center of the Gaussian distribution of diffusion coefficient (D s ) obtained by the SDM. The multivariate analysis revealed that the D s and diffusion heterogeneity (α) obtained by the SEM were predictors for the presence of residual tumour. DWI parameters obtained by advanced fitting models will be one of the diagnostic tools for the detection of residual tumour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigen retrieval prior to on-tissue digestion of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue sections yields oxidation of proline residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djidja, Marie-Claude; Claude, Emmanuelle; Scriven, Peter; Allen, David W; Carolan, Vikki A; Clench, Malcolm R

    2017-07-01

    MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has been shown to allow the study of protein distribution and identification directly within formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, direct protein identification from tissue sections remains challenging due to signal interferences and/or existing post-translational or other chemical modifications. The use of antigen retrieval (AR) has been demonstrated for unlocking proteins prior to in situ enzymatic digestion and MALDI-MSI analysis of FFPE tissue sections. In the work reported here, the identification of proline oxidation, which may occur when performing the AR protocol, is described. This facilitated and considerably increased the number of identified peptides when adding proline oxidation as a variable modification to the MASCOT search criteria. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-treatment complications of soft tissue tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapeero, L.G. [Department of Radiology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Bone and Soft Tissue Program, United States Military Cancer Institute, 6900 Georgia Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20307 (United States)], E-mail: lshapeero@usuhs.edu; De Visschere, P.J.L.; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Magnetic Resonance/MR-1K12 IB, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Poffyn, B. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Forsyth, R. [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sys, G. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Uyttendaele, D. [Department of Radiology and Magnetic Resonance/MR-1K12 IB, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Purpose: To identify local and distant complications of patients with soft tissue tumours and evaluate their relationships to types of therapy. Methods and materials: Fifty-one patients (29 males and 22 females, ages 14-80 years) with 34 malignant and 17 benign soft tissue tumours were evaluated for local and distant complications after resection or amputation only (26 patients) or after the addition of radiotherapy (25 patients: 17 patients had external beam therapy, 7 patients had external beam therapy and brachytherapy, and one patient had extracorporeal irradiation and reimplantation). Duration of follow-up averaged 3.75 years for malignant tumours and 2.79 years for benign tumours. Follow-up studies included radiography, T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), computed tomography for thoracic and abdominal metastases, and 3-phase technetium-99m-labeled-methylene-diphosphonate scintigraphy for bone metastases. Results: Recurrent tumours were 2.2 times more frequent in patients who had undergone their initial resection at an outside hospital as compared with those first treated at the university hospital. Nine of 11 recurrences occurred after marginal surgery. Metastases from soft tissue sarcomas, most commonly to lung (nine patients) and to bone and muscle (five patients), showed no specific relationship to type of therapy. DCE-MRI differentiated rapidly enhancing soft tissue recurrences (11 patients) and residual tumours (6 patients) from slowly enhancing muscle inflammation, and non-enhancing fibrosis and seromas that usually did not enhance. Seromas developed in 76% of patients who had postoperative radiation therapy and in 7.7% of patients who had only surgery. Subcutaneous and cutaneous oedema and muscle inflammation was at least four times more frequent after adjunct radiotherapy than after resection alone. Irrespective of the type of treatment, inflammatory changes in muscle and

  4. Comparison of tumour age response to radiation for cells derived from tissue culture or solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.; Rochester Univ., NY; Rochester Univ., NY; Wheeler, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    Direct comparison of the cell age response of 9L and KHT tumour cells derived either from tissue culture or solid tumours was achieved. Cells from dissociated KHT and 9L tumours (the latter implanted either subcutaneously or intracerebrally) and cells from tissue culture were separated into homogenous sized populations by centrifugal elutriation. In both tumour models these homogeneous sized populations correspond to populations enriched at different stages of the cell cycle. The survival of these elutriated cell populations was measured after a single dose of Cs-137 gamma rays. For cells isolated from 9L solid tumours, there was little variation in radiosensitivity throughout the cell cycle; however, a very small but significant increase in resistance was found in late G 1 cells. This lack of a large variation in radiosensitivity through the cell cycle for 9L cells from solid tumours also was seen in 9L cells growing in monolayer tissue culture. When similar experiments were performed using the KHT sarcoma tumour model, the results showed that KHT cells in vitro exhibited a fairly conventional increase in radioresistance in both mid G 1 and late S. However, the cell age response of KHT cells from solid tumours was different; particularly in the late S and G 2 + M phases. (author)

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals as probes to characterize tumour tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Israt S.; Arshad, Mubarik A.; Nguyen, Quang-De; Aboagye, Eric O. [Imperial College London, Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Tumour cells exhibit several properties that allow them to grow and divide. A number of these properties are detectable by nuclear imaging methods. We discuss crucial tumour properties that can be described by current radioprobe technologies, further discuss areas of emerging radioprobe development, and finally articulate need areas that our field should aspire to develop. The review focuses largely on positron emission tomography and draws upon the seminal 'Hallmarks of Cancer' review article by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011 placing into context the present and future roles of radiotracer imaging in characterizing tumours. (orig.)

  6. Radiofrequency ablation of renal tumours: diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for early detection of residual tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeffel, Christine [Service de Radiologie, CHU de Reims, Hopital Robert Debre, Pole d' imagerie, Reims Cedex (France); Pousset, Maud; Elie, Caroline [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Departement de Biostatistiques, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service d' urologie, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Merran, Samuel [Federation mutualiste parisienne, Service d' imagerie medicale, Paris (France); Tranquart, Francois [Bracco Research, Plan les Ouates (Switzerland); Khairoune, Ahmed; Helenon, Olivier; Correas, Jean-Michel [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service de Radiologie Adultes, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Joly, Dominique [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service de Nephrologie, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Richard, Stephane [Service d' urologie, Hopital de Bicetre, Centre Pilote Tumeurs rares INCa, AP-HP, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Hopital Necker, Service de Nephrologie, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Le Kremlin-Bicetre et Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Genetique oncologique, CNRS FRE 2939, Faculte de medecine Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the early detection of residual tumour after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumours. Patients referred to our institution for RFA of renal tumours prospectively underwent CEUS and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before, within 1 day and 6 weeks after treatment. Identification of residual tumour was assessed by three blinded radiologists. Reference standard was CT/MRI performed at least 1 year after RFA. A total of 66 renal tumours in 43 patients (median age 62 years; range 44-71.5) were studied. Inter-reader agreement ({kappa} value) was 0.84 for CEUS. Prevalence of residual disease was 19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), respectively, were as follows: 64% [confidence interval (CI) 39-84], 98% [CI 91-100], 82% [CI 52-95] and 92% [CI 83-97] on 24-h CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 100% [CI 94-100], 100% [CI 74-100] and 95% [CI 87-100] on 6-week CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 95% [CI 86-98], 79% [CI 52-92] and 95% [CI 86-98] on 24-h CT/MRI; and 100% [CI 72-100], 98% [CI 90-100], 91% [CI 62-98] and 100% [CI 93-100] on 6-week CT/MRI. CEUS has high specificity for the early diagnosis of residual tumour after renal RFA. (orig.)

  7. [Tissue bank of the National Centre for Tumour Disease. An innovative platform for translational tumour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpel, E; Koleganova, N; Schirmacher, P

    2008-11-01

    The tissue bank of the National Centre for Tumour Diseases (NCT) in Heidelberg, Germany, was founded in 2005 by the University Hospital of Heidelberg and the German Cancer Research Centre as a section of the NCT. It is a nonprofit organization with a completely evaluated legal and ethical framework and supports the Comprehensive Cancer Centre concept. Its main aim is the acquisition and characterization of fresh-frozen and paraffin-embedded human tissues according to the standards of good scientific practice and the promotion of interdisciplinary tumour research of the comprehensive cancer centre and its cooperating partners. It also offers expert project assistance: a project leader can submit a short proposal, and the tissue collecting/preparing process will be performed in cooperation with a specialised pathologist and, if applicable, an experienced clinical researcher. The tissue bank is also a central platform for further developing of innovative technologies for tissue handling, e.g. multi-tissue-array and virtual microscopy, with links to digital image analysis and bioinformatics. Thus, the NCT tissue bank represents a model for innovative biobanking and for institutions with active interdisciplinary cancer research.

  8. File list: Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: InP.Oth.20.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. Recurrence and mortality according to Estrogen Receptor status for breast cancer patients undergoing conservative surgery. Ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence dynamics provides clues for tumour biology within the residual breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Romano; Ardoino, Ilaria; Boracchi, Patrizia; Coradini, Danila; Agresti, Roberto; Ferraris, Cristina; Gennaro, Massimiliano; Hrushesky, William JM; Biganzoli, Elia

    2010-01-01

    the study was designed to determine how tumour hormone receptor status affects the subsequent pattern over time (dynamics) of breast cancer recurrence and death following conservative primary breast cancer resection. Time span from primary resection until both first recurrence and death were considered among 2825 patients undergoing conservative surgery with or without breast radiotherapy. The hazard rates for ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence (IBTR), distant metastasis (DM) and mortality throughout 10 years of follow-up were assessed. DM dynamics displays the same bimodal pattern (first early peak at about 24 months, second late peak at the sixth-seventh year) for both estrogen receptor (ER) positive (P) and negative (N) tumours and for all local treatments and metastatic sites. The hazard rates for IBTR maintain the bimodal pattern for ERP and ERN tumours; however, each IBTR recurrence peak for ERP tumours is delayed in comparison to the corresponding timing of recurrence peaks for ERN tumours. Mortality dynamics is markedly different for ERP and ERN tumours with more early deaths among patients with ERN than among patients with ERP primary tumours. DM dynamics is not influenced by the extent of conservative primary tumour resection and is similar for both ER phenotypes across different metastatic sites, suggesting similar mechanisms for tumour development at distant sites despite apparently different microenvironments. The IBTR risk peak delay observed in ERP tumours is an exception to the common recurrence risk rhythm. This suggests that the microenvironment within the residual breast tissue may enforce more stringent constraints upon ERP breast tumour cell growth than other tissues, prolonging the latency of IBTR. This local environment is, however, apparently less constraining to ERN cells, as IBTR dynamics is similar to the corresponding recurrence dynamics among other distant tissues

  16. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crundwell, N. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed.

  17. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crundwell, N.; O'Donnell, P.; Saifuddin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed

  18. Adipose tissue tumours in Port Harcourt: (a ten year review) | Seleye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Adipose tissue tumours are some of the commonest soft tissue tumours in this environment. Though not given much attention in medical practice and in literature, they pose cosmetic problems. The location and size of the tumour determined the symptoms which range from dyspnea to a feeling of fullness and ...

  19. Scintigraphic assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier of human brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Front, D.

    1978-01-01

    Assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier was performed by sequential scintigraphy in 43 patients with brain tumours. The blood-tumour barrier was evaluated by use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, and vascularity using sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells. Three groups of tumours were found: tumours with low vascularity and permeable barrier, tumours with high vascularity and permeable barrier, and tumours with low vascularity and relatively impermeable barrier. The first group indicates that when vessels are permeable, there may be a rapid penetration of large amounts of pertechnetate into the tumour even when vascularity is not increased. In the other two groups penetration of pertechnetate into the tumour is affected by vascularity, as it determines the total area where passage of the radiopharmaceutical takes place. It is suggested that the permeability of the blood-tumour barrier and the amount of vascularity may have an effect on the success of chemotherapy in brain tumours. (author)

  20. Assessment of the proliferation status of glioblastoma cell and tumour tissue after nanoplatinum treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most frequent primary brain tumours of the central nervous system, with a poor survival time. With inefficient chemotherapy, it is urgent to develop new strategies for tumour therapy. The present approach is based on the inhibition of cell proliferation using platinum...... morphology, the level of DNA synthesis, the migration of cells, protein expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the level of DNA oxidation in glioma tumours were investigated. The results showed that NP-Pt treatment of U87 and U118 glioma cells decreased the level of DNA synthesis...... and the migration of cancer cells but also downregulated the level of PCNA protein expression in tumour tissue. Furthermore, NP-Pt caused oxidative DNA damage in tumour tissue to a higher degree than cisplatin. Consequently, NP-Pt can be considered as an effective inhibitor of glioblastoma tumour cell proliferation...

  1. Pyomyositis - a differential diagnosis of malignant soft tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, P.; Gross-Fengels, W.; Bovelet, K.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a seven-year-old boy with an enlarging woody-hard mass in the upper thigh is described and the related literature is reviewed. In absence of conclusive sings of inflammatory on both clinical and radiological findings a malignant soft tissue tumour was initially suspected. On operation the mass was found to contain multiple loculated abscesses, and turned out to be a subacute staphylococcal myositis (pyomyositis). Such lesions are quite common in subtropical and tropical climates, and a review of the literature indicates that the incidence of this formerly rare entity is increasing in temperature climates. A variety of factors play a role in pathogenesis, and a history of previous aspectic trauma can be found in about 50% of all cases. The most frequent location is the proximal lower limb or buttock. The clinical history and physical findings are often non-specific. Plain radiographs are non-diagnostic; ultrasound, CT and/or MRI may in some cases be equivocal and angiography sometimes is even misleading. It is important to keep this differential diagnosis in mind, especially in children. (orig.) [de

  2. Depletion of Treg cells inhibits minimal residual disease after surgery of HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Bieblová, Jana; Rosalia, Rodney Alexander; Frič, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2006), s. 1567-1571 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV16 * residual tumour disease * Treg cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2006

  3. HPV16-associated tumours: Therapy of surgical minimal residual disease with dendritic cell-based vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Indrová, Marie; Mendoza, Luis; Mikyšková, Romana; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2004), s. 1165-1170 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA ČR GA301/04/0492; GA ČR GA301/01/0985; GA AV ČR IAA5052203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV 16 * minimal residual tumour disease * dendritic cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  4. Prognostic significance of the tumour-adjacent tissue in head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudenska, Martina; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Gumulec, Jaromir; Fojtu, Michaela; Polanska, Hana; Balvan, Jan; Feith, Marek; Binkova, Hana; Horakova, Zuzana; Kostrica, Rom; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Even with significant advances in operative skills and adjuvant therapies, the overall survival of patients suffering with head and neck squamous cancers (HNSCC) is unsatisfactory. Accordingly, no clinically useful prognostic biomarkers have been found yet for HNSCC. Many studies analysed the expression of potential markers in tumour tissues compared to adjacent tissues. Nevertheless, due to the sharing of the same microenvironment, adjacent tissues show molecular similarity to tumour tissues. Thus, gene expression patterns of 94 HNSCC tumorous tissues were compared with 31 adjacent tissues and with 10 tonsillectomy specimens of non-cancer individuals. The genes analysed at RNA level using quantitative RT-PCR and correlated with clinico-pathological conditions were as follows: EGF, EGFR, MKI67, BCL2, BAX, FOS, JUN, TP53, VEGF, FLT1, MMP2, MMP9, MT1A and MT2A. The elevated MT2A, BAX, EGF and JUN expression was associated with the influence of tumour cells on the rearrangement of healthy tissues, as well as a significant shift in the BAX/BCL2 ratio. Our investigation also indicated that adjacent tissues play an important role in cancerogenesis by releasing several tumour-supporting factors such as EGF. A gradual increase in the metallothionein expression, from the lowest one in tonsillectomy samples to the highest ones in tumour samples, suggests that MT expression might be tissue reaction to the presence of tumour cells. The results of this study confirmed the significance of metallothionein in tumori-genesis and gave evidences for its use as a potential HNSCC biomarker. Furthermore, this study highlighted the importance of histologically normal tumour-adjacent tissue in prediction of HNSCC progress.

  5. Residual DNA double strand breaks in perfused but not in unperfused areas determine different radiosensitivity of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegakis, Apostolos; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Yaromina, Ala; Thames, Howard D.; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Micromilieu-dependent quantification of γH2AX after irradiation in vivo and correlation with local tumour control. Materials and methods: Local tumour control was evaluated after irradiation of FaDu and SKX xenografts with ambient single doses. γH2AX foci were quantified in perfused and unperfused regions after different irradiation doses and at different time points. Results: The TCD 50 of FaDu was 2-times higher compared to SKX (28.0 Gy [95% C.I. 24.6; 31.3 Gy] for FaDu; 14.9 Gy [10.9; 18.9] for SKX, p < 0.001). The induction of foci did not differ between the tumour models. Residual foci were twice higher in perfused SKX regions compared to FaDu, no difference was observed in the non-perfused region between both tumour models. The number of residual foci increased with a 2-times higher slope in perfused SKX-regions compared to FaDu, while no difference was detected in unperfused regions. Already within the perfused regions, this slope decreased with distance from perfused vessels. Conclusion: The dose-response of residual γH2AX foci is highly dependent on tumour cell oxygenation in well perfused areas. This dependence decreases further away from tumour vessels. Only γH2AX evaluation in perfused tumour areas can distinguish between the different radiocurability of the two tumour models.

  6. Automated multimodal spectral histopathology for quantitative diagnosis of residual tumour during basal cell carcinoma surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boitor, R. (Radu); Kong, K. (Kenny); Shipp, D. (Dustin); Varma, S. (Sandeep); Koloydenko, A. (Alexey); Kulkarni, K. (Kusum); Elsheikh, S. (Somaia); Bakker Schut, T. (Tom); P.J. Caspers (Peter); G.J. Puppels (Gerwin); M.J.G. Van Der Wolf (Martin J. G.); Sokolova, E. (Elena); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); Salence, B. (Brogan); H. Williams; Notingher, I. (Ioan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMultimodal spectral histopathology (MSH), an optical technique combining tissue auto-fluorescence (AF) imaging and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS), was previously proposed for detection of residual basal cell carcinoma (BCC) at the surface of surgically-resected skin tissue. Here we

  7. Texture analysis in quantitative MR imaging. Tissue characterisation of normal brain and intracranial tumours at 1.5 T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Ring, P; Thomsen, C

    1995-01-01

    of common first-order and second-order grey level statistics. Tissue differentiation in the images was estimated by the presence or absence of significant differences between tissue types. A fine discrimination was obtained between white matter, cortical grey matter, and cerebrospinal fluid in the normal...... brain, and white matter was readily separated from the tumour lesions. Moreover, separation of solid tumour tissue and peritumoural oedema was suggested for some tumour types. Mutual comparison of all tumour types revealed extensive differences, and even specific tumour differentiation turned out...

  8. Should fat in the radiofrequency ablation zone of hepatocellular adenomas raise suspicion for residual tumour?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Andreu F. [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dalhousie University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, QE II Health Sciences Centre - VG Site, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Kajal, Dilkash; Pereira, Andre; Atri, Mostafa [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    To assess the significance of fat in the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) zone of hepatocellular adenomas (HCA), and its association with tumoral fat and hepatic steatosis. The radiological archive was searched for patients with ablated HCAs and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging between January 2008 and June 2014. Age, sex, risk factors and duration of clinical and imaging follow-up were recorded. Pre-RFA imaging was assessed for tumour size, intra-tumoral fat and steatosis. Post-RFA imaging was reviewed for size, enhancement and intra-ablational fat. Intra-ablational fat was classified as peripheral, central or mixed; the association of these distributions with steatosis and tumoral fat was assessed using Fisher's exact test. Sixteen patients with 26 ablated HCAs were included. Fat was present in 23/26 (88 %) ablation zones. Only 1/26 (4 %) showed serial enlargement and enhancement suggestive of residual disease; the enhancing area did not contain fat. All remaining ablations showed involution and/or diminishing fat content without suspicious enhancement (mean follow-up, 27 months; range, 2-84 months). The peripheral and mixed/central patterns of intra-ablational fat were associated with steatosis (P = 0.0005) and tumoral fat (P = 0.0003), respectively. Fat in the ablation zone of HCAs is a common finding which, in isolation, does not indicate residual tumour. (orig.)

  9. Pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in Lembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides to control plant diseases may cause residual formation in crops, its byproduct and environmental. Furthermore, the use of agriculture byproduct as animal feed may cause poisoning or residual formation in animal products. The purpose of this study is to investigate of pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in relation to animal feed as a contamination source. Samples consisted of animal feeds (19 samples of fodder and 6 samples of feed, 31 samples of sera and 25 samples of brain tissues of dairy cattle collected from Lembang, West Java. Feeds and fodders were collected from dairy farms located in Lembang. Sera were directly collected from 31 heads of Frisien Holstein (FH cattle from the same location, while brain tissues of FH cattle were collected from a local animal slaughtering house. Pesticide residues were analysed using gas chromatography (GC. Both residues of organochlorines and organophosphates were detected from brain tissues with average residue concentration OP was 22.7 ppb and OC was 5.1 ppb and a total residue was 27.8 ppb. The pesticide residues in brain tissues are new information that should be taken into consideration since the Indonesian consumed this tissues as an oval. Although pesticides residue concentration was low, pathological changes were noted microscopically from the brain tissues including extracellular vacuolisation, focal necrosis, haemorrhages, dilatation of basement membrane without cellular infiltration. Both pesticide residues were also detected in sera, where OP (9.0 ppb was higher than OC (4.9 ppb. These pesticides were also detected in animal feeds consisting fodders and feeds. Residues of OP (12.0 ppb were higher than OC (1.8 ppb in feeds, but residues of OP (16.8 ppb were lower than OC (18.7 ppb in fodders. Although, pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues were below the maximum residue limits (MRL of fat, the presence of pesticides in brain tissues should be taken

  10. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, V [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Siebers, J V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, T D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Keall, P J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-10-21

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of {>=}0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  11. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Siebers, J. V.; Chung, T. D.; Keall, P. J.

    2006-10-01

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value =0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did not show significant time

  12. Tumour tissue microenvironment can inhibit dendritic cell maturation in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Michielsen, Adriana J

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators in the tumour microenvironment promote tumour growth, vascular development and enable evasion of anti-tumour immune responses, by disabling infiltrating dendritic cells. However, the constituents of the tumour microenvironment that directly influence dendritic cell maturation and function are not well characterised. Our aim was to identify tumour-associated inflammatory mediators which influence the function of dendritic cells. Tumour conditioned media obtained from cultured colorectal tumour explant tissue contained high levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 in addition to VEGF. Pre-treatment of monocyte derived dendritic cells with this tumour conditioned media inhibited the up-regulation of CD86, CD83, CD54 and HLA-DR in response to LPS, enhancing IL-10 while reducing IL-12p70 secretion. We examined if specific individual components of the tumour conditioned media (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5) could modulate dendritic cell maturation or cytokine secretion in response to LPS. VEGF was also assessed as it has a suppressive effect on dendritic cell maturation. Pre-treatment of immature dendritic cells with VEGF inhibited LPS induced upregulation of CD80 and CD54, while CXCL1 inhibited HLA-DR. Interestingly, treatment of dendritic cells with CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 or VEGF significantly suppressed their ability to secrete IL-12p70 in response to LPS. In addition, dendritic cells treated with a combination of CXCL1 and VEGF secreted less IL-12p70 in response to LPS compared to pre-treatment with either cytokine alone. In conclusion, tumour conditioned media strongly influences dendritic cell maturation and function.

  13. Tumour tissue microenvironment can inhibit dendritic cell maturation in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana J Michielsen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory mediators in the tumour microenvironment promote tumour growth, vascular development and enable evasion of anti-tumour immune responses, by disabling infiltrating dendritic cells. However, the constituents of the tumour microenvironment that directly influence dendritic cell maturation and function are not well characterised. Our aim was to identify tumour-associated inflammatory mediators which influence the function of dendritic cells. Tumour conditioned media obtained from cultured colorectal tumour explant tissue contained high levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 in addition to VEGF. Pre-treatment of monocyte derived dendritic cells with this tumour conditioned media inhibited the up-regulation of CD86, CD83, CD54 and HLA-DR in response to LPS, enhancing IL-10 while reducing IL-12p70 secretion. We examined if specific individual components of the tumour conditioned media (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 could modulate dendritic cell maturation or cytokine secretion in response to LPS. VEGF was also assessed as it has a suppressive effect on dendritic cell maturation. Pre-treatment of immature dendritic cells with VEGF inhibited LPS induced upregulation of CD80 and CD54, while CXCL1 inhibited HLA-DR. Interestingly, treatment of dendritic cells with CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 or VEGF significantly suppressed their ability to secrete IL-12p70 in response to LPS. In addition, dendritic cells treated with a combination of CXCL1 and VEGF secreted less IL-12p70 in response to LPS compared to pre-treatment with either cytokine alone. In conclusion, tumour conditioned media strongly influences dendritic cell maturation and function.

  14. Erythrokinetics in mice bearing tumours in either preirradiated or unirradiated tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirtle, R.L.; Clifton, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were designed to clarify the causes of anaemia in hosts bearing tumours in either unirradiated or preirradiated tissue. Isotopic methods are described which enable the estimation of erythrocyte destruction and production rates, and the potential red cell life spans in tumour-bearing animals. In this experimental system, anaemia (a) is in large part due to accelerated random erythrocyte loss, (b) is exacerbated as tumours grow by a progressive reduction in the potential erythrocyte life span due to intrinsic erythrocyte defects. (c) is accompanied by an increase in erythrocyte production of six- to ten-fold and (d) is postponed in onset and decreased in magnitude by preirradiation of the tumour transplant site. (author)

  15. Interpreting residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.; Coon, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This report is the first publication in the field of environmental-contaminant effects on wildlife to tell the reader how to interpret the results of analytical chemical results. Specifically, the publication describes how to interpret residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues. Pollutant oil residues in avian species are emphasized

  16. Adipose Tissue Tumours in Port Harcourt (A ten year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Adipose tissue tumors are one of the commonest soft tissue tumors. Though not given much attention in medical practice and in literature, it posed cosmetic problems. The location and size of the tumor determined the symptoms which ranges from dyspnea to a feeling of fullness and discomfort on motion.

  17. Early growth of tumour cells in lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poll, P.H.A.

    1981-01-01

    As the treatment of metastases is a very important problem in human and veterinary medicine (for instance osteosarcoma is notorious for its high deathrate due to this problem), proof was sought for the hypothesis that the doubling time of early metastases is shorter than that of tumor cells of an older age. This is of fundamental importance for the therapeutic problem: is a favourable effect to be expected from a limited dose of radiation on the lungs when metastases are still very small or even invisible. If the hypothesis holds true, it would be justified to treat patients, even though a small group of patients will be treated unnecessarily; clinical experience shows that some patients have not developed metastases without adjuvant treatment. The interest was directed at the very early (1-cell, 2-cell etc.) stages. Obviously these are not detectable in patients and therefore an experimental study with tumourcells in the lungs of mice was devised. The expectation is that the theoretical approach may produce an additional basis for the radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic treatment of patients, in whom the tumourload has been diminished by treatment of the primary tumour but where metastases, although frequently not detectable must be expected. (Auth.)

  18. MAGE, BAGE and GAGE: tumour antigen expression in benign and malignant ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, A M; Rodgers, S; Wilson, A P; Tidy, J; Rees, R C; Coleman, R E; Murray, A K

    1998-09-01

    To determine if ovarian cancer patients would be suitable for MAGE-peptide vaccine-based immunotherapy, the frequency of expression of the MAGE-1-4 genes in ovarian tumours was assessed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and product verification with digoxigenin-labelled oligonucleotide probes specific for each MAGE gene. In addition, the frequency of expression of more recently discovered tumour antigens (BAGE, GAGE -1, -2 and GAGE -3, -6) was established using RT-PCR and ethidium bromide staining. In this study 1/16 normal ovarian tissue specimens and 11/25 benign lesions expressed MAGE-1. In non-malignant tissue there was preferential expression of MAGE-1 in premenopausal women. A total of 15/27 malignant specimens expressed MAGE-1, including 10/14 serous cystadenocarcinomas. Expression of other tumour antigens was infrequent. The finding of MAGE-1 expression in both benign and malignant tissue questions previous assumptions regarding the role of MAGE genes in carcinogenesis. In addition, preferential MAGE-1 gene expression in non-malignant premenopausal tissue suggests that the MAGE genes may be involved in cellular proliferation as opposed to carcinogenesis or possibly that MAGE gene expression is under cyclical hormonal control. Finally, this study indicates that serous cystadenocarcinomas may be suitable tumours for MAGE-1 peptide immunotherapy.

  19. Casein kinase II is elevated in solid human tumours and rapidly proliferating non-neoplastic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münstermann, U; Fritz, G; Seitz, G

    1990-01-01

    extracts from solid tumours followed by immunostaining with an anti-CKII polyclonal antibody, (b) immunohistochemical staining of cells from tissue sections and (c) by activity measurements using the CKII-specific synthetic peptide (RRRDDDSDDD). The maximum observed activity in the colorectal carcinomas...

  20. Distribution of p53 expression in tissue from 774 Danish ovarian tumour patients and its prognostic significance in ovarian carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogdall, E.V.S.; Christensen, L.; Frederiksen, K.

    2008-01-01

    epithelial ovarian tumour tissues from Danish women and to evaluate whether p53 tissue expression levels correlate with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. The distribution of p53 expression levels at different stages of disease, in different histological subtypes, and the prognostic value of p53...... tissue expression were examined. Overall, p53 was expressed in 24/189 (13%) low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP) and in 278/585 (48%) ovarian cancers (OC). No significant difference in frequency of p53 tissue expression in LMP tissue was noted with increasing tumour stage (p=0.98). By contrast...

  1. Localized fibroglandular tissue as a predictor of future tumour location within the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Snehal M Pinto; McCormack, Valerie A; Hipwell, John H; Record, Carol; Wilkinson, Louise S; Moss, Sue M; Hawkes, David J; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) is a strong marker of breast cancer risk, but it is unclear whether tumours arise specifically within dense tissue. Methods In 231 British women diagnosed with breast cancer after at least one negative screen during a mammographic screening trial, we assessed whether tumour location was related to localised MD 5 years prior to diagnosis. Radiologists identified tumour locations on digitized diagnostic films and used a validated algorithm to align serial images from the same woman to locate the corresponding point on the pre-diagnostic film. A virtual 1cm-square grid was overlaid on pre-diagnostic films and MD calculated for each square within a woman’s breast (mean=271 squares/film). Conditional logistic regression, matching on a woman’s breast, was used to estimate the odds of a tumour arising in a square in relation to its pre-diagnostic square-specific MD. Results Median (inter-quartile range) pre-diagnostic MD was 98.2% (46.8%-100%) in 1cm-squares that subsequently contained the tumour and 41.0% (31.5%-53.9%) for the whole-breast. The odds of a tumour arising in a 1cm-square were, respectively, 6.1 (95%CI: 1.9, 20.1), 16.6 (5.2, 53.2) and 25.5-fold (8.1, 80.3) higher for squares in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles of pre-diagnostic MD relative to those in the lowest quartile within that breast (Ptrendbreast tissue. Impact Localised MD may be used as a predictor of subsequent tumour location within the breast. PMID:21693627

  2. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation study of pO2 distribution in induced tumour masses and normal tissues within a microcirculation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Li, Yan; Wen, Peng Paul

    2014-01-01

    The biological microenvironment is interrupted when tumour masses are introduced because of the strong competition for oxygen. During the period of avascular growth of tumours, capillaries that existed play a crucial role in supplying oxygen to both tumourous and healthy cells. Due to limitations of oxygen supply from capillaries, healthy cells have to compete for oxygen with tumourous cells. In this study, an improved Krogh's cylinder model which is more realistic than the previously reported assumption that oxygen is homogeneously distributed in a microenvironment, is proposed to describe the process of the oxygen diffusion from a capillary to its surrounding environment. The capillary wall permeability is also taken into account. The simulation study is conducted and the results show that when tumour masses are implanted at the upstream part of a capillary and followed by normal tissues, the whole normal tissues suffer from hypoxia. In contrast, when normal tissues are ahead of tumour masses, their pO2 is sufficient. In both situations, the pO2 in the whole normal tissues drops significantly due to the axial diffusion at the interface of normal tissues and tumourous cells. As the existence of the axial oxygen diffusion cannot supply the whole tumour masses, only these tumourous cells that are near the interface can be partially supplied, and have a small chance to survive.

  4. Low-density lipoprotein metabolism in mice with soft tissue tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, S A; Welsh, J; Stewart, J M; Jack, A; Soukop, M; McArdle, C S; Calman, K C; Packard, C J; Shepherd, J

    1984-10-04

    This study examines the potential value of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as a vehicle for directing cytotoxic drugs to tumour cells in mouse model systems. Control and MAC 13 tumour-bearing NMRI mice were injected with tracer doses of 125I-labelled native and cyclohexanedione-modified 131I-labelled LDL. 18 h later the animals were killed and the radioactivities assimilated by various tissues were measured relative to plasma activity at the time of death. These values were used to calculate specific tissue receptor-mediated LDL uptake. All tissues expressed receptors but the liver and adrenal gland were particularly active. In tumour-inoculated animals, the neoplastic lesions were second only to liver in their net assimilation of LDL. CFLP mice bearing virus-induced parotid adenomata gave results similar to those obtained in NMRI animals. In order to improve the selectivity of LDL assimilation we attempted to downregulate LDL receptors in the liver and adrenal gland by administration of the bile acid sodium taurocholate or by subcutaneous injection of hydrocortisone sodium succinate. These manoeuvres together reduced uptake of the lipoprotein into both organs without affecting tumour activity.

  5. Tumour oxygenation assessed by F-18-fluoromisonidazole PET and polarographic needle electrodes in human soft tissue tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, L; Keiding, S; Nordsmark, M

    2003-01-01

    patients with tumours suspected to be STS were examined by [F-18]FMISO PET scanning, and eleven of these patients completed a set of Eppendorf PO2 Histograph measurements following the scanning. Results and discussion: By histopathological diagnosis, seven tumours were shown to be STS and six tumours were...

  6. Impact of tissue transport on PET hypoxia quantification in pancreatic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward; Gottwald, Jennifer; Yeung, Ivan; Keller, Harald; Milosevic, Michael; Dhani, Neesha C; Siddiqui, Iram; Hedley, David W; Jaffray, David A

    2017-12-22

    The clinical impact of hypoxia in solid tumours is indisputable and yet questions about the sensitivity of hypoxia-PET imaging have impeded its uptake into routine clinical practice. Notably, the binding rate of hypoxia-sensitive PET tracers is slow, comparable to the rate of diffusive equilibration in some tissue types, including mucinous and necrotic tissue. This means that tracer uptake on the scale of a PET imaging voxel-large enough to include such tissue and hypoxic cells-can be as much determined by tissue transport properties as it is by hypoxia. Dynamic PET imaging of 20 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was used to assess the impact of transport on surrogate metrics of hypoxia: the tumour-to-blood ratio [TBR(t)] at time t post-tracer injection and the trapping rate k 3 inferred from a two-tissue compartment model. Transport quantities obtained from this model included the vascular influx and efflux rate coefficients, k 1 and k 2 , and the distribution volume v d ≡k 1 /(k 2 +k 3 ). Correlations between voxel- and whole tumour-scale k 3 and TBR values were weak to modest: the population average of the Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between voxel-scale k 3 and TBR (1 h) [TBR(2 h)] values was 0.10 [0.01] in the 20 patients, while the correlation between tumour-scale k 3 and TBR(2 h) values was 0.58. Using Patlak's formula to correct uptake for the distribution volume, correlations became strong (r=0.80[0.52] and r=0.93, respectively). The distribution volume was substantially below unity for a large fraction of tumours studied, with v d ranging from 0.68 to 1 (population average, 0.85). Surprisingly, k 3 values were strongly correlated with v d in all patients. A model was proposed to explain this in which k 3 is a combination of the hypoxia-sensitive tracer binding rate k b and the rate k eq of equilibration in slow-equilibrating regions occupying a volume fraction 1-v d of the imaged tissue. This model was used to calculate the proposed

  7. Chlortetracycline and Oxytetracycline Residues in Poultry Tissues and Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, W. E.; Weiser, H. H.; Winter, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    A pad-plate method of assaying residual amounts of chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using Bacillus cereus 213 was used to determine amounts of antibiotic left in tissues and eggs of poultry fed 1,000 and 200 ppm of CTC and OTC in basal feed mixtures. The effects of various methods of cooking the tissues and eggs and the potentiating effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) were studied. It was found that normal methods of roasting, frying, and autoclaving poultry tissue destroyed all residual CTC and OTC, even with the potentiating effect of TPA. The largest amounts of residual antibiotic were found in the liver, then breast, and then thigh tissue when assayed for CTC. Tissue assays for CTC revealed that it was not taken up as extensively as CTC and the largest amounts were found in the liver, then breast. OTC residue was seldom found in the thigh tissue. Terephthalic acid in 0.5% concentration increased the concentration found in all cases. Cooking by poaching and scrambling eggs did not destroy the antibiotic in all cases. PMID:14264853

  8. Endocannabinoid metabolism in human glioblastomas and meningiomas compared to human non-tumour brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, G.; Moesgaard, B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2005-01-01

    The endogenous levels of the two cannabinoid receptor ligands 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide, and their respective congeners, monoacyl glycerols and N-acylethanolamines, as well as the phospholipid precursors of N-acylethanolamines, were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in...... in glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) tissue and meningioma (WHO grade I) tissue and compared with human non-tumour brain tissue. Furthermore, the metabolic turnover of N-acylethanolamines was compared by measurements of the enzymatic activity of N-acyltransferase, N...

  9. PRDM1 expression on the epithelial component but not on ectopic lymphoid tissues of Warthin tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhou, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, L; Liu, Y; Fan, L; Zhu, J; Xu, X; Huang, G; Li, X; Xun, W

    2015-05-01

    To determine the role of PRDM1, a key molecule for modulating the immune cells, in Warthin tumour (WT) pathogenesis. Forty paraffin-embedded parotid tissues of patients (mean age: 62.08 ± 11.90) with WT were retrieved from the pathology archives of Qindu Hospital from January 2012 to December 2012. The PRDM1 expression was investigated in a cohort of WT by immunohistochemistry. PRDM1 was expressed only on the epithelial component but not on ectopic lymphoid tissue of the tumour. Statistically, PRDM1 expression rates between WT glandular epithelial cells (40/40 cases) and the tumour-adjacent tissues (0/9 cases), and WT germinal centres (0/34 cases) and tonsil tissues (10/10 cases) were significantly different (P < 0.001), respectively. The PRDM1 expression appeared to play an essential role in WT pathogenesis. A better understanding of it might give options for revealing possible novel management strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expression of tissue factor in canine mammary tumours and correlation with grade, stage and markers of haemostasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Eva Bartholin; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Tranholm, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) expression in human cancers has been associated with a procoagulant state and facilitation of metastasis. This study was conducted in order to evaluate if TF was expressed in canine mammary tumours. Forty epithelial mammary tumours from 28 dogs were included. TF expression of t...

  11. Nuclear microprobe analysis of the selective boron uptake obtained with BPA in brain tumour tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegden, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Ceberg, C.; Munck af Rosenschoeld, P.; Auzelyte, V.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2004-01-01

    The tumour selective ability of the boron compound boronophenylalanine (BPA), today used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Sweden, has been investigated with the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. The tumour to tissue ratio of the boron concentration, as well as the location of boron within the cells, is critical for the efficiency of the therapy. It is desirable that the boron is accumulated as close as possible to the cell nucleus, since the alpha particles produced in the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction only have a range of about 10 microns, i.e. a cell diameter. The nuclear reaction 11 B(p,α)2α, which has an especially high cross-section (300 mb) for 660 keV protons, has been used to analyse brain tissue from BPA-injected rats. Previous studies on other boron compounds have shown significant background problems when the alpha particles are detected in the backward direction. By a specially designed set-up, alpha particles in the forward and backward direction are detected simultaneously, and only the coincidences between the two directions are considered to be true boron events. In this way we could achieve excellent background suppression. The analysis shows that BPA indeed is tumour selective. Quantifications show a boron abundance of 150 ± 20 ng/cm 2 in normal tissue and 567 ± 70 ng/cm 2 in tumour tissue. If the rat is fed with L-dopa before the injection of BPA the uptake increases 3-4 times. The boron is homogeneously distributed in the cellular structure and no specific intracellular accumulation has been shown

  12. Diminazene aceturate residues in tissues of dogs treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dimninazene aceturate concentration in plasma and residues in tissues of dogs treated with secnidazole-diminazene aceturate combination and with diminazene aceturate alone was investigated in apparently healthy dogs. Fourteen apparently healthy dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups. The first group consisted of ...

  13. Oxytetracycline residues in edible tissues of cattle slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat and other edible tissues from slaughtered cattle from Akure metropolitan abattoir from January to June 2007 were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for oxytetracycline residue. The extraction was done using hydrochloric acid and acetonitrile for deproteinisation, while clean up was by ...

  14. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Tumours in Snakes: A Retrospective Study of 33 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, J; Heckers, K O; Aupperle, H; Pees, M

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous and subcutaneous soft tissue tumours have been rarely described in detail in snakes. Several malignant entities show strikingly similar histological patterns and therefore the term soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has become a standard histopathological diagnosis. The present study characterizes soft tissue tumours in 33 snakes. Samples included 29 surgically excised masses and four carcasses. Additionally, six animals were humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination following tumour recurrence. Benign neoplasms (n = 8) were described as lipomas of varying differentiation. Recurrence was observed in two of five snakes in which the clinical course was recorded. Malignant neoplasms (n = 25) were diagnosed as STS and graded according to a three-point system previously applied to canine STS. Five (20%) of the primary tumours were classified as grade 1, eleven (44%) as grade 2 and nine (36%) as grade 3 sarcomas. Clinically, recurrence of STS was observed in 11 of 17 cases with available follow-up information. Pathologically, multiple cutaneous metastases were found in one grass snake (Natrix natrix), while visceral metastases were observed in one carpet python (Morelia spilota) and two corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus). Metastatic risk appears to increase with histological grade. Surgical excision generally represents the current therapy of choice for STS. This study includes the first reports of conventional lipomas in a ribbon snake (Thamnophis radix), angiolipomas in a black-headed python (Aspidites melanocephalus) and a corn snake as well as of STS in a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus), emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus), grass snake (N. natrix), African house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), California kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) and common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of residual germ cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballok, Z.E.; Scott, A.M.; Hannah, A.; Berlangieri, S.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Chan, J.G.; Hicks, R.; Burns, I.; McKendrich, J.; Tauro, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The role of FDG-PET is not well established in the assessment of patients with germ cell tumours. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of FDG-PET in detecting residual disease in patients with germ cell tumours, and its potential role in patient management. A total of 34 FDG-PET scans in 29 patients (23 patients (IF:22M) with nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT), and 6 male patients with advanced seminoma) performed over a 4 yr period were evaluated. Results of FDG-PET studies were compared to pathology or follow-up. For NSGCT patients, pathological evidence of residual high grade tumour was seen in 9 patients on subsequent surgical specimens. FDG-PET studies were true positive in all of these patients. In 8 NSGCT patients pathology revealed fibrosis or teratoma at subsequent surgery: all had negative FDG-PET studies. There were no false positive, nor false negative FDG-PET studies. Resection was not performed in the remaining 6 patients, and on follow-up 2 patients had a progressive clinical course after positive FDG-PET scans, and 2 patients were in clinical remission 3 and 29 months after a negative FDG-PET study, respectively. Two patients were not evaluable. Of the 6 seminoma patients, 5 underwent further chemotherapy /radiotherapy after having abnormal FDG-PET studies due to clinical evidence of disease. The 6th pt with a negative FDG-PET study had stable retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement after 3 years follow-up. In our series FDG-PET was able to predict the presence of high grade malignancy within residual masses in patients with NSGCT and seminoma with a high accuracy. These initial results encourage further evaluation

  16. Towards personalized computational oncology: from spatial models of tumour spheroids, to organoids, to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Aleksandra; Markov, Dmitry A; McCawley, Lisa J; Rejniak, Katarzyna A

    2018-01-01

    A main goal of mathematical and computational oncology is to develop quantitative tools to determine the most effective therapies for each individual patient. This involves predicting the right drug to be administered at the right time and at the right dose. Such an approach is known as precision medicine. Mathematical modelling can play an invaluable role in the development of such therapeutic strategies, since it allows for relatively fast, efficient and inexpensive simulations of a large number of treatment schedules in order to find the most effective. This review is a survey of mathematical models that explicitly take into account the spatial architecture of three-dimensional tumours and address tumour development, progression and response to treatments. In particular, we discuss models of epithelial acini, multicellular spheroids, normal and tumour spheroids and organoids, and multi-component tissues. Our intent is to showcase how these in silico models can be applied to patient-specific data to assess which therapeutic strategies will be the most efficient. We also present the concept of virtual clinical trials that integrate standard-of-care patient data, medical imaging, organ-on-chip experiments and computational models to determine personalized medical treatment strategies. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Haematogenous tumour growth in the inferior vena cava in a patient with a nonseminomatous testicular tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, S J; Koops, H Schraffordt; Sleijfer, D T; Freling, N M; Molenaar, W M

    1991-01-01

    The case history is reported of a patient with an invasion of the inferior vena cava by metastases of a non-seminomatous testicular tumour. He was treated with combination chemotherapy, followed by laparotomy and resection of residual tumour tissue. Fourteen months after this operation he is in good

  18. [Application of PLA Method for Detection of p53/p63/p73 Complexes in Situ in Tumour Cells and Tumour Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabal, V; Nekulová, M; Nenutil, R; Holčaková, J; Coates, P J; Vojtěšek, B

    2017-01-01

    PLA (proximity ligation assay) can be used for detection of protein-protein interactions in situ directly in cells and tissues. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity it is useful for detection, localization and quantification of protein complexes with single molecule resolution. One of the mechanisms of mutated p53 gain of function is formation of proten-protein complexes with other members of p53 family - p63 and p73. These interactions influences chemosensitivity and invasivity of cancer cells and this is why these complexes are potential targets of anti-cancer therapy. The aim of this work is to detect p53/p63/p73 interactions in situ in tumour cells and tumour tissue using PLA method. Unique in-house antibodies for specific detection of p63 and p73 isoforms were developed and characterized. Potein complexes were detected using PLA in established cell lines SVK14, HCC1806 and FaDu and in paraffin sections of colorectal carcinoma tissue. Cell lines were also processed to paraffin blocks. p53/T-antigen and ΔNp63/T-antigen protein complexes were detected in SVK14 cells using PLA. Interactions of ΔNp63 and TAp73 isoforms were found in HCC1806 cell line with endogenous expression of these proteins. In FaDu cell line mut-p53/TAp73 complex was localized but not mut-p53/ΔNp63 complex. p53 tetramer was detected directly in colorectal cancer tissue. During development of PLA method for detection of protein complexes between p53 family members we detected interactions of p53 and p63 with T-antigen and mut-p53 and ΔNp63 with TAp73 tumour suppressor in tumour cell lines and p53 tetramers in paraffin sections of colorectal cancer tissue. PLA will be further used for detection of p53/p63, p53/p73 and p63/p73 interactions in tumour tissues and it could be also used for screening of compounds that can block formation of p53/p63/p73 protein complexes.Key words: p53 protein family - protein interaction mapping - immunofluorescence This work was supported by MEYS - NPS I

  19. Surgical therapy of primary malignant bone tumours and soft tissue sarcomas of the chest wall: a two-institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Joerg; Leithner, Andreas; Maurer-Ertl, Werner; Szkandera, Joanna; Sadoghi, Patrick; Frings, Andreas; Maier, Alfred; Andreou, Dimosthenis; Windhager, Reinhard; Tunn, Per-Ulf

    2014-06-01

    Primary malignant bone tumours and soft tissue sarcomas of the chest wall are exceedingly rare entities. The aim of this study was a retrospective two-institutional analysis of surgical therapy with respect to the kind and amount of the resection performed, the type of reconstruction and the oncological outcome. Between September 1999 and August 2010 31 patients (seven women and 24 men) were treated due to a primary malignant bone tumour or soft tissue sarcoma of the chest wall in two centres. Eight low-grade sarcomas were noted as well as 23 highly malignant sarcomas. The tumours originated from the sternum in six cases, from the ribs in 12 cases, from the soft tissues of the thoracic wall in 11 cases and from a vertebral body and the clavicle in one case each. In 26 cases wide resection margins were achieved, while four were intralesional and one was marginal. In all 31 cases the defect of the chest wall was reconstructed using mesh grafts. At a mean follow-up of 51 months 20 patients were without evidence of disease, three were alive with disease, seven patients had died and one patient was lost to follow-up. One recurrence was detected after wide resection of a malignant triton tumour. Primary malignant bone tumour or soft tissue sarcoma of the chest wall should be treated according to the same surgical oncological principles as established for the extremities. Reconstruction with mesh grafts and musculocutaneous flaps is associated with a low morbidity.

  20. Accuracy and role of contrast-enhanced CT in diagnosis and surgical planning in 88 soft tissue tumours of extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Lucia; Brach Del Prever, Elena Maria; Linari, Alessandra; Robiati, Sara; De Marchi, Armanda; Martorano, Domenico; Boffano, Michele; Piana, Raimondo; Faletti, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    Soft tissue tumours (STT) require accurate diagnosis in order to identify potential malignancies. Preoperative planning is fundamental to avoid inadequate treatments. The role of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for local staging remains incompletely assessed. Aims of the study were to evaluate CT accuracy in discriminating active from aggressive tumours compared to histology and evaluate the role of CT angiography (CTA) in surgical planning. This retrospective cohort series of 88 cases from 1200 patients (7 %) was locally studied by contrast-enhanced CT and CTA in a referral centre: 74 malignant tumours, 14 benign lesions. Contrast-enhancement patterns and relationship of the mass with major vessels and bone were compared with histology on surgically excised samples. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were evaluated in discriminating active from aggressive tumours. Sensitivity in differentiating aggressive tumours from active lesions was 89 %, specificity 84 %, PPV 90 %, NPV 82 %. The relationship between mass and major vessels/bone was fundamental for surgical strategy respectively in 40 % and in 58 % of malignant tumours. Contrast-enhanced CT and CTA are effective in differentiating aggressive masses from active lesions in soft tissue and in depicting the relationship between tumour and adjacent bones and major vessels. • Accurate delineation of vascular and bony involvement preoperatively is fundamental for a correct resection. • CT plays a critical role in differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses. • Contrast-enhanced CT and CT angiography are helpful in depicting tumoral vascular involvement. • CT is optimal for characterization of bone involvement in soft tissue malignancies.

  1. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues from a total of 45 grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) meat samples obtained from the Gomoa district, a vegetable farming area in the Central Region of Ghana. All samples were analyzed for their residue content of the following organochlorine pesticides; DDT, DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane (γ-HCH) and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load. All organochlorine pesticides investigated were detected in the muscle tissues of the grasscutter at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.833μg /kg, heptachlor 0.695μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.283μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.108μg /kg, dieldrin 0.040 μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.019μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.014μg /kg, endrin 0.018μg /kg, endrin aldehyde 0.090μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.340μg /kg, α-endosulfan 0.162μg /kg, endosulfan sulfate 0.183μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.174μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.101μg /kg wet weight. The organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in the liver tissues at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.315μg /kg, heptachlor 0.530μg /kg, dieldrin 0.050μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.233μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.070μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.123μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.043μg /kg endrin aldehyde 0.110μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.115μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.093μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.128μg /kg wet weight. No endrin was however detected in the liver. The highest concentrations of γ-HCH, δ-HCH, endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde were measured in the kidney. The mean concentrations of γ-HCH and δ-HCH in the kidney were 0.435μg /kg and 0.107μg /kg respectively. Endrin aldehyde was detected at 0.135μg /kg in

  2. Distribution of p53 expression in tissue from 774 Danish ovarian tumour patients and its prognostic significance in ovarian carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Christensen, Lise; Høgdall, Claus K; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Gayther, Simon; Blaakaer, Jan; Jacobs, Ian J; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2008-05-01

    The clinical roles played by normal and altered p53 in cancer are under intensive investigation, but larger studies describing the pattern as well as the prognostic value are still needed. The aim of this study was, using tissue array (TA), to examine the overexpression of p53 protein in 774 epithelial ovarian tumour tissues from Danish women and to evaluate whether p53 tissue expression levels correlate with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. The distribution of p53 expression levels at different stages of disease, in different histological subtypes, and the prognostic value of p53 tissue expression were examined. Overall, p53 was expressed in 24/189 (13%) low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP) and in 278/585 (48%) ovarian cancers (OC). No significant difference in frequency of p53 tissue expression in LMP tissue was noted with increasing tumour stage (p=0.98). By contrast, there was a significant increase in the frequency of p53 tissue expression in OC with increasing FIGO stage (pp53 was associated with longer OC disease-specific survival. Tissue p53 expression may be of prognostic value in women with OC.

  3. Ewings tumour family of the soft tissues in children: 11 years of experience of the Polish Pediatric Solid Tumours Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanowska, B.; Reich, A.; Drozynska, E.; Balcerska, A.; Balwierz, W.; Dluzniewska, A.; Bodalski, J.; Dorobisz, U.; Katski, K.; Kowalczyk, J.

    2005-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraosseous Ewings sarcoma (EES) are rare paediatric malignancies, which, clinically, are regarded as partially chemosensitive neoplasms. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical data collected in the coordinating centre. All patients were under the age of 19 and presented with PNET (36 cases) or EES (8 cases). They were treated according to the CWS-91, SIOP-MMT-91 or CWS-96 protocols. The primary tumour was localized within the head/neck region in 8 cases (18.2%), in 11 cases (25%) within the chest wall, in 3 cases (6.8%) in the abdomen, in 8 cases (18.2%) paraspinally, in 5 cases (11.4%) within the pelvis, and in 9 cases (20.5%) on the extremities. In 10 patients (22.7%) distant metastases were present at the time of diagnosis. 32 children (72.7%) achieved complete remission with relapse in 16 cases - local failure in 9, distant failure in 3 and mixed in 4 cases. Response to chemotherapy was observed in 83.3% subjects: in 16.7% - complete, in 33.3% - good and in 33.3% - partial. The remaining 16.7% did not respond to chemotherapy. 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall 5-year survival estimate (OS) for all analysed patients was 0.39±0.08 and 0.44±0.08, respectively. Patients treated according to the CWS-96 protocol had a slightly better prognosis as compared to children treated according to the CWS-91/SIOP-MMT-91 protocols. Important factors influencing prognosis were gender, disease stage, and tumour localization. (author)

  4. Comparison of ractopamine residue depletion from internal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, J; Vulić, A; Perši, N; Terzić, S; Andrišić, M; Zarković, I; Sandor, K; Perak, E

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare residue depletion of ractopamine HCl as a β-adrenergic agonist that promotes muscle growth of animals, from internal tissues on days after its repeat administration to animals. The experiment was carried out in 38 albino guinea pigs. Treated animals (n = 30) were orally administered ractopamine HCl in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body mass per day for 7 consecutive days. On days 1, 10, 20 and 30 of drug discontinuation, animals were randomly sacrificed and the liver, kidney, lung, heart, muscle, spleen and fat samples were collected. In all matrices, ractopamine concentration was determined using validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a quantitative screening method. The highest ractopamine concentration was recorded on day 1 in the lungs (55.80 ± 15.62 μg/kg), followed by the kidney (21.85 ± 3.91 μg/kg), spleen (12.59 ± 1.95 μg/kg), fat (10.17 ± 5.02 μg/kg), heart (9.73 ± 0.22 μg/kg), liver (5.58 ± 2.09 μg/kg), and lowest in muscle (2.21 ± 1.02 μg/kg). Ractopamine residues were detected in the lungs in the period of 30 days after withdrawal in significantly higher concentrations in comparison to other investigated matrices, suggesting that depletion of ractopamine from the lungs occurs at a much slower rate than its depletion from other internal tissues.

  5. Why prostate tumour delineation based on apparent diffusion coefficient is challenging: an exploration of the tissue microanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borren, Alie; Moman, Maaike R; Groenendaal, Greetje; Boeken Kruger, Arto E; van Diest, Paul J; van der Groep, Petra; van der Heide, Uulke A; van Vulpen, Marco; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2013-11-01

    Focal boosting of prostate tumours to improve outcome, requires accurate tumour delineation. For this, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) seems a useful tool. On voxel level, the relationship between ADC and histological presence of tumour is, however, ambiguous. Therefore, in this study the relationship between ADC and histological variables was investigated on voxel level to understand the strengths and limitations of DWI for prostate tumour delineation. Twelve radical prostatectomy patients underwent a pre-operative 3.0T DWI exam and the ADC was calculated. From whole-mount histological sections cell density and glandular area were retrieved for every voxel. The distribution of all variables was described for tumour, peripheral zone (PZ) and central gland (CG) on regional and voxel level. Correlations between variables and differences between regions were calculated. Large heterogeneity of ADC on voxel level was observed within tumours, between tumours and between patients. This heterogeneity was reflected by the distribution of cell density and glandular area. On regional level, tumour was different from PZ having higher cell density (p = 0.007), less glandular area (p = 0.017) and lower ADCs (p = 0.017). ADC was correlated with glandular area (r = 0.402) and tumour volume (r = -0.608), but not with Gleason score. ADC tended to decrease with increasing cell density (r = -0.327, p = 0.073). On voxel level, correlations between ADC and histological variables varied among patients, for cell density ranging from r = -0.439 to r = 0.261 and for glandular area from r = 0.593 to r = 0.207. The variation in ADC can to a certain extent be explained by the variation in cell density and glandular area. The ADC is highly heterogeneous, which reflects the heterogeneity of malignant and benign prostate tissue. This heterogeneity might however obscure small tumours or parts of tumours. Therefore, DWI has to be used in the

  6. Real-time surgical simulation for deformable soft-tissue objects with a tumour using Boundary Element techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P; Becker, A A; Jones, I A; Glover, A T; Benford, S D; Vloeberghs, M

    2009-01-01

    A virtual-reality real-time simulation of surgical operations that incorporates the inclusion of a hard tumour is presented. The software is based on Boundary Element (BE) technique. A review of the BE formulation for real-time analysis of two-domain deformable objects, using the pre-solution technique, is presented. The two-domain BE software is incorporated into a surgical simulation system called VIRS to simulate the initiation of a cut on the surface of the soft tissue and extending the cut deeper until the tumour is reached.

  7. Texture analysis in quantitative MR imaging. Tissue characterisation of normal brain and intracranial tumours at 1.5 T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Ring, P; Thomsen, C

    1995-01-01

    The diagnostic potential of texture analysis in quantitative tissue characterisation by MR imaging at 1.5 T was evaluated in the brain of 6 healthy volunteers and in 88 patients with intracranial tumours. Texture images were computed from calculated T1 and T2 parameter images by applying groups o...... to be successful in some cases of clinical importance. However, no discrimination between benign and malignant tumour growth was possible. Much texture information seems to be contained in MR images, which may prove useful for classification and image segmentation....

  8. [Method of detection of residual tissues in recurrent operations on the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostimskiĭ, A V; Romanchishen, A F; Zaĭtseva, I V; Kuznetsova, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    A search of residual tissues is complicated in recurrent operations on the thyroid gland. The Saint-Petersburg Centre of Surgery of the Endocrine System and Oncology developed the method of detection of residual tissues of the thyroid gland with the aim of preoperative chromothyroidolymphography under control of ultrasound. The method consisted of US performance during 15-20 minutes before the operation and an introduction of 1% sterile water solution of methylene blue in revealed residual tissues of the thyroid gland. The volume of injected coloring agent was 0.5-2 ml in the residual tissue volume smaller than 9 cm3 and 2-3 ml injected in case of more than 9 cm3. The residual tissues of the thyroid gland accurately visualized during the following operation. Described method gives the possibility to detect all regions of residual tissues which should be removed and at the same time it shortens a revision and surgery trauma.

  9. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Chalkidis, Rebecca P.; Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Knoesel, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Issels, Rolf D.; Lindner, Lars H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [{sup 18} F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver} and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUV{sub peak} (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUV{sub peak} of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  10. Minimal residual disease after surgery of HPV 16-associated tumours as target for immunotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, Supplement 1 (2006), - ISSN 1107-3756. [World Congress on Advances in Oncology /11./ and International Symposium on Molecular Medicine /9./. 12.10.2006-14.10.2006, Hersonissos] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : minimal residual disease * HPV16 * immunotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Deuterium MR spectroscopy at 4.7 T. Quantification of tumour and subcutaneous tissue blood flow in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirestam, R; Larsen, V.A.; Stubgaard, M

    1995-01-01

    Deuterium MR spectroscopy was used for the determination of tissue blood flow (TBF). The tracer D2O was injected into the tissue of interest, and tracer washout was followed using a 4.7 T spectroscopy/imaging unit. Normal subcutaneous tissue in rats was studied, as well as tissue influenced...... by vasoactive agents (papaverine and adrenaline). The vasoactive agents introduced changes of 40% in TBF, compared with normal tissue. Normal tissue measurements were repeated using various D2O injection volumes (5-400 microliters). The injection volume 5 microliters gave TBF 11.7 +/- 2.0 ml/100 g.min (mean...... observed in dead rats. Blood flow measurements in human colon tumours implanted in nude mice showed a rather poor reproducibility, not improved by the use of a multiple site injection technique...

  12. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P tissue (P tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  13. A comparative study of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels in plasma and tumour tissue from patients with primary breast cancer and in plasma from patients with metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Mueller, Volkmar; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been investigated as a potential tumour marker in breast cancer. Here we investigated the correlation between TIMP-1 in tumour tissue and plasma to evaluate whether TIMP-1 in plasma is actually a surrogate marker for TIMP-1 in prima...... point to plasma TIMP-1 as a potential marker for predicting tumour progression and for monitoring tumour burden in metastatic breast cancer patients.......OBJECTIVE: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been investigated as a potential tumour marker in breast cancer. Here we investigated the correlation between TIMP-1 in tumour tissue and plasma to evaluate whether TIMP-1 in plasma is actually a surrogate marker for TIMP-1 in primary...... tumours. Furthermore, we assessed whether increased TIMP-1 levels in plasma could be indicative of tumour progression in patients with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: Tumour tissue and preoperatively collected plasma samples from 96 primary breast cancer patients were included together with plasma...

  14. Experimental studies on interactions of radiation and cancer chemotherapeutic drugs in normal tissues and a solid tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maase, H. van der

    1986-01-01

    The interactions of radiation and seven cancer chemotherapeutic drugs have been investigated in four normal tissues and in a solid C 3 H mouse mammary carcinoma in vivo. The investigated drugs were adriamycin (ADM), bleomycin (BLM), cyclophosphamide (CTX), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), methotrexate (MTX), mitomycin C (MM-C) and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP). The drugs enhanced the radiation response in most cases. However, signs of radioprotection was observed for CTX in skin and for MTX in haemopoietic tissue. The interval and the sequence of the two treatment modalities were of utmost importance for the normal tissue reactions. In general, the most serious interactions occurred when drugs were administered simultaneously with or a few hours before radiation. The radiation-modifying effect of the drugs deviated from this pattern in the haemopoietic tissue as the radiation response was most enhanced on drug administration 1-3 days after radiation. Enhancement of the radiation response was generally less pronounced in the tumour model than in the normal tissues. The combined drug-radiation effect was apparently less time-dependent in the tumour than in the normal tissues. (Auth.)

  15. Tumours of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohndorf, K.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological diagnosis of tumours of the foot is difficult, especially, since these tumours are rare and the bones of the foot are small. The latter leads to a more uniform radiographic manifestation of the tumours. We differentiate tumours of the foot arising in the foot primarily and soft tissue tumours, affecting the bones secondarily. Cystic lesions of the calcaneus are discussed in further detail. (orig.) [de

  16. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging including bi-exponential fitting for the detection of recurrent or residual tumour after (chemo)radiotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshering Vogel, Dechen W.; Vermathen, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C. [University of Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Zbaeren, Peter [University of Bern, Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Geretschlaeger, Andreas [University of Bern, Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Keyzer, Frederik de [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    To assess whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) including bi-exponential fitting helps to detect residual/recurrent tumours after (chemo)radiotherapy of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty-six patients with newly-developed/worsening symptoms after (chemo)radiotherapy for laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancers were prospectively imaged using conventional MRI and axial DW-MRI. Qualitative (visual assessment) and quantitative analysis (mono-exponentially: total apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC{sub T}], and bi-exponentially: perfusion fraction [F{sub P}] and true diffusion coefficient [ADC{sub D}]) were performed. Diffusion parameters of tumour versus post-therapeutic changes were compared, with final diagnosis based on histopathology and follow-up. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Qualitative DW-MRI combined with morphological images allowed the detection of tumour with a sensitivity of 94% and specificity 100%. ADC{sub T} and ADC{sub D} values were lower in tumour with values 120 {+-} 49 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s and 113 {+-} 50 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively, compared with post-therapeutic changes with values 182 {+-} 41 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s (P < 0.0002) and 160 {+-} 47 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s (P < 0.003), respectively. F{sub P} values were significantly lower in tumours than in non-tumours (13 {+-} 9% versus 31 {+-} 16%, P < 0.0002), with F{sub P} being the best quantitative parameter for differentiation between post-therapeutic changes and recurrence. DW-MRI in combination with conventional MRI substantially improves detection and exclusion of tumour in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers after treatment with (chemo)radiotherapy on both qualitative and quantitative analysis, with F{sub P} being the best quantitative parameter in this context. (orig.)

  17. Differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours: use of additive qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging to standard MR imaging at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Park, Michael Y.; Kim, Sun-Ki; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2016-01-01

    To determine the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. 3.0 T MR images including DWI in 63 patients who underwent surgery for soft tissue tumours were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently interpreted MRI for the presence of malignancy in two steps: standard MRI alone, standard MRI and DWI with qualitative and quantitative analysis combined. There were 34 malignant and 29 non-malignant soft tissue tumours. In qualitative analysis, hyperintensity relative to skeletal muscle was more frequent in malignant than benign tumours on DWI (P=0.003). In quantitative analysis, ADCs of malignant tumours were significantly lower than those of non-malignant tumours (P≤0.002): 759±385 vs. 1188±423 μm 2 /sec minimum ADC value, 941±440 vs. 1310±440 μm 2 /sec average ADC value. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both readers were 96 %, 72 %, and 85 % on standard MRI alone and 97 %, 90 %, and 94 % on standard MRI with DWI. The addition of DWI to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic value of static MR imaging of soft tissue tumours including lesion size, borders and local extend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacikowska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of MR imaging in the evaluation of the degree of soft tissue malignancy is widely discussed. The aim of this study was to analyse the diagnostic value of MR imaging in the evaluation of local progression of soft tissue tumours and to analyse the usefulness of MR imaging in the differential diagnosis (malignant versus benign lesions). One hundred and ten patients with soft tissue tumours were examined by MR imaging (60 men and 50 women, aged 16 to 84 years). MR imaging was carried out with an Elscint 2T or 0.5T unit. Surface coils (passive) or circular polarized coils (active) depending on the localisation of the lesions were used with field vision from 20x24 cm or 40x40 cm, matrices 200x256, 256x256, or 22x315, layer thickness from 3 to 10 mm, gap 20-30%. SE T1 sequences (TR = 500 - 800 ms, TE = 15 - 20 ms) and FSE T2 (Tr = 2000-4500 ms, TE = 96-104 ms) were routinely used in at least two planes: transverse, frontal or saggital, and SE T1 sequences were used after administration of gadolinium Gd-DTPA in 0.1 m - 0.2 mmol/kg body weigh doses. The tumour dimensions by MR imaging were compared with the results of histological examination of samples obtained during surgery (65 cases) - the statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, with statistically significant difference accepted at p = 0.05 or less. The borders of the lesions were assessed in the entire material and in the group of 65 patients treated surgically. The latter were compared with the results of histological examination after surgery, thus calculating MR sensitivity and specificity. Static imaging is a valuable diagnostic method for preoperative assesment of the local progression of soft tissue tumours, however it is not suitable for differentiating malignant lesions from benign according to tumour size, borders and local extent. (author)

  19. Treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery or chemotherapy in mice carrying HPV16-associated tumours: cytokine and gene therapy with IL-2 and GM-CSF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Šímová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa; Bieblová, Jana; Jinoch, P.; Bubeník, Jan; Vonka, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2004), s. 161-167 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA MZd NC7552; GA ČR GA301/01/0985 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV16 * gene therapy * minimal residual tumour disease Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  20. Estimation of residue depletion of cyadox and its marker residue in edible tissues of pigs using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingli; Lin, Zhoumeng; Zhou, Xuan; Zhu, Meiling; Gehring, Ronette; Riviere, Jim E; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are powerful tools to predict tissue distribution and depletion of veterinary drugs in food animals. However, most models only simulate the pharmacokinetics of the parent drug without considering their metabolites. In this study, a PBPK model was developed to simultaneously describe the depletion in pigs of the food animal antimicrobial agent cyadox (CYA), and its marker residue 1,4-bisdesoxycyadox (BDCYA). The CYA and BDCYA sub-models included blood, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, muscle, fat and other organ compartments. Extent of plasma-protein binding, renal clearance and tissue-plasma partition coefficients of BDCYA were measured experimentally. The model was calibrated with the reported pharmacokinetic and residue depletion data from pigs dosed by oral gavage with CYA for five consecutive days, and then extrapolated to exposure in feed for two months. The model was validated with 14 consecutive day feed administration data. This PBPK model accurately simulated CYA and BDCYA in four edible tissues at 24-120 h after both oral exposure and 2-month feed administration. There was only slight overestimation of CYA in muscle and BDCYA in kidney at earlier time points (6-12 h) when dosed in feed. Monte Carlo analysis revealed excellent agreement between the estimated concentration distributions and observed data. The present model could be used for tissue residue monitoring of CYA and BDCYA in food animals, and provides a foundation for developing PBPK models to predict residue depletion of both parent drugs and their metabolites in food animals.

  1. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Mengele, K.; Schueren, E. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Foekens, J.A.; Brunner, N.; Laabs, J.; Malik, A.; Harbeck, N.

    2007-01-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk

  2. Use of diagnostic dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for targeting of soft tissue tumour biopsies at 3T: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie; Amann, Gabriele; Krssak, Martin; Panotopoulos, Joannis; Funovics, Philipp; Windhager, Reinhard; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Nemec, Stefan; Breitenseher, Martin; Grabner, Guenther; Bogner, Wolfgang; Dominkus, Martin; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    To test the feasibility and accuracy of MR-guided soft tissue tumour biopsy at 3T, using the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) information from staging MRI for intralesional targeting. After obtaining written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 53 patients with suspected soft tissue tumours prospectively underwent preoperative staging MRI at 3T, including DCE, and subsequent MR-guided core needle biopsy. In 44/53 cases, DCE was heterogeneous and was used for intralesional biopsy targeting. Surgical, whole-specimen histology was used as the gold standard in 43/44 patients and revealed 42 soft tissue tumours (24 men; 18 women; mean age, 52 years; range, 19 - 84). Final surgical histology revealed eight benign lesions, six tumours of intermediate dignity, and 28 malignancies. All malignancies had shown heterogeneous DCE. The diagnostic yield of the biopsies was 100 % (42/42). Histological accuracy rates of biopsy were 100 % in predicting the dignity (42/42; 95 % CI [0.916 - 1.000]), 95.2 % for the tissue-specific entity (40/42; 95 % CI [0.847 - 0.987]), and 90.5 % for the tumour grade (38/42; 95 % CI [0.779 - 0.962]). Our preliminary study indicates that biopsy of soft tissue tumours can be performed accurately and safely with DCE targeted MR-guidance at 3T, using a combined staging/biopsy MRI protocol. (orig.)

  3. Use of diagnostic dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for targeting of soft tissue tumour biopsies at 3T: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Amann, Gabriele [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute for Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Krssak, Martin [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vienna (Austria); Panotopoulos, Joannis; Funovics, Philipp; Windhager, Reinhard [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Orthopaedics, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Nemec, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Breitenseher, Martin [Landesklinikum Waldviertel Horn, Horn (Austria); Grabner, Guenther; Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Dominkus, Martin [Orthopaedics Hospital Speising, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-15

    To test the feasibility and accuracy of MR-guided soft tissue tumour biopsy at 3T, using the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) information from staging MRI for intralesional targeting. After obtaining written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 53 patients with suspected soft tissue tumours prospectively underwent preoperative staging MRI at 3T, including DCE, and subsequent MR-guided core needle biopsy. In 44/53 cases, DCE was heterogeneous and was used for intralesional biopsy targeting. Surgical, whole-specimen histology was used as the gold standard in 43/44 patients and revealed 42 soft tissue tumours (24 men; 18 women; mean age, 52 years; range, 19 - 84). Final surgical histology revealed eight benign lesions, six tumours of intermediate dignity, and 28 malignancies. All malignancies had shown heterogeneous DCE. The diagnostic yield of the biopsies was 100 % (42/42). Histological accuracy rates of biopsy were 100 % in predicting the dignity (42/42; 95 % CI [0.916 - 1.000]), 95.2 % for the tissue-specific entity (40/42; 95 % CI [0.847 - 0.987]), and 90.5 % for the tumour grade (38/42; 95 % CI [0.779 - 0.962]). Our preliminary study indicates that biopsy of soft tissue tumours can be performed accurately and safely with DCE targeted MR-guidance at 3T, using a combined staging/biopsy MRI protocol. (orig.)

  4. A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body resid...

  5. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Mengele, Karin; Schueren, Elisabeth; Sweep, Fred C G J; Foekens, John A; Brünner, Nils; Laabs, Juliane; Malik, Abha; Harbeck, Nadia

    2007-03-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk assessment, treatment response identification, or to identifying those patients who are expected to respond to certain anticancer drugs. As the field of tumour-associated biomarkers has expanded rapidly over the last years, it has become increasingly apparent that a strong need exists to establish guidelines on how to easily disintegrate the tumour tissue for assessment of the presence of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. Several mechanical tissue (cell) disruption techniques exist, ranging from bead mill homogenisation and freeze-fracturing through to blade or pestle-type homogenisation, to grinding and ultrasonics. Still, only a few directives have been given on how fresh-frozen tumour tissues should be processed for the extraction and determination of tumour biomarkers. The PathoBiology Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer therefore has devised a standard operating procedure for the standardised preparation of human tumour tissue extracts which is designed for the quantitative analysis of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. The easy to follow technical steps involved require 50-300 mg of deep-frozen cancer tissue placed into small size (1.2 ml) cryogenic tubes. These are placed into the shaking flask of a Mikro-Dismembrator S machine (bead mill) to pulverise the tumour tissue in the capped tubes in the deep-frozen state by use of a stainless steel ball, all within 30 s of exposure. RNA is isolated from the pulverised tissue following standard procedures. Proteins are extracted from the still frozen pulverised tissue by addition of Tris-buffered saline to obtain the cytosol fraction of the tumour or by the Tris buffer supplemented with

  6. Tissue distribution and functional aspects of the NF2 tumour suppressor gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. den Bakker (Michael)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractNeoplastic disease in humans may occur sporadically, that is without a clear familial disposition, or less commonly as an inherited disease. Several distinct familial cancer syndromes are known and the underlying genetic cause has been identified of a number of these 46. The tumours in

  7. Dosimetric Comparison of Simulated Human Eye And Water Phantom in Investigation of Iodine Source Effects on Tumour And Healthy Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, A.S.; Masoudi, F.S. K.N.Toosi University of Technology

    2011-01-01

    For better clinical analysis in ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye, so simulating the eye and defining the material of any parts of that, is helpful for better investigating dosimetry in human eye. However in brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye globe. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye like; lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumour. The average dose in different parts of this full model of human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumour for these two simulated eye model are calculated too, and the results are compared. At long last, as the aim of this work is comparing the result of investigating dosimetry between two water phantom as human eye and simulated eye globe, the ratios of the absorbed dose by the healthy tissues to the absorbed dose by the tumour are calculated in these simulations and the comparison between results is done eventually.

  8. Heavy metal residues in tissues of marine turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in the tissues of marine turtles are presented. The most frequently monitored elements are mercury, cadmium and lead; and the tissues mainly analysed in nearly all the stranded individuals are muscle, liver and kidney. The highest mercury and cadmium levels were found in liver and kidney respectively; the majority of the lead burden existed in bones and carapace, while arsenic was present mainly in muscle tissue. Mercury occurred quite completely as methylmercury in muscle, whereas in liver the main form was the inorganic one. Arsenic was exclusively present in the metallorganic form either in muscle tissue or in liver. Metals in the eggs were mainly present in the yolk. Significantly higher concentration of mercury, copper, zinc and iron were found in yolk than albumen, while shell contained highest levels of manganese and copper. The load of trace metals in these animals strictly correlated with the species seems to depend on their different food behaviour

  9. The use of thallium-201 scintigraphy in the assessment and management of bone and soft tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, I.; Schlicht, S.M.; Smith, P.; J Slavin; Powell, G.; Choong, P.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Thallium-201 scintigraphy is routinely performed on all patients presenting to the bone and soft tissue sarcoma service at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne. Methods: As part of the multimodality approach to patients presenting to the service, Thallium-201 planar images are obtained at 30 minutes following a resting injection of tracer with delayed planar and where possible SPECT images at 4 hours. Uptake is qualitatively assessed using adjacent muscle uptake at the time of the scan. All thallium-201 scans are read in conjunction with the correlative structural images performed. Results: High grade bone and soft tissue sarcomas typically show significant retention of tracer relative to background activity and adjacent anatomically structures. Benign lesions may show early activity but typically washout on the delayed images. However, some lesions may show marked thallium-201 activity which will be discussed. At our institution the thallium-201 scans are used for assessment of metabolic activity and tumour grade, planning of image guided pre-treatment biopsies and monitoring of treatment response particularly following radiotherapy. Conclusion: Thallium-201 scintigraphy plays a vital role in assessment and management of bone and soft tissue tumours at our institution. (authors)

  10. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are effective in therapy of minimal residual tumour disease after chemotherapy or surgery in a murine model of MHC class I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2007), s. 1247-1251 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/04/0492; GA ČR GA301/06/0774 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině, Praha(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV16 * minimal residual tumour disease * CpG oligonucleotides Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2007

  11. Antimicrobial residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antimicrobial residue in animal food products is an important index of food safety. Antimicrobial residues could result from chemotherapeutic or chemoprophylactic use of drugs in food animals. This occurrence of residue in animal food products has received enormous worldwide attention from some local, international, and public health agencies. A crosssectional study was conducted from July to December 2009 to detect the antibiotic residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Microbial inhibition test (MIT and thin layer chromatography (TLC methods were used to detect antibacterial residues in poultry tissues (liver, kidney, breast, and thigh muscles and eggs. The bacteria and pH of the MIT method were as follows: Bacillus subtilis on test agar medium with a pH of 7.2, Bacillus cereus with a pH of 6.0, and Escherichia coli at pH with an 8.0. Results: The overall prevalence of antibiotic residues detected by MIT was 64% in liver, 63% in kidney, 56% in breast muscle, 50% in thigh muscle, and 60% in eggs. There was significant variation in results between MIT and TLC (p<0.05. Tetracycline residues were found in 48% in liver, 24% in kidneys, 20% in thigh muscles, 26% in breast muscles, and 36% in eggs. Ciprofloxacin residues were found 46% in liver, 42% in kidneys, 34% in thigh muscles, 30% in breast muscles, and 30% in eggs. Enrofloxacin residues were found 40% in livers, 36% in kidneys, 24% in thigh muscles, 20% in breast muscles, and 26% in eggs. Amoxicillin residues were found 48% in livers, 30% in kidneys, 26% in thigh muscles, 22% in breast muscles, and 24% in eggs. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues by both MIT and TLC were found in liver tissue, tetracycline (48%, ciprofloxacin (46%, enrofloxacin (40%, and amoxicillin (42% were found in liver. Breast muscle tissue was least likely to contain antibiotic residues (24%. Tetracycline (p=0.01 and amoxicillin (p=0.03 residues had

  12. Feasibility of temporary protective embolization of normal liver tissue using degradable starch microspheres during radioembolization of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Carsten; Pieper, Claus Christian; Wilhelm, Kai E.; Schild, Hans Heinz; Ezziddin, Samer; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    To describe a new approach to protect nontarget healthy liver tissue using degradable starch microspheres (DSM) as a short-term embolizate during radioembolization of liver tumours with 90 Y microspheres. Between December 2011 and July 2012 radioembolization was performed in 54 patients. Five of these patients (three women, two men; mean age 67 years) underwent protective temporary embolization using DSM (EmboCept registered S) of normal liver tissue that could not be excluded from the area treated by radioembolization through catheter repositioning. Clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, preinterventional imaging, and 99m Tc-MAA and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT, as well as baseline and follow-up imaging with 18 F-FDG PET/CT and MRI, were evaluated in relation to the technical and clinical success of the protective embolization. Temporary embolization of arteries supplying normal liver tissue using DSM was technically successful in all five patients. 99m Tc-MAA SPECT/CT performed in the first two patients after DSM injection showed no increased pulmonary shunting compared to the MAA test injection without DSM. Bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT after radioembolization demonstrated satisfactory irradiation of the tumour and successful protection of normal liver tissue. There were only mild hepatotoxic effects (grade 1) on laboratory follow-up examinations, and no adverse events associated with DSM embolization or radioembolization were recorded. Temporary embolization with DSM before radioembolization is feasible and can effectively protect areas of normal liver tissue from irradiation and avoid permanent embolization if other methods such as catheter repositioning are not possible due to the location of the metastases. (orig.)

  13. On the cause and control of residual voltage generated by electrical stimulation of neural tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ashwati; Kelly, Shawn K

    2012-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation of neural tissue is traditionally performed with symmetric cathodic-first biphasic pulses of current through an electrode/electrolyte interface. When the interface is modeled by a series R-C circuit, as is sometimes done for stimulator circuit design, the appearance of a net residual voltage across the electrode cannot be explained. Residual voltage can cause polarization of the electrode and pose a problem for safe electrical stimulation. This paper aims to (1) theoretically explain one reason for the residual voltage, which is the inclusion of the Faradaic impedance (2) suggest a simple dynamic feedback mechanism to eliminate residual voltage.

  14. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in several tissues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCBs 153 and 138 were present at higher concentrations than other PCB congeners for both species. PCB contaminants in fish act as indicators of pollution in aquatic ecosystems and are a potential threat to human health when consumed. Keywords: PCBs, tissues, fish, GC/MS, biomagnification, North End Lake ...

  15. Measurement of capillary permeability in canine heart determined by the tissue injection, residue detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Paaske, W P; Haunsø, S

    1991-01-01

    In previous studies the tissue injection, residue detection method failed to provide results of diffusional capillary permeability comparable to those of other methods. For this reason we reconsidered the kinetic theory and found that it is necessary to take into account the apparent (restricted...... (apparent) interstitial volume of distribution, tev is the mean transit time of the indicator, and klo is the recorded fractional initial washout rate constant. In experiments on open chest dog hearts we examined capillary permeability for 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA with the tissue injection, residue...... detection method and the single injection, residue detection method. Blood flow was measured independently with local 133Xenon washout. D and D' were measured by a true transient diffusion method. We found that the tissue injection, residue detection method gave results for capillary extraction and Pd...

  16. Measurement of capillary permeability in canine heart determined by the tissue injection, residue detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Paaske, William P; Haunsø, S

    1991-01-01

    detection method and the single injection, residue detection method. Blood flow was measured independently with local 133Xenon washout. D and D' were measured by a true transient diffusion method. We found that the tissue injection, residue detection method gave results for capillary extraction and Pd......In previous studies the tissue injection, residue detection method failed to provide results of diffusional capillary permeability comparable to those of other methods. For this reason we reconsidered the kinetic theory and found that it is necessary to take into account the apparent (restricted...... (apparent) interstitial volume of distribution, tev is the mean transit time of the indicator, and klo is the recorded fractional initial washout rate constant. In experiments on open chest dog hearts we examined capillary permeability for 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA with the tissue injection, residue...

  17. The tissue residues of sodium dehydroacetate used as feed preservative in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Han, Lingling; Xie, Jiayu; Wu, Yingchao; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Yumei

    2018-01-01

    Sodium dehydroacetate (Na-DHA) is a food and feed additive with antimicrobial effects. There is little information on Na-DHA residue levels in foods derived from animals. In this study, Na-DHA residue levels in swine tissues were determined by HLPC, and the pharmacokinetics of Na-DHA in tissues were determined. The Na-DHA residue levels in swine tissues were feed for 30 days. In decreasing order of Na-DHA residue levels, the tissues were kidney > liver > muscle > fat. The pharmacokinetics of Na-DHA followed a binomial regression model, and the half-time of Na-DHA in swine tissues was 9.07 days for kidney, 7.19 days for liver, 6.66 days for muscle, and 5.39 days for fat tissue. The accuracy of the HPLC method for Na-DHA determination ranged from 80.18% to 91.33% recovery, with coefficients of variation feed additive based on residue elimination and ADI values reported. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Imaging the mammary gland and mammary tumours in 3D: optical tissue clearing and immunofluorescence methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Davis, Felicity M.; Harris, Olivia B.; Hitchcock, Jessica R.; Lourenco, Filipe C.; Pasche, Mathias; Watson, Christine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background High-resolution 3D imaging of intact tissue facilitates cellular and subcellular analyses of complex structures within their native environment. However, difficulties associated with immunolabelling and imaging fluorescent proteins deep within whole organs have restricted their applications to thin sections or processed tissue preparations, precluding comprehensive and rapid 3D visualisation. Several tissue clearing methods have been established to circumvent issues associated with...

  19. Radiosensitivity of malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partskhaladze, N.N.

    1980-01-01

    Tumour tissue has been transplanted to 5 groups of rats to study the effect of general pre-transplantation X-ray irradiation of the recipient on the effect of transplantation of the irradiated tumour tissue. In the first group - the suspension of native timour tissue has been transplanted to intact rats; in the second group - the suspension of native tumour tissue has been transplanted to rats that have formerly been subjected to a single immunization with subcutaneously irradiated timour material; in the third group - the suspension of native tumour tissue has been transplanted to totally irradiated animals; in the fourth group - the syspension of irradiated tumour tissue has been transplanted to intact rats; in the fifts group - the suspension of irradiated timour tissue has been transplanted to totally irradiated rats. The reseach has shown that there exists a weak antitumoral immunity that manifests itself only at the time of gratting tumour tissue in a small amount. In this case one can observe the decrease in the tumour development in rats formerly subjected to the effect of lethally irradiated tumour cells and the increase of cell transplantation in totally irradiated mice. Transplanted irradiated 0.77 Coul/kg timour tissue in the irradiated organism develops better than in the organism of intact animals

  20. Moxidectin residues in tissues of lambs submitted to three endoparasite control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Angela Machado; Gilaverte, Susana; Bianchi, Michele Dell; da Silva, Claudio José Araujo; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Monteiro, Alda Lucia Gomes

    2017-10-01

    The indiscriminate and continuous use of anthelmintic drugs has promoted the selection of resistant parasites population, the presence of drug residues in food products, and heavy environmental contamination. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antiparasitic drug residues in 42-days old lamb serum and tissues, submitted to three endoparasite control programs: preventive treatment (PT) using moxidectin (MOX) at every 28days; selective treatment (FEC) using MOX when fecal egg count was greater than or equal to 700; and selective treatment (FMC), using MOX when FAMACHA/FMC score was 3 and above. For this purpose, MOX residues were quantified in serum, muscle, fat, liver and kidney. Lambs were slaughtered when reaching 30kg of body weight, and after a 28-day MOX withdrawal period. Before slaughter, blood was collected to determine the concentration of MOX in serum. Tissues and organ samples were collected at slaughter. The quantitation of MOX residues was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the 756 tissue samples analyzed, only one sample of fat from the PT group showed residue levels (586.3μg/kg) above the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 500μg/kg. No treated lambs presented traces of MOX residues in fat and liver, suggesting possible environmental contamination. In conclusion, all weaned lambs, produced in continuous grazing and subjected to gastrointestinal parasite control programs via selective (FEC and FMC) or preventive (PT) treatment, displayed a low risk (residues above the MRL in muscle, fat, kidney, and liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation of ractopamine residues in hair and ocular tissues of animals during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vulic, Ana; Persi, Nina; Terzic, Svjetlana; Andrisic, Miroslav; Zarkovic, Irena; Sandor, Ksenija; Perak, Eleonora; Mihaljevic, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine residues in the hair and ocular tissues of guinea pigs during repeated ractopamine administration and after treatment. The experiment was conducted in 38 guinea pigs (30 treated and eight controls). Treated animals were orally administered ractopamine hydrochloride in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body mass per day using probes for seven consecutive days. Ractopamine concentration was determined in hair during the treatment (Days 1, 3 and 7) with ractopamine hydrochloride and in ocular tissues and hair on defined days after exposure (Days 1, 10, 20 and 30). Residues were present in hair in high concentrations as early as Day 3 (86.15 ± 87.71 ng/g) and Day 7 (85.25 ± 56.97 ng/g). After exposure, residues were found to persist, having depleted from 68.06 ± 30.54 ng/g on Day 1 to 8.01 ± 2.22 ng/g on Day 30, with a significantly higher concentration in hair in contrast to low residue levels in ocular tissues (1.20-0.34 ng/g). The results of the study pointed to high ractopamine accumulation, even in non-pigmented hair, suggesting hair to be used as a matrix in the control of ractopamine abuse in farm animals because of its many advantages over ocular tissues.

  2. Determination of residual ractopamine concentrations by enzyme immunoassay in treated pig's tissues on days after withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Vulić, Ana; Milić, Dinka; Vahčić, Nada

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure residual ractopamine concentrations in tissues of pigs as experimental animals after treatment with dietary ractopamine for 28 consecutive days. Ractopamine was administered orally to the experimental group (n=9) in a dose of 0.1mg/kg body mass per day, whereas control animals (n=3) were left untreated. Treated pigs (60kg) were sacrificed on days 1, 3 and 8 of treatment discontinuation and residues were determined in kidney, liver, muscle, brain and heart tissues using previously validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a quantitative screening method. Validation showed good mean recoveries (approx. 70-90%) with acceptable inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDractopamine tissue concentrations. The highest ractopamine concentration on day 1 (24h) after the last exposure was recorded in the kidney (12.49±7.96ng/g), followed by the liver (7.21±2.73ng/g), heart (1.26±0.12ng/g) and brain (0.63±0.05ng/g); at this time of withdrawal, residues were not detected in the muscle. Ractopamine was depleted rapidly from all study tissues, with mostly no detectable residues on day 8 of withdrawal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal residues in water, fish tissue and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: Residual levels of lead, chromium, cadmium and zinc in water and fish tissue from. Ubeji River, Warri and blood samples from residents of Ubeji were analysed. Control water and fish samples were obtained from Eleyele River and blood from residents of Ibadan. All the samples collected were digested using a ...

  4. Non-invasive quantification of tumour heterogeneity in water diffusivity to differentiate malignant from benign tissues of urinary bladder: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huyen T; Shah, Zarine K; Mortazavi, Amir; Pohar, Kamal S; Wei, Lai; Jia, Guang; Zynger, Debra L; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-05-01

    To quantify the heterogeneity of the tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using voxel-based analysis to differentiate malignancy from benign wall thickening of the urinary bladder. Nineteen patients with histopathological findings of their cystectomy specimen were included. A data set of voxel-based ADC values was acquired for each patient's lesion. Histogram analysis was performed on each data set to calculate uniformity (U) and entropy (E). The k-means clustering of the voxel-wised ADC data set was implemented to measure mean intra-cluster distance (MICD) and largest inter-cluster distance (LICD). Subsequently, U, E, MICD, and LICD for malignant tumours were compared with those for benign lesions using a two-sample t-test. Eleven patients had pathological confirmation of malignancy and eight with benign wall thickening. Histogram analysis showed that malignant tumours had a significantly higher degree of ADC heterogeneity with lower U (P = 0.016) and higher E (P = 0.005) than benign lesions. In agreement with these findings, k-means clustering of voxel-wise ADC indicated that bladder malignancy presented with significantly higher MICD (P bladder cancer. • Heterogeneity is an intrinsic characteristic of tumoral tissue. • Non-invasive quantification of tumour heterogeneity can provide adjunctive information to improve cancer diagnosis accuracy. • Histogram analysis and k-means clustering can quantify tumour diffusion heterogeneity. • The quantification helps differentiate malignant from benign urinary bladder tissue.

  5. Mohs micrographic surgery in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans allows tumour clearance with smaller margins and greater preservation of healthy tissue compared with conventional surgery: a study of 74 primary cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Guillén, C; Llombart, B; Nagore, E; Guillén, C; Requena, C; Traves, V; Kindem, S; Alcalá, R; Rivas, N; Sanmartín, O

    2015-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon skin tumour with aggressive local growth. Whether DFSP should be treated with conventional surgery (CS) or Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has long been a topic of debate. To calculate, in a large series of DFSP treated by MMS, the minimum margin that would have been needed to achieve complete clearance by CS. Secondly, to calculate the percentage of healthy tissue that was preserved by MMS rather than CS with 2- and 3-cm margins. The minimum margin was calculated by measuring the largest distance from the visible edge of the tumour to the edge of the definitive surgical defect. Tumour and surgical defect areas for hypothetical CS with 2- and 3-cm margins were calculated using AutoCAD for Windows. A mean minimum margin of 1·34 cm was required to achieve complete clearance for the 74 tumours analysed. The mean percentages of skin spared using MMS rather than CS with 2- and 3-cm margins were 49·4% and 67·9%, respectively. MMS can achieve tumour clearance with smaller margins and greater preservation of healthy tissue than CS. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  7. Prospective 1-year follow-up pilot study of CT-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sebastien; Kastler, Bruno [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); University of Franche-Comte, I4S laboratory, INSERM EA4268, Besancon (France); Dubut, Jonathan; Nueffer, Jean-Philippe [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Besancon (France); Chaigneau, Loic [University Hospital of Besancon, Department of Oncology, Besancon (France); Vidal, Chrystelle [University Hospital of Besancon, Clinical Investigation Center, INSERM CIT808, Besancon (France)

    2017-04-15

    The aims of this work were to assess the feasibility, efficacy, short-term outcome and safety of microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of malignant musculoskeletal tumours. Sixteen bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours were prospectively included and were treated by CT-guided MWA. The percentage and size of necrosis of the lesions were measured by contrast-enhanced MRI before the procedure and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. mRECIST criteria were used to assess tumour response. Procedural success was defined as ≥80 % necrosis. Patient pain (as assessed using a numeric visual scale (NVS)) and side effects were noted. Six osteolytic metastases, five osteoblastic metastases and five soft tissue sarcomas were treated. At 1 month, 40 % were treated completely, the percentage of necrosis was 85 ± 30.4 %, and the success rate was 80 %. At 3, 6 and 12 months the success rate was 80 %, 76.9 % and 63.6 %, respectively. At 12 months, four lesions (36.3 %) still had no recurrence. Mean NVS during the procedure was 3.5 ± 2.8. One patient had transitory sciatica without neurological deficit that was treated medically. CT-guided MWA of bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours is efficient, well tolerated and has good short-term anti-cancer effects. (orig.)

  8. Moxidectin residues in lamb tissues: Development and validation of analytical method by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianchi A Cruz, Michelle; Fernandes, Maria A M; de C Braga, Patricia A; Monteiro, Alda L G; Daniel, Daniela; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-01-01

    The development and validation of a throughput method for the quantitation of moxidectin residues in lamb target tissues (muscle, kidney, liver and fat) was conducted using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). To achieve higher recovery of the analyte from the matrices, a modified QuEChERS method was used for sample preparation. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 RRHD column with a mobile phase comprising 5mM ammonium formate solution +0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile +0.1% formic acid (B) in a linear gradient program. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and VICH GL49. To quantify the analyte, matrix-matched analytical curves were constructed with spiked blank tissues, with a limit of quantitation of 5ngg -1 and limit of detection of 1.5ngg -1 for all matrices. The linearity, decision limit, detection capability accuracy, and inter- and intra-day repeatability of the method are reported. The method was successfully applied to incurred lamb tissue samples (muscle, liver, kidney and fat) in a concentration range from 5 to 200μgkg -1 , which demonstrated its suitability for monitoring moxidectin residues in lamb tissues in health surveillance programs, as well as for pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Results of the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumours using enucleation and treatment of the residual bony defect with Carnoy's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y Y; Lau, S L; Tsoi, K Y Y; Ma, H L; Ng, C L

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the recurrence rate of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs) treated by enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution, and to assess the surgical morbidities associated with this treatment. KCOTs treated using a standard protocol of enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution between 1990 and 2013 were evaluated. One hundred and five KCOTS in 105 patients (54 male, 51 female) were analysed. The mean follow-up period was 86.6 months (range 24-313 months). The recurrence rate was 11.4%. A postoperative inferior alveolar nerve neurosensory deficit occurred in 30.1% of the mandibular cases, with 16% of these being permanent. The postoperative infection and fracture rates were 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Younger age, multilocular KCOTs, larger tumour size, and longer antero-posterior lesion length on the radiograph were found to be risk factors for recurrence. It is concluded that enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution to treat KCOTs results in a relatively low recurrence rate and a low rate of surgical morbidities. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Localization of D-β-Aspartyl Residue-Containing Proteins in Various Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Motoie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the emergence of life, it is believed that only L-amino acids were selected for formation of protein and that D-amino acids were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Whilst homochirality is essential for life, the occurrence of proteins containing D-β-aspartyl (Asp residues in various tissues from elderly subjects has been reported recently. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a D-β-Asp-containing protein in the cardiac muscle of heart, blood vessels of the lung, chief cells of the stomach, longitudinal and circular muscle of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Since the D-β-Asp residue occurs through a succinimide intermediate, this isomer may potentially be generated in proteins more easily than initially thought. Formation of the D-β-Asp residue in proteins may be related to stress.

  11. Tissue distribution and residue depletion of metronidazole in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Pekala, Agnieszka; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Tissue distribution and residue depletion of metronidazole (MNZ) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following oral administration of MNZ in feed at the average dose of 25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 7 days at 11 ± 2°C. The MNZ concentration in feed was 0.25% while daily feed intake was 1% of body weight. The concentrations of MNZ and its main metabolite, hydroxymetronidazole (MNZOH), in fish tissues were determined by LC-MS/MS. The drug was well distributed in tissues with maximum concentrations on day 1 post-administration. At this time, the mean MNZ concentrations in muscle, skin, kidney, liver and gill were 14,999, 20,269, 15,070, 10,102 and 16,467 µg kg(-1) respectively. MNZ was converted into MNZOH with the ratio of MNZOH:MNZ up to 7% in all fish tissues throughout the withdrawal period. This shows that MNZ itself is the main residue in rainbow trout. MNZ was detected at the level close to the decision limit (0.20 µg kg(-1)) in muscle, skin and muscle with adhering skin up to 42 days, while in kidney, liver and gill it was up to 28 days post-administration. MNZOH was eliminated more rapidly from fish tissues and it was present in muscle alone up to 21 days. The elimination half-lives of MNZ and MNZOH in rainbow trout tissues were 1.83-2.53 and 1.24-2.12 days, respectively. When muscle without skin was analysed, higher MNZ and MNZOH concentrations were detected, and for a longer period of time, than in muscle with adhering skin. Thus muscle alone could be more appropriate for the effective residue control of MNZ in rainbow trout. For the same reason, it is also essential to ensure direct cooling immediately after sampling, since MNZ and its metabolite degrade in fish muscle and skin stored in non-freezing conditions.

  12. Parachordoma of Soft Tissues of the Arm: A Very Rare Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Estrems Díaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parachordoma is an infrequent neoplasm that bears some histologic resemblance to chordoma. It affects both sexes, occurs typically during the fourth decade of life, and tends to present as a slow-growing painless mass at the level of the soft tissues of the extremities. Diagnosis should be based on immunohistochemical and cytogenetic studies, as the findings of imaging techniques are often unspecific. Although it is considered a benign lesion, its behavior tends to be locally aggressive, with reports of a recurrence rate of up to 20% and of several cases of metastasis. Fewer than 60 cases have been published in the English-speaking literature. In this paper we present the case of a 32-year-old male with a two-year history of parachordoma in the right wrist.

  13. Tissue deposition and residue depletion of melamine in fattening pigs following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    The adulteration of animal feed as well as milk products with melamine has led to concerns about the ability to establish appropriate withdrawal intervals to ensure food safety. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The first was to investigate the deposition and depletion of melamine in blood and tissues of pigs exposed to adulterated feed with high doses of melamine. A total of 500 or 1000 mg kg(-1) melamine was added to the diet for fattening pigs (initial BW = ±60.24 kg). Melamine residues were detected in tissues (brain, duodenum, liver, heart, muscle and kidney) by LC-MS/MS. Dose-dependent effects were found between melamine residual concentration and its dose in feed. Five days after the withdrawal of melamine from the diets, the residue concentration in tissues fell below 2.5 mg kg(-1). In the second experiment, blood samples were taken at different time points from fattening pigs (BW = 100 kg) fed with adulterated feed with 1000 mg kg(-1) of melamine for 42 days. Results from the pharmacokinetics analysis showed that it would take 83 h for the melamine level in plasma depleting to the safe level of 50 ng ml(-1) after an expose of 1000 mg kg(-1) melamine contaminated feed for 42 days.

  14. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in neuroendocrine tumour and healthy tissue: differentiation of physiological uptake and pathological processes in PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroiss, A.; Putzer, D.; Decristoforo, C.; Uprimny, C.; Warwitz, B.; Nilica, B.; Gabriel, M.; Kendler, D.; Waitz, D.; Virgolini, I.J. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Widmann, G. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-04-15

    We wanted to establish the range of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in liver and bone metastases of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and to establish the range of its uptake in pancreatic NET. This would allow differentiation between physiological uptake and tumour-related somatostatin receptor expression in the pancreas (including the uncinate process), liver and bone. Finally, we wanted to test for differences in patients with NET, either treated or not treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In 249 patients, 390 {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT studies were performed. The clinical indications for PET/CT were gastroenteropancreatic NET (194 studies), nongastroenteropancreatic NET (origin in the lung and rectum; 46 studies), NET of unknown primary (111 studies), phaeochromocytoma/glomus tumours (18 studies), and radioiodine-negative metastatic thyroid carcinoma (21 studies). SUV{sub max} (mean {+-} standard deviation) values of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC were 29.8 {+-} 16.5 in 162 liver metastases, 19.8 {+-} 18.8 in 89 bone metastases and 34.6 {+-} 17.1 in 43 pancreatic NET (33.6 {+-} 14.3 in 30 tumours of the uncinate process and 36.3 {+-} 21.5 in 13 tumours of the pancreatic tail). A significant difference in SUV{sub max} (p < 0.02) was found in liver metastases of NET patients treated with PRRT. There were significant differences in SUV{sub max} between nonmalignant and malignant tissue for both bone and liver metastases and for pancreatic NET including the uncinate process (p < 0.0001). At a cut-off value of 17.1 the specificity and sensitivity of SUV{sub max} for differentiating tumours in the uncinate process were 93.6 % and 90.0 %, respectively (p < 0.0001). {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC is an excellent tracer for the imaging of tumours expressing somatostatin receptors on the tumour cell surface, facilitating the detection of even small tumour lesions. The noninvasive PET/CT approach by measurement of regional SUV{sub max} can offer important clinical

  15. The inhibitory influence of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell environment and Wnt antagonism on breast tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visweswaran, Malini; Arfuso, Frank; Dilley, Rodney J; Newsholme, Philip; Dharmarajan, Arun

    2018-02-01

    Tumours exhibit a heterogeneous mix of cell types that reciprocally regulate their growth in the tumour stroma, considerably affecting the progression of the disease. Both adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and Wnt signalling pathway are vital in driving breast tumour growth. Hence, we examined the effect of secreted factors released by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and further explored the anti-tumour property of the Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cells. We observed that conditioned medium and extracellular matrix derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibited tumour viability. The inhibitory effect of the conditioned medium was retained within its low molecular weight and non-protein component. The conditioned medium also induced apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential in tumour cells, Furthermore, it downregulated the protein expression of active β-catenin and Cyclin D1, which are major target proteins of the Wnt signalling pathway, and reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. The combination of conditioned medium and sFRP4 further potentiated the effects, depending on the tumour cell line and experimental assay. We conclude that factors derived from conditioned medium of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and sFRP4 significantly decreased the tumour cell viability and migration rates (MCF-7), accompanied with an enhanced apoptotic activity through inhibition of canonical Wnt signalling. Besides giving an insight to possible paracrine interactions and influence of signalling pathways, reflective of a breast tumour microenvironment, this study emphasises the utilization of cell free-secreted factors and Wnt antagonists to improve conventional anti-cancer strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered lipid metabolism in residual white adipose tissues of Bscl2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqin Chen

    Full Text Available Mutations in BSCL2 underlie human congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2 disease. We previously reported that Bscl2 (-/- mice develop lipodystrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT due to unbridled lipolysis. The residual epididymal WAT (EWAT displays a browning phenotype with much smaller lipid droplets (LD and higher expression of brown adipose tissue marker proteins. Here we used targeted lipidomics and gene expression profiling to analyze lipid profiles as well as genes involved in lipid metabolism in WAT of wild-type and Bscl2(-/- mice. Analysis of total saponified fatty acids revealed that the residual EWAT of Bscl2(-/- mice contained a much higher proportion of oleic 18:1n9 acid concomitant with a lower proportion of palmitic 16:0 acid, as well as increased n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA remodeling. The acyl chains in major species of triacylglyceride (TG and diacylglyceride (DG in the residual EWAT of Bscl2(-/- mice were also enriched with dietary fatty acids. These changes could be reflected by upregulation of several fatty acid elongases and desaturases. Meanwhile, Bscl2(-/- adipocytes from EWAT had increased gene expression in lipid uptake and TG synthesis but not de novo lipogenesis. Both mitochondria and peroxisomal β-oxidation genes were also markedly increased in Bscl2(-/- adipocytes, highlighting that these machineries were accelerated to shunt the lipolysis liberated fatty acids through uncoupling to dissipate energy. The residual subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ScWAT was not browning but displays similar changes in lipid metabolism. Overall, our data emphasize that, other than being essential for adipocyte differentiation, Bscl2 is also important in fatty acid remodeling and energy homeostasis.

  17. Physiological effects and tissue residues from exposure of leopard frogs to commercial naphthenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Judit E G; Hersikorn, Blair D; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2012-10-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) have been cited as one of the main causes of the toxicity related to oil sands process-affected materials and have recently been measured in biological tissues (fish). However, adverse effects have not been a consistent finding in toxicology studies on vertebrates. This study set out to determine two factors: 1) whether exposure to commercial NAs (Refined Merichem) resulted in detectable tissue residues in native amphibians (northern leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens), and 2) whether such exposure would produce clinical or subclinical toxicity. Frogs were kept in NA solutions (0, 20, or 40 mg/L) under saline conditions comparable to that on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands for 28 days. These exposures resulted in proportional NA concentrations in muscle tissue of the frogs, estimated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Detailed studies determined if the increasing concentrations of NAs, and subsequently increased tissue NA levels, caused a proportional compromise in the health of the experimental animals. Physiological investigations included innate immune function, thyroid hormone levels, and hepatic detoxification enzyme induction, none of which differed in response to increased exposures or tissue concentrations of NAs. Body mass did increase in both the salt- and NA-exposed animals, likely related to osmotic pressure and uptake of water through the skin. Our results demonstrate that commercial NAs are absorbed and deposited in muscle tissue, yet they show few negative physiological or toxicological effects on the frogs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Monte Carlo modelling of photodynamic therapy treatments comparing clustered three dimensional tumour structures with homogeneous tissue structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. L.; Wood, K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Moseley, H.

    2016-07-01

    We explore the effects of three dimensional (3D) tumour structures on depth dependent fluence rates, photodynamic doses (PDD) and fluorescence images through Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy. The aim with this work was to compare the commonly used uniform tumour densities with non-uniform densities to determine the importance of including 3D models in theoretical investigations. It was found that fractal 3D models resulted in deeper penetration on average of therapeutic radiation and higher PDD. An increase in effective treatment depth of 1 mm was observed for one of the investigated fractal structures, when comparing to the equivalent smooth model. Wide field fluorescence images were simulated, revealing information about the relationship between tumour structure and the appearance of the fluorescence intensity. Our models indicate that the 3D tumour structure strongly affects the spatial distribution of therapeutic light, the PDD and the wide field appearance of surface fluorescence images.

  19. Control of anabolic hormone residues in tissues of slaughter animals in Poland during the period of 2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matraszek-Żuchowska Iwona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies of anabolic hormone residues in the tissues of slaughter animals have been carried out in Poland for more than 25 years. During the period of 2011 to 2015, a total of 35 387 samples from different animal species were tested in the National Residue Control Programme for the presence of residues of compounds that cause hormonal effects, as listed in Annex 1 of Directive 96/23/EC.

  20. Zeranol: a review of the metabolism, toxicology, and analytical methods for detection of tissue residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.S.; Williams, R.D.; Terry, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Zeranol, an anabolic agent produced commercially for use in cattle and sheep intended for human consumption, is noncarcinogenic, nonteratogenic, and nonmutagenic. Toxicity testing (acute, subacute, and chronic) in several species by various routes of administration reveals an extremely low toxicity, the oral rat LD 50 exceeding 40 g/kg. Postmortem abnormalities of high-dose animals are attributed to the effects of the compound on the endocrine system. Both zeranol itself and zearalanone, the major Phase I metabolite in the seven species studied, are excreted in the feces and in the urine, either free or as sulfates/glucuronides. A minor urinary metabolite has been identified as taleranol, an epimer of zeranol. Both metabolites exhibit a very low order of toxicity (oral rat LD 50 exceeding 10 g/kg in both cases), and both exhibit less biological activity than the parent compound. The four types of analytical methods which have been employed for the specific detection and quantitation of residues of zeranol in edible tissues are: (1) gas chromatography (detection limit . 20 ppb), (2) high-performance liquid chromatography (detection limit . 5 ppb), (3) thin-layer chromatography (detection limit . 1-3 ppb), and (4) radioimmunoassay methods (detection limit to be published). The following residue levels were determined radiometrically in tissue samples taken 45 days after implantation of cattle with 36 mg tritiated zeranol: less than or equal to 2 ppb in liver, less than or equal to 1 ppb in kidney and fat, and less than or equal to 0.2 ppb in muscle and plasma. A no-effect level (NEL) of 0.225 mg/kg was determined as the highest oral dosage of zeranol which produced no estrogenic effects in female monkeys. Based on the NEL, a tolerance level for tissue residues of zeranol was calculated as 315 ppb

  1. Retaining Residual Ovarian Tissue following Ovarian Failure Has Limited Influence on Bone Loss in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelieann R. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work showed that retaining residual ovarian tissue protects young mice from accelerated bone loss following ovarian failure. The present study was designed to determine whether this protection is also present in aged animals. Aged (9–12 months C57BL/6Hsd female mice were divided into: CON (vehicle, VCD (160 mg/kg; 15d, or OVX (ovariectomized. Lumbar BMD was monitored by DXA and μCT used to assess vertebral microarchitecture. BMD was not different between VCD and CON at any time point but was lower (P<.05 than baseline, starting 1 month after ovarian failure in VCD and OVX mice. Following μCT analysis there were no differences between CON and VCD, but OVX mice had lower bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and a trend for decreased connectivity density. These findings provide evidence that retention of residual ovarian tissue may protect aged follicle-depleted mice from accelerated bone loss to a lesser extent than that observed in young mice.

  2. [Comparison of pretreatment methods for the simultaneous determination of diclazuril and toltrazuril residues in chicken tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zuhao; Ge, Qinglian; Lu, Junxian; Liu, Xuexian; Gong, Jiansen; Zhu, Liangqiang; Qi, Kezong; Chen, Dingding; Peng, Kaisong

    2009-05-01

    The effects of four pretreatment methods (acetonitrile extraction-evaporation concentration, acetonitrile extraction-solid phase extraction (SPE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction and MSPD-SPE) for the simultaneous analysis of diclazuril and toltrazuril residues in chicken tissues were compared. The average recovery of 70% for the former three methods as achieved. In comparison with other methods, the MSPD method saved more than 60% in time and solvent. So, MSPD as the sample pretreatment method, an MSPD-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (MSPD-HPLC/UV) method was established for the analysis. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, the linear range was between 50 and 1,000 microg/kg. At the added levels of 50, 500, 1,000 ng/g, the recoveries of diclazuril and toltrazuril in chicken tissues ranged from 71.13% - 84.02% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) in the range of 3.76% - 12.11%, and the RSDs of intra- and interday analyses ranged from 3.70% - 6.77%. The detection limits of diclazuril and toltrazuril were less than 10 microg/kg. The quantitative limits of diclazuril and toltrazuril were less than 20 microg/kg. The method meet the requirements of the residue analysis on accuracy and precision.

  3. Multiparametric voxel-based analyses of standardized uptake values and apparent diffusion coefficients of soft-tissue tumours with a positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance system: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagiyama, Koji; Kamei, Ryotaro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, Yuji; Kawanami, Satoshi [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Hong, Sungtak [Philips Electronics Japan, Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihiro [Kyushu University, Departmant of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    To investigate the usefulness of voxel-based analysis of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for evaluating soft-tissue tumour malignancy with a PET/MR system. Thirty-five subjects with either ten low/intermediate-grade tumours or 25 high-grade tumours were prospectively enrolled. Zoomed diffusion-weighted and fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG)-PET images were acquired along with fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (FST2WIs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on FST2WIs including the tumour in all slices. ROIs were pasted onto PET and ADC-maps to measure SUVs and ADCs within tumour ROIs. Tumour volume, SUVmax, ADCminimum, the heterogeneity and the correlation coefficients of SUV and ADC were recorded. The parameters of high- and low/intermediate-grade groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. The mean correlation coefficient for SUV and ADC in high-grade sarcomas was lower than that of low/intermediate-grade tumours (-0.41 ± 0.25 vs. -0.08 ± 0.34, P < 0.01). Other parameters did not differ significantly. ROC analysis demonstrated that correlation coefficient showed the best diagnostic performance for differentiating the two groups (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 96.0%, specificity 60%, accuracy 85.7%). SUV and ADC determined via PET/MR may be useful for differentiating between high-grade and low/intermediate-grade soft tissue tumours. (orig.)

  4. Residues of Ractopamine and Identification of its Glucuronide Metabolites in Plasma, Urine, and Tissues of Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaohua; Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Qingyu; Meng, Qingshi; Zhang, Junmin

    2016-11-01

    Ractopamine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use as a growth promoter on cattle a decade ago is still banned by the European Union and most Asian countries. While, ractopamine residues in living samples and some organs (besides liver, muscle and kidney) of cattle under the recommended feed condition (10-30 mg/kg in dry matter, 28-42 days) remains unclear. In this study, nine cattle (246.22 ± 18.17 kg) were fed 0.67 mg/kg body weight (equivalent to 30 mg/kg in dry matter) of ractopamine for 28 days to investigate the residues of ractopamine in plasma, urine and organs. Plasma and urine were sampled during treatment and withdrawal period. Three cattle were slaughtered on withdrawal days 0 and 3 for organs collection. Ractopamine was determined by LC-MS/MS and its glucuronide metabolites were identified by Q-TOF/MS. Ractopamine concentrations in plasma and urine reached highest on treatment day 14 (2.88 ng/mL) and day 7 (4713.25 ng/mL), respectively. On withdrawal day 28, ractopamine concentrations in plasma and urine and were undetectable (limit of quantitation, 0.2 ng/mL) and 4.21 ng/mL, respectively. On withdrawal day 0, ractopamine residue in tissues were as follows: liver > eye > lung > spleen > aqueous fluid > heart > bile > kidney > gluteus > rib eye muscle. Compared with those on withdrawal day 0, ractopamine contents in most tissues that sampled on withdrawal day 3 were lower (P ractopamine approved countries and monitoring of the illegal usage in countries that ban ractopamine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The UW 21/123 monoclonal antibody in the radioimmunological detection of tumour tissue in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.

    1987-01-01

    When incorporated in a radioimmunoassay the UW 21/123 the monoclonal antibody permits the diagnosis of certain squamous cell carcinoma of the cephalocervical region and is particularly reliable in the detection laryngeal carcinomas. It even permits the assessment of tumour cells that are not yet fully developed and thus still escape histological detection. (MBC) [de

  6. A simulation model for the prediction of tissue:plasma partition coefficients for drug residues in natural casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritova, Aneliya Milanova; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2010-09-01

    Tissue residues arise from the exposure of animals to undesirable substances in animal feed materials and drinking water and to the therapeutic or zootechnical use of veterinary medicinal products. In the framework of this study, an advanced toxicokinetic model was developed to predict the likelihood of residue disposition of licensed veterinary products in natural casings used as envelope for a variety of meat products, such as sausages. The model proved suitable for the calculation of drug concentrations in the muscles of pigs, cattle and sheep, the major species of which intestines are used. On the basis of drug concentrations in muscle tissue, the model allowed a prediction of intestinal concentrations and residues in the intestines that remained equal to or below the concentrations in muscle tissue, the major consumable product of slaughter animals. Subsequently, residues in intestines were found to be below the maximum residue limit value for muscle tissue when drugs were used according to prescribed procedures, including the application of appropriate withdrawal times. Considering the low consumption of natural casings (which represents only about 1-2% of the weight of a normal sausage), it was concluded that the exposure to drug residues from casings is negligible. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perfusion pattern and time of vascularisation with CEUS increase accuracy in differentiating between benign and malignant tumours in 216 musculoskeletal soft tissue masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marchi, Armanda, E-mail: armanda.demarchi@tiscali.it [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Prever, Elena Brach del, E-mail: elena.brach@unito.it [Department of OrthopaedicOncology and ReconstructiveSurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cavallo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cavallo@unito.it [Department of Public health and Paediatrics, University of Turin, Via Santena 5-bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Pozza, Simona, E-mail: simona.pozza@tin.it [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Linari, Alessandra, E-mail: linaralessandra@libero.it [Department of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, Regina Margherita Hospital, Piazza Polonia, 10126 Torino (Italy); Lombardo, Paolo, E-mail: pao.lombardo82@gmail.com [Department of DiagnosticImaging and Radiotherapy of the University of Turin, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Via Genova 3, 10126 Torino (Italy); Comandone, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.comandone@gradenigo.it [Department of Oncology, Gradenigo Hospital, Corso Regina Margherita, 8/10.10153 Torino (Italy); Piana, Raimondo, E-mail: raimondo.piana@libero.it [Department of OrthopaedicOncology and ReconstructiveSurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Faletti, Carlo [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal Soft Tissue Tumours (STT) are frequent heterogeneous lesions. Guidelines consider a mass larger than 5 cm and deep with respect to the deep fascia potentially malignant. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) can detect both vascularity and tumour neoangiogenesis. We hypothesised that perfusion patterns and vascularisation time could improve the accuracy of CEUS in discriminating malignant tumours from benign lesions. Materials and methods: 216 STT were studied: 40% benign lesions, 60% malignant tumours, 56% in the lower limbs. Seven CEUS perfusion patterns and three types of vascularisation (arterial-venous uptake, absence of uptake) were applied. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing imaging with the histological diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis, Chi-square test and t-test for independent variables were applied; significance was set at p < 0.05 level, 95% computed CI. Results: CEUS pattern 6 (inhomogeneous perfusion), arterial uptake and location in the lower limb were associated with high risk of malignancy. CEUS pattern has PPV 77%, rapidity of vascularisation PPV 69%; location in the limbs is the most sensitive indicator, but NPV 52%, PPV 65%. The combination of CEUS-pattern and vascularisation has 74% PPV, 60% NPV, 70% sensitivity. No correlation with size and location in relation to the deep fascia was found. Conclusion: US with CEUS qualitative analysis could be an accurate technique to identify potentially malignant STT, for which second line imaging and biopsy are indicated in Referral Centers. Intense inhomogeneous enhancement with avascular areas and rapid vascularisation time could be useful in discriminating benign from malignant SST, overall when the lower limbs are involved.

  8. Crucial role of mechanisms and modes of toxic action for understanding tissue residue toxicity and internal effect concentrations of organic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.I.; Ashauer, R.; Dyer, S.; Hermens, J.L.M.; van der Lee, J.H.; Leslie, H.A.; Mayer, P.; Meador, J.P.; Warne, M.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanistic basis of the tissue residue approach for toxicity assessment (TRA). The tissue residue approach implies that whole-body or organ concentrations (residues) are a better dose metric for describing toxicity to aquatic organisms than is the aqueous concentration

  9. Determination of drug residues by CLAR-MS/MS in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes Jimenez, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Produced food of animal origin, present the possibility of occurrence of any contact with substances that have negative effects on the health of people who consume them. The use of drugs in veterinary medicine is one of the possible sources of such waste; so, the conditions for the analysis of some classes of antibiotics in animal tissues are based on the study. Costa Rica and the countries that are export destination, have regulation and programs for control before to be distributed in local markets, or post if it is received any complaint of pollution. The high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometers (CLAR-MS/MS) allows the analysis of analytes monitored, according to the specifications required by the legislation. The cases of two laboratories in Costa Rica are presented as the only ones who have the ability to perform the analysis of drug residues CLAR-MS/MS. (author) [es

  10. Physiological and biochemical effects of morphactin IT 3233 on callus and tumour tissues of Nicotiana tabacum L. cultured in vitro III. Transamination processes catalysed by aminotransferase L-alanine: 2-oxoglutarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An active alanine transaminase was found both in callus and tumour tissues of tobacco. The enzyme is more active in the latter tissue, and the reaction balance is strongly shifted towards alanine production, while in callus tissue towards glutamic acid formation. Morphactin applied to the tissue cultures stimulates markedly the enzyme activity only in callus. A negative correlation was observed between the intensity of transamination processes and enhanced synthesis of proteins in the tissues studied. Morphactin disturbs nitrogen metabolism in the callus tissue. Tumour tissue is more resistant to the action of this substance. The different hormonal activities in these tissues may be the cause of the different effects of morphactin.

  11. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  12. Post-mortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Kevin; Olson, Greg; Forbes, Shari L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gasoline residues could be detected post-mortem in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. The lungs and heart blood were investigated to determine whether they were suitable samples for collection and could be collected without contamination during an autopsy. Three sets of test subjects (pig carcasses) were investigated under two different fire scenarios. Test subjects 1 were anaesthetized following animal ethics approval, inhaled gasoline vapours for a short period and then euthanized. The carcasses were clothed and placed in a house where additional gasoline was poured onto the carcass post-mortem in one fire, but not in the other. Test subjects 2 did not inhale gasoline, were clothed and placed in the house and had gasoline poured onto them in both fires. Test subjects 3 were clothed but had no exposure to gasoline either ante- or post-mortem. Following controlled burns and suppression with water, the carcasses were collected, and their lungs and heart blood were excised at a necropsy. The headspace from the samples was analysed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Gasoline was identified in the lungs and heart blood from the subjects that were exposed to gasoline vapours prior to death (test subjects 1). All other samples were negative for gasoline residues. These results suggest that it is useful to analyse for volatile ignitable liquids in lung tissue and blood as it may help to determine whether a victim was alive and inhaling gases at the time of a fire.

  13. Effects of radiation therapy on tissue and serum concentrations of tumour associated trypsin inhibitor and their prognostic significance in rectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenman Ulf-Håkan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that elevated concentrations of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI in both tumour tissue (t-TATI and in serum (s-TATI are associated with a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. It was also found that s-TATI concentrations were lower in patients with rectal cancer compared to patients with colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT on concentrations of t-TATI and s-TATI in patients with rectal cancer. Methods TATI was analysed in serum, normal mucosa and tumour tissue collected at various time points in 53 rectal cancer patients enrolled in a case-control study where 12 patients received surgery alone, 20 patients 5 × 5 Gy (short-term preoperative RT and 21 patients 25 × 2 Gy (long-term preoperative RT. T-TATI was analysed by immunohistochemistry and s-TATI was determined by an immunofluorometric assay. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Z (Z test were used to assess t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations in relation to RT. Spearman's correlation (R test was used to explore the associations between t-TATI, s-TATI and clinicopathological parameters. Overall survival (OS according to high and low t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations was estimated by classification and regression tree analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test. Results RT did not affect concentrations of t-TATI or s-TATI. In patients receiving short-term but not long-term RT, s-TATI concentrations were significantly higher 4 weeks post surgery than in serum drawn prior to surgery (Z = -3.366, P Conclusions The results presented here further validate the utility of t-TATI and s-TATI as prognostic biomarkers in patients with rectal cancer, independent of neoadjuvant RT.

  14. Investigation of antibiotic residues in edible tissues of slaughtered broilers in Maragheh abattoir using FPT method (short comunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Abasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues in food stuff and their transmission to the consumers have some consequences such as bacterial resistance, allergic reactions, intoxication, carcinogenic effects and disturbing of intestine natural flora. Among microbiologic methods, four plate test (FPT is used to detect antibiotic residues in food stuff, which performs in four culture media with different pH values and test bacteria. The aim of this study was investigation of antibiotic residues in edible tissues of slaughtered broilers in Maragheh abattoir using FPT method. For this reason, 40 slaughtered broilers carcasses in Maragheh abattoir (from 10 different poultry farms were sampled. The sampling was conducted randomly from breast and leg muscles, gizzard as well as liver of each carcass. According to results of current study, 60% of liver samples, 55% of leg samples, 52.5% of breast samples and 52.5% of gizzard samples contained antibiotic residues. Moreover, the amount of antibiotic residues among different samples did not show statistical significance (p>0.05. The highest occurrence of antibiotic residue was found in two flocks (100% and the lowest occurrence was recorded for another two flocks (0%. According to the health hazard of antibiotic residues in foods, continuous monitoring is recommended for edible tissues of broilers.

  15. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatter, J.G. [Pharmacia Corp., Peapack, NJ (United States); Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A. [Pharmacia Corp., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [{sup 14}C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [{sup 14}C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. After 7 daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C{sub max} and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  16. MRI findings associated with microscopic residual tumor following unplanned excision of soft tissue sarcomas in the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lee; Chelala, Lydia; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K.; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Kerr, Darcy A.; Yang, Xuan

    2018-01-01

    MRI is often used to determine the presence of residual disease following unplanned excisions (UPE) of soft tissue sarcomas (STS). We sought to identify MRI features associated with histologic evidence of residual disease after TBE. This was an IRB-approved retrospective review of 27 patients with R1-type UPE of STS over a 32-month period, with subsequent MRI and TBE. MRI studies were retrospectively evaluated to determine depth of tissue involvement, presence of nodular enhancement, and maximum length of soft tissue edema normalized to extremity size. MRI findings were correlated with histology from unplanned excision and TBE. Among the 21 subjects, there were 13 males and 8 females, mean age 58. Eighteen of 21 STS were grade 2 or 3. Deep compartments were involved in 5/21 cases. Original margins were positive in 17/21 UPE, with inadequate margin assessment in the remaining 4 cases. Residual tumor was present at TBE in 11/21 cases; it was found in 4/6 cases with nodular enhancement and 7/15 cases without nodular enhancement (sensitivity = 0.36; specificity = 0.80; PPV = 0.67; NPV = 0.53). Increased extent of soft tissue edema increased the likelihood of residual tumor at TBE (OR = 35.0; 95% CI = 1.6 to 752.7; p = 0.023). Nodular enhancement is neither sensitive nor specific in predicting residual microscopic tumor in TBE following UPE. Extensive soft tissue edema on MRI after UPE increases the likelihood of finding a residual microscopic tumor, justifying ample margins at TBE and consideration of adjuvant therapy. (orig.)

  17. A simulation model for the prediction of tissue:plasma partition coefficients for drug residues in natural casings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haritova, A.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue residues arise from the exposure of animals to undesirable substances in animal feed materials and drinking water and to the therapeutic or zootechnical use of veterinary medicinal products. In the framework of this study, an advanced toxicokinetic model was developed to predict the

  18. Removal of residual cavitation nuclei to enhance histotripsy fractionation of soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Alexander P; Cain, Charles A; Roberts, William W; Hall, Timothy L

    2015-12-01

    Remanent bubble nuclei generated by primary cavitation collapse can limit the efficiency of histotripsy softtissue fractionation. When these residual bubbles persist from one histotripsy pulse to the next, they can seed the repetitive nucleation of cavitation bubbles at a discrete set of sites within the focal volume. This effect-referred to as cavitation memory- manifests in inefficient lesion formation, because certain sites within the focal volume are overtreated whereas others remain undertreated. Although the cavitation memory effect can be passively mitigated by using a low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) that affords remanent nuclei sufficient time for dissolution between successive pulses, this low PRF also results in slow lesion production. As such, it would be highly desirable to maintain the high per-pulse efficiency associated with low pulse rates when much higher PRFs are utilized. In this vein, we have developed a strategy for the active removal of the remanent bubble nuclei following primary cavitation collapse, using low-amplitude ultrasound sequences (termed bubble-removal sequences) to stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of these bubbles. In this study, bubbleremoval sequences were incorporated in high-PRF histotripsy treatment (100 Hz) of a red blood cell tissue-mimicking phantom that allows for the visualization of lesion development in real time. A series of reference treatments were also conducted at the low PRF of 1 Hz to provide a point of comparison for which cavitation memory effects are minimal. It was found that bubble-removal sequences as short as 1 ms are capable of maintaining the efficacious lesion development characteristics associated with the low PRF of 1 Hz when the much higher pulse rate of 100 Hz is used. These results were then extended to the treatment of a large volume within the tissue phantom, and optimal bubble-removal sequences identified for the singlefocal- spot case were utilized to homogenize a 10

  19. Comparison of the in vivo uptake and metabolism of /sup 3/H-oestrone and /sup 3/H-oestradiol by normal breast and breast tumour tissues in post-menopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, J.M.; Reed, M.J.; Beranek, P.A.; Bonney, R.C.; Ghilchik, M.W.; Robinson, D.J.; James, V.H.

    1986-08-15

    After infusion of /sup 3/H-oestradiol or /sup 3/H-oestrone into post-menopausal women with breast cancer, there was a significant uptake of both steroids by breast tumour and normal tissue. The proportion of oestrogen present in tumour tissue as /sup 3/H-oestradiol after infusion of /sup 3/H-oestradiol (89.4 +/- 3.5%, mean +/- SD, n = 4) was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than in normal breast tissue (72.8 +/- 3.3%) obtained from the same women. Similarly, after infusion of /sup 3/H-oestrone, the proportion of oestrogen present as /sup 3/H-oestradiol (48.4 +/- 14.4%) was significantly higher than in normal breast tissue (19.1 +/- 6.4%). These results suggest that conversion of oestrone to oestradiol is enhanced in breast tumour tissue with little metabolism of oestradiol. This would account for the higher concentrations of oestradiol reported in breast tumour tissue in the presence of increased oestradiol 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity.

  20. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with [3H]trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group

  1. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  2. Residues of sulfadiazine and doxycycline in broiler liver and muscle tissue due to cross-contamination of feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary drugs, such as antimicrobial compounds, are widely used in poultry and may lead to the presence of residues in matrices of animal origin, such as muscle and liver tissue. In this study, broilers received an experimental feed containing sulfadiazine or doxycycline at cross-contamination levels of 2.5, 5 and 10% of the therapeutic dose in feed. Breast and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion period and analysed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Concentrations reached a plateau phase 3-5 days after the start of experimental feeding. A rapid depletion of residues was noted after withdrawal of the experimental feed. No significant differences in measured concentrations were observed between the various muscle types. Residue concentrations for some experimental groups; the 10% group of sulfadiazine and the 5 and 10% group of doxycycline, however, exceeded their corresponding maximum residue limits (MRLs).

  3. Study of the relationship between the target tissue necrosis volume and the target tissue size in liver tumours using two-compartment finite element RFA modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Moser, Michael A J; Zhang, Edwin M; Luo, Yigang; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the target tissue necrosis volume and the target tissue size during the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedure. The target tissues with four different sizes (dxy = 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm) were modelled using a two-compartment radiofrequency ablation model. Different voltages were applied to seek the maximum target tissue necrosis volume for each target tissue size. The first roll-off occurrence or the standard ablation time (12 min) was taken as the sign for the termination of the RFA procedure. Four different maximum voltages without the roll-off occurrence were found for the four different sizes of target tissues (dxy = 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm), and they were 36.6, 35.4, 33.9 and 32.5 V, respectively. The target tissues with diameters of 20, 25 mm can be cleanly ablated at their own maximum voltages applied (MVA) but the same finding was not found for the 35-mm target tissue. For the target tissue with diameter of 30 mm, the 50 °C isothermal contour (IT50) result showed that the target tissue can be cleanly ablated, but the same result did not show in the Arrhenius damage model result. Furthermore, two optimal RFA protocols with a minimal thermal damage to the healthy tissues were found for the target tissues with diameters of 20 and 25 mm, respectively. The study suggests that target tissues of different sizes should be treated with different RFA protocols. The maximum target tissue volume was achieved with the MVA without the roll-off occurrence for each target tissue size when a constant RF power supply was used.

  4. Quantification of phosphorus metabolites in human calf muscle and soft-tissue tumours from localized MR spectra acquired using surface coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, V. L.; Payne, G. S.; Collins, D. J.; Verrill, M. W.; Leach, M. O.

    1997-04-01

    Metabolite concentrations determined from MR spectra provide more specific information than peak area ratios. This paper presents a method of quantification that allows metabolite concentrations to be determined from in vivo MR spectra acquired using a surface coil and ISIS localization. Corrections for the effects of field inhomogeneity produced by surface coils are based on a measured and calibrated spatial sensitivity field map for the coil. Account is taken of imperfections in pulse performance, coil loading effects and relaxation effects, the latter making use of published metabolite relaxation times. The technique is demonstrated on model solutions. The concentrations of the main metabolites in normal human calf muscle measured using this method are [PCr] = ; [Pi] = ; [NTP] = . Quantification of spectra acquired from soft-tissue tumours in patients both pre- and post-treatment showed that changes in metabolite concentrations are more sensitive to metabolic changes than changes in peak area ratios.

  5. Ovarian tissue cryopreserved for fertility preservation from patients with Ewing or other sarcomas appear to have no tumour cell contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tine; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans; Grauslund, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The chemotherapy required to treat patients with sarcoma may as a side-effect induce infertility in girls and young women. If these patients have ovarian cortical tissue cryopreserved prior to chemotherapy, they may, if necessary, have the tissue transplanted and restore their fertility. The aim ...

  6. Effects of radiation therapy on tissue and serum concentrations of tumour associated trypsin inhibitor and their prognostic significance in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, Alexander; Jirström, Karin; Stene, Christina; Hotakainen, Kristina; Nodin, Björn; Palmquist, Ingrid; Bjartell, Anders; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Jeppsson, Bengt; Johnson, Louis B

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that elevated concentrations of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) in both tumour tissue (t-TATI) and in serum (s-TATI) are associated with a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. It was also found that s-TATI concentrations were lower in patients with rectal cancer compared to patients with colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on concentrations of t-TATI and s-TATI in patients with rectal cancer. TATI was analysed in serum, normal mucosa and tumour tissue collected at various time points in 53 rectal cancer patients enrolled in a case-control study where 12 patients received surgery alone, 20 patients 5 × 5 Gy (short-term) preoperative RT and 21 patients 25 × 2 Gy (long-term) preoperative RT. T-TATI was analysed by immunohistochemistry and s-TATI was determined by an immunofluorometric assay. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Z (Z) test were used to assess t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations in relation to RT. Spearman's correlation (R) test was used to explore the associations between t-TATI, s-TATI and clinicopathological parameters. Overall survival (OS) according to high and low t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations was estimated by classification and regression tree analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test. RT did not affect concentrations of t-TATI or s-TATI. In patients receiving short-term but not long-term RT, s-TATI concentrations were significantly higher 4 weeks post surgery than in serum drawn prior to surgery (Z = -3.366, P < 0.001). T-TATI expression correlated with male gender (R = 0.406, P = 0.008). High t-TATI expression in surgical specimens was associated with a significantly shorter OS (P = 0.045). S-TATI concentrations in serum drawn at all time points were associated with an impaired OS (P = 0.035 before RT, P = 0.001 prior to surgery, P = 0.043 post surgery). At all time points, s-TATI correlated with higher age (P < 0

  7. Carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of lambs fed with banana crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Dayana do Carmo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substitution of Cynodon hay with banana plantation residue hay on the carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of feedlot Santa Inês lambs. Twenty-five whole lambs were used, with an average age of five months and an initial live weight of 26.95 kg (± 1.5, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (1 = 40% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 2 = 20% banana leaf hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 3 = 40% banana leaf hay + 60% concentrate; 4 = 20% banana pseudostem hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 5 = 40% banana pseudostem hay + 60% concentrate and five repetitions. The lambs were slaughtered on day 69 of the experiment. The variables evaluated were: live weight without fasting (LWWF, live weight post-fasting (LWPF, morphometric measurements in vivo and postmortem, hot and cold carcass weights (HCW, CCW, hot and cold carcass yield (HCY, CCY, biological performance and weight loss by chilling. The carcasses were divided into eight commercial cuts: neck, shoulder, foreshank and hindshank, breast and flank, loin, leg and rack. The leg, shoulder and loin were dissected into muscle, fat and bone. The animals fed on pseudostem hay showed higher LWWF, LWPF, body length, HCW and CCW; however, the HCY, CCY, morphometric measurements and commercial cut weights and yields were not altered by the treatments. The use of pseudostem hay allows for heavier carcasses; however, the use of coproducts changed the characteristics and carcass yield of the assessed commercial cuts.

  8. Low expression of Mda-7/IL-24 and high expression of C-myb in tumour tissues are predictors of poor prognosis for Burkitt lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Zhao, Riyang; Yang, Xingxiao; Zhao, Lianmei; Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Xuexiao; Shan, Baoen

    2018-02-08

    Burkitt lymphoma is one of the most common types of haematopoietic malignancy in children and adolescents. Mda-7/IL-24 had been identified as a differentiation inducer of Burkitt lymphoma cells. Previous studies have revealed that knockdown of C-myb can also lead to the terminal differentiation of Burkitt lymphoma cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the expression of Mda-7/IL-24 and C-myb, as well as their prognostic significance, for Burkitt lymphoma patients. The tumour tissues were collected from 59 cases of Burkitt lymphoma patients and detected with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of Mda-7/IL-24 was lower, whereas the expression of C-myb was higher in Burkitt lymphoma tissues compared to specimens of normal lymph node tissues. Furthermore, C-myb expression was negatively correlated with Mda-7/IL-24 expression at the protein level in Burkitt lymphoma tissues and cell lines. Both the expression of Mda-7/IL-24 and C-myb in Burkitt lymphoma tissues was associated with some clinicopathological parameters, such as clinical stage, infiltration in the bone marrow, Ki67 and overall survival rates. These results indicated that low expression of Mda-7/IL-24 along with high expression of C-myb are predictors for poor prognosis of Burkitt lymphoma patients; this outcome suggests that Mda-7/IL-24 and C-myb might be potential targets for clinical treatment of Burkitt lymphoma. Mda-7/IL-24: melanoma differentiation associated gene7/interleukin 24; FCM: flow cytometry; Ecog: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; IPI: International lymphoma prognosis index.

  9. DETECTION OF LASALOCID RESIDUES IN THE TISSUES OF BROILER CHICKENS BY A NEW SCREENING TEST TOTAL ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levkut, ml.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial growth inhibition test Total antibiotics for the screening of lasalocid residues in the tissues of broiler chickens after its oral administration in medicated feed. The residues were investigated throughout the 5-day withdrawal period /WP/ and also on day 6 representing the first day following the WP. All broiler chicken tissues were positive for lasalocid. The breast muscle was positive (the presence of residues at/above the detection limit /LOD/ of method up to day 1 of the WP, the thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, skin and fat up to day 3 of the WP and the liver and kidneys up to day 4 of the WP. When evaluating the dubious results (the presence of residues just below the LOD of method, the breast muscle was suspect positive up to day 3 of the WP and the gizzard, skin and fat up to day 4 of the WP. No positive or dubious results were detected on day 5 of the WP. The LOD of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis for maduramycin was 500 µg.l-1.doi:10.5219/140

  10. Human health risks associated with residual pesticide levels in edible tissues of slaughtered cattle in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in meat is of growing concern due to possible adverse effects on humans. Pesticide levels were assessed in five edible cattle parts: muscle, liver, kidney and tongue tissues to determine human health risk associated with consumption of these tissues. Health risk estimates were analysed using estimated daily intake (EDI, hazard quotient (HQ and hazard index (HI for two (2 age/weight categories: 1–11years/30 kg for children while 70 kg was used for adult. Risks were categorized for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects and measured at the average, maximum, 50th and 95th percentiles of the measured exposure concentrations (MEC. Total pesticide residues ranged from 2.38 to 3.86 μg/kg (muscle, 3.58 to 6.3 μg/kg (liver, 1.87 to 4.59 μg/kg (kidney and 2.54 to 4.35 μg/kg (tongue. Residual pesticide concentrations in the tissues were in the order: Liver > Tongue > Muscle > Kidney. The concentrations of all the assessed pesticides observed in the tissues were however lower than the recommended maximum residual limits (MRLs. Human health risk estimations for the children showed EDI values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin and dieldrin exceeding threshold values. Non-cancer risk posed to children on consumption of contaminated cattle parts showed HQ values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin and HI values for organochlorines exceeding 1, indicating the possibility of non-carcinogenic health risks to consumers especially children from consumption of cattle meat from the selected abattoirs.

  11. IL-12 immunotherapy of minimal residual disease in murine models of HPV16-associated tumours: induction of immune responses, cytokine production and kinetics of immune cell subsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2008), s. 499-507 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/06/0774 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV 16 * MHC class I-positive and -deficient tumours * immature myeloid cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2008

  12. Tumour suppression in skin and other tissues via cross-talk between vitamin D- and p53-signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eReichrath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available P53 and its family members have been implicated in the direct regulation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. Vitamin D- and p53-signaling pathways have a significant impact on spontaneous or carcinogen-induced malignant transformation of cells, with VDR and p53 representing important tumour suppressors. VDR and the p53/p63/p73 proteins all function typically as receptors or sensors that turn into transcriptional regulators upon stimulus, with the main difference being that the nuclear VDR is activated as a transcription factor after binding its naturally occurring ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with high affinity while the p53 family of transcription factors, mostly in the nucleoplasm, responds to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis commonly referred to as stress. An increasing body of evidence now convincingly demonstrates a cross-talk between vitamin D- and p53-signaling that occurs at different levels, has genome-wide implications and that should be of high importance for many malignancies, including non-melanoma skin cancer. One interaction involves the ability of p53 to increase skin pigmentation via POMC derivatives including alpha-MSH and ACTH. Pigmentation protects the skin against UV-induced DNA damage and skin carcinogenesis, yet on the other hand reduces cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. A second level of interaction may be through the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to increase the survival of skin cells after UV irradiation. UV irradiation-surviving cells show significant reductions in thymine dimers in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D that are associated with increased nuclear p53 protein expression, and significantly reduced NO products. A third level of interaction is documented by the ability of vitamin D compounds to regulate the expression of the murine double minute 2 (MDM2 gene in dependence of the presence of wild-type p53. MDM2 has a well established role as a key negative regulator of p53 activity

  13. Automated Analysis of Protein Expression and Gene Amplification within the Same Cells of Paraffin-Embedded Tumour Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Gaiser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The simultaneous detection of protein expression and gene copy number changes in patient samples, like paraffin-embedded tissue sections, is challenging since the procedures of immunohistochemistry (IHC and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH negatively influence each other which often results in suboptimal staining. Therefore, we developed a novel automated algorithm based on relocation which allows subsequent detection of protein content and gene copy number changes within the same cell.

  14. Chlorine and sodium perfusion and electrolyte balance in human tissue and tumours before and during neutron and photon radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, L.; Knopf, K.; Auberger, Th

    1997-08-01

    Radiotherapy with nuclear reactor fission neutrons was applied in 49 cases of pre-treated patients with superficial metastases or relapses from primary carcinoma. Measurements of the decay rates of the radiation-induced radioactivity of , and in the irradiated tissue resulted in values for the simultaneous local kinetics of chlorine and sodium, and in approximate data on the electrolyte masses. The electrolytes were present in non-exchangeable and exchangeable compartments of soft tissue. Exchange times of the intravascular to extravascular turnover and the frequencies of the exchange fractions were determined for a series of irradiations. The results have been interpreted in terms of the mean electrolyte exchange rates, of a standardized functional blood flow, and of the supply capacity of the vascular system. In the average of all cases, the regional perfusion was reduced by about 30% by irradiation up to 14 Gy (equivalent photon dose ) connected with an increase in the non-exchangeable fractions. After fractionated doses higher than 14 Gy, functional blood flow and supply capacity increased to 120%, and fixed electrolytes were removed from the irradiated tissue. Data on electrolyte kinetics and vascularity are compared with the literature.

  15. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue in children with mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy: Evaluation of splenic residual functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue is an attempt for maintenance of splenic functions when splenectomy is indicated in children. It minimizes the risks of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection and it has been done in children with severe portal hypertension due to hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis that underwent splenectomy. The purposes of this investigation were to study the morphology of the residual splenic tissue; to evaluate the residual filtration function of this splenosis; and to assess the immune response to polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty-three children with portal hypertension from mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein, autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch were evaluated for residual splenic parenchyma and functions. Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans were used for detection of splenic nodules. The search for Howell Jolly bodies were used for assessing the filtration function and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for measuring the relative rise in titter of specific pneumococcal antibodies. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, in two there were less than five splenic nodules in the greater omentum, which was considered insufficient. Howell-Jolly bodies were found in the peripheral blood only in these two patients with less evident splenosis. The immune response was adequate in 15 patients; it was intermediate in 4 patients and inadequate in 4 patients. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch is efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% of the cases and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in approximately 65% of the children.

  17. Low tumour cell content in a lung tumour bank: implications for molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Felicia; Duhig, Edwina E; Clarke, Belinda E; McCaul, Elizabeth; Passmore, Linda; Courtney, Deborah; Windsor, Morgan; Naidoo, Rishendren; Franz, Louise; Parsonson, Kylie; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer encompasses multiple malignant epithelial tumour types, each with specific targetable, potentially actionable mutations, such that precision management mandates accurate tumour typing. Molecular characterisation studies require high tumour cell content and low necrosis content, yet lung cancers are frequently a heterogeneous mixture of tumour and stromal cells. We hypothesised that there may be systematic differences in tumour cell content according to histological subtype, and that this may have implications for tumour banks as a resource for comprehensive molecular characterisation studies in lung cancer. To investigate this, we estimated tumour cell and necrosis content of 4267 samples resected from 752 primary lung tumour specimens contributed to a lung tissue bank. We found that banked lung cancer samples had low tumour cell content (33%) generally, although it was higher in carcinoids (77.5%) than other lung cancer subtypes. Tumour cells comprise a variable and often small component of banked resected tumour samples, and are accompanied by stromal reaction, inflammation, fibrosis, and normal structures. This has implications for the adequacy of unselected tumour bank samples for diagnostic and molecular investigations, and further research is needed to determine whether tumour cell content has a significant impact on analytical results in studies using tissue from tumour bank resources. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clenbuterol Distribution and Residues in Goat Tissues After the Repeated Administration of a Growth-Promoting Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Yao, Ting; Qin, Yuchang; Yang, Xiaowei; Li, Jun; Li, Junguo; Gu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the deposition and depletion process of clenbuterol (CL) in goat tissues, plasma and urine after the repeated administration of a growth-promoting dose. The experiment was conducted in 24 goats (21 treated and 3 controls). Treated animals were administered orally in a dose of 16 µg/kg body mass once daily for 21 consecutive days and randomly sacrificed on days 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the withdrawal period. CL in goat tissues was extracted with organic solvents and determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The depletion rates of tissue differed significantly. The highest concentrations of CL in all tissues are detected on day 0.25 of treatment discontinuation. After administration had been discontinued for 28 days, CL still residues in all tissues, especially, in whole eye, where the concentrations reach 363.29 ± 31.60 μg/kg. These findings confirmed that the whole eye, which are rich in pigment, showed a much higher concentration than any other studied tissue during the withdrawal period. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ractopamine residues in retinal tissue of treated food-producing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulić, Ana; Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Milić, Dinka; Radeck, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Ractopamine is a β(2)-adrenergic agonist, which reduces fat deposition and promotes muscle growth in animals for meat production. In the European Union countries, systematic monitoring and control of this contaminant residue is regularly performed by use of validated analytical methods of detection in different biological materials. The aim of the present study was to assess persistence of ractopamine in retina as a pigmented tissue by determination of its residues using UPLC-MS/MS as a quantitative confirmatory method after pig exposure to a ractopamine dose of 0.51 mg/kg b.w. Experimental group (n=9) of pigs were orally administered ractopamine for 28 days and then randomly sacrificed (n=3) on days 1, 3 and 8 of treatment discontinuation, whereas control animals (n=3) were left untreated. Study results showed mean ractopamine residue concentrations of 110.36 μg/kg, 67.11 μg/kg and 89.93 μg/kg on days 1, 3 and 8 after withdrawal, respectively, indicating high accumulation of ractopamine in retina despite a low dose applied. These data pointed to high affinity of ractopamine for binding to the pigmented segment of the eye, thus supporting the use of pigmented tissues as matrices in the regulatory monitoring of this β(2)-adrenergic agonist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of tumour associated macrophages in tumour angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eKzhyshkowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumour angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumour cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumour cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumour endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM into tumor sites. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAM sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumours, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC and macrophages. In some tumours, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include bFGF, thymidine phosphorylase (TP, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, and adrenomedullin. The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis (like VEGF-A and MMP9 support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumour lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39 and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumour models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumour angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI-CLP in tumour angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remains to be

  1. Augmentation of residual alveolar bone height with tissue engineering for dental implant placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of correcting deficient vertical alveolar height for dental implant placement has been there since dental implants came in to regular clinical placement. The ability of various methods to increase the residual alveolar height has met with varying results. The primary reason is that the techniques were not quite successful in maintaining the required residual alveolar height. Use of Bone Morphogentic Protein, especially rhBMP-2 has been met with high degree of success in deficient vertical alveolar height in a mandibular ridge. The demonstration of this using a case has been presented here.

  2. Therapy for minimal residual tumour disease: beta-galactosylceramide inhibits growth of recurrent HPV16-associated neoplasms after surgery and chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Mikyšková, Romana; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 12 (2010), s. 2997-3004 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/06/0774; GA AV ČR IAA500520807; GA ČR GA301/07/1410; GA ČR GA301/09/1024 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : beta-galactosylceramide * tumour immunotherapy * NKT cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.926, year: 2010

  3. PTEN negative correlates with miR-181a in tumour tissues of non-obese endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geletina, Nadezhda S; Kobelev, Vyacheslav S; Babayants, Ekaterina V; Feng, Li; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F

    2018-05-20

    The effects of microRNAs on PTEN levels are characteristic for many types of cancer. However, the picture of the correlation between the expression levels of PTEN and its targeting microRNAs in endometrial cancer is not fully presented. Our study investigated and analysed the expression levels of PTEN and PTEN-targeting miR-21, miR-181a, miR-214, miR-301a, and miR-1908 in total of 78 samples, out of which 26 samples were from normal endometrium, whereas the 52 samples were from endometrial cancer samples. Our results demonstrated a high variability of individual endometrial cancer samples in the levels of PTEN. The level of miR-181a showed significant increment in endometrial cancer tissues in comparison with normal endometrium. We did not observe any statistically significant correlation between levels of microRNAs and PTEN in a heterogeneous cohort of patients. At the same time, in samples collected from endometrial cancer patients, it was found out that the relationship between PTEN expression and body mass index had significant positive correlation. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the expression of PTEN was significantly decreased, whereas expression of miR-181a was significantly over-expressed in non-obese compared to obese endometrial cancer patients. Additionally, we observed the relationship between PTEN levels and miR-181a related to the cancerous tissues for non-obese patients was established to be negatively correlated. Our findings suggest that decrease of PTEN via increase of miR-181a may be important contributor to endometrial cancer in non-obese patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vorinostat in refractory soft tissue sarcomas - Results of a multi-centre phase II trial of the German Soft Tissue Sarcoma and Bone Tumour Working Group (AIO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Mayer-Steinacker, Regine; Mayer, Frank; Grünwald, Viktor; Schütte, Jochen; Hartmann, Jörg T; Kasper, Bernd; Hüsing, Johannes; Hajda, Jacek; Ottawa, Gregor; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Mikus, Gerd; Burhenne, Jürgen; Lehmann, Lorenz; Heilig, Christoph E; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2016-09-01

    New treatment options for patients with metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma are urgently needed. Preclinical studies suggested activity of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. A multi-centre, open-label, non-randomised phase II trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of vorinostat in patients with locally advanced or metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma failing 1st-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy was initiated. Patients were treated with vorinostat 400 mg po qd for 28 d followed by a treatment-free period of 7 d, representing a treatment cycle of 5 weeks. Restaging was performed every three cycles or at clinical progression. Between 06/10 and 09/13, 40 Soft Tissue Sarcoma patients were treated with vorinostat at seven participating centres. Patients had received 1 (n=8, 20%), 2 (n=10, 25%) or ≥3 (n=22, 55%) previous lines of chemotherapy. Best response after three cycles of treatment was stable disease (n=9, 23%). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.2 and 12.3 months, respectively. Six patients showed long-lasting disease stabilisation for up to ten cycles. Statistical analyses failed to identify baseline predictive markers in this subgroup. Major toxicities (grade ≥III) included haematological toxicity (n=6, 15%) gastrointestinal disorders (n=5, 13%), fatigue (n=4, 10%), musculoskeletal pain (n=4, 10%), and pneumonia (n=2, 5%). In a heavily pre-treated patient population, objective response to vorinostat was low. However, a small subgroup of patients had long-lasting disease stabilisation. Further studies aiming to identify predictive markers for treatment response as well as exploration of combination regimens are warranted. NCT00918489 (ClinicalTrials.gov) EudraCT-number: 2008-008513-19. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depletion of isoeugenol residues from the fillet tissue of AQUI-S™ exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need in U.S. public aquaculture and fishery management for an approved sedative that allows for the immediate release of fish after sedation. AQUI-STM is a fish anesthetic/sedative approved for use in several countries and until recently was being developed in the U.S. as a sedative for immediate release of fish after sedation. The U.S. National Toxicology Program reported that isoeugenol (the active ingredient in AQUI-STM) exposed male mice showed clear evidence of carcinogenicity, therefore efforts within the U.S. Department of Interior to develop AQUI-STM as a sedative that allows for immediate release ceased. Despite the ruling, AQUI-STM still has the potential to be approved as an anesthetic with a short withdrawal time. Among the data required to gain approval for use in the U.S. are data describing the composition and depletion of all AQUI-STM residues from fish fillet tissue. A total residue depletion study for AQUI-STM was conducted by exposing market-sized rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (mean weight, 502.7 ± 54 g; s.d.) to 8.9 mg/L of 14C-[URL]-isoeugenol for 60 min in 17 °C water. The 14C-[URL]-isoeugenol was mixed with a surfactant resulting in a mixture that mimicked AQUI-STM. Groups of fish (n = 6) were sampled immediately after the exposure (0-h sample group) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h thereafter. Total isoeugenol-equivalent residue concentrations in the fillet tissue were determined by oxidizing triplicate subsamples of homogenized skin-on fillet tissue from each fish to 14CO2 and enumerating the radioactivity by static liquid scintillation counting. Isoeugenol concentrations in fillet tissue were determined by extracting homogenized fillet tissue with solvents and determining the isoeugenol concentrations in the extracts with high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The mean total isoeugenol-equivalent residue concentrations in the 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4-h sample groups were 55.4, 32.0, 19.8, 11

  6. Dispositions and tissue residue of zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Buranatragool, Kawinnart; Poapolathep, Saranya; Isariyodom, Supaporn; Imsilp, Kanjana; Klangkaew, Narumol; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a secondary fungal metabolite produced mainly by a Fusarium graminearum. To clarify the toxicokinetics, and residues of ZEA and its major metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) in chickens, ZEA was then administered intravenously (iv) or orally (po) to broiler chickens at a dosage of 1.2 mg/kg body weight. The concentrations of ZEA, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in the plasma and various tissues were quantified using LC–MS/MS. The plasma concentrations of ZEA were me...

  7. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  8. A study of neurotoxicity of BHC in relation to residual accumulation on the brain tissue of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ranjit

    2003-01-01

    Neurotoxic effect of BHC, the organochlorine pesticide in Heteropneustes fossilis has been studied exposing at the dose concentrations of 1 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm in lab aquarium for 96 hours over a period of one year. The results showed the behavioural abnormalities in different exposure concentrations such as dysfunction of endocrine gland, excretion of mucus, dispigmentation, sign of restlessness, erratic swimming with rapid jurkey movement, spiralling and convolution showing severe effect in central nervous system. Therefore an attempt has been made for monitoring of BHC residues viz. alpha, beta, gamma isomers in the brain tissue exposed to different sublethal concentrations using Gas liquid chromatography. The mean values of isomers were found to be 1.587 microg/gm for 1 ppm, 2.993 microg/gm for 5 ppm and 3.78 microg/gm for 10 ppm test group. Severe behavioural abnormalities were recorded at high dose concentration of pesticides with higher accumulation of pesticide residues in brain tissue.

  9. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera B, B.; Garcia C, E.S.; Garcia O, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  10. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in neuroendocrine tumour and healthy tissue: differentiation of physiological uptake and pathological processes in PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, A; Putzer, D; Decristoforo, C; Uprimny, C; Warwitz, B; Nilica, B; Gabriel, M; Kendler, D; Waitz, D; Widmann, G; Virgolini, I J

    2013-04-01

    We wanted to establish the range of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in liver and bone metastases of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and to establish the range of its uptake in pancreatic NET. This would allow differentiation between physiological uptake and tumour-related somatostatin receptor expression in the pancreas (including the uncinate process), liver and bone. Finally, we wanted to test for differences in patients with NET, either treated or not treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In 249 patients, 390 (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT studies were performed. The clinical indications for PET/CT were gastroenteropancreatic NET (194 studies), nongastroenteropancreatic NET (origin in the lung and rectum; 46 studies), NET of unknown primary (111 studies), phaeochromocytoma/glomus tumours (18 studies), and radioiodine-negative metastatic thyroid carcinoma (21 studies). SUVmax (mean ± standard deviation) values of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC were 29.8 ± 16.5 in 162 liver metastases, 19.8 ± 18.8 in 89 bone metastases and 34.6 ± 17.1 in 43 pancreatic NET (33.6 ± 14.3 in 30 tumours of the uncinate process and 36.3 ± 21.5 in 13 tumours of the pancreatic tail). A significant difference in SUVmax (p TOC is an excellent tracer for the imaging of tumours expressing somatostatin receptors on the tumour cell surface, facilitating the detection of even small tumour lesions. The noninvasive PET/CT approach by measurement of regional SUVmax can offer important clinical information to distinguish between physiological and pathological somatostatin receptor expression, especially in the uncinate process. PRRT does not significantly influence SUVmax, except in liver metastases of patients with NET.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime proxetil with special reference to biochemical parameters, tissue residue, and spermatozoa motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Momin A; Pardeshi, Milind L

    2011-02-01

    Cefpodoxime is a semisynthetic third generation cephalosporin analogue with a relatively broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity against gram negative and gram positive organisms. This is attributed to their somewhat increased resistance to degradation by the betalactamase. Cefpodoxime shows good activity against Klebsiella pneumonia, many members of enterobactericeae and almost all strains of Escherichia coli. It is extensively used in human beings against infections caused by susceptible organisms for a prolonged period and even without its judicious indication. Though various researchers have worked on the pharmacokinetic aspects of the drug, its effects on biochemical parameters and spermatozoa activity are scarcely available in literature. To determine the oral kinetic ( blood and tissue) after single therapeutic dose of cefpodoxime proxetil (20mg/kg oral bid 7 days) in rats of either sex on tissue half life and certain biochemical parameters such as glucose, hemoglobin, protein, ALT, AST and other parameters like tissue residue, sperm count and spermatozoa motility in male rats. For kinetic studies,24 Wister rats of either sex, 3 months of age, (180-210 gm) were used.(Group I-IV; n=6) Blood samples collected from each animal of Group IV through heart puncture at 0 hour to serve as predrug control. All the group (I-IV) received cefpodoxime proxetil 20 mg/kg once orally as a single dose. At the end of 1,4,12 and 24 hour post oral administration, GroupI,II,III and IVwere utilized for kinetic studies. Blood samples were collected from each animal and vital organs viz brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart were dissected out for drug analysis and determination of weight. For biochemical parameters, tissue residue and spermatozoa motility, twelve male rats were randomly divided into Groups A and B (n=6) Group B received cefpodoxime (20mg/kg orally bid 7 days) while Group A served as control. Biochemical parameters [Blood glucose, protein, Aspartate

  12. Depletion of eugenol residues from the skin-on fillet tissue of rainbow trout exposed to 14C-labeled eugenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Porcher, Scott T.; Smerud, Justin R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. is lagging in access to an approved immediate-release sedative, i.e. a compound that can be safely and effectively used to sedate fish and has no withdrawal period. AQUI-S® 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) is under investigation as an immediate-release sedative for freshwater finfish. Because of its investigational status, data are needed to characterize the depletion, distribution, and identity of AQUI-S® 20E residues in fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to uniformly ring labeled 14C-eugenol at a nominal concentration of 10 mg/L for 60 min in 18 °C water. Fish (n = 6) were sampled immediately after the exposure (0 min) then at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. Eugenol concentrations and characterization of 14C residues in the fillet tissue were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and flow-through liquid scintillation counting techniques. Total 14C-residue burdens in fillet tissue were determined by tissue oxidation and static liquid scintillation counting techniques. Maximum eugenol and 14C-eugenol equivalent residue concentrations in the fillet tissue were measured immediately after the exposure (44.5 and 38.8 μg/g, respectively). Eugenol was the primary 14C-residue (> 90% of all 14C-residues) in extracts from fillet tissue taken from fish sampled immediately after the exposure (0 min) and from fish sampled at 30 and 60 min after the exposure. The depletion of 14C-eugenol residues from the fillet tissue was rapid (t1/2 = 26.25 min) after transferring the exposed fish to fresh flowing water.

  13. Anatomic and tissue characteristics in goats fed for extended periods with residue of castor biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Henrique de Almeida Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five adult crossbred goats, divided in two groups, were fed over a period of 16 months with diets based on Tifton hay and concentrate feed with (DCO or without (WDCO detoxified castor bean meal as a substitute for soybean meal. Throughout 480 days, blood samples were taken to measure lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, albumin and creatinine. The animals were euthanized, and the anatomical components (lungs, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys, tongue, empty stomach, empty intestines, omentum, cardiac and renal adipose tissue, carcass and commercial cuts (shoulder, ham, loin, ribs and neck were weighed. Thereafter, an anatomic dissection of the loin was performed, separating the muscle, adipose and bone tissues. On the muscular part of the loin, longissimus dorsi, the proximate composition, fatty acid profile and the expression of SEW-1, IGF-I and IGF-II were analyzed. A higher incidence of bone tissue was observed in the anatomical dissections of the loin and a lower incidence of fat in the proximate composition of the longissimus dorsi of the DCO group compared to the WDCO group (p<0.05. The expression of the IGF-II and SEW-1 genes was higher (p<0.001 for each in the muscle tissue of the DCO animals. Thus, using detoxified castor bean meal for long periods does not produce significant changes in the anatomical composition of the loin or the proximate composition of the longissimus dorsi. However, the differences in gene expression suggest the need for new investigations and care when using this product for animal feeding.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of an oxytetracycline/diclofenac combination in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestorino, N; Mariño Hernández, E; Marchetti, L; Errecalde, J O

    2007-12-01

    Eight male cattle were given a combined dose containing 20 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 0.5 mg/kg diclofenac intramuscularly. Blood samples were drawn at different times until 168 h after administration. Two experimental animals were slaughtered by humane means at weekly intervals up to 28 days after administration. Samples of muscle, injection zone tissue, liver, kidney and fat were obtained. Oxytetracycline and diclofenac concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic analysis was performed by linear regression using the CSTRIP programme. Plasma oxytetracycline concentration showed a maximum (Cmax) of 3.89 +/- 1.48 microg/ml and a prolonged elimination half-life (T1/2beta: 47.73 +/- 18.33 h). The diclofenac plasma profile showed high Cmax (577.62 +/- 238.40 ng/ml), and its T1/2beta was also prolonged (30.48 +/- 9.42 h). Oxytetracycline concentrations were measurable in liver and adipose tissue until day 21 after administration, but all tissue samples were negative for diclofenac at 21 days. The long elimination half-life of diclofenac was an unexpected finding; its T1/2beta in humans is 1.1 h.

  15. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  16. Detergent decellularization of heart valves for tissue engineering: toxicological effects of residual detergents on human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Jaekel, Thomas; Hilfiker, Andres; Dorfman, Suzanne; Ternes, Waldemar; Haverich, Axel; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2010-03-01

    Detergents are powerful agents for tissue decellularization. Despite this, the high toxicity of detergent residua can be a major limitation. This study evaluated the efficacy of detergent removal from decellularized pulmonary valves (PVs) and the consequences of repopulation with human endothelial cells (HECs). Porcine PVs were treated with 1% sodium deoxycholate (SDC), group A; 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), group B; and a mixture of 0.5% SDC/0.5% SDS, group C (n = 5 each). After each of 10 succeeding wash cycles (WCs), samples of the washing solution (WS) were analyzed by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for the presence of detergents. Metabolic activity of HEC was also assessed in the WS samples (cytotoxicity and MTS assays). Decellularized and washed PVs were reseeded with HEC. Histological analysis demonstrated efficient tissue decellularization in all groups. Detergents' concentration in all WSs decreased exponentially and was below 50 mg/L after 6, 8, and 4 WCs in groups A, B, and C, respectively. This concentration resulted in no significant toxic influence on cell cultures, and scaffolds could be efficiently reseeded with HEC. In conclusion, intensive washing of detergent decellularized valvular scaffolds lowers the residual contamination below a hazardous threshold and allows their successful repopulation with HEC for tissue engineering purposes.

  17. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  18. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Vue, Chue; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Moore, Allen

    2003-01-01

    The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16 °C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16 °C respectively.

  19. Detection of residues in urine and tissues of sheep treated with trace levels of dietary ractopamine HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Shelver, W L; Marx, A

    2016-12-01

    Qualitative assays are sometimes used as the sole basis for detecting drug residues in live animals or in animal products. Such assays have become increasingly sensitive as detection technologies have improved, yet the limitations of such assays to discriminate purposeful and accidental drug exposures remain poorly defined. A study was conducted to determine the ability of a ractopamine lateral flow assay to accurately detect incurred ractopamine residues in contaminated feeds and in sheep fed trace quantities of ractopamine HCl. False positive and negative samples were determined using a quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Ractopamine HCl was fed to sheep at 0 (Zero), 1 (Low), 10 (Med), or 100 (High) µg/kg of diet ( = 4 per level, 0.5 kg of feed/d) for 7 consecutive d and urine was collected daily about ∼16 h post exposure. On-site lateral flow assays were able to reliably (0% false negatives) detect 20 μg of ractopamine HCl per kg of feed. Urine from treated sheep tested positive for ractopamine residues by lateral flow assay in 7.4 (Zero), 0 (Low), 82 (Med), and 86% (High) of the urine samples from each group. Parent ractopamine was below the assay limit of quantification (LOQ, 0.7 ng/mL) in all urine samples using LC-MS/MS. After hydrolysis of ractopamine conjugates, total ractopamine (parent + hydrolyzed metabolites) in urine of Low animals was always less than the LOQ, but in 7 of 28 samples were above the limit of detection (LOD, 0.22 ng/mL). In contrast, urine in Med animals contained 1.08 to 9.13 ng/mL of total ractopamine, while urine of High animals contained 4.85-32.82 ng/mL of total ractopamine. Ractopamine is rapidly eliminated; nevertheless, > 80% of urine samples from sheep exposed to 5 µg/d (M) of ractopamine HCl had detectable residues by the screening assay and a 100% of samples had measurable ractopamine using LC-MS/MS methods. Tissue residues of ractopamine were not detected in any of the sheep

  20. Contrast-enhanced MRI after neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer: lesion-to-background parenchymal signal enhancement ratio for discriminating pathological complete response from minimal residual tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Cho, Nariya; Shin, Sung Ui; Lee, Han-Byoel; Han, Wonshik; Park, In Ae; Kwon, Bo Ra; Kim, Soo Yeon; Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2018-01-29

    To retrospectively investigate whether the lesion-to-background parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) on breast MRI can distinguish pathological complete response (pCR) from minimal residual cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAT), and compare its performance with the conventional criterion. 216 breast cancer patients who had undergone NAT and MRI and achieved pCR or minimal residual cancer on surgical histopathology were included. Clinical-pathological features, SER and lesion size on MR images were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression, ROC curve and McNemar's test were performed. SER on early-phase MR images was independently associated with pCR (odds ratio [OR], 0.286 [95% CI: 0.113-0.725], p = .008 for Reader 1; OR, 0.306 [95% CI: 0.111-0.841], p = .022 for Reader 2). Compared with the conventional criterion, SER ≤1.6 increased AUC (0.585-0.599 vs. 0.709-0.771, p=.001-.033) and specificity (21.9-27.4% vs. 80.8-86.3%, p highest specificity of 90.4%. SER on early-phase MR images was independently associated with pCR, and showed improved AUC and specificity compared to the conventional criterion. The combined criterion of SER and size could be used to select candidates to avoid surgery in a future study. • Compared with conventional criterion, SER ≤ 1.6 criterion increased AUC and specificity. • Simple measurement of signal intensity could differentiate pCR from minimal residual cancer. • SER ≤1.6 and/or size≤0.2cm criterion showed the highest specificity of 90.4 %. • The combined criterion could be used for a study to avoid surgery.

  1. Organochlorine residues in adipose tissue of chamois from the Catalan Pyrenees, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, R.; Riu, J.L.; Puigdemont, A.; Arboix, M. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain))

    1990-04-01

    Organochlorine chemicals have been found to be present in aquatic and terrestrial mammal species. Although some of these animals are not edible or not specially important as a source of proteins for human or domestic animals, the detection of accumulated organochlorine compounds in their bodies is useful to control the grade of extension and to monitor the evolution of these xenobiotics in biosphere. Data on this subject in south-west European non-migratory mammalian wildlife are for the most part unknown. The chamois or izard (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a typical inhabitant of many euroasiatic high mountains. There are two subspecies of chamois in Spain. The pyrenean chamois is fortunately present in sufficient number in some zones of the Catalan Pyrnees, that its hunting for population control is allowed during a short period of the year. The Natural Park of Cadi-Moixero is one of these zones. Only an insignificant part of its soil is dedicated to agricultural uses, and no industries are found inside or near its domain. The purpose of this work is to present organochlorine residue data for chamois collected in this zone.

  2. Quantification of antiangiogenic treatment effects on tissue heterogeneity in glioma tumour xenograft model using a combination of DCE-MRI and 3D-ultramicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominietto, Marco [University and ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Basel, Biomaterials Science Center, Allschwil (Switzerland); Dobosz, Michael; Renner, Anja; Scheuer, Werner [Roche Innovation Center Penzberg, Discovery Oncology, Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development (pRED), Penzberg (Germany); Buergi, Sandra; Rudin, Markus [University and ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland); Zahlmann, Gudrun [pRED, Oncology DTA, Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of an anti-angiogenic treatment, which neutralises vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on tumour heterogeneity. Murine glioma cells have been inoculated into the right brain frontal lobe of 16 mice. Anti-VEGF antibody was administered to a first group (n = 8), while a second group (n = 8) received a placebo. Magnetic resonance acquisitions, performed at days 10, 12, 15 and 23 following the implantation, allowed the derivation of a three-dimensional features dataset characterising tumour heterogeneity. Three-dimensional ultramicroscopy and standard histochemistry analysis have been performed to verify in vivo results. Placebo-treated mice displayed a highly-vascularised area at the tumour periphery, a monolithic necrotic core and a chaotic dense vasculature across the entire tumour. In contrast, the B20-treated group did not show any highly vascularised regions and presents a fragmented necrotic core. A significant reduction of the number of vessel segments smaller than 17 μm has been observed. There was no difference in overall tumour volume and growth rate between the two groups. Region-specific analysis revealed that VEGF inhibition affects only: (1) highly angiogenic compartments expressing high levels of VEGF and characterised by small capillaries, and also (2) the formation and structure of necrotic regions. These effects appear to be transient and limited in time. (orig.)

  3. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  4. The distribution of trace elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn and the determination of copper oxidation state in breast tumour tissue using {mu}SRXRF and {mu}XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquharson, M J; Al-Ebraheem, A [Department of Radiography, City Community and Health Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Falkenberg, G [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603, Hamburg (Germany); Leek, R; Harris, A L [Cancer Research UK, Oxford Cancer Centre, Molecular Oncology Laboratories, University of Oxford, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, 0X3 9DS (United Kingdom); Bradley, D A [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.j.farquharson@city.ac.uk

    2008-06-07

    A micro beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence ({mu}SRXRF) technique has been used to determine the localization of metals in primary invasive ductal carcinoma of breast. Nine samples were examined, all of which were formalin fixed tissues arranged as micro arrays of 1.0 mm diameter and 10 {mu}m thickness. Cu was the particular interest in this study although 2D maps of the elements Ca, Fe and Zn, which are also of physiological importance, are presented. The distribution of these metals was obtained at approximately 18 {mu}m spatial resolution and compared with light transmission images of adjacent sections that were H and E stained to reveal the location of the cancer cell clusters. Correlations were found between these reference images and the elemental distributions indicating an increase in all element concentrations in the tumour regions of all samples, with the exception of Fe, which in some cases showed a reverse of this trend. On average over all samples the percentage difference from the normal tissue elemental concentrations are Ca {approx} 67%, Cu {approx} 64% and Zn {approx} 145%. Micro x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy ({mu}XANES) was used to estimate the oxidation state of Cu in 19 normal and 17 tumour regions spread over five samples. The shape and the position of both normal and tumour regions suggest that they contain mixtures of copper ions with a significant fraction of Cu{sup 2+}. However, the shape of the spectra does not exclude the presence of Cu{sup +}. Tumour regions were found to have a higher fraction of Cu{sup +} compared to the normal samples.

  5. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  6. High residue levels and the chemical form of mercury in tissues and organs of seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.Y.; Murakami, Toru; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tatsukawa, Ryo [Ehime Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Environment Conservation

    1995-12-31

    Total and organic (methyl) mercury in liver, muscle, kidney and feather of 9 species of seabirds were analyzed to determine the levels and their distribution and to clarify the occurrences of high mercury levels and their detoxification process in seabirds. Total mercury levels in liver showed great variations in intra and interspecies, while organic mercury levels were less variable. As compared with species in relatively low mercury levels, the species which accumulated the high concentration of mercury like black-footed albatross exhibited the different distribution of mercury in the body: in total mercury burden, albatross species contained less than 10% in feather and over 50% in liver, while other species contained over 40% in feather and less than 20% in liver. The order of organic mercury concentrations in tissues were as follows: liver > kidney > muscle in seabirds examined, except oldsquaw. The mean percentage of organic mercury in total was 35%, 66%, and 36% in liver, muscle and kidney, respectively, for all the species. The significant negative correlations were found between organic mercury percentage to total mercury and total mercury concentrations in the liver and muscle of black-footed albatross and in the liver of laysan albatross. Furthermore, in liver, muscle, and kidney of all the species, the percentages of organic mercury had a negative trend with an increase of total mercury concentrations. The results suggest that albatross species may be capable for demethylating organic mercury in the tissues (mainly in liver), and for storing the mercury as immobilizable inorganic form in the liver as substitution for delivering organic mercury to other organs. It is noteworthy that the species with high degree of demethylation showed the lower mercury burdens in feather and slow moulting pattern.

  7. Cocaine residue in plasma, cardiac and tracheal tissues of chronic cocaine-treated guinea-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Wongnawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Supersensitivity of adrenoceptors to catecholamines is one of the mechanisms of cocaine-related cardiac complication. The precise mechanism of cocaine enhancing supersensitivity of adrenoceptors is unconcluded. The aim of this study was todetermine the levels of cocaine in plasma, cardiac and tracheal tissues in order to correlate with the supersensitivity ofadrenoceptors to catecholamines. In this study, two groups of ten guinea-pigs each were injected with 2.5 mg/kg cocaine or normal saline solution intraperitoneally twice daily for 14 days. After 24 hours of cocaine cessation, the cocaine levels in plasma, cardiac and tracheal tissues were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the cocaine levels in plasma and tracheal smooth muscle were 5.08±0.63 ng/ml and 2.8±0.41 ng/mg, respectively, while those in atria and ventricle were lower than 17.5 ng/g and 3.8 ng/g, respectively. These levels were less than the level that had been reported to block norepinephrine uptake (more than 30.34 ng/ml. Moreover, it had been demonstrated that cocainetreatment in the same condition as the present study produced supersensitivity to norepinephrine and epinephrine in isolatedguinea-pig atria as well as in trachea which is almost entirely not innervated by the adrenergic nerves. In addition, supersensitivityto oxymetazoline, isoproterenol and salbutamol which are not the substrates of neuronal reuptake were also demonstrated. All these data support the postsynaptic mechanism of cocaine enhancing supersensitivity which might be correlated with cardiac complication in chronic cocaine use.

  8. Quantification of antiangiogenic treatment effects on tissue heterogeneity in glioma tumour xenograft model using a combination of DCE-MRI and 3D-ultramicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominietto, Marco; Dobosz, Michael; Bürgi, Sandra; Renner, Anja; Zahlmann, Gudrun; Scheuer, Werner; Rudin, Markus

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of an anti-angiogenic treatment, which neutralises vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on tumour heterogeneity. Murine glioma cells have been inoculated into the right brain frontal lobe of 16 mice. Anti-VEGF antibody was administered to a first group (n = 8), while a second group (n = 8) received a placebo. Magnetic resonance acquisitions, performed at days 10, 12, 15 and 23 following the implantation, allowed the derivation of a three-dimensional features dataset characterising tumour heterogeneity. Three-dimensional ultramicroscopy and standard histochemistry analysis have been performed to verify in vivo results. Placebo-treated mice displayed a highly-vascularised area at the tumour periphery, a monolithic necrotic core and a chaotic dense vasculature across the entire tumour. In contrast, the B20-treated group did not show any highly vascularised regions and presents a fragmented necrotic core. A significant reduction of the number of vessel segments smaller than 17 μm has been observed. There was no difference in overall tumour volume and growth rate between the two groups. Region-specific analysis revealed that VEGF inhibition affects only: (1) highly angiogenic compartments expressing high levels of VEGF and characterised by small capillaries, and also (2) the formation and structure of necrotic regions. These effects appear to be transient and limited in time. • VEGF inhibition affects only the highly angiogenic region and small capillaries network • VEGF inhibition is transient in time • Tumour volume is not affected by anti-angiogenic treatment • VEGF inhibition also influences the architecture of necrotic regions.

  9. Engineering N-terminal domain of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 to be a better inhibitor against tumour necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Huee; Verma, Vandana; Maskos, Klaus; Nath, Deepa; Knäuper, Vera; Dodds, Philippa; Amour, Augustin; Murphy, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that full-length tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) and its N-terminal domain form (N-TIMP-3) displayed equal binding affinity for tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-converting enzyme (TACE). Based on the computer graphic of TACE docked with a TIMP-3 model, we created a number of N-TIMP-3 mutants that showed significant improvement in TACE inhibition. Our strategy was to select those N-TIMP-3 residues that were believed to be in actual contact with the active-site pockets of TACE and mutate them to amino acids of a better-fitting nature. The activities of these mutants were examined by measuring their binding affinities (K(app)(i)) and association rates (k(on)) against TACE. Nearly all mutants at position Thr-2 exhibited slightly impaired affinity as well as association rate constants. On the other hand, some Ser-4 mutants displayed a remarkable increase in their binding tightness with TACE. In fact, the binding affinities of several mutants were less than 60 pM, beyond the sensitivity limits of fluorimetric assays. Further studies on cell-based processing of pro-TNF-alpha demonstrated that wild-type N-TIMP-3 and one of its tight-binding mutants, Ser-4Met, were capable of inhibiting the proteolytic shedding of TNF-alpha. Furthermore, the Ser-4Met mutant was also significantly more active (P<0.05) than the wild-type N-TIMP-3 in its cellular inhibition. Comparison of N-TIMP-3 and full-length TIMP-3 revealed that, despite their identical TACE-interaction kinetics, the latter was nearly 10 times more efficient in the inhibition of TNF-alpha shedding, with concomitant implications for the importance of the TIMP-3 C-terminal domain in vivo. PMID:11988096

  10. Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus, shad (Alosa pontica pontica and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica. Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007 – 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011 to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010. The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Dispositions and tissue residue of zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatragool, Kawinnart; Poapolathep, Saranya; Isariyodom, Supaporn; Imsilp, Kanjana; Klangkaew, Narumol; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a secondary fungal metabolite produced mainly by a Fusarium graminearum . To clarify the toxicokinetics, and residues of ZEA and its major metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) in chickens, ZEA was then administered intravenously (iv) or orally (po) to broiler chickens at a dosage of 1.2 mg/kg body weight. The concentrations of ZEA, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in the plasma and various tissues were quantified using LC-MS/MS. The plasma concentrations of ZEA were measurable up to 2 h after iv and po administration, and the concentrations of α-ZOL and β-ZOL were detected up to 4 h after both types of administration. A two-compartment model was developed to describe the toxicokinetic of ZEA in broilers. The values of t 1/2β and V d were 1.36 ± 0.29 h and 6.40 ± 0.89 l/kg, respectively. The absolute oral bioavailability was 29.66 ± 5.6%. ZEA, α-ZOL and β-ZOL were measurable in the vital organs after po administration. These results suggest that ZEA is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and it has ability to penetrate into the various tissues of broiler chickens.

  12. Dispositions and tissue residue of zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawinnart Buranatragool

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA is a secondary fungal metabolite produced mainly by a Fusarium graminearum. To clarify the toxicokinetics, and residues of ZEA and its major metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZOL and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL in chickens, ZEA was then administered intravenously (iv or orally (po to broiler chickens at a dosage of 1.2 mg/kg body weight. The concentrations of ZEA, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in the plasma and various tissues were quantified using LC–MS/MS. The plasma concentrations of ZEA were measurable up to 2 h after iv and po administration, and the concentrations of α-ZOL and β-ZOL were detected up to 4 h after both types of administration. A two-compartment model was developed to describe the toxicokinetic of ZEA in broilers. The values of t1/2β and Vd were 1.36 ± 0.29 h and 6.40 ± 0.89 l/kg, respectively. The absolute oral bioavailability was 29.66 ± 5.6%. ZEA, α-ZOL and β-ZOL were measurable in the vital organs after po administration. These results suggest that ZEA is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and it has ability to penetrate into the various tissues of broiler chickens.

  13. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Harder, T.; Haeffner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.) [de

  14. Dispositions and residue depletion of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in muscle tissue of giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poapolathep, A; Jermnak, U; Chareonsan, A; Sakulthaew, C; Klangkaew, N; Sukasem, T; Kumagai, S

    2009-06-01

    Fates and residue depletion of enrofloxacin (ER) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CP) were examined in giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, following either single oral (p.o.) administration of ER at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) or medicated-feed treatment at the feeding concentration of 5 g/kg of feed for five consecutive days. The concentrations of ER and CP in prawn muscle tissues were measured simultaneously using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. Muscle tissue concentrations of ER and CP were below the detection limit (LOD, 0.015 microg/g for ER; 0.025 microg/g for CP) after 360 and 42 h, following single p.o. administration respectively. Peak muscle concentration (C(max)) of ER was 1.98 +/- 0.22 microg/g whereas CP was measurable at concentrations close to the detection limit of the analytical method after p.o. administration at a single dosage of 10 mg/kg b.w. The concentration of ER in prawn muscle tissue with respect to time was analyzed with a non-compartmental pharmacokinetic model. The elimination half-life and area under the curve of ER were 39.33 +/- 7.27 h and 168.7 +/- 28.7 microg x h/g after p.o. administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg x b.w. respectively. In medicated-feed treated group, ER was detectable in prawn muscle tissue 11 days postdosing at the dose of 5 g/kg of feed for five consecutive days, which is the value corresponding to the maximum residue limit (MRL) of ER in animal products. The maximum concentrations of ER and CP were 2.77 +/- 0.91 and 0.06 +/- 0.006 microg/g during medicated-feed treatment and postdosing respectively. The values of elimination half-life and absorption half-life of ER after single p.o. administration at a dosage of 10 mg/kg b.w. corresponded well with the values determined from medicated-feed treated group, showing 41.01 +/- 6.62 and 11.36 +/- 3.15 h respectively in M. rosenbergii. Based on data derived from this study, to avoid

  15. Spectral multi-energy CT texture analysis with machine learning for tissue classification: an investigation using classification of benign parotid tumours as a testing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ajmi, Eiman; Forghani, Behzad; Reinhold, Caroline; Bayat, Maryam; Forghani, Reza

    2018-01-02

    There is a rich amount of quantitative information in spectral datasets generated from dual-energy CT (DECT). In this study, we compare the performance of texture analysis performed on multi-energy datasets to that of virtual monochromatic images (VMIs) at 65 keV only, using classification of the two most common benign parotid neoplasms as a testing paradigm. Forty-two patients with pathologically proven Warthin tumour (n = 25) or pleomorphic adenoma (n = 17) were evaluated. Texture analysis was performed on VMIs ranging from 40 to 140 keV in 5-keV increments (multi-energy analysis) or 65-keV VMIs only, which is typically considered equivalent to single-energy CT. Random forest (RF) models were constructed for outcome prediction using separate randomly selected training and testing sets or the entire patient set. Using multi-energy texture analysis, tumour classification in the independent testing set had accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 92%, 86%, 100%, 100%, and 83%, compared to 75%, 57%, 100%, 100%, and 63%, respectively, for single-energy analysis. Multi-energy texture analysis demonstrates superior performance compared to single-energy texture analysis of VMIs at 65 keV for classification of benign parotid tumours. • We present and validate a paradigm for texture analysis of DECT scans. • Multi-energy dataset texture analysis is superior to single-energy dataset texture analysis. • DECT texture analysis has high accura\\cy for diagnosis of benign parotid tumours. • DECT texture analysis with machine learning can enhance non-invasive diagnostic tumour evaluation.

  16. Experimental exposure of African catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 to phenol: Clinical evaluation, tissue alterations and residue assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of information regarding; the toxicological and pathological consequences of phenol stressed Clarias gariepinus; as well as; the susceptibility of the stressed fish to disease occurrence. Static renewal bioassay was experimentally conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of phenol on the African catfish C. gariepinus. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed that the median lethal concentration of phenol (LC50 is 35 mg/L by immersion. Four experimental fish groups were assigned for 3 weeks exposure test; three were exposed 20%, 50% and 70% LC50, the fourth control fish group received a vehicle of dechlorinated water. Abnormal signs including cessation of feeding, nervous manifestations; skin expressed perfuses mucous, black patches with skin erosion and ulcerations in the later stages. All observations were correlated to the time and dose of exposure. Post mortem examination revealed adhesion of the internal organs. For tissue alterations; Skin, gills, brain, liver and kidney showed variable degrees of degenerative changes and necrosis. Muscle residues shown in mean ± SE were 4.3 ± 0.05 and 6.65 ± 0.05 ppm in groups that received 20 and 50% LD50, respectively. Infection with Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in high percent of mortalities with a non significant difference between the challenged fish groups. The study cleared that phenol is toxic to C. gariepinus under experimental conditions.

  17. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  18. Improving tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation oncology is in the middle of the most exciting developments in its 100-year history. Progress in treatment planning and delivery, in medical imaging and in basic cancer and normal tissue biology is likely to change the indication for radiotherapy as well as the way it is prescribed and delivered. Technological and conceptual advances, in particular the development of the multi-leaf collimator and the concept of inverse treatment planning, have led to the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with its capability to plan and deliver non-uniform dose distributions in the clinic. This has forced us to re-think radiation oncology: refining the indication for radiotherapy, optimizing the prescription of dose distributions and considering how, based on clinical evidence, radiation can best be combined with other treatment modalities, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies. The attraction of radiation therapy as an element of multi-modality cancer therapy is that it induces DNA damage that can be modulated in space and time. Progress in basic cancer biology, genomics and proteomics, as well as biological imaging provides novel avenues for individualization of cancer therapy and for biological optimization of radiotherapy. In improving cancer care, it is the therapeutic ratio, rather than tumour control per se, that must be optimised. Interestingly, the two main avenues for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy currently being actively pursued in the clinic generally aim at different sides of the therapeutic ratio: 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT predominantly aim to reduce normal-tissue side effects - and by doing this, open the way for dose escalation that may lead to increased tumour control rates - whereas combined radio-chemotherapy aims to improve tumour response - while keeping the fingers crossed that this will not increase normal-tissue complications to the same extent. In parallel with these

  19. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  20. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-07-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences.

  1. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  2. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat; Tejido residual postesplenectomia detectado por centellografia esplenica con eritrocitos danados por calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera B, B.; Garcia C, E.S.; Garcia O, J.R. [Centro Medico ABC, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  3. Why are epididymal tumours so rare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Hei; Wang, Kai; Cooper, Trevor G

    2012-01-01

    Epididymal tumour incidence is at most 0.03% of all male cancers. It is an enigma why the human epididymis does not often succumb to cancer, when it expresses markers of stem and cancer cells, and constitutively expresses oncogenes, pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic factors that allow tumour cells to escape immunosurveillance in cancer-prone tissues. The privileged position of the human epididymis in evading tumourigenicity is reflected in transgenic mouse models in which induction of tumours in other organs is not accompanied by epididymal neoplasia. The epididymis appears to: (i) prevent tumour initiation (it probably lacks stem cells and has strong anti-oxidative mechanisms, active tumour suppressors and inactive oncogene products); (ii) foster tumour monitoring and destruction (by strong immuno-surveillance and -eradication, and cellular senescence); (iii) avert proliferation and angiogenesis (with persistent tight junctions, the presence of anti-angiogenic factors and misplaced pro-angiogenic factors), which together (iv) promote dormancy and restrict dividing cells to hyperplasia. Epididymal cells may be rendered non-responsive to oncogenic stimuli by the constitutive expression of factors generally inducible in tumours, and resistant to the normal epididymal environment, which mimics that of a tumour niche promoting tumour growth. The threshold for tumour initiation may thus be higher in the epididymis than in other organs. Several anti-tumour mechanisms are those that maintain spermatozoa quiescent and immunologically silent, so the low incidence of cancer in the epididymis may be a consequence of its role in sperm maturation and storage. Understanding these mechanisms may throw light on cancer prevention and therapy in general. PMID:22522502

  4. A novel method to depurate β-lactam antibiotic residues by administration of a broad-spectrum β-lactamase enzyme in fish tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sik Choe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a novel strategy to remove β-lactam antibiotic residues from fish tissues, utilization of β-lactamase, enzyme that normally degrades β-lactam structure-containing drugs, was explored. The enzyme (TEM-52 selectively degraded β-lactam antibiotics but was completely inactive against tetracycline-, quinolone-, macrolide-, or aminoglycoside-structured antibacterials. After simultaneous administration of the enzyme with cefazolin (a β-lactam antibiotic to the carp, significantly lowered tissue cefazolin levels were observed. It was confirmed that the enzyme successfully reached the general circulation after intraperitoneal administration, as the carp serum obtained after enzyme injection could also degrade cefazolin ex vivo. These results suggest that antibiotics-degrading enzymes can be good candidates for antibiotic residue depuration.

  5. MRI EVALUATION OF SPINAL CORD TUMOURS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Srikar Chowdhary

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal cord tumours are relatively rare tumours and can present with a wide variety of symptoms. If they are not diagnosed early and treated immediately, they can lead to neurological deficits and disability. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is necessary, which will help in directing the therapy. Nowadays, MRI is the most commonly used modality for spinal cord tumour diagnosis unless there is a contraindication. The aim of this study was to study the demographic profile of patients with spinal cord tumours to assess the distribution, features, localisation and extent of spinal cord tumours by MRI and correlate the tissue characterisation by MRI with that of histopathological examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted in the Departments of Radiodiagnosis, Neurosurgery and Pathology at SCBMCH, Cuttack, from October 2010 to October 2012. 52 patients diagnosed as having spinal cord tumours by clinical examination and MRI were followed till post-surgery discharge. RESULTS Out of the 52 patients with spinal cord tumours, 28 patients (54% were males and females made up around 46% (24 patients. Around 6% of the patients were in the paediatric age group. Our study showed that intradural extramedullary tumours 36/52 (69% were the commonest followed by intramedullary tumours 10/52 (19% and extradural tumours 6/52 (12%. Overall, schwannoma was the commonest spinal cord tumour accounting for 46.1% of the tumours. Out of 52 cases, MRI diagnosed 46 cases (88.46% correctly and misdiagnosed 6 cases. MRI was able to correctly diagnose 91.67% of the intradural extramedullary tumours, 90% of the intramedullary tumours and 66.67% of the extradural tumours. CONCLUSION MRI is the preoperative investigation of choice in the evaluation of spinal cord tumours. MRI can accurately diagnose spinal tumours and guide surgical resection.

  6. Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wilms' tumour or nephroblastoma is a cancer of the kidney that typically occurs in children and very rarely in adults. The common name is an eponym, referring to Dr Max Wilms, the German surgeon who first described this type of tumour in 1899. Wilms' tumour is the most common form of kidney cancer in children.

  7. LC-MS/MS measurement of ampicillin residue in swine tissues at 5 days after in-feed administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kouko; Mizuno, Yasuharu

    2015-11-01

    We assessed ampicillin (ABPC) concentrations of kidney, muscle and intestine after a 5-day withdrawal period in 2 male and a female young Large White pigs fed the diet containing ABPC (ABPC medicated feed, 24 mg/kg/day) for a week. The ABPC residues were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the mean recoveries and quantitation limits ranged from 91.8 to 97.2% and from 0.1 to 0.12 ng/g, respectively. The residual ABPC concentrations were ≤1.18 ng/g for the muscle, ≤0.53 ng/g for the kidney and ≤1.93 ng/g for the intestine, suggesting below the Japanese provisional maximum residue limits. These results reveal that the analytical method is developed for residual ABPC and that the withdrawal period is appropriate.

  8. LC-MS/MS measurement of ampicillin residue in chicken tissues at 2 days after in-feed administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kouko; Mizuno, Yasuharu

    2017-03-18

    We assessed ampicillin (ABPC) concentrations of liver, kidney and skin at a 2-day withdrawal period in ten male and ten female White Leghorn chickens fed the diet containing ABPC (ABPC medicated feed 40 mg/kg body weight/day) for a week. The ABPC residues were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the mean recoveries and quantitation limits ranged from 93.0% to 102.7% and from 0.1 to 1.4 ng/g, respectively. The residual ABPC concentrations were ≤7.82 ng/g for the skin and ≤0.64 ng/g for the kidney, suggesting below the Japanese provisional maximum residue limits. These results revealed that the analytical method is developed for residue ABPC and that the withdrawal period is appropriate.

  9. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  10. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment.

  11. A rapid, solid phase extraction (SPE technique for the extraction and gas chromatographic determination lindane pesticide residue in tissue and milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticide contamination in feed can cause residue in animal product (tissue and milk, so its become a problem in food safety. Solid phase extraction (SPE has been carried out for determination organochlorine pesticide residues in food animal production. The technique was rapid, not costly and produce limited amount of hazardous-waste. Samples were homogenized with acetonitrile trough cartridge C18, eluted in fluorocyl column with 2% ether-petroleum or acetonitrile fortissue and milk samples respectively. The recoveries of tissue sample by addition lindane standard solution: 0.50 and 1.00 μg are 85.10 and 103.10% respectively, while that of milk with the addition of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 μg are 83.80, 88.69 and 91.24% respectively. Three replicates were carried out for every sample. According of validation criteria of FAO/IAEA the recovery for analysis of pesticide residues was 70-110%. Therefore, the method is applicable.

  12. Experimental tumour therapy. 1985 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The 1985 annual report documents - once again - the collaboration between the members of the University's Radiobiological Institute and the Radiobiological Department of GSF in the field of experimental radiotherapy. As in the previous years, key areas were concerned with the examination of clinically relevant radiation-induced injuries in normal tissue, the clarification of their pathogenesis and their fractionation behaviour but also possible methods of their prevention. New areas of interest included the experiments performed on rat stomach which allowed to establish a promising animal model for the radiobiological examination of this organ. Experimental tumours were continued to be studied for factors important for tumour resistance in fractionated irradiation; in this context, the high repopulation capacity of a differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma under quasi-clinical fractionation revealed to be particularly remarkable. A further key area was concerned with investigations into the combined action of cytostatics and irradiation or else hyperthermia which were mostly performed in vitro on cell cultures but also on experimental tumours and some normal tissues. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  14. Soft-tissue Necrosis Complicating Bone-cement Filling in a Patient with Proximal Tibia Giant cell Tumour and Co-morbid Depressive Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Narang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant-cell tumors are common around the knee. Proximal tibia is a challenging location for limb-salvage due to paucity of soft-tissue cover. Bone cement has been used in treatment of giant-cell tumors after curettage. Tissue irritant properties of its monomer and exothermic reaction involved in polymerization may compromise surgical outcome to varying degrees. Preoperative planning and intra-operative positioning during cementing process are of importance to avoid complications. Co-occurrence of psychiatric illness in tumor patients should be managed by psychiatric counselling and drug therapy. This case has been presented to suggest measures for preventing soft-tissue complications during cement filling in proximal tibia, and for dealing with concomitant psychiatric problems for a holistic improvement in tumor patients.

  15. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  16. Neutron therapy for malignant tumours of the salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Orr, J.A.; Arnott, S.J.; Jack, W.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A group of 28 patients with malignant tumours of the salivary glands have been treated by d(15)+Be neutron irradiation. Nineteen patients had inoperable cancers. Three had gross recurrent cancer and three had measurable residual cancer after surgery. Three patients were treated post-operatively for microscopic residual disease. Seven different histological types of tumour were included. Six out of 8 patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas have lasting local tumour control. 54% of the gross tumours were locally controlled. All three of those classified as microscopic residual disease have no evidence of local recurrence. 11/14 cancers given 16.0 Gy or more in 20 fractions in 4 weeks were controlled compared with only 1/8 given a lower dose. 12/19 cancers less than 10.0 cm maximum diameter were controlled. The radiation-related morbidity was similar to that observed after photon therapy. (Auth.)

  17. Evaluating the suitability of Hydrobia ulvae as a test species for sediment metal toxicity testing applying a tissue residue approach to metal mixtures in laboratory and field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Olivia; Rodríguez, Antonio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-05-01

    A major weakness in evaluating the suitability of a biomonitor organism is the poor ability to predict the variability of the bioavailability of metals from measured environmental concentrations. In this study, the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae was used to evaluate its suitability as a test organism for assessing sediment metal toxicity. Toxicity tests were run with sediments spiked with copper, cadmium and zinc applied both as single metal and as a mixture to investigate toxicological interactions evaluating different lethal and sublethal effects. Dose-response relationships were constructed based both on tissue residue approach and particulate metal concentrations. Because metal-spiked sediments used in routine toxicity tests often do not exhibit the same adsorption/desorption kinetics as the natural sediments, the laboratory results were compared to 10-d bioassays conducted with natural field sediments collected from the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain). Highly significant correlations between tissue residue concentrations and particulate metal concentrations were found for all metal-spiked or field-collected and demonstrated that: (i) H. ulvae readily accumulated copper and cadmium in response to contamination and (ii) dietary uptake was determined to be the most significant route of metal exposure. The comparison of the modeled tissue residue-response curve developed from the mixture tests was in good agreement with the results from the bioassay conducted with field sediments and strongly demonstrated that H. ulvae is also a suitable test organism for assessing copper sediment toxicity. In contrast, the dose-response curve expressed as a function of total particulate metal concentrations would fail in predicting effect, erroneously assessing higher metal toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and validation of determinative and confirmatory LC-MS/MS methodologies for total florfenicol and tulathromycin residues in bovine, equine and porcine kidney, liver and muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeniuk, Rick W; McKenzie, Del; Mizuno, Massey; Neiser, Connie; O'Byrne, Collin; Shurmer, Bryn

    2015-03-01

    Separate methods for the quantitation and confirmation of regulatory relevant residue concentrations of total florfenicol and tulathromycin residues in multiple tissue matrices were developed and validated. Total florfenicol residues, determined and expressed as florfenicol amine (FFA) equivalents, were quantified and confirmed over a concentration range of 100-4000ng/g, with an LOD of 33ng/g, while total tulathromyicn residues, determined as CP-60,300 and expressed as tulathromycin equivalents, were quantified and confirmed over a concentration range of 500-10,000ng/g, with an LOD of 300ng/g. A 2 or 1h acid digestion for the FFA and tulathromycin methods, respectively, followed by extraction, cleanup, and concentration using mixed-mode strong cation-exchange SPE cartridges was used. Quantitation and confirmation were accomplished using commercially available tri-deuterated FFA (FFA-D3) as internal standard and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of three transitions per target analyte. Mean recoveries and matrix effects were 60% and 25%; and 100% and 110%, respectively for the target analytes florfenicol amine and CP-60,300. Intra-lab method reproducibilities ranged from 7 to 11% RSD, which are within the AOAC recommended HORRATr guidelines for method reproducibilities estimated from single laboratory validation studies. Blind spikes showed that method bias was generally less than 15% for both methods within the calibration range. Both methods have been shown to meet requirements for use in national chemical residue monitoring programs. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Scintigraphic criteria for administration of therapeutic activities of 131I for ablation of residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhuzha, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim to determinate the optical scintigraphic criteria of radioablation of the small parts of residual thyroid tissue (RTT) after a thyroidectomy the results of postoperative monitoring of 29 women aged 23-60 with differentiated thyroid cancer, who did not get the radioiodine therapy, were analyzed. At the single postoperative scintigraphy with 131 I the optimal scintigraphic criteria for radioablation are the relative level of 131 I accumulation in RTT and the relative specific volume activity in RTT. At the values of these indices below 0.21% and 0.16%/sm 3 , respectively, only suppressive thyroid hormone therapy and standard monitoring are recommended

  20. Evaluating the accuracy of the XVI dual registration tool compared with manual soft tissue matching to localise tumour volumes for post-prostatectomy patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Amelia; Brown, Elizabeth; Pryor, David; Lehman, Margot; Owen, Rebecca; Bernard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computerised tomography (CBCT) enables soft tissue visualisation to optimise matching in the post-prostatectomy setting, but is associated with inter-observer variability. This study assessed the accuracy and consistency of automated soft tissue localisation using XVI's dual registration tool (DRT). Sixty CBCT images from ten post-prostatectomy patients were matched using: (i) the DRT and (ii) manual soft tissue registration by six radiation therapists (RTs). Shifts in the three Cartesian planes were recorded. The accuracy of the match was determined by comparing shifts to matches performed by two genitourinary radiation oncologists (ROs). A Bland–Altman method was used to assess the 95% levels of agreement (LoA). A clinical threshold of 3 mm was used to define equivalence between methods of matching. The 95% LoA between DRT-ROs in the superior/inferior, left/right and anterior/posterior directions were −2.21 to +3.18 mm, −0.77 to +0.84 mm, and −1.52 to +4.12 mm, respectively. The 95% LoA between RTs-ROs in the superior/inferior, left/right and anterior/posterior directions were −1.89 to +1.86 mm, −0.71 to +0.62 mm and −2.8 to +3.43 mm, respectively. Five DRT CBCT matches (8.33%) were outside the 3-mm threshold, all in the setting of bladder underfilling or rectal gas. The mean time for manual matching was 82 versus 65 s for DRT. XVI's DRT is comparable with RTs manually matching soft tissue on CBCT. The DRT can minimise RT inter-observer variability; however, involuntary bladder and rectal filling can influence the tools accuracy, highlighting the need for RT evaluation of the DRT match.

  1. Malignant tumours of the foot and ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E.; Gaspar, N.; Brugières, L.; Glorion, C.; Pannier, S.; Gomez-Brouchet, A.

    2017-01-01

    Most of tumours of the foot are tumour-like (synovial cyst, foreign body reactions and epidermal inclusion cyst) or benign conditions (tenosynovial giant cells tumours, planta fibromatosis). Malignant tumours of the soft-tissue and skeleton are very rare in the foot and their diagnosis is often delayed with referral to specialised teams after initial inappropriate procedures or unplanned excisions. The adverse effect of these misdiagnosed tumours is the increasing rate of amputation or local recurrences in the involved patients. In every lump, imaging should be discussed before any local treatment. Every lesion which is not an obvious synovial cyst or plantar fibromatosis should have a biopsy performed. After the age of 40 years, chondrosarcoma is the most usual malignant tumour of the foot. In young patients bone tumours such as osteosarcoma or Ewing’s sarcoma, are very unusually located in the foot. Synovial sarcoma is the most frequent histological diagnosis in soft tissues. Epithelioid sarcoma or clear cell sarcoma, involve more frequently the foot and ankle than other sites. The classic local treatment of malignant conditions of the foot and ankle was below-knee amputation at different levels. Nowadays, with the development of adjuvant therapies, some patients may benefit from conservative surgery or partial amputation after multidisciplinary team discussions. The prognosis of foot malignancy is not different from that at other locations, except perhaps in chondrosarcoma, which seems to be less aggressive in the foot. The anatomy of the foot is very complex with many bony and soft tissue structures in a relatively small space making large resections and conservative treatments difficult to achieve. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160078. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28630763

  2. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Donal J

    2010-04-01

    Abstract Background Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). Results Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. Conclusion HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  3. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Donal J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). RESULTS: Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. CONCLUSION: HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  4. Tumour marker expression in blood and lymphatic vessels of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of tumours cannot be effectively assessed on histological tissue sections only, hence, specific bi-ological markers were used to predict tumour behaviour. The biological markers at the same time must provide prognostic information, necessary for the treatment of patients. The immunostaining of antibodies ...

  5. Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour. G R Alexander. Abstract. Intrathoracic desmoid tumours are rare soft-tissue neoplasms arising from fascial or musculo-aponeurotic structures, accounting for less than 0.03% of all neoplasms. Most cases in fact represent intrathoracic extension of chest wall ...

  6. Fractionated Radiotherapy with 3 x 8 Gy Induces Systemic Anti-Tumour Responses and Abscopal Tumour Inhibition without Modulating the Humoral Anti-Tumour Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H P M Habets

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that fractionated radiotherapy (RT can result in distant non-irradiated (abscopal tumour regression. Although preclinical studies indicate the importance of T cells in this infrequent phenomenon, these studies do not preclude that other immune mechanisms exhibit an addition role in the abscopal effect. We therefore addressed the question whether in addition to T cell mediated responses also humoral anti-tumour responses are modulated after fractionated RT and whether systemic dendritic cell (DC stimulation can enhance tumour-specific antibody production. We selected the 67NR mammary carcinoma model since this tumour showed spontaneous antibody production in all tumour-bearing mice. Fractionated RT to the primary tumour was associated with a survival benefit and a delayed growth of a non-irradiated (contralateral secondary tumour. Notably, fractionated RT did not affect anti-tumour antibody titers and the composition of the immunoglobulin (Ig isotypes. Likewise, we demonstrated that treatment of tumour-bearing Balb/C mice with DC stimulating growth factor Flt3-L did neither modulate the magnitude nor the composition of the humoral immune response. Finally, we evaluated the immune infiltrate and Ig isotype content of the tumour tissue using flow cytometry and found no differences between treatment groups that were indicative for local antibody production. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the 67NR mammary carcinoma in Balb/C mice is associated with a pre-existing antibody response. And, we show that in tumour-bearing Balb/C mice with abscopal tumour regression such pre-existing antibody responses are not altered upon fractionated RT and/or DC stimulation with Flt3-L. Our research indicates that evaluating the humoral immune response in the setting of abscopal tumour regression is not invariably associated with therapeutic effects.

  7. A multi-residue method for 17 anticoccidial drugs and ractopamine in animal tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Johanna L; Boison, Joe O

    2016-05-01

    A new and sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination and confirmation of residues of 17 anticoccidials, plus free ractopamine in poultry muscle and liver, and bovine muscle, liver, and kidney tissues. The 17 anticoccidials are lasalocid, halofuginone, narasin, monensin, semduramicin, ethopabate, robenidine, buquinolate, toltrazuril as its sulfone metabolite, maduramicin, salinomycin, diclazuril, amprolium, decoquinate, dinitolmide, clopidol, and the nicarbazin metabolite DNC (N,N1-bis(4-nitrophenyl)urea). The analytes were extracted and cleaned up within a 3-hour period by simply extracting the analytes into a solvent mixture with salts followed by centrifugation, dilution, and filtration. The validated method was used in a pilot study for the analysis of 173 samples that included quail liver, bovine kidney, liver, muscle, and horse muscle. The predominant residues found in this study were monensin, ractopamine, and lasalocid. The results of this pilot study showed that this new method is applicable to real samples, and is fit for use in a regulatory testing programme. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of mites and their impact on laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) farm facilities in Egypt, with an analysis of deltamethrin residues in eggs and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eladl, Abdelfattah H; Hamed, Hamed R; El-Shafei, Reham A

    2018-04-01

    This study was carried out on six laying hen farms, three mite-infested and three mite-free at Dakahlia and Damietta governorates in Egypt to demonstrate: (i) prevalence of different species of mites on laying hen farms; (ii) effects of mite infestation on chicken health and production; (iii) efficacy of deltamethrin (DMT) on treatment of mite infestation and (iv) residues of DMT in eggs and meat. The results showed that 12 mite species were detected in the mite-infested farms, this is the first record in Egypt, and that Dermanyssus gallinae was the highest identified species from 295 (40.9%) of 720 samples. There was a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) of mites on the mortality %, feed consumption, egg production % and the tested haematological parameters. DMT had no impact on production performance, while transient respiratory signs post-spraying were recorded. The mites induced severe skin lesions. Egg samples showed the highest residue levels of DMT, followed by muscle and skin at P ≤ 0.05. It can be concluded that the mite species, as a first record, had a deleterious impact on the performance of the Egyptian laying hen farm facilities. Moreover, that DMT (Butox ® 50 EC, Intervet Co., France) spraying was ineffective by one-time application, every 1 or 2 months in mite-infested laying hen farms, particularly when heavily infested. Furthermore, DMT residues in laying hen eggs and tissue should be considered to avoid the potential risk for humans.

  9. Minimal health impacts but detectable tissue residues after exposure of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) to commercial naphthenic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersikorn, B.; Young, R.; Fedorak, P.; Smits, J.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined whether naphthenic acids (NAs) are a toxic component in oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM). The study investigated the toxicity of commercial (Refined Merichem) NAs to native amphibians (northern leopard frogs) exposed to saline conditions comparable to those of reclaimed wetlands on oil sand leases. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the exposure of frogs to NAs solutions for 28 days resulted in proportional NA concentrations in extracts of frog muscle tissue. Biological assays were performed to determine if the increasing exposure to NAs caused a proportional compromise in the health of test animals. The innate immune function, thyroid hormones, and hepatic detoxification enzyme induction did not differ in response to increased tissue concentrations of NAs. The commercial NAs were absorbed and deposited in muscle tissue. It was concluded that NAs play only a small, if any, role in the toxicity of OSPM to frogs.

  10. Minimal health impacts but detectable tissue residues after exposure of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) to commercial naphthenic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, B. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Young, R.; Fedorak, P. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined whether naphthenic acids (NAs) are a toxic component in oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM). The study investigated the toxicity of commercial (Refined Merichem) NAs to native amphibians (northern leopard frogs) exposed to saline conditions comparable to those of reclaimed wetlands on oil sand leases. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the exposure of frogs to NAs solutions for 28 days resulted in proportional NA concentrations in extracts of frog muscle tissue. Biological assays were performed to determine if the increasing exposure to NAs caused a proportional compromise in the health of test animals. The innate immune function, thyroid hormones, and hepatic detoxification enzyme induction did not differ in response to increased tissue concentrations of NAs. The commercial NAs were absorbed and deposited in muscle tissue. It was concluded that NAs play only a small, if any, role in the toxicity of OSPM to frogs.

  11. Human rheumatoid arthritis tissue production of IL-17A drives matrix and cartilage degradation: synergy with tumour necrosis factor-alpha, Oncostatin M and response to biologic therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Ellen M

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine IL-17A in patients, following anti-TNF-alpha therapy and the effect of IL-17A on matrix turnover and cartilage degradation. METHODS: IL-17A expression was examined by ELISA and immunohistology in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints. RA whole synovial tissue explant (RA ST), primary synovial fibroblasts (RASFC), human cartilage and chondrocyte cultures were stimulated with IL-17A +\\/- TNF-alpha and Oncostatin M (OSM). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1) were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Cartilage proteoglycan release was assessed histologically by Safranin-O staining. Clinical parameters, IL-17A, MMP\\/TIMP were assessed in patients pre\\/post biologic therapy. RESULTS: IL-17A levels were higher in RA vs osteoarthritis (OA)\\/normal joints (P < 0.05). IL-17A up-regulated MMP-1, -2, -9, and -13 in RA ST, RASFC, cartilage and chondrocyte cultures (P < 0.05). In combination with TNF-alpha and OSM, IL-17A shifted the MMP:TIMP-1 ratio in favor of matrix degradation (all P < 0.05). Cartilage proteoglycan depletion in response to IL-17A was mild; however, in combination with TNF-alpha or OSM showed almost complete proteoglycan depletion. Serum IL-17A was detected in 28% of patients commencing biologic therapy. IL-17A negative patients demonstrated reductions post therapy in serum MMP1\\/TIMP4, MMP3\\/TIMP1 and MMP3\\/TIMP4 ratios and an increase in CS846 (all P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in IL-17A positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: IL-17A is produced locally in the inflamed RA joint. IL-17A promotes matrix turnover and cartilage destruction, especially in the presence of other cytokines, mimicking the joint environment. IL-17A levels are modulated in vivo, following anti-TNF therapy, and may reflect changes in matrix turnover.

  12. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  13. Tumour heterogeneity promotes collective invasion and cancer metastatic dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallou, Adrien; Jennings, Joel; Kabla, Alexandre J

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneity within tumour cell populations is commonly observed in most cancers. However, its impact on metastatic dissemination, one of the primary determinants of the disease prognosis, remains poorly understood. Working with a simplified numerical model of tumour spheroids, we investigated the impact of mechanical heterogeneity on the onset of tumour invasion into surrounding tissues. Our work establishes a positive link between tumour heterogeneity and metastatic dissemination, and recapitulates a number of invasion patterns identified in vivo , such as multicellular finger-like protrusions. Two complementary mechanisms are at play in heterogeneous tumours. A small proportion of stronger cells are able to initiate and lead the escape of cells, while collective effects in the bulk of the tumour provide the coordination required to sustain the invasive process through multicellular streaming. This suggests that the multicellular dynamics observed during metastasis is a generic feature of mechanically heterogeneous cell populations and might rely on a limited and generic set of attributes.

  14. Insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells promotes intestinal tumour formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Häring, M-F; Rathjen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The risk of several cancers, including colorectal cancer, is increased in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, conditions characterised by hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. Because hyperinsulinaemia itself is an independent risk factor for cancer development, we examined tissue...... did not change intestinal tumour number or size distribution on either a low or high-fat diet. We therefore asked whether cells in the tumour stroma might explain the association between tumour formation and insulin resistance. To this end, we generated Apc(Min/+) mice with loss of insulin receptors...... and increased the frequency of neutrophils in tumours. We conclude that although insulin is mitogenic for intestinal tumour cells in vitro, impaired insulin action in the tumour microenvironment may be more important in conditions where hyperinsulinaemia is secondary to insulin resistance. Insulin resistance...

  15. Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: implications for tumour progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Q.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies. PMID:23889169

  16. Orbital exenteration for invasive skin tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyers, A G

    2006-10-01

    Orbital exenteration aims at local control of disease invading the orbit that is potentially fatal or relentlessly progressive. Of all exenterations presenting to ophthalmologists, 40-50% are required for tumours in the eyelid or periocular skin. 99% of these are basal cell carcinomas and 4-6% each are squamous cell carcinomas or sebaceous gland carcinomas. Orbital invasion results in progressive fixation of the tumour to bone and reduced ocular motility. Perineural invasion of branches of the trigeminal nerve leads to numbness or pain, and that the facial nerve, to weakness. Biopsy identifies the cell type and the presence of perineural invasion. CT and MRI scanning help in the assessment of tumour spread within the orbit. Management should be in collaboration with an oncologist. Exenteration may be total-the removal of all orbital contents-or lid-sparing if the tumour is placed posteriorly. The socket may be allowed to heal by granulation or lined with a split skin graft or local flap. Complications may be seen following 20-25% of exenterations and include fistulae, tissue necrosis, exposed bone, and infection. Incomplete clearance of tumours occurs in about 38% of total exenterations and 17% of subtotal. The overall 5-year survival is 55-65%, but significantly worse if there was perineural spread. Facial prostheses may be mounted on glasses or secured with tissue glue or osseointegrated implants. Excellent cosmetic results can be achieved but many patients prefer to wear a patch.

  17. Electrochemotherapy of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersa, G.; Cemazar, M.; Rudolf, Z.; Miklavcic, D.

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy consists of chemotherapy followed by local application of electric pulses to the tumour to increase drug delivery into cells. Drug uptake can be increased by electroporation for only those drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, only bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical trials. In vitro studies demonstrated several fold increase of their cytotoxicity after electroporation of cells. In vivo, electroporation of tumours after local or systemic administration of either of the drugs, i.e. electrochemotherapy, proved to be an effective antitumour treatment. In preclinical studies on several tumour models, electrochemotherapy either with bleomycin or cisplatin was elaborated and parameters for effective local tumour control were determined. In veterinary medicine, electrochemotherapy also proved to be effective in the treatment of primary tumours in cats, dogs and horses. In human clinical studies, electrochemotherapy was performed on the patients with progressive disease and accessible tumour nodules of different malignancies. All clinical studies demonstrated that electrochemotherapy is an effective treatment for local tumour control in cancer patients. (author)

  18. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  19. Real-time subject-specific analyses of dynamic internal tissue loads in the residual limb of transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; van Haare, Judith; Geers, Richard P J; Kristal, Anat; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Seelen, Henk A M; Oomens, Cees W J; Gefen, Amit

    2010-05-01

    Transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users may risk the integrity of their residuum while trying to maintain everyday activities. Compression of the muscle flap between the truncated bones and the prosthetic socket may cause pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury (DTI). We hypothesize that mechanical stresses in the muscle flap are higher when walking over complex terrains than during plane gait, and so, the residuum could be at risk for DTI when walking over these terrains. Accordingly, we evaluated internal soft tissue stresses in the residuum at the vicinity of the tibia in 18 prosthetic-users (7 vascular, 11 traumatic). For this purpose, we developed a portable monitor that calculated subject-specific internal stresses in the residuum in real-time. Each subject was studied while walking on plane floor, grass, stairs and slope. We found that internal stresses were the highest while subjects descended a slope, during which internal peak and root mean square (RMS) stresses were approximately 40% and 50% greater than in plane gait, respectively. Peak and RMS stresses calculated while descending a slope were approximately 2 times higher for the sub-group of vascular subjects compared to traumatic, but were similar between the two sub-groups for other ambulation tasks. Overall, the present internal stress monitor is a practical tool for real-time evaluation of internal stresses in the residuum of TTA prosthetic-users in the clinical setting or outdoors. Pending integration of appropriate dynamic tissue injury thresholds, the device can be utilized for alerting to the danger of DTI.

  20. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Makarla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs. Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination.

  1. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavle, Radhika M.; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess) but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination. PMID:26770859

  2. Detection of Pb, Ba, and Sb in Blowfly Larvae of Porcine Tissue Contaminated with Gunshot Residue by ICP OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa C. Motta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, barium (Ba, and antimony (Sb concentrations were monitored in flies larvae (immature Chrysomya albiceps contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR from .40 caliber Taurus pistols during the period of 2 to 12 days after the death of a female pig in decomposition, during the winter, under the influence of rain and high relative humidity. The samples were also analyzed by the colorimetric test using sodium rhodizonate (Feigl-Suter reaction. It was possible to detect and quantify the three metals of interest by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES, where the concentrations of all three elements kept practically constant during the putrefaction stage. Minimum ([Pb] = 382.26 μg L−1; [Ba] = 140.50 μg L−1; [Sb] = 39.18 μg L−1 and maximum ([Pb] = 522.66 μg L−1; [Ba] = 190.30 μg L−1; [Sb] = 56.14 μg L−1 concentrations were found during the third and fifth days after death, respectively. ICP OES presented higher sensitivity in metals determination when compared to the conventional colorimetric test, which showed negative result for the GSR extracts obtained from the immature Chrysomya albiceps.

  3. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  4. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  5. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager Tarek H. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP. In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates. Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone, respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 μg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping. Results: Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping

  6. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hager Tarek H; Mahboub, Heba Hassan H

    2016-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP). In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern. A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates). Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone), respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 µg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping. Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping exposure to it. It is concluded that NP is a toxic

  7. Radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors and normal tissues. II. Influence of dose, residual DNA damage and physiological factors in oxygenated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wheeler, K.T.

    1994-01-01

    Detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors is important for many experimental and clinical situations. Several laboratories, including ours, have suggested that assays which measure radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) might be used to detect or quantify hypoxic cells in tumors and normal tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of using an alkaline elution assay that measures strand breaks and DPCs to detect and/or quantify hypoxic cells in tissues. For this approach to be valid, DPCs must not be formed to any great extent in irradiated oxygenated cells, and the formation and repair of strand breaks and DPCs in oxygenated cells must not be modified appreciably by physiological factors (e.g., temperature, pH and nutrient depletion) that are often found in solid tumors. To address these issues, two sets of experiments were performed. In one set of experiments, oxygenated 9L cells in tissue culture, subcutaneous 9L tumors and rat cerebella were irradiated with doses of 15 or 50 Gy and allowed to repair until the residual strand break damage was low enough to detect DPCs. In another set of experiments, oxygenated exponentially growing or plateau-phase 9L cells in tissue culture were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy at 37 or 20 degrees C, while the cells were maintained at a pH of either 6.6 or 7.3. DNA-protein crosslinks were formed in oxygenated cells about 100 times less efficiently than in hypoxic cells. In addition, temperature, pH, nutrient depletion and growth phase did not appreciably alter the formation and repair of strand breaks or the formation of DPCs in oxygenated 9L cells. These results support the use of this DNA damage assay for the detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors. 27 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Parapharyngeal Tumours - Surgical Expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Kinjal Shankar Majumdar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We present our experience in the management of parapharyngeal tumours. A conservative trans-cervical approach was found to be feasible and effective in majority of the cases over radical ones, which may be required in malignancies and skull-base involvement.   Methods Fifteen patients with parapharyngeal tumours treated surgically in the Department of ENT, Nilratan Sircar Medical College in last 3 years were included in the study. 80% of the cases were benign, mos...

  9. STUDY OF PAEDIATRIC SOLID TUMOURS FOR A PERIOD OF 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basumitra Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric Solid Neoplasms (PSN are a global problem. There is significant variation of incidence of paediatric solid neoplasms in various regions of the world. Benign tumours are more common than cancer. In an effort to better understand the prevalence of paediatric solid tumours in our region, a retrospective review of the tumours diagnosed histopathologically was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary care hospital for a period of five years. All the benign and malignant paediatric solid tumours of children below 14 years from January 2012 to December 2016 were retrieved and analysed according to age, sex and histopathological diagnosis. Leukaemias were excluded from our study. All tumours were diagnosed on conventional haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. RESULTS A total of 109 cases of solid paediatric tumours were received during this period. Of these, maximum of 30 tumours were of soft tissue tumours followed by Central Nervous System (CNS and bone tumours with 24 and 23 cases, respectively. 7 cases of blastomas were also observed. CONCLUSION This study showed benign and malignant tumours to be of near-equal prevalence. Soft tissue tumours were the most common. Ratio of benign tumours to malignant were almost equal below 4 years. Malignant tumours were higher in 5-9 years group.

  10. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Soraya I; Andrade, Luciana N S; Onuchic, Ana C; Nonogaki, Sueli; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Pinheiro, Mônica C; Rohde, Ciro B S; Chammas, Roger; Jancar, Sonia

    2010-05-13

    tumour cells grown in vitro. At the tissue level, a few cells (probably macrophages) stained positively with antibodies to PAF-R. We suggest that PAF-R-dependent pathways are activated during experimental tumour growth, modifying the microenvironment and the phenotype of the tumour macrophages in such a way as to favour tumour growth. Combination therapy with a PAF-R antagonist and a chemotherapeutic drug may represent a new and promising strategy for the treatment of some tumours.

  11. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Soraya I de; Andrade, Luciana NS; Onuchic, Ana C; Nonogaki, Sueli; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Pinheiro, Mônica C; Rohde, Ciro BS; Chammas, Roger; Jancar, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    tumour cells grown in vitro. At the tissue level, a few cells (probably macrophages) stained positively with antibodies to PAF-R. We suggest that PAF-R-dependent pathways are activated during experimental tumour growth, modifying the microenvironment and the phenotype of the tumour macrophages in such a way as to favour tumour growth. Combination therapy with a PAF-R antagonist and a chemotherapeutic drug may represent a new and promising strategy for the treatment of some tumours

  12. Simultaneous determination of lincomycin and spectinomycin residues in animal tissues by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Chen, D; Yu, G; Yu, H; Pan, Y; Wang, Y; Huang, L; Yuan, Z

    2011-02-01

    A new multi-dimensional analytical method using gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for qualitative and quantitative measurement of lincomycin and spectinomycin residues in food animal tissues. This method is based on a new extraction procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The analytes were extracted by phosphate buffer with trichloroacetic acid deproteinization and clean-up by C₁₈ solid-phase extraction (SPE) adding dodecanesulfonic acid sodium salt as an ion-pair reagent. The eluted fraction was evaporated and derivatised with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) for GC-NPD analysis and GC-MS confirmation. Parameters for extraction pressure, temperature and cycle of ASE, clean-up, derivatisation and analysis procedure were optimised. The method was validated in muscle, kidney and liver of swine, bovine with a low concentration (limit of quantification) of 16.4 and 21.4 µg kg⁻¹ for these two analytes using GC-NPD. For GC-MS, the limits of quantification were 4.1 and 5.6 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. Spiked recoveries from levels of 20 to 200 µg kg⁻¹ were found to be between 73% and 99% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 17% in GC-NPD. For GC-MS, levels from 5 to 20 µg kg⁻¹ had between 70% and 93% with an RSD of less than 21%. This rapid and reliable method can be used for the characterisation and quantification of residues of lincomycin and spectinomycin in animal tissues.

  13. Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthers, O D; Cameron, F J; Scheimberg, I; Honour, J W; Hindmarsh, P C; Savage, M O; Stanhope, R G; Brook, C G

    1999-01-01

    Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours are rare in children and the determination of their malignant potential can be difficult. To assess the presentation, histology, and clinical behaviour of these tumours. Two tertiary referral centres. Retrospective analysis of children diagnosed with an androgen secreting adrenocortical tumour between 1976 and 1996. Twenty three girls and seven boys aged 0-14 years. Pubic hair was observed in all children, clitoromegaly or growth of the phallus in 23 children, acceleration of linear growth in 22 children, and advanced bone age (> 1.5 years) in 18 children. Hypersecretion of androgens was detected by assessment of serum androgen concentrations alone in four patients and by 24 hour urine steroid excretion profiles in 22 patients. All 16 tumours measuring 10 cm were malignant. Histological slides were available for reassessment in 25 children. Although mitoses and necrosis were more characteristic of tumours with malignant behaviour, no exclusive histological features of malignancy were seen. Histological criteria for malignancy are not reliable, whereas tumour size is important in assessing malignant potential.

  14. Tumour therapy with radionuclides: assessment of progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Joergen; Forssell Aronsson, Eva; Hietala, Sven-Ola; Stigbrand, Torgny; Tennvall, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a promising modality for treatment of tumours of haematopoietic origin while the success for treatment of solid tumours so far has been limited. The authors consider radionuclide therapy mainly as a method to eradicate disseminated tumour cells and small metastases while bulky tumours and large metastases have to be treated surgically or by external radiation therapy. The promising therapeutic results for haematological tumours give hope that radionuclide therapy will have a breakthrough also for treatment of disseminated cells from solid tumours. New knowledge related to this is continuously emerging since new molecular target structures are being characterised and the knowledge on pharmacokinetics and cellular processing of different types of targeting agents increases. There is also improved understanding of the factors of importance for the choice of appropriate radionuclides with respect to their decay properties and the therapeutic applications. Furthermore, new methods to modify the uptake of radionuclides in tumour cells and normal tissues are emerging. However, we still need improvements regarding dosimetry and treatment planning as well as an increased knowledge about the tolerance doses for normal tissues and the radiobiological effects on tumour cells. This is especially important in targeted radionuclide therapy where the dose rates often are lower than 1 Gy/h

  15. Studies by nuclear and physico-chemical methods of tissue's metallic contamination located around biomaterials. Toxicity measurements of several biomaterials residual radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibert, Geoffroy

    2004-01-01

    Implants used as biomaterials fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and occasionally bio-activity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bio-ceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. These debris develop different problems: toxicity, inflammatory reactions, prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters which have an influence on tissue response. We characterize metallic contamination coming from knee prosthesis into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviours, content, size and nature of debris. The PIXE-RBS and STEM-EDXS methods, that we used, are complementary, especially about characterization scale. Debris contamination distributed in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrate on several thousands μm in tissue. Solid metallic particles, μm, are found in the most polluted samples, for both kinds of alloys TA6V and CrCoMo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the in vivo mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TA6V debris and chemical evolution of CrCoMo debris. Complementary measures of TA6V grains, on a nano-metric scale by STEM-EDXS, show a dissolution of coarse grain (μm) in smaller grains (nm). Locally, TA6V grains of a phase are detected and could indicate a preferential dissolution of β phase (grain boundaries) with dropping of Al and V, both toxic and carcinogenic elements. A thin target protocol development correlates PIXE and histological analysis on the same zone. This protocol allows to locate other pathologies in relationship with weaker metal contamination, μg/g, thanks to the great sensitivity of PIXE method. Harmlessness with respect to the residual radioactivity of several natural or synthetic biomaterials is established, using ultra low background noise γ detection system. (author)

  16. MicroCT image-generated tumour geometry and SAR distribution for tumour temperature elevation simulations in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Alexander; Manuchehrabadi, Navid; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Wang, Frank; Ma, Ronghui; Zhu, Liang

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and test computer algorithms to export micro computed tomography (microCT) images and to generate tumour geometry and specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution for heat transfer simulation in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. Computer algorithms were written to analyse and export microCT images of 3D tumours containing magnetic nanoparticles. MATLAB(®) and ProE(®) programs were used to generate a prototype of the tumour geometry. The enhancements in the microCT pixel index number due to presence of nanoparticles in the tumours were first converted into corresponding SAR values. The SAR data were then averaged over three-dimensional clusters of pixels using the SAS(®) program. This greatly decreased the size of the SAR file, while in the meantime it ensured that the amount of total energy deposited in the tumour was conserved. Both the tumour geometry and the SAR file were then imported into the COMSOL(®) software package to simulate temperature elevations in the tumour and their surrounding tissue region during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. A linear relationship was obtained to relate individual pixel index numbers in the microCT images to the SAR values under a specific magnetic field. The generated prototype of the tumour geometry based on only 30 slices of microCT images resembled the original tumour shape and size. The tumour geometry and the simplified SAR data set were successfully accepted by the COMSOL software for heat transfer simulation. Up to 20 °C temperature elevations from its baseline temperature were found inside the tumours, implying possible thermal damage to the tumour during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of tumour cell proliferation and intratumoural microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennazli Gulbin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between different histological types and grades of canine malignant mammary tumours, tumour cell proliferation and their angiogenic activity using immunohistochemical markers. Mammary tissue samples from 47 bitches with mammary cancer were evaluated. The expression of cellular proliferation marker Ki-67 and endothelial marker Von Willebrand’s factor (vWF were immunohistochemically demonstrated. The tumours with the highest Ki-67 and vWF expressions were found to share similar histomorphological features. Simple solid carcinoma had the highest levels of Ki-67, vWF, and higher histological grade while complex carcinomas, osteosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas had the lowest ones. The differences between the expressions of Ki-67 and vWF in different tumour types were considered to be of great importance in determination of biological behaviour and prognosis of these tumours. This study is one of the few studies that evaluate these differences among the subtypes of malignant canine mammary tumours

  18. EVALUATION OF BRAIN TUMOURS USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

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    B. Vinod Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The brain is basically formed by the neurons and the supporting cells. Tumours arising of neurons are almost impossible because the neurons never divide. Tumours arising from the supporting cells are almost frequently seen. The tumour characteristics depend upon the cell of origin. The brain is covered by meninges and the vascular tissue supplies the essential nutrients to all these components of the brain. Unfortunately, the brain is placed in a rigid box called as neurocranium. According to Monro–Kellie principle, if any of the one component increases in a rigid box, the other components will be compensated. So in a limited space if any of the catastrophes occur i.e. space occupying lesions, then the other components will be compensated and as a result the effects will be seen in a very small amount of time. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand and evaluate the Brain Tumours using a CT scan. This study is intended to be useful to the diagnosing radiologists, internal medicine practitioners and general practitioners and surgeons. METHODS The aim of the study is to evaluate the brain tumours using CT and to confirm the diagnosis by sending to the Histopathology Department. The study is a cross-sectional study and is done in the Department of Radiology, Fathima Medical College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh. The study was done from December 2014 to May 2016. The study was done using thirty cases who were believed to have brain tumour and were studied in the Department of Radiology after initial clinical evaluation. First, the plain CT was done and was checked for the location, size, characteristics of the lesion and the surrounding characteristics were observed. RESULT In the present study, the most common of all tumours were those of the neuroepithelial groups. Next in frequency were the tumours of meninges of all intracranial tumours. This was followed by tumours of cranial nerves, metastatic tumour, one lymphoma case

  19. Experimental tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report of 1984 is the seventh in a series and presents that year's results of continuous studies in the domain of experimental tumour radiotherapy. In the year under review, more personnel has been available for the studies, and the scientific programmes for the assessment of acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapies have been extended. New models have been developed, among them a first system based on animal experiments, for quantifying the mucositis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, a limiting condition in the radiotherapy of head and throat tumours. Another significant advancement is a model for quantification of chronical damage to the ureter, which still is a serious problem in the radiotherapy of gynaecological tumours. The 1984 experimental tumour studies have been mainly devoted to the repopulation and split-dose recovery in various tumours, concentrating on dose fractionation as one of the major problems studies. Particular interest has been attached to the processes involved in treatments over several weeks with a daily effective dose of 2 Gy. (orig./MG) [de

  20. An optimized small animal tumour model for experimentation with low energy protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Brüchner, Kerstin; Krause, Mechthild; Schmidt, Margret; Szabo, Rita; Pawelke, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The long-term aim of developing laser based particle acceleration towards clinical application requires not only substantial technological progress, but also the radiobiological characterization of the resulting ultra-short and ultra-intensive particle beam pulses. After comprehensive cell studies a mouse ear tumour model was established allowing for the penetration of low energy protons (~20 MeV) currently available at laser driven accelerators. The model was successfully applied for a first tumour growth delay study with laser driven electrons, whereby the need of improvements crop out. To optimise the mouse ear tumour model with respect to a stable, high take rate and a lower number of secondary tumours, Matrigel was introduced for tumour cell injection. Different concentrations of two human tumour cell lines (FaDu, LN229) and Matrigel were evaluated for stable tumour growth and fulfilling the allocation criteria for irradiation experiments. The originally applied cell injection with PBS was performed for comparison and to assess the long-term stability of the model. Finally, the optimum suspension of cells and Matrigel was applied to determine applicable dose ranges for tumour growth delay studies by 200 kV X-ray irradiation. Both human tumour models showed a high take rate and exponential tumour growth starting at a volume of ~10 mm3. As disclosed by immunofluorescence analysis these small tumours already interact with the surrounding tissue and activate endothelial cells to form vessels. The formation of delimited, solid tumours at irradiation size was shown by standard H&E staining and a realistic dose range for inducing tumour growth delay without permanent tumour control was obtained for both tumour entities. The already established mouse ear tumour model was successfully upgraded now providing stable tumour growth with high take rate for two tumour entities (HNSCC, glioblastoma) that are of interest for future irradiation experiments at experimental

  1. An optimized small animal tumour model for experimentation with low energy protons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Beyreuther

    Full Text Available The long-term aim of developing laser based particle acceleration towards clinical application requires not only substantial technological progress, but also the radiobiological characterization of the resulting ultra-short and ultra-intensive particle beam pulses. After comprehensive cell studies a mouse ear tumour model was established allowing for the penetration of low energy protons (~20 MeV currently available at laser driven accelerators. The model was successfully applied for a first tumour growth delay study with laser driven electrons, whereby the need of improvements crop out.To optimise the mouse ear tumour model with respect to a stable, high take rate and a lower number of secondary tumours, Matrigel was introduced for tumour cell injection. Different concentrations of two human tumour cell lines (FaDu, LN229 and Matrigel were evaluated for stable tumour growth and fulfilling the allocation criteria for irradiation experiments. The originally applied cell injection with PBS was performed for comparison and to assess the long-term stability of the model. Finally, the optimum suspension of cells and Matrigel was applied to determine applicable dose ranges for tumour growth delay studies by 200 kV X-ray irradiation.Both human tumour models showed a high take rate and exponential tumour growth starting at a volume of ~10 mm3. As disclosed by immunofluorescence analysis these small tumours already interact with the surrounding tissue and activate endothelial cells to form vessels. The formation of delimited, solid tumours at irradiation size was shown by standard H&E staining and a realistic dose range for inducing tumour growth delay without permanent tumour control was obtained for both tumour entities.The already established mouse ear tumour model was successfully upgraded now providing stable tumour growth with high take rate for two tumour entities (HNSCC, glioblastoma that are of interest for future irradiation experiments at

  2. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong; Hui, Sze Ki; Ling, Siu Cheung

    2010-01-01

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  3. Metastatic Tumours to the Oral Cavity: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna G. Kalaitsidou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity from distant organs are uncommon and represent approximately 1 - 3% of all oral malignancies. Such metastases can occur to the bone or to the oral soft tissues. Almost any malignancy from any site is capable of metastasis to the oral cavity and a wide variety of tumours have been reported to spread to the mouth. Methods: Careful examination of the oral cavity and a high degree of clinical suspicion as well as a multidisciplinary approach are suggested. Results: In this article we present three patients, a female and two males with metastatic tumours to the oral cavity, who were referred to our Department. The primary tumours were invasive lobular breast carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma respectively. Conclusions: Metastases to the oral cavity are quite uncommon among population. They usually present with symptoms similar to odontogenic infections and benign tumours, causing a delayed diagnosis and treatment.

  4. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Hui, Sze Ki [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hong Kong (China); Ling, Siu Cheung [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  5. Parapharyngeal Tumours - Surgical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Shankar Majumdar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We present our experience in the management of parapharyngeal tumours. A conservative trans-cervical approach was found to be feasible and effective in majority of the cases over radical ones, which may be required in malignancies and skull-base involvement.   Methods Fifteen patients with parapharyngeal tumours treated surgically in the Department of ENT, Nilratan Sircar Medical College in last 3 years were included in the study. 80% of the cases were benign, most common being Schwannoma. Most important investigation was found to be MRI.   Conclusion The study gives an overview regarding the surgical approach, based upon the extent and histology of the tumour. Trans-cervical approachwas found to be the most effective.

  6. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the kidney: a rare renal tumour in adolescents with seemingly characteristic radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Winnie C.; Reznikov, Boris; Lee, Edward Y.; Grant, Ronald M.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Babyn, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) constitute a family of neoplasms of presumed neuroectodermal origin that predominantly present as bone or soft-tissue masses in adolescents and young adults. PNET arising in the kidney is rare. To describe the radiological features in three patients with primary renal PNET. The radiological features of primary renal PNET in three adolescent patients (age 10, 14 and 16 years) are described. Tumour thrombus extending into the renal vein and inferior vena cava was noted in all three patients. In addition, further tumour extension into the atrium was seen in two patients with extension into a pulmonary artery in one patient. Neural foraminal and intraspinal extension close to the origin of the tumour was identified in two patients. Liver, bone and lung metastases were identified. While rare, one should consider the diagnosis of PNET when encountering a renal mass with aggressive features such as inferior vena cava tumour thrombus, direct intraspinal invasion and distant metastasis. (orig.)

  7. Unicystic ameloblastoma arising from a residual cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Amit D; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Khurana, Neha M; Shah, Navin

    2014-01-01

    Intraoral swellings involving alveolar ridges in edentulous patients are clinically diagnosed as residual cysts, traumatic bone cysts, Stafne's jaw bone cavity, ameloblastoma and metastatic tumours of the jaw. This case report describes a residual cyst in a 68-year-old edentulous male patient which was enucleated and histopathologically confirmed as a unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:25199192

  8. Oxygen tension in human tumours measured with polarographic needle electrodes and its relationship to vascular density, necrosis and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyng, Heidi; Sundfoer, Kolbein; Rofstad, Einar K.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The use of polarographic needle electrodes for measurement of oxygen tension (pO 2 ) in tumours requires documentation of the validity of the method. In the present work the pO 2 values measured polarographically with the Eppendorf pO 2 histograph in human tumours were compared with the histological appearance of the tumour tissue, i.e. vascular density, fraction of necrosis and fraction of hypoxic tissue, to investigate whether the measurements reflected the expected pO 2 . Materials and methods: The pO 2 was measured in cervix tumours in patients and in human melanoma xenografted tumours in athymic mice. Vascular density was determined in the cervix tumours by histological analysis of biopsies from the pO 2 measurement tracks. Fraction of necrosis and fraction of hypoxic tissue, i.e. tissue binding the hypoxia marker pimonidazole, were determined in the melanomas by analysis of histological sections from the tumour planes in which the pO 2 measurements were performed. Results: The pO 2 distributions showed large intratumour heterogeneity. In cervix tumours, tumour regions with vascular density (vascular length per unit tissue volume) in the range of 47-77 mm/mm 3 showed higher pO 2 than tumour regions with vascular density in the range of 20-47 mm/mm 3 , which in turn showed higher pO 2 than tumour regions with vascular density in the range of 0-20 mm/mm 3 . In melanomas, tumour regions in which necrosis and hypoxia constituted more than 50% of the tissue showed lower pO 2 than other tumour regions. Conclusions: The pO 2 measured in the tumours was consistent with the histological appearance of the tissue in which the measurements were performed, suggesting that reliable pO 2 distributions of tumours can be obtained with polarographic needle electrodes

  9. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  10. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Christensen, Rikke Kølby

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may ther...... immunoreactivity in tumour tissue from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer did not correlate with patient survival or response to combination platinum/cyclophosphamide therapy.......BACKGROUND: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may...... therefore play an essential role in the progression of a malignant tumour.The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate TIMP-1 protein immunoreactivity in tissue from primary ovarian cancer patients and associate these findings with the course of the disease including response to treatment...

  11. melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (progonoma) treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-01

    Jun 1, 2009 ... tumour recurrence. Key words: Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy, melanotic progonoma, radical maxillary sur- gery. INTRODUCTION. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI), also known as melanotic progonoma, melano- ameloblastoma or retinal anlage tumour is a rare lo-.

  12. An imaging-based computational model for simulating angiogenesis and tumour oxygenation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikarla, Vikram; Jeraj, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Tumour growth, angiogenesis and oxygenation vary substantially among tumours and significantly impact their treatment outcome. Imaging provides a unique means of investigating these tumour-specific characteristics. Here we propose a computational model to simulate tumour-specific oxygenation changes based on the molecular imaging data. Tumour oxygenation in the model is reflected by the perfused vessel density. Tumour growth depends on its doubling time (T d) and the imaged proliferation. Perfused vessel density recruitment rate depends on the perfused vessel density around the tumour (sMVDtissue) and the maximum VEGF concentration for complete vessel dysfunctionality (VEGFmax). The model parameters were benchmarked to reproduce the dynamics of tumour oxygenation over its entire lifecycle, which is the most challenging test. Tumour oxygenation dynamics were quantified using the peak pO2 (pO2peak) and the time to peak pO2 (t peak). Sensitivity of tumour oxygenation to model parameters was assessed by changing each parameter by 20%. t peak was found to be more sensitive to tumour cell line related doubling time (~30%) as compared to tissue vasculature density (~10%). On the other hand, pO2peak was found to be similarly influenced by the above tumour- and vasculature-associated parameters (~30-40%). Interestingly, both pO2peak and t peak were only marginally affected by VEGFmax (~5%). The development of a poorly oxygenated (hypoxic) core with tumour growth increased VEGF accumulation, thus disrupting the vessel perfusion as well as further increasing hypoxia with time. The model with its benchmarked parameters, is applied to hypoxia imaging data obtained using a [64Cu]Cu-ATSM PET scan of a mouse tumour and the temporal development of the vasculature and hypoxia maps are shown. The work underscores the importance of using tumour-specific input for analysing tumour evolution. An extended model incorporating therapeutic effects can serve as a powerful tool for analysing

  13. Giant Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumour: An Enigma of Surgical Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Hayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 16-year-old male, who was referred from private centre for dyspnoea, fatigue, and orthopnea. The chest radiograph revealed complete opacification of left chest which was confirmed by computed tomography as a large left mediastinal mass measuring 14 × 15 × 18 cm. The diagnostic needle core biopsy revealed mixed germ cell tumour with possible combination of embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac, and teratoma. After 4 cycles of neoadjuvant BEP regime, there was initial response of tumour markers but not tumour bulk. Instead of classic median sternotomy or clamshell incision, posterolateral approach with piecemeal manner was chosen. Histology confirmed mixed germ cell tumour with residual teratomatous component without yolk sac or embryonal carcinoma component. Weighing 3.5 kg, it is one of the largest mediastinal germ cell tumours ever reported. We describe this rare and gigantic intrathoracic tumour and discuss the spectrum of surgical approach and treatment of this exceptional tumour.

  14. Synchronous Epithelioid Stromal Tumour and Lipoma in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Al-Brahim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old man presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A polypoid lesion of the distal stomach with focal ulceration was seen at endoscopy. This was treated by a partial gastrectomy. The resected stomach contained two separate tumours near the pylorus: a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST and an adjacent lipoma. The literature includes case reports of synchronously occurring GIST and adenocarcinoma, GIST and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and GIST and carcinoid tumour. Herein is the first case report of two distinct mesenchymal tumors coexisting in the stomach.

  15. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7 ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  16. of brain tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hallucinations other than the typical auditory hallucinations that we so often see in patients with schizophrenia and may include visual ... memory, may show reduced ability for new learning and may also have problems with visuo-spatial memory, particularly if the tumour is in the non-dominant hemisphere.11. The parietal ...

  17. Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagge, A; Krause, K; Schierle, K; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Fuhrer, D

    2010-04-01

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in various endocrine tumours. The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. The majority of currently available somatostatin analogues show a higher binding affinity for the SSTR2 subtype. To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined. We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues. Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3. Weak SSTR4 mRNA expression was detected in some PTCs. Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC. In addition significant upregulation of SSTR3 was found in PTC. SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue. SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC . Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  18. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum to CT26 tumour-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingtao; Wang, Chunfeng; Ye, Liping; Yang, Wentao; Huang, Haibin; Meng, Fei; Shi, Shaohua; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer that shows a high mortality and increasing incidence. There are numerous successful treatment options for CRC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy; however, their side effects and limitations are considerable. Probiotics may be an effective strategy for preventing and inhibiting tumour growth through stimulation of host innate and adaptive immunity. We investigated and compared potential anti-tumour immune responses induced by two isolated Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus b, by pre-inoculating mice with lactobacilli for 14 days. Subsequently, subcutaneous and orthotopic intestinal tumours were generated in the pre-inoculated mice using CT26 murine adenocarcinoma cells and were assessed for response against the tumour. Our results indicated that oral administration with L. plantarum inhibited CT26 cell growth in BALB/c mice and prolonged the survival time of tumour-bearing mice compared with mice administered L. rhamnosus. L. plantarum produced protective immunity against the challenge with CT26 cells by increasing the effector functions of CD8+ and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration into tumour tissue, up-regulation of IFN-gamma (but not IL-4 or IL-17) production, and promotion of Th1-type CD4+ T differentiation. Consequently, our results suggest that L. plantarum can enhance the anti-tumour immune response and delay tumour formation.

  19. Testicular germ cell tumours in dogs are predominantly of spermatocytic seminoma type and are frequently associated with somatic cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, J M; Gardiner, D W; Palmer, J S

    2011-01-01

    Unlike seminomas in humans, seminomas in animals are not typically sub-classified as classical or spermatocytic types. To compare testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) in dogs with those of men, archived tissues from 347 cases of canine testicular tumours were morphologically evaluated and characte......Unlike seminomas in humans, seminomas in animals are not typically sub-classified as classical or spermatocytic types. To compare testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) in dogs with those of men, archived tissues from 347 cases of canine testicular tumours were morphologically evaluated...... in canine TGCT. None of the canine TGCT evaluated demonstrated the presence of carcinoma in situ cells, a standard feature of human classical seminomas, suggesting that classical seminomas either do not occur in dogs or are rare in occurrence. Canine spermatocytic seminomas may provide a useful model...

  20. Residue determination of two co-administered antibacterial agents--cephalexin and colistin--in calf tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography and microbiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, P; Decolin, D; Nicolas, S; Archimbault, P; Nicolas, A

    1989-01-01

    Residues of two antibacterial agents, cephalexin and colistin, co-administered by intramuscular injection to calves, were quantified in four different tissues (muscle, fat, liver and kidney) by column switching HPLC and by a microbiological method. For cephalexin assay, tissue samples with cephradin as internal standard were homogenized in a 5% trichloroacetic acid solution and filtrates were injected onto a concentration precolumn filled with LiChroprep RP-18 (25-40 microns). A clean-up step was incorporated by flowing a mobile phase (methanol-0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0); 15:85, v/v) through the enrichment column before elution on a LiChrospher RP-18e (5 microns) column with a methanol-phosphate buffer (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml min-1. Spectrometric detection was at 260 nm. An additional "off-line" washing step of extracts with methylene chloride was operated to achieve higher selectivity in the case of liver and kidney samples. The limit for quantitative assay was 0.045 micrograms g-1 with relative standard deviations in the range 5-8% and recoveries within 70%. For microbiological assay of colistin, samples were homogenized in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid-acetonitrile mixtures (3:1, v/v, for kidney and liver; 3:2, v/v, for fat and muscle). The supernatants were assayed by the cylinder plate method after evaporation to dryness under vacuum. Bordetella bronchiseptica ATCC 4617 was chosen as test organism. After a 3-h diffusion step at room temperature, the medium was incubated at 37 degrees C for 18 h and then the diameter of the growth inhibition zones was measured. Sensitivity reached 0.10-0.15 micrograms g-1. Results from the analysed samples over a 7-28 day period after drug administration show that no cephalexin was found at concentrations higher than the quantitation limit in the four test tissues and that colistin was found in muscle (injection site only) for 15 days and in kidney for 21 days.

  1. Accurate prostate tumour detection with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging: dependence on histological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borren, Alie; Groenendaal, Greetje; Moman, Maaike R; Boeken Kruger, Arto E; van Diest, Paul J; van Vulpen, Marco; Philippens, Marielle E P; van der Heide, Uulke A

    2014-01-01

    To benefit most of focal treatment of prostate tumours, detection with high precision of all tumour voxels is needed. Although diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) have good diagnostic performance, perfect tumour detection is challenging. In this study, we investigated the variation in prostate tissue characteristics Gleason score (GS), cell density (CD) and microvessel density (MVD) to explain the limitations in tumour voxel detection with a MRI-based logistic regression model. Twelve radical prostatectomy patients underwent a pre-operative 3.0T DWI and DCE-MRI exam. The MRI scans were used to calculate voxel-wise tumour probability with a logistic regression model for the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate. Tumour probability maps were correlated and validated with whole-mount histology. Additionally, from the whole-mount histological sections CD, MVD and GS were retrieved for every single voxel. GS, CD and MVD of true- and false-positive voxels and of true- and false-negative voxels were compared using Mann-Whitney U-tests. False-negative tumour voxels had significantly lower CD and MVD (p < 0.0001) and were similar to non-tumour PZ. True-positive detected tumour voxels had high CDs and MVDs (p < 0.0001). In addition, tumour voxels with higher GS showed a trend towards more frequent detection (p = 0.06). Tumour voxels with GS ≥ 3 + 4 showed higher CD and MVD compared to tumour voxels with GS 3 + 3 (p < 0.0001). Tumour voxels with low CD and MVD resemble healthy tissue and are limiting tumour voxel detection using DWI and DCE-MRI. Nevertheless, the most aggressive tumour voxels, containing high CD, MVD and GS, are more likely to be detected and can therefore be treated with high dose using focal therapy or focal boosting.

  2. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  3. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  4. Immunosenescence, suppression and tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, G; Koch, S; Griesemann, H; Rehbein, A; Hähnel, K; Gouttefangeas, C

    2006-08-01

    There are good arguments for suggesting that two seminal papers published 50 years ago can be taken as the beginning of modern tumour immunology. These papers by R. Baldwin, "Immunity to transplanted tumour: the effect of tumour extracts on the growth of homologous tumours in rats" and "Immunity to methylcholanthrene-induced tumours in inbred rats following atrophy and regression of the implanted tumours" (Br J Cancer 9:646-51 and 652-657, 1955) showed that once tumours are established, they and their products can be recognised by the adaptive immune system and rejected. However, the tumour normally co-evolves with immunity, like a parasite, rather than being suddenly introduced as in these, and many other, experimental models. Dynamics of this co-evolution are illustrated by findings that inflammation enhances tumorigenicity, yet is important to enable T cells to respond properly to tumour antigen and exert anti-tumour effects. The important thing is to maintain the balance between effective anti-tumour immunity and tumour escape and/or stimulatory mechanisms. Tumours almost always co-exist with immune defence systems over extended periods and interact chronically with T cells. The effect of this is potentially similar to other situations of chronic antigenic stress, particularly lifelong persistent virus infection, most strikingly, CMV infection. The questions briefly explored in this symposium paper are what happens when T lymphocyte clones are chronically stimulated by antigen which is not or cannot be eliminated? What are the similarities and differences between chronic antigenic stimulation by tumour antigen versus CMV antigen? What can we learn in one system which may illuminate the other?

  5. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollot, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours [fr

  6. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  7. Wilms tumour in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuidris, Dafalla O; Elimam, Mohammed E; Nugud, Faisal M; Elgaili, Elgaili M; Ahmed, Mohamed E; Arora, Ramandeep S

    2008-06-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the commonest childhood solid tumours which has an excellent outlook in the developed world with 5-year overall survival exceeding 90%. There is little information from Sudan regarding Wilms tumour. Records of patients with Wilms tumour diagnosed and treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology and Oncology (INMO) in the University of Gezira from May 1999 to June 2007 were reviewed. Thirty-seven children presented at a mean age of 4.1 years (range 2 months-13 years). The male to female ratio was 0.9-1. Abdominal swelling or mass was the commonest symptom. There was 1 child with Stage I (2.7%), 7 with stage II (18.9%), 25 with Stage III (67.6%) and 4 with Stage IV (10.8%). Following diagnosis 27% of children did not receive further treatment (5.4% died prior to treatment, 5.4% were not able to finance treatment and for the rest 16.2% no cause was identified). More than half of the children did not have a nephrectomy and only 4 (11%) completed treatment. The poor outlook is related to several factors. Delayed presentation, poor awareness of treatment options, lack of finances, no provision of food, lodging and transport, absence of paediatric trained staff are the obstacles to better outcomes. Empowering parents with information, giving chemotherapy prior to nephrectomy, training staff and establishing links with a tertiary cancer centre in the developed world are some of the options to improve survival. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Treating tumours with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the uses of radiopharmaceuticals in radiotherapy. After a discussion on the suitability of various isotopes for therapeutic use, some well-established examples of radiotherapy are described. These include the treatment of thyroid diseases with I-131, of polycythemia vera with P-32 and of neural crest tumours with 131 I-MIBG. New trends in therapy of bone diseases and in radioimmunotherapy are also considered

  9. Effects of encapsulated nitrate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, nitrate residues in tissues, and enteric methane emissions in beef steers: Finishing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-08-01

    A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors. Five animals in each pen designated for methane measurement (total of 20 animals) were monitored for methane emissions in respiratory chambers twice during the experiment. Pens received 3 dietary treatments (7 pens each): Control, a finishing diet supplemented with urea; 1.25% EN, control diet supplemented with 1.25% encapsulated NO in dietary DM that partially replaced urea; and 2.5% EN, control diet supplemented with 2.5% EN (DM basis) fully replacing urea. The final pen designated only for methane measurement received a fourth dietary treatment, 2.3% UEN, the control diet supplemented with unencapsulated NO (UEN) fully replacing urea. The cattle weighed 449 ± SD 32 kg at the start of the 150-d finishing period. The 2.5% EN diet decreased ( methane production (g/d) and yield (g/kg DMI) were observed among treatments. Inclusion of EN in the diets increased ( ≤ 0.03) sorting in favor of large and medium particles and against small and fine particles. Plasma NO and NO concentrations were elevated ( < 0.01) with EN in a dose-response manner, but total blood methemoglobin levels for all treatments were low, below the detection limit. Feeding EN increased ( < 0.01) NO concentrations of samples from muscle, fat, liver, and kidney; NO concentrations of these tissues were similar between 1.25% EN and 2.3% UEN. In

  10. Microwave-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis followed by extraction with restricted access nanocomposites for rapid analysis of glucocorticoids residues in liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianan; Liu, Xiaodan; Li, Yan; Duan, Gengli

    2016-10-01

    We developed a novel, simple and fast method for the determination of glucocorticoids residues in liver tissue by combining microwave-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis and restricted access matrix dispersive solid phase extraction (RAM-dSPE) followed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Firstly, microwave-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis was introduced in order to obtain a maximum amount of unconjugated parent drug in a short time (8s), while the traditional method commonly needs 4-12h. Secondly, further cleanup was carried out by RAM-dSPE based on the graphene@mSiO2-C8 nanomaterials which were synthesized by coating mesoporous silica onto hydrophilic graphene nano-sheets through a surfactant-mediated co-condensation sol-gel process. The enzymatic hydrolysis influencing factors (pH of the buffer, microwave radiation power, incubation time) and the experimental conditions of RAM-dSPE (sorbents amount, type and volume of the elution solvent, adsorption and desorption time) were optimized. Three glucocorticoids (prednisolone (PREL), betamethasone (BE) and dexamethasone (DE)) were selected as models to evaluate the feasibility of the method. According to the results, the developed method provided low detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.01-0.05μgkg(-1) and good linearity range of 0.25-800μgkg(-1) (R(2)>0.996) for glucocorticoids. The limit of quantification (S/N=10) range from 0.03 to 0.19μgkg(-1). Compared with other traditional methods, the developed method could provide similar or even better results in a greatly reduced analysis time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiolabelled aptamers for tumour imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Missailidis, S.

    2005-01-01

    , where four aptamers were attached to the four arms of either DOTA or carboxy-porphyrin. The four complexes were labelled with Tc-99m and tested for their efficacy as tumour imaging agents. All four complexes demonstrated specificity for the tumour, due to their MUC1 specificity, at various levels. Biodistribution studies were carried out in mice with MCF7 xenografts. The monomeric aptamer complexes had rapid renal clearance from the system, due to their small size (MW of 8,000 Da). More than 90% of the aptamer based radiopharmaceutical was cleared from the system within the first 15 minutes. To increase retention time, additional constructs based on the design of a tetra-aptamer complex were prepared. A core chelator, such as DOTA and carboxy-porphyrin has been used as a skeleton for the building of multiaptamer constructs aiming to increase the molecular weight of the complex and potentially its stability of binding due to interactions with more than one MUC1 molecules at the surface of the tumour cell. The increase of the MW to 32,000 Da allowed increased retention times in the system, without compromising the exceptional tumour penetration exhibited by all the aptamer based constructs under study. The development of aptamers as small building blocks for targeting agents offers several advantages. These molecules penetrate tumour more readily than whole antibodies, reach peak levels in the tumour more rapidly and clear from the body faster, thereby reducing toxicity to healthy tissues. Our strategy is to manipulate the molecular weight of the construct utilising previously devised methodologies to achieve various polymeric aptamer complexes in order to achieve the optimum balance between the low immunogenicity and excellent tumour penetration. In this way we aim to achieve a balance against the rapid renal clearance that leads to premature elimination of the complex from the system and adequate tumour uptake for diagnostic imaging and targeted therapy. We intend to

  12. Tumour imaging with non specific substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, W.B. van der.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction concerning tumour imaging in nuclear medicine is given as well as the formulation of the problem treated in this thesis. In a literature review the most important tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals used until now are described together with their clinical significance in the diagnosis of malignancy. The mechanism of uptake and subcellular distribution of most of the radiopharmaceuticals reviewed are discussed in chapter three with special reference to gallium-citrate. An ionic model to explain the distribution patterns of a number of these tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues has been proposed. Evidence for the validity of this model is presented with specific reference to the ionic state of the reagents concerned. EXperimental evidence to support the proposed model is presented, with reference to the biologic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues. A limited number of selected case reports demonstrate how the results of the earlier described investigations can be applied to explain phenomena observed in clinical studies with ionic substances. The results obtained are discussed and the validity of the data with respect to the proposed model has been investigated. (Auth.)

  13. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kazama, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  14. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: correlation between MSCT features and pathological classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yanji; Dong, Zhi; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chen, Jie [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chan, Tao; Chen, Minhu [Union Hospital, Hong Kong, Medical Imaging Department, Shatin, N.T. (China); Lin, Yuan [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Pathology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-11-15

    We aimed to evaluate the multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) and analyse the correlation between the MSCT features and pathological classification of P-NENs. Forty-one patients, preoperatively investigated by MSCT and subsequently operated on with a histological diagnosis of P-NENs, were included. Various MSCT features of the primary tumour, lymph node, and distant metastasis were analysed. The relationship between MSCT features and pathologic classification of P-NENs was analysed with univariate and multivariate models. Contrast-enhanced images showed significant differences among the three grades of tumours in the absolute enhancement (P = 0.013) and relative enhancement (P = 0.025) at the arterial phase. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences among the tumours of different grades (based on World Health Organization [WHO] 2010 classification) in tumour size (P = 0.001), tumour contour (P < 0.001), cystic necrosis (P = 0.001), tumour boundary (P = 0.003), dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (P = 0.001), peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (P < 0.001), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.011), and distant metastasis (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis suggested that only peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (HR 3.934, 95 % CI, 0.426-7.442, P = 0.028) was significantly associated with WHO 2010 pathological classification. MSCT is helpful in evaluating the pathological classification of P-NENs. (orig.)

  15. Selective internal radiation therapy for liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Francis X; Buscombe, John R

    2017-10-01

    Primary and secondary liver malignancies are common and associated with a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, many patients have unresectable disease. In these cases, several liver directed therapies are available, including selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). SIRT is a multidisciplinary treatment involving nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and oncology. High doses of localised internal radiation are selectively delivered to liver tumour tissues, with relative sparing of adjacent normal liver parenchyma. Side effects are minimal and radiation protection measures following treatment are straightforward. In patients who have progressed following chemotherapy, clinical trials demonstrate prolonged liver progression-free survival. SIRT is offered at 10 centres in England via the NHS England Commissioning through Evaluation programme and is approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for certain liver malignancies. SIRT holds unique promise for personalised treatment of liver tumours. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India, and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  17. 2-d spectroscopic imaging of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, N.J.; Brotchie, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster illustrates the use of two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging (2-D SI) in the characterisation of brain tumours, and the monitoring of subsequent treatment. After conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging of patients with known or suspected brain tumours, 2-D SI is performed at a single axial level. The level is chosen to include the maximum volume of abnormal enhancement, or, in non-enhancing lesions. The most extensive T2 signal abnormality. Two different MR systems have been used (Marconi Edge and GE Signa LX); at each site, a PRESS localisation sequence is employed with TE 128-144 ms. Automated software is used to generate spectral arrays, metabolite maps, and metabolite ratio maps from the spectroscopic data. Colour overlays of the maps onto anatomical images are produced using manufacturer software or the Medex imaging data analysis package. High grade gliomas showed choline levels higher than those in apparently normal brain, with decreases in NAA and creatine. Some lesions showed spectral abnormality extending into otherwise normal appearing brain. This was also seen in a case of CNS lymphoma. Lowgrade lesions showed choline levels similar to normal brain, but with decreased NAA. Only a small number of metastases have been studied, but to date no metastasis has shown spectral abnormality beyond the margins suggested by conventional imaging. Follow-up studies generally show spectral heterogeneity. Regions with choline levels higher than those in normal-appearing brain are considered to represent recurrent high-grade tumour. Some regions show choline to be the dominant metabolite, but its level is not greater than that seen in normal brain. These regions are considered suspicious for residual / recurrent tumour when the choline / creatine ratio exceeds 2 (lower ratios may represent treatment effect). 2-D SI improves the initial assessment of brain tumours, and has potential for influencing the radiotherapy treatment strategy. 2-D SI also

  18. Neuromuscular hamartoma: imaging features of a rare paediatric craniofacial tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeppen, Rachel S.; Harden, Stephen P.; Argent, Julie D.

    2003-01-01

    Neuromuscular hamartoma (also referred to as neuromuscular choristoma or benign triton tumour) has not previously been described in the radiological literature. It is a rare benign lesion composed of mature elements of striated muscle and neural tissue. We report a case of neuromuscular hamartoma involving the skull base, nasopharynx, orbit and maxilla in a 2.5-year-old child who presented with facial swelling. The CT and MRI appearances of this unusual soft-tissue tumour are emphasized, together with a discussion of the pathological findings, differential diagnosis and review of the literature. (orig.)

  19. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    approximately two-thirds (64%; 95% CI, 50 - 78). The underreporting was more pronounced among the elderly and in those with no histological confirmation of the meningioma diagnosis. An increasing trend of VS incidence was observed, but with considerable differences between countries. The overall annual increase of VS incidence was 2.8% per year (95% CI, 2.3 - 3.2) in 1987 - 2007, when all the four countries and both sexes were combined. However, no statistically significant increase was seen in the rates of VS incidence in Finnish men or Swedish women, and the incidence even showed some decrease in Finnish women (-0.4%, 95% CI, -1.8 to +1.1) during the study period. The overall increase in rates stabilized in the late 1990s, with relatively constant incidence rates and even some decline after 2000. Gliomas were distributed unevenly in the brain, with substantial variation between the cerebral lobes showing an excess of gliomas in the frontal and temporal lobes (over four-fold relative to occipital lobe, even after accounting for tissue volume). In the detailed spatial 3D-analysis, statistically significant heterogeneity was found with most gliomas in the anterior subcortical part of the brain. There was no excess of gliomas in the parts of the brain nearest to the typical location where mobile phones are held. Gliomas among never-regular mobile phone users and contralateral users (phone held on the opposite side of the head than the side of tumour) were closer to the source of electromagnetic field (EMF) than among regular and ipsilateral (exposure at the same side as the tumour location) users. In the case-specular analysis, the distance from the glioma cases to the mobile phone was shorter than for the speculars (hypothetical controls assigned for each glioma case). However, no such association was found in analyses by amount of phone use. In both models, glioma cases were closer to the source of exposure in long-term users (over ten years of use), but the differences

  20. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  1. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  2. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  3. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model.Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Tirapazamine causes vascular dysfunction in HCT-116 tumour xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxham, Lynsey A.; Kyle, Alastair H.; Baker, Jennifer H.E.; McNicol, Krista L.; Minchinton, Andrew I.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tirapazamine is a hypoxic cytotoxin currently undergoing Phase II/III clinical evaluation in combination with radiation and chemotherapeutics for the treatment of non-hematological cancers. Tissue penetration studies using multicellular models have suggested that tirapazamine exposure may be limited to cells close to blood vessels. However, animal studies show tirapazamine enhances the anti-tumour activity of radiation and chemotherapy and clinical studies with tirapazamine, so far, are promising. To investigate this apparent paradox we examined the microregional effects of tirapazamine in vivo by mapping drug effects with respect to the position of blood vessels in tumour cryosections. Patients and methods: Tirapazamine was administered i.p. to mice bearing HCT-116 tumours, which were excised at various times after treatment. Images of multiple-stained cryosections were overlaid to provide microregional information on the relative position of proliferating cells, hypoxia, perfusion and vasculature. Results: We observed extensive and permanent vascular dysfunction in a large proportion of tumours from mice treated with tirapazamine. In the affected tumours, blood flow ceased in the centrally located tumour vessels, leaving a rim of functional vessels around the periphery of the tumour. This vascular dysfunction commenced within 24 h after tirapazamine administration and the areas affected appeared to be replaced by necrosis over the following 24-48 h. Conclusions: Because the majority of hypoxic cells are located in the center of tumours we propose that the activity of tirapazamine in vivo may be related to its effects on tumour vasculature and that its activity against hypoxic cells located distal to functional blood vessels may not be as important as previously believed

  5. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenghoefer, M; Merkelbach-Bruse, S; Fischer, HP; Novak, N; Winter, J; Pantelis, A; Dommisch, H; Götz, W; Reich, R; Bergé, S; Martini, M; Allam, JP; Jepsen, S

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this study was conducted to characterise proteins involved in cell cycle control and host defence in different benign and malignant salivary gland tumours in comparison with healthy salivary gland tissue. 21 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of benign (n = 7), and malignant (n = 7) salivary gland tumours as well as healthy (n = 7) salivary glands were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of p53, bcl-2, and hBD-1, -2, -3. HBD-1 was distributed in the cytoplasm of healthy salivary glands and benign salivary gland tumours but seems to migrate into the nucleus of malignant salivary gland tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas showed cytoplasmic as well as weak nuclear hBD-1 staining. HBD-1, 2 and 3 are traceable in healthy salivary gland tissue as well as in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. As hBD-1 is shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in malignant salivary gland tumours, we hypothesize that it might play a role in the oncogenesis of these tumours. In pleomorphic adenomas hBD-1 might be connected to their biologic behaviour of recurrence and malignant transformation

  6. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkelbach-Bruse S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this study was conducted to characterise proteins involved in cell cycle control and host defence in different benign and malignant salivary gland tumours in comparison with healthy salivary gland tissue. Methods 21 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of benign (n = 7, and malignant (n = 7 salivary gland tumours as well as healthy (n = 7 salivary glands were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of p53, bcl-2, and hBD-1, -2, -3. Results HBD-1 was distributed in the cytoplasm of healthy salivary glands and benign salivary gland tumours but seems to migrate into the nucleus of malignant salivary gland tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas showed cytoplasmic as well as weak nuclear hBD-1 staining. Conclusion HBD-1, 2 and 3 are traceable in healthy salivary gland tissue as well as in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. As hBD-1 is shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in malignant salivary gland tumours, we hypothesize that it might play a role in the oncogenesis of these tumours. In pleomorphic adenomas hBD-1 might be connected to their biologic behaviour of recurrence and malignant transformation.

  7. Does fixity affect prognosis in colorectal tumours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, N A; Peck, M A; Sawyer, C N; Blaxland, J W; Luck, R J

    1983-07-01

    In a retrospective series of 301 colorectal tumours, tumour fixity was assessed, and was found to be of prognostic significance in relation to 5-year survival. Fixity of the tumour was associated with low curative resection rate and advanced tumour state. Fixation did not correlate significantly with the site or differentiation of the tumour nor with operative mortality.

  8. Askin Tumour: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Carolina; Ramirez, Sandra Milena; Quesada, Diana Constanza; Unigarro Luz Adriana

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report a case of a 19 year-old woman with a final diagnosis of an extra skeletal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the chest, also known as Askin tumour. The histologic features and the immunohistochemical profile were consistent with this aggressive malignancy of the chest wall that affects young people. Because the low incidence of this entity, as well as the clear radiological findings, we considered it interesting to describe this documented case and undertake a review of the literature.

  9. Effects of graded levels of cupric citrate on growth performance, antioxidant status, serum lipid metabolites and immunity, and tissue residues of trace elements in weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Cai Peng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of cupric citrate (CuCit on growth performance, antioxidant indices, serum lipid metabolites, serum immune indices, and tissue residues of copper (Cu, zinc, and iron in weaned pigs. Methods A total of 180 weaned pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large White with an average body weight of 8.98±1.21 kg were randomly assigned to a corn-soybean meal control ration, or 4 similar rations with 30, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg Cu as CuCit. All diets contained 10 mg/kg Cu as cupric sulfate from the vitamin-mineral premix. The experiment was divided into two phases: 0 to 14 d (phase 1 and 15 to 28 d (phase 2. Results Average daily gain (ADG; linearly, p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI; linearly and quadratically, p<0.05 were affected by an increase in CuCit during phase 2. Overall period, ADG (p<0.05 and ADFI (p<0.01 were linearly increased with increasing dietary levels of CuCit. Serum malondialdehyde concentrations (p<0.05 and glutathione peroxidase activity (p<0.01 linearly decreased and increased respectively with an increase in CuCit. Serum levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase were linearly affected with an increase in CuCit (p<0.01. Hepatic malondialdehyde levels decreased with an increase in CuCit (linearly and quadratically, p<0.01. Serum total cholesterol concentrations were quadratically affected (p<0.05 and decreased in pigs fed Cu as CuCit at 60 and 120 mg/kg and increased in pigs fed 240 mg/kg Cu as CuCit. Serum high-density lipoprotein concentrations were linearly affected with an increase in CuCit (p<0.01. Serum IL-1β levels were quadratically affected (p<0.05 by dietary treatment. Compared with other treatments, 240 mg/kg Cu from CuCit quadratically increased hepatic (p<0.01 and renal (p<0.05 Cu concentrations, and quadratically decreased hepatic and renal iron concentrations (p<0.05. Conclusion Cu administered in the form of CuCit at a dosage range of 30 to 60 mg/kg, effectively

  10. Expression of monoacylglycerol lipase as a marker of tumour invasion and progression in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuko; Funakoshi, T; Mori, M; Emoto, K; Masugi, Y; Ekmekcioglu, S; Amagai, M; Tanese, K

    2017-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the lipid lytic enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) promotes tumour invasion and metastasis through up-regulation of pro-tumorigenic signalling lipids in several tumour cell lines. However, the expression status of MAGL in clinical melanoma tissues and its clinicopathological significance remain unclear. To correlate the tumour expression status of MAGL with the clinicopathological information of patients with malignant melanoma. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array screening was performed, and the results were validated using immunocytochemical analysis of tumour and non-tumour melanocytic cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining for MAGL was performed for 74 melanoma samples, including 48 primary and 26 metastatic tumours, in which the expression of MAGL was determined by evaluating the percentage of MAGL-positive tumour cells and the MAGL staining intensity. Finally, we analysed the association of MAGL expression status with tumour progression, tumour thickness and vascular invasion of the primary lesion. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that MAGL was expressed in all 12 melanoma cell lines, but not in normal human epidermal melanocytes. In the immunohistochemical analysis, positive staining for MAGL was noted in 32 of 48 (64.5%) primary lesions, 14 of 17 (82.4%) lymph node metastatic lesions and 7 of 9 (77.8%) skin metastatic lesions. Metastatic tumours had a significantly higher staining intensity (P = 0.033 for lymph node, P = 0.010 for skin). In the analysis of primary lesions, higher MAGL expression correlated with greater tumour thickness (P = 0.015) and the presence of vascular invasion (P = 0.017). On further evaluation of MAGL-positive primary lesions, staining intensity of MAGL tended to be higher in deeper areas of the tumour mass. The expression of MAGL in tumour cells reflects the aggressiveness of melanoma cells and may serve as a marker of tumour progression. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and

  11. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisse, Hervé J.; Smets, Anne M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the most common malignancies in children, with an excellent prognosis after therapy. There is a very diverse approach to treatment according to geographical location. This variation in therapeutic attitude toward Wilms tumour, particularly between the United States and Europe,

  12. Carcinoid Tumour of the Ovary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A case of bilateral carcinoid tumour of the ovary, with benign cystic teratoma in one ovary, in a 38 year old woman is presented. She had total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy and appendectomy. There was no macroscopic tumour in the vermiform appendix and the ...

  13. Are tumours angiogenesis-dependent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, H. M. W.; Voest, E. E.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2004-01-01

    The final proof of principle that cancer patients can be effectively treated with angiogenesis inhibitors is eagerly awaited. Various preclinical in vivo experiments have proven that most tumours need new vessel formation in order to grow and to form metastases. First of all, tumours do not grow in

  14. Heterogeneity in the development of apoptosis in irradiated murine tumours of different histologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyn, R.E.; Stephens, L.C.; Ang, K.K.; Hunter, N.R.; Brock, W.A.; Milas, L.; Peters, L.J. (Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Fifteen murine tumours were evaluated with respect to the degree of apoptosis development that occurs in the tumour tissue in the first few hours following irradiation in vivo. Animals were killed at 3 or 6 h following irradiation with 0, 2.5, 10 or 25 Gy. Apoptotis was scored as percent aberrant nuclei by microscopic examination of histological sections made from tumour specimens. Results showed that three of four mammary adenocarconomas, one ovarian adenocarcinoma, and one lymphoma displayed at least 10% apoptotic cells after 25 Gy, whereas five sarcomas, three squamous cell carcinomas, and a hepatocarcinoma did not. Time courses and dose responses were similar in those tumours that responded. (author).

  15. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Soevik, Aste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Oeyvind S; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2006-01-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO 2 -related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO 2 -related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO 2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO 2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure

  16. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  17. Clonal nature of odontogenic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Oliveira, Carla da Silveira; Castro, Wagner Henriques; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2009-04-01

    Although clonal origin is an essential step in the comprehension of neoplasias, there have been no studies to examine whether odontogenic tumours are derived from a single somatic progenitor cell. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clonal origin of odontogenic tumours. Fresh samples of seven ameloblastomas, two odontogenic mixomas, two adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, one calcifying odontogenic cyst, one calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) and six odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) of female patients were included in this study. After DNA extraction, the HUMARA gene polymorphism assay was performed. Most of the informative odontogenic lesions studied (12 out of 16) showed a monoclonal pattern. Among the polyclonal cases, two were OKC, one CEOT and one odontogenic mixoma. Our results suggest that most odontogenic tumours are monoclonal.

  18. Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour) in the mandible of a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M-S; Park, M-S; Kwon, S-W; Ma, S-A; Cho, D-Y; Kim, D-Y; Kim, Y

    2006-01-01

    A 13-year-old male tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) had a marked mandibular swelling noticed 12 months earlier and associated with progressive anorexia and weight loss. Radiological and post-mortem examination revealed a mass (13x15 cm) which was firm and poorly defined, with destruction of the adjacent bone tissue. Histologically, the mass was poorly demarcated, with infiltrative growth, and composed of nests, cords and islands of epithelial cells with characteristic basal cell features. Also observed were extensive squamous metaplasia, ghost cells, stellate reticulum, and fibroblastic connective tissue stroma containing inflammatory cells. A prominent feature of this tumour consisted of abundant nodular deposits of congophilic amyloid-like material with partial mineralization (Liesegang rings). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells and the amyloid-like material were positive for pancytokeratin and negative for vimentin. The findings supported the diagnosis of an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (APOT), also known as calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour in man and animals.

  19. Computer tomography for TNM based radiation planning of urological tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, J.; Karstens, J.H.; Ruebben, H.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1978-01-01

    From the extensive statistics concerning treatment results of urological tumours which are available from central tumour registers, a first draft of a treatment plan has been worked out, which is based on tumour spread. Since the extent of tumour invasion is documented by the TNM system of the UICC, one is justified in speaking of TNM orientated treatment planning. For planning it is necessary to consider not only tumour type and depth of infiltration of local tissues, but also the lymph node anatomy, whether the nodes are involved or not. Computer tomography assists significantly in the performance of such TNM orientated treatment planning, particularly in determining the extent of the volume to be irradiated. It must be stressed that computer tomography does not replace the use of simulators, but that it is a valuable addition. In our view, computer tomography has also an undoubted value in treatment planning of urological tumours where palliation only is the aim. It provides the possibility of checking the effect of the chosen treatment by a non-invasive diagnostic method. (orig.) [de

  20. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: A case study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, Elia; Crinò, Stefano F; Ballarè, Marco; Pallio, Socrate; Occhipinti, Pietro

    2016-02-10

    Here we offer a review of the literature regarding endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours and describe the case of a cystic tumour completely ablated after a multisession procedure. A total of 35 PubMed indexed cases of treated functioning and non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours resulted from our search, 29 of which are well-documented and summarised. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation appears as a local, minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, suitable for selected patients. This technique appears feasible, relatively safe and efficient, especially when applied to symptom relief in functioning tumours, aiming at loss of endocrine secretion. For non-functioning tumours, where the goal is complete tissue ablation, eus guided ethanol ablation can provide good results for patients who are unfit for surgery or for those who refuse surgical resection. Its role in "fit for surgery" patients requires assessment through further studies.

  2. Cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours in dogs and their relevance for human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galac, Sara

    2016-02-05

    Spontaneous cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours in pet dogs are an attractive animal model for their human counterparts. Adrenal morphology and function are similar in dogs and humans, and adrenocortical tumours have comparable clinical and pathological characteristics. Their relatively high incidence in pet dogs represents a potential source of adrenocortical tumour tissue to facilitate research. The molecular characteristics of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours suggest that they will be useful for the study of angiogenesis, the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway, and the role of Steroidogenic Factor-1 in adrenal tumourigenesis. Pet dogs with spontaneous cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours may also be useful in clinical testing of new drugs and in investigating the molecular background of adrenocortical tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumours and tumour-like lesions of the lower face at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana--an eight year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Grace E A; Armah, George; Ampofo, Patrick

    2007-05-07

    The oro-facial region including the jawbones, the maxilla and mandible and related tissues can be the site of a multitude of neoplastic conditions. These tumours have a predilection for the entire facial region; however, odontogenic tumours tend to affect the mandible more than the maxilla, especially, in West African children. We report results from a retrospective study spanning eight years on the frequency, clinical presentation, sites and character of lower face tumours seen in the main referral hospital in Ghana. Records of consecutive patients of all age and sex seen by the first author's team at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital with tumours affecting the lower part of the face from January 1996 to December 2003 were retrieved, coded and entered into a database. The data were then analyzed by age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site of lesion, and their histology. A total of 394 patients with oro-facial swellings were retrieved from the registry out of which 210 had lower face tumour and tumour-like lesions. The complete data set was obtained for 171 patients, comprising 99 (58%) males and 72 (42%) females. The most common clinical presenting features were mandibular facial swelling (63%), intra-oral swelling (55%), pain (41%) and ulceration (29%). The tumours were predominantly found in the right (43%), anterior (19%) and left (18%) aspects of the lower face. The remainder making up 20% were found in the floor of the mouth, tongue and lips. Seventy eight (45.6%) of the patients presented with lesions that were classified as malignant of which 54 (62%) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Sixty-two (36.3%) had benign odontogenic tumours and thirty-one (18.1%) had non-odontogenic tumour-like lesions. Fifty-four (62%) of malignant tumours were squamous cell carcinoma; 58 (93.6%) of the benign odontogenic tumours were classified as ameloblastoma. The mean age at presentation of all lesions was 40

  4. Tumours and tumour-like lesions of the lower face at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana – an eight year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampofo Patrick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oro-facial region including the jawbones, the maxilla and mandible and related tissues can be the site of a multitude of neoplastic conditions. These tumours have a predilection for the entire facial region; however, odontogenic tumours tend to affect the mandible more than the maxilla, especially, in West African children. We report results from a retrospective study spanning eight years on the frequency, clinical presentation, sites and character of lower face tumours seen in the main referral hospital in Ghana. Patients and methods Records of consecutive patients of all age and sex seen by the first author's team at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital with tumours affecting the lower part of the face from January 1996 to December 2003 were retrieved, coded and entered into a database. The data were then analyzed by age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site of lesion, and their histology. Results A total of 394 patients with oro-facial swellings were retrieved from the registry out of which 210 had lower face tumour and tumour-like lesions. The complete data set was obtained for 171 patients, comprising 99 (58% males and 72 (42% females. The most common clinical presenting features were mandibular facial swelling (63%, intra-oral swelling (55%, pain (41% and ulceration (29%. The tumours were predominantly found in the right (43%, anterior (19% and left (18% aspects of the lower face. The remainder making up 20% were found in the floor of the mouth, tongue and lips. Seventy eight (45.6% of the patients presented with lesions that were classified as malignant of which 54 (62% were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Sixty-two (36.3% had benign odontogenic tumours and thirty-one (18.1% had non-odontogenic tumour-like lesions. Fifty-four (62% of malignant tumours were squamous cell carcinoma; 58 (93.6% of the benign odontogenic tumours were classified as ameloblastoma. The

  5. A FIVE-YEAR HISTOPATHOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CNS TUMOURS IN A TERTIARY CENTRE WITH EMPHASIS ON DIAGNOSTIC ASPECTS OF UNCOMMON TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha Pidakala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tumours of central nervous system (CNS are of varied histogenesis and show divergent lines of differentiation and morphological features. These tumours show specific predilection for age and sex groups, more commonly than of tumours of other systems. Though tumours of glial tissue are more common, other tumours of neural, ependymal and meningeal origin are not uncommon. Metastatic disease is the common encounter in elderly. Tumour diagnosis is not always straight forward as many non-neoplastic lesions and reactive proliferations mimic tumours. Immunohistochemistry may help in problematic cases and thus can be used as an adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of such cases in addition to the routine histopathological staining methods. An accurate histological diagnosis is of extreme importance in these sites as exact diagnosis helps in proper management and favourable clinical outcome. MATERIAL & METHODS This study is on a retrospective and prospective basis in our institution from January 2011 to January, 2016. Our institute is a tertiary care center attached to a medical college catering to the needs of a rural based population. During this period, a total of 717 central nervous system tumour specimens were received and diagnosed based on examination of Haematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded specimens. Immunohistochemical markers (IHC were applied in selective cases for an accurate diagnosis and a number of rare cases were diagnosed based on morphology and IHC marker studies. RESULTS Age and sex incidence and anatomic distribution of various tumours were studied. In adults, meningiomas occurred most frequently in the present study followed by nerve sheath tumours, astrocytomas, metastatic deposits, glioblastomas and pituitary adenomas. Embryonal tumours occurred frequently in children. Other rare tumours identified are amyloidogenic pituitary adenoma, central neurocytoma, glioneuronal tumour with

  6. Oral and maxillofacial tumours surgically treated at Muhimbili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacground: Tumours that affect the oral and maxillofacial region originate from odontogenic or non odontogenic tissues. They possess varying clinical and histopathological characteristics based upon which they are regarded as either benign or malignant. Objective: To report on the demographic, diagnosis, treatment and ...

  7. Targeted BCL2 inhibition effectively inhibits neuroblastoma tumour growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Fieke; Schild, Linda; den Hartog, Ilona J. M.; Ebus, Marli E.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Ora, Ingrid; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Caron, Huib N.; Molenaar, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic aberrations of key regulators of the apoptotic pathway have hardly been identified in neuroblastoma. We detected high BCL2 mRNA and protein levels in the majority of neuroblastoma tumours by Affymetrix expression profiling and Tissue Micro Array analysis. This BCL2 mRNA expression is

  8. Giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour of the calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Srinivasan; Polson, Alexander; Griffiths, Meryl; Morris, Paul; Malata, Charles; Bearcroft, Philip W.P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour (OFMT) of soft tissue, occurring in the calf, in a 77-year-old woman. The patient presented with a history of bleeding ulcer over a calf lump that had been present for over 4 years. Clinical presentation, radiological features and histopathologic findings are described, and the relevant literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  9. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  10. Radiation-induced tumours of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, B.F.A.M. van der; Baris, G.; Gregor, R.T.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Balm, A.J.M. [Nederlands Kanker Inst. `Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis`, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-04-01

    In order to study the induction of malignancy in normal tissues due to ionizing radiation, we reviewed the files of 2500 patients with a tumour of the head and neck treated at the Netherlands Cancer Institute (Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis), Amsterdam, from 1977 to 1993. We then checked whether or not these patients had been previously irradiated. Patients with a thyroid carcinoma or skin cancer were excluded from the study, since it is generally known that previous irradiation is a risk factor in these tumours. Eighteen patients were found to have a malignancy within a previous irradiated area (0.70 per cent). The mean interval between radiation and diagnosis of the head and neck tumour was 36.5 years. There were five soft tissue sarcomas, nine squamous cell carcinomas and four salivary gland tumours. Fourteen patients were operated upon whereas four received palliative treatment only. The median survival of the total group was 3.5 years. Particularly in young patients, because of the better cancer therapy and prolonged survival, one must be aware of the increased risk of radiation-induced tumours. (author).

  11. Determination of tumour hypoxia with the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3: improvement of the tumour-to-background ratio in a mouse tumour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Nicolas; Bol, Anne; Bast, Marc de; Labar, Daniel; Lee, John; Mahy, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Center for Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    The 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)acetamide (EF3) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative which undergoes bioreductive activation under hypoxic conditions. Using the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3 in mice, tumour-to-muscle ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 were observed. This study investigated the impact of various interventions aimed at increasing [{sup 18}F]EF3 elimination, thus potentially increasing the tumour-to-noise ratio in mice, by increasing the renal filtration rate (spironolactone, furosemide), decreasing tubular re-absorption (metronidazole, ornidazole, amino acid solution) or stimulating gastro-intestinal elimination (phenobarbital). C3H mice were injected i.v. with an average of 12.95 MBq of [{sup 18}F]EF3. Drugs were injected i.v. 15 min before the tracer or daily 4 days prior to the experiment (phenobarbital). Anaesthetised mice were imaged from 30 to 300 min with a dedicated animal PET (Mosaic, Philips). Regions of interest were delineated around the tumour, bladder, heart, liver and leg muscle. Radioactivity was expressed as a percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue. Ornidazole decreased the urinary excretion and increased the liver uptake of [{sup 18}F]EF3, but without causing any changes in the other organs. Phenobarbital significantly increased the liver concentration and decreased radioactivity in blood and muscle without affecting the tracer uptake in tumour. Consequently, a small but non-significant increase in tumour-to-noise ratio was observed. Although some effects were observed with other drugs, they did not modify the tumour-to-noise ratio. Only phenobarbital induced a trend toward an increased tumour-to-noise ratio that could possibly be tested in the clinical situation. (orig.)

  12. Towards drug discovery for brain tumours: interaction of kinins and tumours at the blood brain barrier interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford-Wright, Elizabeth; Lewis, Kate M; Vink, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cancers of the brain are intrinsically more complicated to treat than systemic malignancies due to the unique anatomical features of the brain. The blood-brain barrier prevents chemotherapeutic agents from reaching brain neoplasms, and angiogenesis occurs as the metabolic needs of the tumour increase, thus further complicating treatment. The newly formed blood vessels form the blood-tumour barrier and are distinct from the blood-brain barrier in that they are more permeable. Being more permeable, these abnormal blood vessels lead to the formation of peri-tumoural edema, which is the cause of much morbidity and mortality associated with central nervous system neoplasms. While the cause of the increased permeability is unclear, kinins have been implicated in regulating the permeability of normal vasculature. Kinins are also known to exert many inflammatory actions affecting both normal and angiogenic blood vessels, as well as tumour cells. The vasodilatory and vascular permeabilizing effects of kinins, and particularly bradykinin and substance P, have been investigated with regard to delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to neoplastic brain tissue through both vascular barriers. In contrast, kinin receptor antagonists have been found to exert effects on tumour cells that result in decreased angiogenesis, tumour cell motility and growth. Thus, many recent patents describe kinin activity on brain vasculature, which may play an integral role in the development of treatments for malignancies in the central nervous system through amelioration of angiogenesis. In conjunction, patents that discuss the ability of kinins to decrease tumour cell migration and proliferation demonstrate that kinins may offer novel approaches to brain tumour therapy in the future.

  13. Long-term follow-up of residual mediastinal masses in treated Hodgkin's disease using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Forsgren, G.; Glimelius, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ten patients, with substantial residual mediastinal masses of low signal intensity (SI) in the T2-weighted image (T2WI), were reinvestigated with MR 19-79 months after completing treatment of Hodgkin's disease. All patients were in complete remission. During the follow-up period, the masses had decreased in size by 0-95% (median 67%) as compared to their initial post-therapy size. The SI continued to be low in the T2WI and was unaffected by the degree of size reduction. It is speculated that these mainly fibrotic residual masses undergo slow degradation of the fibrotic part and/or resorption of remaining inflammatory tissue. It is important to understand the natural, long-term MR imaging changes of these residual masses in order more easily to recognize tumour recurrence or other pathologic conditions. (orig.)

  14. Application of kidney inhibition swab tests to evaluate penicillin-G residues in sow tissues and body fluids following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney inhibition swab (KIS) tests, recently adapted by the US FSIS for antibiotics on-site screening, were employed to evaluate the depletion of penicillin-G residues from kidney, liver, muscle, serum, and urine of sows after intramuscular (IM) penicillin-G procaine administration. Sows (n=130; 22...

  15. [Historic malignant tumour: 27 observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparsa, A; Doffoel-Hantz, V; Durox, H; Gaston, J; Delage-Core, M; Bédane, C; Labrousse, F; Sannajust, J P; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2012-03-01

    When used in the French medical literature to describe a pathological state, the word "historic" normally refers to tumours of startling appearance because of their size. It is difficult to understand how a patient can allow such tumours to continue to grow. We attempt to define this concept. Two dermatologists carried out a retrospective, independent and comparative selection of photographs taken between 1978 and 2008 of malignant cutaneous tumours of unusual size given the histological diagnosis. Socio-professional, demographic, clinical, histological psychological data, and details of treatment history and progress were collected. Twenty-seven patients (11 M, 16 F) of mean age 74 years (34-99 years) presented a "historic" tumour. Twelve patients lived in rural regions. Five patients were company executives. The average duration of development of the "historic" tumours was 4.5 years (6-420 months). The tumours were classed histologically as epidermoid carcinomas (nine) and melanomas (seven). The mean size was 13 cm (6-30 cm). Psychiatric problems, membership of sects or dementia were noted for 13 patients. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or, less frequently, surgery. Eighteen patients died on average 13 months after diagnosis. "Historic" malignant tumour (also described in the literature as "giant" tumour) is a real-life fact. No studies have been made of a series of such patients. Despite histological diagnosis, the size was associated with slow tumoral progress and/or late treatment, chiefly accounted for by psychiatric disorders. Socio-professional data indicate that "historic" tumours are equally common in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunohistochemical characterisation of the local immune response in azoxymethane-induced colon tumours in the BDIX inbred rat strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Agger, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    reaction of the submucosa below the tumour was evaluated in haematoxylin-eosin-stained tissue sections. Phenotypic characterization of leukocyte infiltration in the tumour tissue was performed by immunohistochemical staining using antibodies detecting various leukocyte subsets, i.e. T cells, natural killer...... cells, macrophages/monocytes, and dendritic cells. The results showed that the azoxymethane-induced colon tumours were strongly infiltrated by macrophages. Furthermore, the tumours showed a moderate degree of infiltrating CD4-positive cells. Very few natural killer, CD8-positive T cells and dendritic...

  17. Tumour metastasis as an adaptation of tumour cells to fulfil their phosphorus requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Caramujo, Maria José

    2012-05-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a vital component of nucleotides, membrane phospholipids, and phosphorylated intermediates in cellular signalling. The Growth Rate Hypothesis (GRH) states that fast growing organisms should be richer in phosphorus (relatively low C:P and N:P cell content) than slow developing organisms as a result of high ribosome biogenesis. Cells that proliferate rapidly, such as cancer cells, require a high amount of ribosomes and other P-rich RNA components that are necessary to manufacture proteins. The GRH hypothesis may be applied to cancer predicting that tumour cells are richer in phosphorus than the surrounding tissue, and that they resort to metastasis in order to meet their nutrient demands. Considering that the cells most P-deprived should be located in the inner parts of the tumour we propose that changes in the membrane of these cells favour the detachment of the more peripheral cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.

    1984-03-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  19. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.; Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane; Pavia Univ.; Bordeaux Univ., 33; Rouen Univ., 76

    1984-01-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution. (orig.)

  20. CT appearances of pleural tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahudeen, H.M. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hmdsal@gmail.com; Hoey, E.T.D. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Robertson, R.J.; Darby, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging technique of choice for characterizing pleural masses with respect to their location, composition, and extent. CT also provides important information regarding invasion of the chest wall and surrounding structures. A spectrum of tumours can affect the pleura of which metastatic adenocarcinoma is the commonest cause of malignant pleural disease, while malignant mesothelioma is the most common primary pleural tumour. Certain CT features help differentiate benign from malignant processes. This pictorial review highlights the salient CT appearances of a range of tumours that may affect the pleura.

  1. Tumour Calcification and Calciphylaxis in End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although soft tissue and vascular calcifications are common in CKD and progress as an independent risk factor of all-cause mortality, tumour calcification and calciphylaxis are uncommon in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Here, we discuss a rare case of a patient with tumour calcification complicated with calciphylaxis developed septic shock from infection. Our patient is a 57-year-old man in his late stage of renal disease who presented with a huge mass at the right hip and necrotic cutaneous ulcers on the lower legs followed by local and systemic infection and death due to septic shock.

  2. Gastric tuberculosis with concomitant stromal tumour of stomach (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Asghar, R.G.; Mirza, M.; Khan, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    Gastric tuberculosis is an extremely rare condition because of unfavorable circumstances in stomach due to low pH, high motility and lack of lymphoid tissue. All these discourage the development of tuberculosis lesion. Similarly, simultaneous stromal tumour of stomach is also a rare entity. We present a rare case of tuberculosis of stomach with no evidence of pulmonary involvement and a conceomitant stromal tumour of the stomach. This unique case illustrates the need for a high index of suspicion in order to diagnose this rare condition, as this can present in patients with no particular risk factors or minimal symptoms. (author)

  3. Fast neutron therapy in advanced malignant tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinc, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the fast neutron therapy applications were examined by thoroughly consideration of the fast neutron sources and the interactions of the fast neutron by the medium. The efficacy of fast neutron radiotherapy with that of patients with locally advanced tumours were compared. Radiological data indicate that fast neutrons could bring benefit in the treatment of some tumour types especially salivary glands, paranasal sinuses, soft tissue sarcomas, prostatic adenocarcinomas, palliative treatment of melanoma and rectum. There is a significant improvement in local/regional control for the neutron group, but no improvement in the survival. The neutron therapy is suggested through which this benefit could be achieved

  4. Modelling and detecting tumour oxygenation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Skeldon

    Full Text Available Tumours that are low in oxygen (hypoxic tend to be more aggressive and respond less well to treatment. Knowing the spatial distribution of oxygen within a tumour could therefore play an important role in treatment planning, enabling treatment to be targeted in such a way that higher doses of radiation are given to the more radioresistant tissue. Mapping the spatial distribution of oxygen in vivo is difficult. Radioactive tracers that are sensitive to different levels of oxygen are under development and in the early stages of clinical use. The concentration of these tracer chemicals can be detected via positron emission tomography resulting in a time dependent concentration profile known as a tissue activity curve (TAC. Pharmaco-kinetic models have then been used to deduce oxygen concentration from TACs. Some such models have included the fact that the spatial distribution of oxygen is often highly inhomogeneous and some have not. We show that the oxygen distribution has little impact on the form of a TAC; it is only the mean oxygen concentration that matters. This has significant consequences both in terms of the computational power needed, and in the amount of information that can be deduced from TACs.

  5. Cytokine and gene therapy of minimal residual tumour disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana; Mikyšková, Romana; Mendoza, Luis; Jandlová, Táňa

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 4, Suppl. 1 (1999), s. S10 ISSN 1107-3756. [World Congress on Advances in Oncology /4./, International Symposium on Molecular Medicine /2./. 07.10.1999-09.10.1999, Vouliagmeni, Atény] Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  6. Comparison of contrast in brightness mode and strain ultrasonography of glial brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selbekk, Tormod; Brekken, Reidar; Indergaard, Marit; Solheim, Ole; Unsgård, Geirmund

    2012-01-01

    Image contrast between normal tissue and brain tumours may sometimes appear to be low in intraoperative ultrasound. Ultrasound imaging of strain is an image modality that has been recently explored for intraoperative imaging of the brain. This study aims to investigate differences in image contrast between ultrasound brightness mode (B-mode) images and ultrasound strain magnitude images of brain tumours. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data was acquired during surgery in 15 patients with glial tumours. The data were subsequently processed to provide strain magnitude images. The contrast in the B-mode images and the strain images was determined in assumed normal brain tissue and tumour tissue at selected regions of interest (ROI). Three measurements of contrast were done in the ultrasound data for each patient. The B-mode and strain contrasts measurements were compared using the paired samples t- test. The statistical analysis of a total of 45 measurements shows that the contrasts in the strain magnitude images are significantly higher than in the conventional ultrasound B-mode images (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that ultrasound strain imaging provides better discrimination between normal brain tissue and glial tumour tissue than conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging. Ultrasound imaging of tissue strain therefore holds the potential of becoming a valuable adjunct to conventional intraoperative ultrasound imaging in brain tumour surgery

  7. Comparative analysis of peptidylarginine deiminase-2 expression in canine, feline and human mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, B D; Mohanan, S; Diep, A N; Fleiss, R; Sudilovsky, D; Anguish, L J; Coonrod, S A; Wakshlag, J J

    2012-01-01

    The peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme family converts arginine residues in proteins to citrulline. In the canine mammary gland, PAD2 expression is first detected in epithelial cells in oestrus and becomes more widely expressed during dioestrus. PAD2 appears to modify nuclear histones, suggesting a role for the enzyme in chromatin remodelling and gene regulation. Recent evidence suggests that PAD2 plays a role in gene regulation in primary human breast epithelial cells. PAD2 may therefore be involved in gene regulation as it relates to mammary development, the oestrus cycle and potentially to neoplasia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PAD2 expression was increased or decreased in mammary carcinoma compared with normal mammary tissue. A human mammary tissue microarray and archival surgical biopsy tissues from canine and feline mammary tumours were used to demonstrate differential expression of PAD2 in mammary carcinoma that appeared to be consistent across species. Normal human and canine mammary epithelium showed strong cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of PAD2, but there was reduced PAD2 expression in mammary carcinomas from both species. Feline mammary carcinomas had complete loss of nuclear PAD2 expression. Loss of nuclear PAD2 expression may therefore represent a marker of progression towards more aggressive neoplasia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The developing placenta in selecting potential radiopharmaceuticals for tumour-localizing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, A.; Vos, C.M.; Herscheid, J.D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The tissue distribution of various radiopharmaceuticals was investigated in rhabdomyosarcoma-bearing and in pregnant rats during the period of rapid foetal and placental growth (days 17-19 of pregnancy). The preliminary results indicate that with the radiopharmaceuticals tested the uptake in placental tissue followed closely the data obtained with tumour tissue in rhabdomyosarcoma-bearing rats. (orig.) [de

  9. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  10. Tissue physiology and the response to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert

    2006-01-01

    The most important physiological parameter influencing tissue response to heat is blood flow. At mild hyperthermia temperatures blood perfusion increases in many tumours and this effect is heating time-, temperature- and tumour-dependent. These flow increases can improve tumour oxygenation. When...... physiological effects should occur in normal tissues, such combination therapies must be carefully applied. Heating tumours to higher temperatures typically causes a transient increase in perfusion during heating, followed by vascular collapse which if sufficient will increase tumour necrosis. The speed...... can also be exploited to improve the response to heat. Decreasing blood flow, using transient physiological modifiers or longer acting vascular disrupting agents prior to the initiation of heating, can both increase the accumulation of physical heat in the tumour, as well as increase heat sensitivity...

  11. Passive accumulation of Au nanoparticles in tumours in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempson, I.M.; Wang, C.H.; Lai, S.F.; Cai, X.; Hwu, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Margaritondo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Enhance biocompatibility and passive accumulation of gold nanoparticles into tumours in vivo. Improved biocompatible nanoparticles synthesized by radical synthesis in solution by X-ray irradiation (5,000 Gy/sec). As an alternative to the use of chemical reducing agents, irradiation solutions can cause the reduction of dissolved ions to form nuclei form in sub-second times and growth is easily controlled by physically the X-ray intensity. The intensity can be used to manipulate growth rates for different applications and in the information of spherical and rod-structures. Size is easily controlled by exposure time and capping agents and provides high reproducibility with small size distributions. Resulting body burden in subcutaneous tumour mouse models was determined in various organs with ICP-MS. Cellular distributions were analysed with transmission x-ray Microscopy and conventional histology. The resulting nanoparticle sols were highly concentrated. naturally sterile, have high temperature stability and synthesised with fewer chemical reactants; providing greater chemical and biological adaptability. The results demonstrated that a passivated biocompatible surface, minimizing physiological clearance from the animal allows non-specific accumulation of large concentrations of nanoparticles into tumour tissues and significant penetration and circumnavigation of the binding site barrier effect. Concentrations of gold reached ∼ 25 times greater than surrounding muscle tissue and were retained for many hours. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles impart significant influence on their ability to penetrate and accumulate in tumour tissues. Effective synthesis enables high concentrations of gold nanoparticles to accumulate in tumour tissues which could be applied to development in radiation oncology applications.

  12. Scrotal Involvement with Testicular Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. O’Leary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old male presented with a traumatic injury to the scrotal region necessitating emergency surgery. Evacuation of a haematoma and bilateral orchidectomy were performed. A left sided nonseminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT, predominantly yolk sac, was identified. Microscopic margins were positive for tumour. Initial tumour markers revealed an AFP of 22,854 ng/mL, HCG of <1 mIU/mL, and LDH of 463 IU/L. Eight weeks after surgery, AFP levels remained elevated at 11,646 ng/mL. Computed tomography (CT scanning demonstrated left inguinal adenopathy, 1.5 cm in max dimension. On review, extensive evidence of scrotal involvement was evident. His tumour was staged as stage IIIC, poor risk NSGCT. He was treated with 4 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin over a 12-week period. His tumour markers normalised after 3 cycles. There was a marked improvement noted clinically. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated complete resolution of his tumour. He later underwent further surgery to remove a small amount of remaining spermatic cord. Histology revealed no malignant tissue. The patient suffered many complications including testosterone deficiency, osteopenia, infertility, and psychological distress. Discussion. A small proportion of testicular cancer may present in an atypical manner. The scrotum and testicle have markedly different embryonic origins and therefore a distinct anatomic separation. As a result the scrotum is not a typical site of spread of testicular cancer. Case reports have been described that were managed in a similar manner with good outcomes. Therefore, even with significant scrotal involvement, if timely and appropriate treatment is administered, complete resolution of the tumour may be achieved.

  13. Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysk, Adam M; Chaney, Eric J; Boppart, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    Near-infrared optical techniques for clinical breast cancer screening in humans are rapidly advancing. Based on the computational inversion of the photon diffusion process through the breast, these techniques rely on optical tissue models for accurate image reconstruction. Recent interest has surfaced regarding the effect of refractive index variations on these reconstructions. Although many data exist regarding the scattering and absorption properties of normal and diseased tissue, no measurements of refractive index appear in the literature. In this paper, we present near-infrared refractive index data acquired from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumours, which are similar in pathology and disease progression to human ductal carcinoma. Eight animals, including one control, were employed in this study, yielding data from 32 tumours as well as adjacent adipose and connective tissues

  14. Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysk, Adam M.; Chaney, Eric J.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2006-05-01

    Near-infrared optical techniques for clinical breast cancer screening in humans are rapidly advancing. Based on the computational inversion of the photon diffusion process through the breast, these techniques rely on optical tissue models for accurate image reconstruction. Recent interest has surfaced regarding the effect of refractive index variations on these reconstructions. Although many data exist regarding the scattering and absorption properties of normal and diseased tissue, no measurements of refractive index appear in the literature. In this paper, we present near-infrared refractive index data acquired from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumours, which are similar in pathology and disease progression to human ductal carcinoma. Eight animals, including one control, were employed in this study, yielding data from 32 tumours as well as adjacent adipose and connective tissues.

  15. Increasing the radiosensitivity of tumours in an hypoxic environment using inhibitors of the pentose phosphate pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahasrabudhe, M.B.; Bhonsle, S.R.; Krishnamurti, K.; Tilak, B.D.

    1977-01-01

    Rapidly growing tumours contain few blood vessels in the tumour mass. Cells in such tumours obtain nutrients and oxygen from the periphery by diffusion, resulting in a diminishing oxygen and nutrient gradient from the periphery to centre of the tumour mass. In normal tissues, oxygen is utilized via a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle; in tumour cells oxygen is utilized via a hexose monophosphate (HMP) pathway and through the TCA cycle at a 30% reduced level. Interference with the HMP pathway selectively inhibits the utilization of oxygen by tumour cells, thus increasing the availability of oxygen to hypoxic cells situated deeper in the tumour mass. This effect has been exploited for increasing the radiosensitivity of tumour cells situated in an hypoxic environment. The influence of sixteen potential antimetabolites on the HMP pathway has been studied. Of these, six compounds, namely, (1) 2-carboxy 5-hydroxymethyl thiophene, (2) the sodium salt of 2:5 dicarbethoxy 3:4 dihydroxy thiophene, (3) the dihydrazide of 2:5 dicarboxy thiophene, (4) the dihydrazide of 3:4 dimethoxy 2:5 dicarboxy thiophene, (5) trithiocyanuric acid, and (6) cyanuric trithioglycollic acid showed an inhibiting effect on the HMP pathway without any influence on the TCA cycle. Influence of administration of compounds (1), (2) and (4) prior to radiation on the growth of transplanted fibrosarcomas in mice has been studied and is reported here. These three compounds showed marked potentiation of radiosensitivity of tumours. (author)

  16. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  17. A PROSPECTIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL-BASED STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN A REFERRAL CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathima Gujjaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain neoplasms occur at all ages and account for around 2-3 percent of all deaths in adults. In children, the frequency increases to more than twenty percent. In children, it forms the second most common type of malignancy. Most of the tumours encountered are not related to any identifiable risk factors except for irradiation and some hereditary syndromes like subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, cerebellar haemangioblastoma, meningioma, Schwannoma of 7 th cranial nerve. Gliomas constitute fifty percent of the brain tumours and sixty percent of all gliomas are glioblastoma multiforme. Meningiomas constitute twenty percent and cerebral metastasis is seen in fifteen percent of the cases. Seventy percent of supratentorial tumours are found in adults and seventy percent of brain tumours in children are infratentorial. The three common tumours of cerebellum are medulloblastoma, haemangioblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain tumours are space occupying lesions and cause compression and destruction of adjacent structures, brain oedema (Peritumoural tissue, infarction and ischaemia of brain by compressing/infiltrating cerebral blood vessels, obstruction of CSF flow causing hydrocephalus, and rise in intracranial pressure with herniations. Tumours can undergo ischaemic necrosis and necrotic tumours tend to bleed. Brain tumours generally do not metastasise. Schwannoma and meningioma are benign tumours. Medulloblastoma of childhood may have drop metastasis via CSF. A sincere effort has been put in this study to identify the incidence of each variety of brain tumour among the fifty confirmed and identified cases of brain tumours. METHODS The age range of the cases in present study was 5-72 years with a mean age of occurrence of 44.11 years and the peak age group affected were in the 3 rd and 4 th decades. Cerebral hemisphere was the commonest site for intracranial tumours. RESULT In the present study, fifty

  18. Bilateral disease and new trends in Wilms tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Service de Radiodiagnostic, Paris (France); Begent, Joanna [University College Hospital, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Smets, Anne M. [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Wilms tumour is a great therapeutic success story within paediatric oncology; its prognosis is excellent. Although mainly sporadic, occurring in otherwise well children, it occurs in a small number of genetically predisposed children. Thus regular surveillance imaging is performed in predisposed children in parts of the USA and Europe. The risks and benefits of surveillance are unclear, as the existing ad-hoc surveillance protocols are lacking in consistency of practice and equity of provision. We present guidelines for Wilms tumour surveillance based on a review of current practice and available evidence, outlined by a multidisciplinary working group in the UK. Wilms tumours are bilateral in 4-13% of affected children. Bilateral synchronous nephroblastomas are observed in 5% of affected children and are usually associated with the presence of nephrogenic rests, congenital malformations and predisposing syndromes. The major challenge in bilateral disease is to achieve a cure and at the same time to preserve sufficient functional renal tissue for normal growth and development. The association among Wilms tumour, nephrogenic rests and nephroblastomatosis makes detection and characterization of renal lesions with imaging extremely important. We discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different modalities used for diagnosis and follow-up in bilateral renal disease. We also discuss newly emerging diagnostic imaging tests such as {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). This technique, when fused with CT (PET-CT), allows accelerated metabolic activity to be accurately anatomically localised and so is potentially useful for staging, assessment of treatment response, and for surgical and radiotherapy planning. In addition, quantitative MRI techniques have been proved to be valuable in intracranial tumours, but no such role has been validated in abdominal disease. Diffusion-weighted imaging with calculation of ADC maps is feasible in

  19. Bilateral disease and new trends in Wilms tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oeystein E.; Brisse, Herve J.; Begent, Joanna; Smets, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is a great therapeutic success story within paediatric oncology; its prognosis is excellent. Although mainly sporadic, occurring in otherwise well children, it occurs in a small number of genetically predisposed children. Thus regular surveillance imaging is performed in predisposed children in parts of the USA and Europe. The risks and benefits of surveillance are unclear, as the existing ad-hoc surveillance protocols are lacking in consistency of practice and equity of provision. We present guidelines for Wilms tumour surveillance based on a review of current practice and available evidence, outlined by a multidisciplinary working group in the UK. Wilms tumours are bilateral in 4-13% of affected children. Bilateral synchronous nephroblastomas are observed in 5% of affected children and are usually associated with the presence of nephrogenic rests, congenital malformations and predisposing syndromes. The major challenge in bilateral disease is to achieve a cure and at the same time to preserve sufficient functional renal tissue for normal growth and development. The association among Wilms tumour, nephrogenic rests and nephroblastomatosis makes detection and characterization of renal lesions with imaging extremely important. We discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different modalities used for diagnosis and follow-up in bilateral renal disease. We also discuss newly emerging diagnostic imaging tests such as 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). This technique, when fused with CT (PET-CT), allows accelerated metabolic activity to be accurately anatomically localised and so is potentially useful for staging, assessment of treatment response, and for surgical and radiotherapy planning. In addition, quantitative MRI techniques have been proved to be valuable in intracranial tumours, but no such role has been validated in abdominal disease. Diffusion-weighted imaging with calculation of ADC maps is feasible in

  20. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical characterization of 172 cutaneous round cell tumours in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rios Araújo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a panel of antibodies (CD117, CD3, CD79a, CD45, cytokeratin, vimentin and E-cadherin on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of canine cutaneous round cell tumours. Neoplastic tumours were diagnosed by histology and histochemical stains and included 107 mast cell tumours, 31 cutaneous histiocytomas, two localized histiocytic sarcomas, 21 cutaneous lymphomas, three plasma cell tumours, one transmissible venereal tumour and seven unclassified round cell tumours. The histologic diagnosis was modified in 39.5% of the total 172 neoplasms. The staining for CD45 and Ecadherin were variable, and therefore, the final diagnoses of cutaneous histiocytoma and localized histiocytic sarcoma were made based on histology in association with negative results for CD3, CD79a, CD117 and cytokeratin. The cellular origin of unclassified round cell tumours was defined in all cases. Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and plasma cell tumours were CD79a-positive and could be distinguished from each other by the morphological characteristics. Mast cell tumours and T cell lymphoma were CD117 and CD3 positive, respectively. The positive staining for vimentin and the negative staining for CD3, CD79a, CD117 and cytokeratin favoured the diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumours. Thus, the final diagnosis of cutaneous round cell tumours should be based on the interpretation of immunohistochemical results together with the cellular morphology observed by histology. Therefore, more studies to optimize the specific markers in formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded tissues (especially for histiocytes are required for definitive diagnosis of round cell tumours in dogs.

  1. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, P.; Nicolas, A. I.; Vivas, I.; Damaso Aquerreta, J.; Martinez-Cuesta, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs

  2. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumours: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Pereira Rosana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood adrenocortical tumour (ACT is not a common disease, but in southern Brazil the prevalence is 15 times higher than in other parts of the world. One hundred and thirty-seven patients have been identified and followed by our group over the past four decades. Affected children are predominantly girls, with a female-to-male ratio of 3.5:1 in patients below 4 years of age. Virilization alone (51.6% or mixed with Cushing's syndrome (42.0% was the predominant clinical picture observed in these patients. Tumours are unilateral, affecting both glands equally. TP53 R337H germline mutations underlie most childhood ACTs in southern Brazil. Epidemiological data from our casuistic studies revealed that this mutation has ~10% penetrance for ACT. Surgery is the definitive treatment, and a complete resection should always be attempted. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has shown some encouraging results, its influence on overall outcome is small. The survival rate is directly correlated to tumour size; patients with small, completely excised tumours have survival rates close to 90%, whereas in those patients with inoperable tumours and/or metastatic disease it is less than 10%. In the group of patients with large, excisable tumours, half of them have an intermediate outcome. Recent molecular biology techniques and genomic approaches may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of ACT, the risk of developing a tumour when TP53 R337H is present, and to predict its outcome. An ongoing pilot study consisting of close monitoring of healthy carriers of the TP53 R337H mutation - siblings and first-degree relatives of known affected cases - aims at the early detection of ACTs and an improvement of the cure rate.

  3. Leaky vessels as a potential source of stromal acidification in tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Natasha K.

    2010-12-01

    Malignant tumours are characterised by higher rates of acid production and a lower extracellular pH than normal tissues. Previous mathematical modelling has indicated that the tumour-derived production of acid leads to a gradient of low pH in the interior of the tumour extending to a normal pH in the peritumoural tissue. This paper uses mathematical modelling to examine the potential of leaky vessels as an additional source of stromal acidification in tumours. We explore whether and to what extent increasing vascular permeability in vessels can lead to the breakdown of the acid gradient from the core of the tumour to the normal tissue, and a progressive acidification of the peritumoural stroma. We compare our mathematical simulations to experimental results found in vivo with a tumour implanted in the mammary fat pad of a mouse in a window chamber construct. We find that leaky vasculature can cause a net acidification of the normal tissue away from the tumour boundary, though not a progressive acidification over time as seen in the experiments. Only through progressively increasing the leakiness can the model qualitatively reproduce the experimental results. Furthermore, the extent of the acidification predicted by the mathematical model is less than as seen in the window chamber, indicating that although vessel leakiness might be acting as a source of acid, it is not the only factor contributing to this phenomenon. Nevertheless, tumour destruction of vasculature could result in enhanced stromal acidification and invasion, hence current therapies aimed at buffering tumour pH should also examine the possibility of preventing vessel disruption.

  4. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  5. Gastric schwannoma: a benign tumour often mistaken clinically, radiologically and histopathologically for a gastrointestinal stromal tumour – a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, JML

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumours that arise from the nerve plexus of the gut wall. They present with non-specific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Pre-operative investigation is not pathognomonic and many are therefore diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Operative resection is usually curative as they are almost always benign, underpinning the importance of differentiating them from GISTs. METHODS Three cases of gastric schwannomas were identified over a seven-year period. The clinical details and management were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS There were two women and one man with a mean age of 62 years (range: 51–69 years). Two patients presented with bleeding and one with abdominal pain. The mean tumour size was 5.2cm (range: 2–10cm) and the tumours were resected completely following total or wedge gastrectomies. Histology in all cases showed spindle cells with a cuff of lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed positive S100 staining and negative CD117 and DOG-1 staining in all cases. CONCLUSIONS We report our experience with these unusual primary stromal tumours of the gut and their presentations, preoperative investigations, operative findings and pathological findings are discussed. Operative resection in all cases has been considered curative, which is supported by previous series confirming the excellent prognosis of gastric schwannomas. PMID:22613302

  6. Gastric schwannoma: a benign tumour often mistaken clinically, radiologically and histopathologically for a gastrointestinal stromal tumour--a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J M L; Wadley, M S; Shepherd, N A; Dwerryhouse, S

    2012-05-01

    Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumours that arise from the nerve plexus of the gut wall. They present with non-specific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Pre-operative investigation is not pathognomonic and many are therefore diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Operative resection is usually curative as they are almost always benign, underpinning the importance of differentiating them from GISTs. Three cases of gastric schwannomas were identified over a seven-year period. The clinical details and management were reviewed retrospectively. There were two women and one man with a mean age of 62 years (range: 51-69 years). Two patients presented with bleeding and one with abdominal pain. The mean tumour size was 5.2 cm (range: 2-10 cm) and the tumours were resected completely following total or wedge gastrectomies. Histology in all cases showed spindle cells with a cuff of lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed positive S100 staining and negative CD117 and DOG-1 staining in all cases. We report our experience with these unusual primary stromal tumours of the gut and their presentations, pre-operative investigations, operative findings and pathological findings are discussed. Operative resection in all cases has been considered curative, which is supported by previous series confirming the excellent prognosis of gastric schwannomas.

  7. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, Herve J.; Smets, Anne M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the most common malignancies in children, with an excellent prognosis after therapy. There is a very diverse approach to treatment according to geographical location. This variation in therapeutic attitude toward Wilms tumour, particularly between the United States and Europe, has consequences for the choice of imaging modality at diagnosis. In Europe, the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) treatment protocol is based on chemotherapy followed by surgery. Imaging (US, CT and MRI), clinical history and examination will help predict whether the findings are consistent with Wilms tumour. Furthermore, in the UK preoperative image-guided biopsy is advised to help identify the small group of patients who, despite typical imaging features of Wilms tumour, have other types of neoplasia that require alternative management. In the United States, the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) advises surgery prior to chemo- and radiotherapy. Hence imaging must provide detailed anatomical information for surgical planning. This article discusses the role of imaging at diagnosis and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the available radiological techniques. We also focus on imaging the lung for metastatic disease and the consequences (to the patient's ultimate outcome) of CT-diagnosed small pulmonary nodules and discuss the radiological diagnosis and consequences of tumour rupture present at diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. EVALUATION OF MEDIASTINAL TUMOURS: A STUDY OF 50 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema K. R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Mediastinum is a site for neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions and many of them present as mediastinal mass. The location and composition of these lesions are critical in arriving at a clinical diagnosis. This study of different mediastinal masses is aimed to find out frequency of malignancy, their compartmental distribution and characteristics through computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted at Government Medical College, Thrissur, India, during the period 2010-2012 with a total of 50 patients with suspected mediastinal masses. All patients were subjected to investigations like chest X-ray, CT scan along with guided fine needle aspiration/biopsy for definite tissue diagnosis. The major variables were age, clinical symptoms, mass location, imaging studies, and tissue pathology. RESULT Fifty patients enrolled in this study were analysed and compared with existing studies in the literature. 34 cases (68% were malignant and 16 cases (32% were benign. Majority of the lesions were seen in the anterior compartment, followed by posterior compartment. Bronchogenic carcinoma and lymphoma were the common malignant tumours seen in the anterior and middle compartments of the mediastinum, whereas neurogenic tumours, mostly benign, were the common tumours in the posterior compartment. CONCLUSION CT scan is an effective tool in evaluating mediastinal masses. Moreover, sampling the mass is important in obtaining pathological diagnosis. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy either as single or in combination are the main modalities of treatment. Accurate preoperative pathological diagnosis, invasion and infiltration of the tumour were the key to successful treatment.

  9. The results of nuclear tomography in the investigation of tumours of the facial skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Radtke, J.; Beyer, H.K.; Machtens, E.; Pastoors, H.; Knappschaftskrankenhaus Langendreer, Essen

    1986-01-01

    We examined 21 patients with tumours of the mouth, one with tumour involvement of the facial skeleton and three with lymph node involvement in the upper neck, by nuclear tomography. Twenty patients with carcinomas of the mouth were also examined by CT. Nuclear tomography was superior to CT in showing the extent of the tumour; in ten patients the extent of the tumour could not be accurately determined, since there was no clear demarcation from normal tissue. Amongst our patients, nuclear tomography was also superior for showing lymph node metastases. Computed tomography is better at showing bone infiltration. Our results indicate that nuclear tomography is better than CT for showing the tumour and lymph nodes. If there is a suspicion of bone involvement, CT should be used in addition. (orig.) [de

  10. AUTOMATIC BRAIN TUMOUR SEGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES (MRI BASED ON REGION OF INTEREST (ROI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGULAKSHMI M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of techniques used for classifying brain tissues in Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI for identifying anatomical structures in the brain. The automated brain tumour segmentation remains challenging and computationally intensive because tumour appears in different size and intensity. In this paper, we have proposed a method for fast and automatic segmentation of tumour from Region of Interest (ROI identified in MRI. ROI is a smaller portion of the image containing tumour. In the first step, tumour slices are identified using bilateral asymmetry property of the brain. In the second step, the ROI is identified using quadtree decomposition and similarity detection based on coefficient computed with gray level intensity histograms. In the third step, only the ROI is segmented using spectral clustering method rather than considering the whole image. Experimental results on real-world datasets are carried and compared with the recent existing works which show better results in terms of accuracy and less processing time for segmentation

  11. Giant cell tumour in the foot of a skeletally immature girl: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, Joseph F

    2009-08-01

    We present a case of delayed diagnosis of a benign giant cell tumour (GCT) of the third metatarsal in a skeletally immature girl. The patient underwent en bloc excision of the tumour. The tumour had replaced the third metatarsal and had infiltrated the surrounding soft tissue and the second and fourth metatarsal bases. Deep, lateral and medial margins were all involved. A high index of suspicion is needed when evaluating any tumours of the foot, because the compact structure of the foot may delay diagnosis. Early detection is important for avoiding amputation, as the hindfoot and midfoot are classified as one compartment and radical resection is impossible to achieve. Tumours grow faster in the foot than in other bones. GCT in this location and age-group are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a destructive bony lesion in skeletally immature patients.

  12. Prolonged retainment of contrast media in renal tumours by oily X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzkov, V.K.; Anisimov, V.N.

    1990-01-01

    In 194 patients with renal tumours an angiographic investigation with the oily X-ray contrast medium Iodolipol was carried out. A selective tropism of oily X-ray contrast media was found in the malignant zones only. The application of the preparation caused no complications. The oily X-ray contrast medium persisted in the tumours over several weeks or months. After embolization of the renal arteria a moderate size reduction of malign tumours in the first 10-14 d was seen. The ability of Iodolipol for a lasting retainment in malign tumour tissue allows a follow-up of the involution of the pathologic focus after arterial embolization of the tumour vessels. (author)

  13. Rapid and non-enzymatic in vitro retrieval of tumour cells from surgical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mack

    Full Text Available The study of tumourigenesis commonly involves the use of established cell lines or single cell suspensions of primary tumours. Standard methods for the generation of short-term tumour cell cultures include the disintegration of tissue based on enzymatic and mechanical stress. Here, we describe a simple and rapid method for the preparation of single cells from primary carcinomas, which is independent of enzymatic treatment and feeder cells. Tumour biopsies are processed to 1 mm(3 cubes termed explants, which are cultured 1-3 days on agarose-coated well plates in specified medium. Through incisions generated in the explants, single cells are retrieved and collected from the culture supernatant and can be used for further analysis including in vitro and in vivo studies. Collected cells retain tumour-forming capacity in xenotransplantation assays, mimic the phenotype of the primary tumour, and facilitate the generation of cell lines.

  14. Effect of municipal and industrial wastewater effluents on the Chromium and Vanadium residues in muscle tissue of Cyprinionm acrostomum and Chondrostoma regium fish in Kermanshah Gharasou River (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pirsaheb

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the entrance of heavy metals in the aquatic environment is an important and also a global environmental concern due to the indiscriminate discharging of various industrial wastewaters, which cause accumulation of heavy metals in body of aquatic animals including fishes. The present study aimed to evaluate the amount of Chromium and Vanadium in muscle tissue of Chondrostoma regium and Cyprinion macrostomum fish in Kermanshah Gharasou River in 2013. For sampling eight different places were chosen along the river and according to places of discharging municipal and industrial wastewaters. A total of 10 samples were collected from each place and all samples were analyzed for determination of Chromium and Vanadium metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Based on results, mean concentrations of Chromium and Vanadium in muscle tissue of investigating different species among all places were significantly different (P

  15. Putting tumours in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  16. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  17. Pesticide residues in adipose tissue from hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L living in and adjacent to the Luangwa River Zambia : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Flaoyen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of organochlorines (OCs such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world.

  18. [18F]FDG PET monitoring of tumour response to chemotherapy: does [18F]FDG uptake correlate with the viable tumour cell fraction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaepen, Karoline; Stroobants, Sigrid; Dupont, Patrick; Bormans, Guy; Mortelmans, Luc; Balzarini, Jan; Verhoef, Gregor; Vandenberghe, Peter; De Wolf-Peeters, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Because metabolic changes induced by chemotherapy precede the morphological changes, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([ 18 F]FDG PET) is thought to predict response to therapy earlier and more accurately than other modalities. To be a reliable predictor of response, changes in tumour [ 18 F]FDG uptake should reflect changes in viable cell fraction, but little is known about the contribution of apoptotic and necrotic cancer cells and inflammatory tissue to the [ 18 F]FDG signal. In a tumour mouse model we investigated the relation between chemotherapy-induced changes in various tumoral components and tumour uptake and size. SCID mice were subcutaneously inoculated in the right thigh with 5 x 10 6 Daudi cells. When the tumour measured 15-20 mm, Endoxan was given intravenously. At different time points [1-15 days (d1-d15) after the injection of Endoxan], ex vivo autoradiography and histopathology were performed in two mice and [ 18 F]FDG uptake in the tumour and tumour size were correlated with the different cell fractions measured with flow cytometry in five mice. At d1/d3, similar reductions in [ 18 F]FDG uptake and viable tumoral cell fraction were observed and these reductions preceded changes in tumour size. By d8/d10, [ 18 F]FDG uptake had stabilised despite a further reduction in viable tumoral cell fraction. At these time points a major inflammatory response was observed. At d15, an increase in viable tumour cells was again observed and this was accurately predicted by an increase in [ 18 F]FDG uptake, while the tumour volume remained unchanged. In contrast with variations in tumour volume, [ 18 F]FDG is a good marker for chemotherapy response monitoring. However, optimal timing seems crucial since a transient increase in stromal reaction may result in overestimation of the fraction of viable cells. (orig.)

  19. Metformin treatment modulates the tumour-induced wasting effects in muscle protein metabolism minimising the cachexia in tumour-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, André G.; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-cachexia state frequently induces both fat and protein wasting, leading to death. In this way, the knowledge of the mechanism of drugs and their side effects can be a new feature to treat and to have success, contributing to a better life quality for these patients. Metformin is an oral drug used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, showing inhibitory effect on proliferation in some neoplastic cells. For this reason, we evaluated its modulatory effect on Walker-256 tumour evolution and also on protein metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle and body composition. Wistar rats received or not tumour implant and metformin treatment and were distributed into four groups, as followed: control (C), Walker 256 tumour-bearing (W), metformin-treated (M) and tumour-bearing treated with metformin (WM). Animals were weighed three times a week, and after cachexia state has been detected, the rats were euthanised and muscle and tumour excised and analysed by biochemical and molecular assays. Tumour growth promoted some deleterious effects on chemical body composition, increasing water and decreasing fat percentage, and reducing lean body mass. In muscle tissue, tumour led to a decreased protein synthesis and an increased proteolysis, showing the higher activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. On the other hand, the metformin treatment likely minimised the tumour-induced wasting state; in this way, this treatment ameliorated chemical body composition, reduced the higher activities of proteolytic enzymes and decreased the protein waste. Metformin treatment not only decreases the tumour growth but also improves the protein metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle in tumour-bearing rats

  20. A survey of spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in chicken tissues and concurrence with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Milijan; Matekalosverak, Vesna; Radicevic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Milan M.; Lilic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological and histopathological investigations of tissues of commercially slaughtered chickens were carried out to provide a preliminary evaluation of the incidence of occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken sold in Serbian retail market. In addition, the etiology of nephropathies of these chickens was elucidated. The majority of these tissue samples were not found to contain measurable amounts of OTA. Moreover, the OTA levels found in analyzed tissues were generally low and there was no positive correlation between the presence of OTA and the frequency of histopathological changes. Histopathological changes such as degenerative changes in the kidneys and liver differed from the classical description of the mycotoxic nephropathy, indicating that the chicken nephropathy observed in Serbia may have a multitoxic etiology with possible synergistic effect between microorganisms and natural toxins, usually present in low concentrations. The low OTA results also suggested that chicken meat available in the retail market in Serbia are unlikely to pose any significant adverse health risk to the consumers with respect to OTA toxicity.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of parametrial tumour spread and regression patterns in adaptive cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Maximilian P.; Fidarova, Elena [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)], e-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at; Poetter, Richard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)] [and others

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-morphologic differences in parametrial infiltration on tumour response during primary radio chemotherapy in cervical cancer. Material and methods: Eighty-five consecutive cervical cancer patients with FIGO stages IIB (n = 59) and IIIB (n = 26), treated by external beam radiotherapy ({+-}chemotherapy) and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy, underwent T2-weighted MRI at the time of diagnosis and at the time of brachytherapy. MRI patterns of parametrial tumour infiltration at the time of diagnosis were assessed with regard to predominant morphology and maximum extent of parametrial tumour infiltration and were stratified into five tumour groups (TG): 1) expansive with spiculae; 2) expansive with spiculae and infiltrating parts; 3) infiltrative into the inner third of the parametrial space (PM); 4) infiltrative into the middle third of the PM; and 5) infiltrative into the outer third of the PM. MRI at the time of brachytherapy was used for identifying presence (residual vs. no residual disease) and signal intensity (high vs. intermediate) of residual disease within the PM. Left and right PM of each patient were evaluated separately at both time points. The impact of the TG on tumour remission status within the PM was analysed using {chi}2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 170 PM were analysed. The TG 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were present in 12%, 11%, 35%, 25% and 12% of the cases, respectively. Five percent of the PM were tumour-free. Residual tumour in the PM was identified in 19%, 68%, 88%, 90% and 85% of the PM for the TG 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The TG 3 - 5 had significantly higher rates of residual tumour in the PM in comparison to TG 1 + 2 (88% vs. 43%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: MRI-morphologic features of PM infiltration appear to allow for prediction of tumour response during external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A predominantly infiltrative tumour spread at the

  2. Human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp65 is detected in all intra- and extra-axial brain tumours independent of the tumour type or grade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Libard

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated.

  3. Maintaining Tumour Heterogeneity in Patient-Derived Tumour Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, John W; Caldas, Carlos; Bruna, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pre-clinical models often fail to capture the diverse heterogeneity of human malignancies and as such lack clinical predictive power. Patient-derived tumour xenografts (PDXs) have emerged as a powerful technology: capable of retaining the molecular heterogeneity of their originating sample. However, heterogeneity within a tumour is governed by both cell-autonomous (e.g. genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity) and non-cell-autonomous (e.g. stromal heterogeneity) drivers. Whilst PDXs can largely recapitulate the polygenomic architecture of human tumours, they do not fully account for heterogeneity in the tumour microenvironment. Hence, these models have substantial utility in basic and translational research in cancer biology; but study of stromal or immune drivers of malignant progression may be limited. Similarly, PDX models offer the ability to conduct patient specific in vivo and ex vivo drug screens, but stromal contributions to treatment responses may be under-represented. This review discusses the sources and consequences of intratumour heterogeneity and how these are recapitulated in the PDX model. Limitations of the current generation of PDXs are discussed and strategies to improve several aspects of the model with respect to preserving heterogeneity are proposed. PMID:26180079

  4. Ethical frameworks for obtaining informed consent in tumour profiling: an evidence-based case for Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylstra, Yasmin; Lysaght, Tamra; Thrivikraman, Jyothi; Watson, Sangeetha; Tan, Patrick

    2017-12-08

    Genomic profiling of malignant tumours has assisted clinicians in providing targeted therapies for many serious cancer-related illnesses. Although the characterisation of somatic mutations is the primary aim of tumour profiling for treatment, germline mutations may also be detected given the heterogenous origin of mutations observed in tumours. Guidance documents address the return of germline findings that have health implications for patients and their genetic relations. However, the implications of discovering a potential but unconfirmed germline finding from tumour profiling are yet to be fully explored. Moreover, as tumour profiling is increasingly applied in oncology, robust ethical frameworks are required to encourage large-scale data sharing and data aggregation linking molecular data to clinical outcomes, to further understand the role of genetics in oncogenesis and to develop improved cancer therapies. This paper reports on the results of empirical research that is broadly aimed at developing an ethical framework for obtaining informed consent to return results from tumour profiling tests and to share the biomolecular data sourced from tumour tissues of cancer patients. Specifically, qualitative data were gathered from 36 semi-structured interviews with cancer patients and oncology clinicians at a cancer treatment centre in Singapore. The interview data indicated that patients had a limited comprehension of cancer genetics and implications of tumour testing. Furthermore, oncology clinicians stated that they lacked the time to provide in depth explanations of the tumour profile tests. However, it was accepted from both patients and oncologist that the return potential germline variants and the sharing of de-identified tumour profiling data nationally and internationally should be discussed and provided as an option during the consent process. Findings provide support for the return of tumour profiling results provided that they are accompanied with an

  5. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy of large human brain tumours at 1.5 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Achten, E

    1988-01-01

    31P MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours is one feature of magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients with large superficial brain tumours and eight healthy volunteers were examined with 31P spectroscopy using an 8 cm surface coil for volume selection. Seven frequencies were resolved in our...... spectra. The spectra from patients with brain tumours showed a great scatter, but generally they overlapped those obtained in normal brain tissue. No characteristic pattern of the spectra was seen in the tumours. One patient with a metastasis from a small cell carcinoma of the lung was examined before...

  6. Treatment of skin damage due to irradiation and post-irradiation skin tumours, at the Hornheide special clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drepper, H.

    1987-01-01

    A short precis of 54 years of history of the Hornheide special clinic for tumours, tuberculosis, and plastic surgery of face and skin is followed by a description of the current tasks of the clinic as an interdisciplinary center for plastic surgery and rehabilitation with facilities for tumour surgery, radiotherapy, skin and tissue pathology, and psychotherapy. Important special areas of this interdisciplinary cooperation are the treatment of skin disorders due to radiation and of tumours on irradiated skin, as well as treatment and plastic surgery after removal of tumours by irradiation in order to make the affected areas fit for renewed irradiation. (TRV) [de

  7. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  8. Patterns of shift in ADC distributions in abdominal tumours during chemotherapy - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Kirsteen; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Histopathology Department, London (United Kingdom); Anderson, John [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Oncology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) relates to tissue cellularity, and change in ADC during chemotherapy may be a promising tool for assessing oncological response. To investigate the feasibility of measuring changes in ADC distribution in solid abdominal and pelvic paediatric tumours during chemotherapy, and to assess patterns of change. Consecutive children were included in a prospective observational study. ADC maps were calculated at presentation and following chemotherapy from a diffusion-sensitised sequence. ADC distribution in the whole tumour, excluding areas of low or absent gadolinium-enhancement, was investigated. Change during chemotherapy was assessed for each patient individually. Histopathological slices from the resected specimens were reviewed. There were seven children (nine tumours) included in the study. ADC in all except one deviated from a normal distribution. All tumours changed their ADC distribution during chemotherapy. Median ADC increased in all upper abdominal tumours, but more in tumours with histopathologically good or marked response to chemotherapy. Seven out of nine tumours attained a wider ADC distribution, the remaining two showed little chemotherapy response. ADC distribution changes during chemotherapy in childhood abdominal tumours are measurable. Distinct patterns of shift can be observed and ADC change is therefore promising as a noninvasive biomarker for therapy response. (orig.)

  9. Quercetin reduces cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats without compromising its anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Penelope D; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Perez-Barriocanal, Fernando; Morales, Ana I; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M

    2011-11-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the major limitation for the clinical use of cisplatin as an anti-tumoural drug. Our aim was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cisplatin nephrotoxicity in a rat tumour model in vivo and to examine the mechanisms of renal protection. Breast adenocarcinoma (13762 Mat B-III) cells were inoculated subcutaneously in male Fischer rats and 7 days later, the rats were administered daily with quercetin [50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] or vehicle. Four days after that, the rats were given a single dose of cisplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Tumour growth and renal function were monitored throughout the experiment. Two or 6 days after cisplatin administration, the rats were killed and the kidneys and tumours were removed to examine renal function and toxicity markers in both tissues. In the kidney, cisplatin treatment induced: (i) a decrease in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate, (ii) tubular necrosis/apoptosis, (iii) increased lipid peroxidation and decreased endogenous antioxidant systems, (iv) increased expression of inflammation markers and (v) increased activity of the apoptosis executioner caspase-3. Cisplatin effectively reduced tumour size and weight. Co-treatment with quercetin partially prevented all the renal effects of cisplatin, whereas it did not impair its anti-tumour activity. In conclusion, in a model of tumour-bearing rats, quercetin prevents the nephrotoxic effect of cisplatin without affecting its anti-tumour activity.

  10. Hostile takeover: how tumours hijack pre-existing vascular environments to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Frank

    2017-07-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that solid tumours do not require the generation of new blood vessels, i.e. angiogenesis, to successfully grow, and to colonize normal tissue. Instead, many tumour cells make the best use of what they find: pre-existing blood vessels of the host. In these cases, the host vasculature is incorporated by the growing tumour, resulting in a new organ consisting of malignant and non-malignant cell types. In consequence, pre-existing vessels are exploited by the tumour for optimal access to oxygen and nutrients. In this perspective article, the argument is made that tumour cells might gain even more: that is, access to the very special microenvironment of the perivascular niche. Here, specific cues for invasion, metastasis, survival, stem-like features, dormancy and, potentially, also immune escape exist - for non-malignant and malignant cells alike. The consequence of the hijacking of normal blood vessels and their perivascular niches by tumours is that antiangiogenic agents have little chance to work, and that tumour cells are better protected from the adverse effects of cytotoxic and targeted therapies. Thus, disturbing vascular hijacking could make tumours less resistant to established therapies. Concepts of how to do this are just starting to be explored. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  12. CANCER Escape from senescence boosts tumour growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Jan Paul

    2018-01-01

    Some chemotherapies block cancer growth by driving tumour cells into a state of cell-division arrest termed senescence. It emerges that such cells have a boosted capacity to drive tumour growth if they exit senescence

  13. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction as clean-up step for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides residues in fish tissue by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojin; Zhu, Fang; Xi, Jiabin; Lu, Tongbu; Liu, Hong; Tong, Yexiang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) technique was used as a clean-up procedure for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in fish tissue. In this study, eight OPPs were first extracted with acetone from fish sample, the organic extract after rotatory evaporation was then redissolved with water-methanol (95:5, v/v) solution, followed by polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) HF-LPME. Experimental HF-LPME and other sample preparation conditions were carefully investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity were observed in the range of 20-500 ng/g, limits of detections (LODs) were in the range of 2.1-4.5 ng/g. The repeatability and recovery of the method also showed satisfactory results. Compared with traditional sample preparation method for the determination of OPPs in fish tissue, the method developed in this study eliminated the solid phase extraction (SPE) step, simplified the sample preparation procedure and lowered the cost of analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MR mammography assessment of tumour response after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy of lically progressed carcinomas of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Achten, C.; Audretsch, W.; Rezai, M.; Urban, P.; Zocholl, G.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of magnetic resonance mammography in monitoring tumour response of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. 17 patients with LABS had a magnetic resonance mammography and ultrasonography before and after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. After neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy 14 patients showed in MR-mammography less pronounced and prolonged enhancement without washout. After treatment three patients had signal intensity-time curves still characteristic for tumour. Ultrasonography was true negative in two patients, true positive in 12 and false positive in three patients. Magnetic resonance mammography is suitable for monitoring tumour response after radiochemotherapy of LABC. However, a negative MRI does not exclude a residual tumour. Ultrasonography is of limited value in monitoring therapy of LABC. (orig.) [de

  15. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) for the evaluation of treatment of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houkin, K.; Kamada, K.; Sawamura, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Kashiwaba, T.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated metabolic changes in brain tumours following treatment, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In meningiomas, effective therapeutic embolisation led to an acute increase in lactate. In radiosensitive tumours such as malignant lymphoma, a decrease in lactate and in increase in N-acetyl-aspartate occurred after radiotherapy, which preceded changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging. On the other hand, no significant changes in spectral patterns were observed in malignant gliomas resistant to therapy. Tissue characterisation of brain tumours by spectral patterns on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy remains controversial. However, we have shown it to be sensitive to metabolic changes following treatment, which may reflect the efficacy of the therapy. (orig.)

  16. Central nervous system tumours and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1989-01-01

    Among female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of fatal brain or central nervous system tumours. A significant excess did appear, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumours outside of the brain was observed, consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Excess tumours of the eye, pituitary or pineal did not occur. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. (author)

  17. Targeting of liver tumour in rats by selective delivery of holmium-166 loaded microspheres: a biodistribution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijsen, F.; Rook, D.; Zonnenberg, B.; Klerk, J. de; Rijk, P. van; Schip, F. van het [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, C. [Animal Inst., Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Meijer, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dullens, H. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hennink, W. [Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    2001-06-01

    Intra-arterial administration of beta-emitting particles that become trapped in the vascular bed of a tumour and remain there while delivering high doses, represents a unique approach in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumours. Studies on selective internal radiation therapy of colorectal liver metastases using yttrium-90 glass microspheres have shown encouraging results. This study describes the biodistribution of 40-{mu}m poly lactic acid microspheres loaded with radioactive holmium-166, after intra-arterial administration into the hepatic artery of rats with implanted liver tumours. Radioactivity measurements showed >95% retention of injected activity in the liver and its resident tumour. The average activity detected in other tissues was {<=}0.1%ID/g, with incidental exceptions in the lungs and stomach. Very little {sup 166}Ho activity was detected in kidneys (<0.1%ID/g), thereby indicating the stability of the microspheres in vivo. Tumour targeting was very effective, with a mean tumour to liver ratio of 6.1{+-}2.9 for rats with tumour (n=15) versus 0.7{+-}0.5 for control rats (n=6; P<0.001). These ratios were not significantly affected by the use of adrenaline. Histological analysis showed that five times as many large (>10) and medium-sized (4-9) clusters of microspheres were present within tumour and peritumoural tissue, compared with normal liver. Single microspheres were equally dispersed throughout the tumour, as well as normal liver parenchyma. (orig.)

  18. Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO2) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, M.; Eschwege, F.; Luboinski, B.; Wibault, P.; Weeger, P.; Lusinchi, A.; Lartigau, E.

    1998-01-01

    The study was performed to assess the effect of accelerated radiotherapy on oxygenation of primary tumours and metastatic nodes in patients with advanced head and neck tumours. In 14 patients with head and neck tumour, oxygen tension (pO 2 ) was evaluated in normal tissues and tumours (primary tumour or metastatic neck node) before (0 Gy) and after 2 weeks (32 Gy) of accelerated radiotherapy (70 Gy in 3.5 weeks, with three daily fractions). Radiotherapy was combined with carbogen breathing in 5 patients. pO 2 was measured using a polarographic technique. For pooled normal tissues, median pO 2 was 38 mmHg before treatment and 46 mmHg after 2 weeks. For tumours, very low values ( 2 12 mmHg before treatment versus 26 mmHg after 2 weeks, P 2 was 44 mmHg at 2 weeks, compared with 13.5 mmHg before treatment (P=0.05). Very low pO 2 values, corresponding to tumour hypoxia, were found in the tumours (primary and metastatic neck nodes) prior to accelerated treatment. During the first 2 weeks of accelerated treatment, an increase in median pO 2 was found in nine of the 14 tumours, together with a decrease in the frequency of very low values. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  20. Neuropathological diagnosis of brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Bianca

    2011-11-01

    With recent progress in radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnoses, the characterisation of brain tumours has improved. The last World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System was done in 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defined malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumour subtypes varying in biological and clinical behaviour, indicating prognostic and predictive factors. In order to investigate new therapeutic approaches, it is important to study the molecular pathways responsible for proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and anaplastic transformation. Different prognostic and predictive factors for glioma patients were identified by genetic studies, such as the loss of heterozygosis on chromosome 1p and 19q for oligodendrogliomas, proangiogenic factors such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for glioblastomas and the methylation status of gene promoter of MethylGuanine-MethylTransferase. In conclusion, the prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on the synthesis of histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological images, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumour location, and "performance status").

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of tenascin in melanocytic tumours of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastre, B; van Ederen, A M; Terlou, M; Gruys, E; Nederbragt, H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tenascin-C (TN) immunolabelling and labelling for endothelium by von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in melanocytic tumours of dogs as compared with normal tissues, to evaluate the TN distribution in these types of tumours and to investigate whether a relation could be established between TN and angiogenesis in different types of tumour. Samples of normal dog skin (n=8), benign skin melanocytomas (n=10), malignant oral melanomas (n=9) and malignant toe melanomas (n=5) were studied. The percentages of TN and vWF immunolabelling per total microscopical area were analysed by morphometric methods. In normal skin, TN was found at dermo-epidermal junctions, around hair follicles, in the smooth muscles of hair follicles, and in the walls of blood vessels. TN immunolabelling (distribution and intensity) in melanocytomas was comparable with that found in normal skin. In melanomas, TN expression was considerably increased, its intensity in toe melanomas being twice that observed in oral melanomas. The degree of TN immunolabelling was not related to the histological malignancy of the melanomas. In melanomas, TN was found in the connective tissue surrounding the tumour cell nests and in narrow stromal strands inside the tumour. Regions infiltrated with lymphocytes were devoid of TN. The presence of TN around capillaries in melanocytomas and melanomas was investigated by double-immunolabelling (for TN and vWF). The intensity of vWF and TN immunolabelling was higher in melanomas than in melanocytomas, and higher in toe melanomas than in oral melanomas; however, no clear relation between TN expression and immunolabelling for vWF was found.

  2. Disaggregation of human solid tumours by combined mechanical and enzymatic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, S A; Spang-Thomsen, M; Brünner, N

    1985-01-01

    Two combined mechanical and enzymatic disaggregation techniques and a simple mechanical disaggregation procedure were compared. The combined procedures involved a mechanical comminution of the tumour tissue followed by incubation in trypsin. In one method, the tissue was subjected to long....... The combined techniques provided reproducible cell yields of 2-10 X 10(7) viable cells g-1 of tissue, whereas only a small number of tumour cells was produced by the mechanical method. DNA analysis demonstrated that only the long-term trypsinization procedure resulted in a representative cell yield from all...

  3. Determinação de resíduos de nitrofurazona, furazolidona e nicarbazina em tecidos de origem animal Determination of nitrofurazone, furazolidone and nicarbazin residues in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheilla V. C. SOUZA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi padronizado e validado um método analítico para determinação de resíduos de nitrofurazona, furazolidona e nicarbazina em tecido muscular empregando-se extração com acetonitrila, purificação com cartuchos de sílica e C18 e detecção e quantificação por CLAE/UV. Nos ensaios com amostras fortificadas entre 5 e 200mg/kg as recuperações médias obtidas variaram de 73,6 a 95,6% com valores de C.V. entre 4,8 e 26,4%. O limite de detecção e quantificação do método foi de 5mg/kg, para cada um dos três resíduos estudados.A method for determination of nitrofurazone, furazolidone and nicarbazin residues in muscle tissues was standardized and validated using acetonitrile extraction, clean-up with silica and C18 cartridges and detection and quantification by HPLC/UV. In the assays using spiked samples in levels varying from 5 to 200mg/kg the average recovery values ranged from 73.6 to 95.6% with C.V. values between 4.8 and 26.4%. The limits of detection and quantification of this method was 5mg/kg for each studied residue.

  4. Advantage of delayed whole-body FDG-PET imaging for tumour detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Ono, Shuichi; Akaizawa, Takashi; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Itoh, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Kaoru; Tashiro, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku Univ. (Japan); Yamada, Kenji [Sendai Kosei Hospital (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Delayed imaging that coincides with the highest uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by tumour may be advantageous in oncological positron emission tomography (PET), where delineation of metastasis from normal tissue background is important. In order to identify the better imaging protocol for tumour detection, whole-body FDG-PET images acquired at 1 h and 2 h after injection were evaluated in 22 subjects, with a post-injection transmission scan at 90 min for attenuation correction. After visual interpretation, tumour uptake [tumour standardised uptake ratio (SUR)], normal tissue uptake (normal SUR) and tumour to background contrast (tumour SUR/normal tissue SUR) were evaluated in the images acquired at 1 h and at 2 h. Most malignant lesions, including primary lung cancer, metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes and lymphoma lesions, showed higher FDG uptake at 2 h than at 1 h. By contrast, benign lesions, with the exception of sarcoidosis, showed lower uptake of FDG at 2 h than at 1 h. Among normal tissues, the kidney, liver, mediastinum, lung, upper abdomen and left abdomen showed significant falls in FDG uptake from 1 h to 2 h. The lower abdomen, right abdomen and muscles (shoulder and thigh) showed no significant changes. Consequently, malignant lesions of the lung, mediastinum and upper abdomen showed significant increases in tumour to background contrast from 1 to 2 h. Three lesions (two lung cancers and a malignant lymphoma) that were equivocal on 1-h images became evident on 2-h images, changing the results of interpretation. All other malignant lesions were detected on 1-h images, but were clearer, with higher contrast, on 2-h images. Lesion-based sensitivity was improved from 92% (49/53) to 98% (52/53), and patient-based sensitivity from 78% (14/18) to 94% (17/18). It is concluded that delayed whole-body FDG-PET imaging is a better and more reliable imaging protocol for tumour detection. (orig.)

  5. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall recurrcnce rate of 4.48%. Conclusion: Minor salivaiy gland tumours are rare. Follow-up in this environment is. 13001'. There is a need to educate the patients about the importance of early presentation and recall visits. Key worclsz Salivary glands, minor, tumour, treatment liitroduction. U f-;;i|i\\ar§, land tumours are ...

  6. Mohs micrographic surgery of rare cutaneous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohil, S.C.; Lee, C.B. van; Beisenherz, J.; Mureau, M.A.M.; Overbeek, L.I.H.; Nijsten, T.; Bos, R.R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for rare cutaneous tumours are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recurrence rate after MMS for rare cutaneous tumours at a university centre. METHODS & MATERIALS: Retrospective review of all rare cutaneous tumours treated

  7. A practical approach to parotid tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assessment and management of such tumours, based on South. African data.1. Relevant anatomy of the parotid ... A practical approach to parotid tumours. The correct management of these relatively uncommon tumours is important. ... to obtain definite histological diagnosis. Consequences of surgery. • Scar. The incision ...

  8. New tumour entities in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck tumours: odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Paul M; Takata, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    The latest (4th) edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck tumours has recently been published with a number of significant changes across all tumour sites. In particular, there has been a major attempt to simplify classifications and to use defining criteria which can be used globally in all situations, avoiding wherever possible the use of complex molecular techniques which may not be affordable or widely available. This review summarises the changes in Chapter 8: Odontogenic and maxillofacial bone lesions. The most significant change is the re-introduction of the classification of the odontogenic cysts, restoring this books status as the only text which classifies and defines the full range of lesions of the odontogenic tissues. The consensus group considered carefully the terminology of lesions and were concerned to ensure that the names used properly reflected the best evidence regarding the true nature of specific entities. For this reason, this new edition restores the odontogenic keratocyst and calcifying odontogenic cyst to the classification of odontogenic cysts and rejects the previous terminology (keratocystic odontogenic tumour and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour) which were intended to suggest that they are true neoplasms. New entities which have been introduced include the sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma and primordial odontogenic tumour. In addition, some previously poorly defined lesions have been removed, including the ameloblastic fibrodentinoma, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, which are probably developing odontomas, and the odontoameloblastoma, which is not regarded as an entity. Finally, the terminology "cemento" has been restored to cemento-ossifying fibroma and cemento-osseous dysplasias, to properly reflect that they are of odontogenic origin and are found in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws.

  9. NANOTECHNOLOGY - NEW TRENDS IN THE TREATMENT OF BRAIN TUMOURS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krůpa, Petr; Řehák, Svatopluk; Diaz-Garcia, Daniel; Filip, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    High grade gliomas are some of the deadliest human tumours. Conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have only a limited effect. Nowadays, resection is the common treatment of choice and although new approaches, such as perioperative magnetic resonance imaging or fluorescent microscopy have been developed, the survival rate of diagnosed patients is still very low. The inefficacy of conventional methods has led to the development of new strategies and the significant progress of nanotechnology in recent years. These platforms can be used either as novel imaging tools or to improve anticancer drug delivery into tumours while minimizing its distribution and toxicity in healthy tissues. Amongst the new nanotechnology platforms used for delivery into the brain tissue are: polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoshells, carbon nanotubes, superparamagnetic nanoparticles and nucleic acid based nanoparticles (DNA, RNA interference [RNAi] and antisense oligonucleotides [ASO]). These nanoparticles have been applied in the delivery of small molecular weight drugs as well as macromolecules - proteins, peptides and genes. The unique properties of these nanoparticles, such as surface charge, particle size, composition and ability to modify their surface with tissue recognition ligands and antibodies, improve their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics. All of the above mentioned characteristics make of nanoplatforms a very suitable tool for its use in targeted, personalized medicine, where they could possibly carry large doses of therapeutic agents specifically into malignant cells while avoiding healthy cells. This review poses new possibilities in the large field of nanotechnology with special interest in the treatment of high grade brain tumours.

  10. Multi-dye residue analysis of triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish tissues by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyns, Tim; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2014-03-15

    Beside the possible illegal use of malachite green in aquaculture, other familiar dyes could also been applied by fraudulent producers due to their antiseptic and antibacterial activity. In this contribution, a new sensitive multi-residue method was developed to determine triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by an oxidation step using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone. Further clean-up was performed by tandem solid phase extraction using weak and strong cation exchange cartridges. Extracts were analysed by UPLC-MS(n) operating in the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+). The fourteen dyes were separated within only 12min on a C18 BEH column using 1mM ammonium acetate in water at pH 4.5 and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flowrate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The presented method was validated as defined by the European Union and scientific literature. Good linearity (R ≥0.99 and goodness-of-fit (g) ≤10%) was achieved over the tested concentration range (0.25-2ngg(-1)). Limit of quantification was 0.25ngg(-1) for all dyes, with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 10/1. This is at least 5 to 10 times lower than previous published methods. Limits of detection were all dyes, the two rhodamine dyes could only be determined above 0.75ngg(-1). For these dyes, the method can only be used for screening purposes. To show the applicability of the method, a monitoring study was performed to investigate the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife European eel in Flemish rivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Improved Tumour Temperature Measurement and Control Method for Superficial Tumour Ultrasound Hyperthermia Therapeutic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, G F; Chen, Y Z; Ren, G X [Biomedical Instrument Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In tumour hyperthermia therapy, the research on measurement and control of tumour temperature is very important. Based on the hardware platform of superficial tumour ultrasound hyperthermia therapeutic system, an improved tumour temperature measurement and control method is presented in this paper. The experiment process, data and results are discussed in detail. The improved method will greatly reduce the pain and dread of the patients during the therapy period on the tumour temperature measurement and control by using the pinhead sensor.

  12. Targeting of breast metastases using a viral gene vector with tumour-selective transcription.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have significant potential as gene delivery vectors for cancer gene therapy. However, broad AAV2 tissue tropism results in nonspecific gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated use of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) promoter to restrict AAV expression to tumour cells, in subcutaneous MCF-7 xenograft mouse models of breast cancer and in patient samples, using bioluminescent imaging and flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: Higher transgene expression levels were observed in subcutaneous MCF-7 tumours relative to normal tissue (muscle) using the CXCR4 promoter, unlike a ubiquitously expressing Cytomegalovirus promoter construct, with preferential AAVCXCR4 expression in epithelial tumour and CXCR4-positive cells. Transgene expression following intravenously administered AAVCXCR4 in a model of liver metastasis was detected specifically in livers of tumour bearing mice. Ex vivo analysis using patient samples also demonstrated higher AAVCXCR4 expression in tumour compared with normal liver tissue. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time, the potential for systemic administration of AAV2 vector for tumour-selective gene therapy.

  13. Investigation of intratumoural and peritumoural lymphatics expressed by podoplanin and LYVE-1 in the hybridoma-induced tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, RC; Eshita, Y; Kato, S

    2007-01-01

    Tumour-associated lymphatics contribute to a key component of metastatic spread, however, the biological interaction of tumour cells with intratumoural and peritumoural lymphatics (ITLs and PTLs) has remained unclear. To address this important issue, we have focused on the morphological and molecular aspects of newly formed lymphatics (lymphangiogenesis) and pre-existing lymphatics in the intratumoural and peritumoural tissues by using a hybridoma-induced tumour model. In the present study, ITLs with very high vessel density within the tumour mass showed small and flattened contours that varied from non-solid-to-solid tumours, whereas PTLs were relatively disorganized and tortuous, and packed with a cluster of tumour cells at the tumour periphery. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) both in ITLs and PTLs were expressed with LYVE-1 and podoplanin in various tumour tissues, in which initial lymphatics were extremely extended and dilated. The tumour cells were frequently detected adhering to or penetrating lymphatic walls, especially near the open junctions. In the metastatic tissues, lymphangiogenic vasculatures occurred within the tumour matrix, and collecting PTLs represented abnormal twisty valve leaflets. The Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed local variations of LEC proliferating potentials and lymphatic involvement in metastasis by a distinct profile of the protein and mRNA expression by LYVE-1, podoplanin, Prox-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-3 (VEGFR-3). These findings indicated that both ITLs and PTLs, including enlarged pre-existing and newly formed lymphatics, may play a crucial role in metastasis with an active tumour cell adhesion, invasion, migration and implantation. PMID:17696907

  14. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  15. Small Intestinal Tumours: An Overview on Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Notaristefano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small intestinal neoplasia group includes different types of lesions and are a relatively rare event, accounting for only 3-6% of all gastrointestinal (GI neoplasms and 1-3% of all GI malignancies. These lesions can be classified as epithelial and mesenchymal, either benign or malignant. Mesenchymal tumours include stromal tumours (GIST and other neoplasms that might arise from soft tissue throughout the rest of the body (lipomas, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, fibromas, desmoid tumours, and schwannomas. Other lesions occurring in the small bowel are carcinoids, lymphomas, and melanomas. To date, carcinoids and GIST are reported as the most frequent malignant lesions occurring in the small bowel. Factors that predispose to the development of malignant lesions are different, and they may be hereditary (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, neuroendocrine neoplasia Type 1, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and neurofibromatosis Type 1, acquired (sporadic colorectal cancer and small intestine adenomas, coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, or environmental (diet, tobacco, and obesity. Small bowel tumours present with different and sometimes nonspecific symptoms, and a prompt diagnosis is not always so easily performed. Diagnostic tools, that may be both radiological and endoscopic, possess specificity and sensitivity, as well as different roles depending on the type of lesion. Treatment of these lesions may be different and, in recent years, new therapies have enabled an improvement in life expectancy.

  16. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Saira; Sebire, Neil; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); McCarville, Mary Beth [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare neoplasm of neural crest origin. To describe three further cases of MNTI, with emphasis on CT and MRI findings. Data for children with histologically confirmed MNTI following biopsy or surgery were retrieved. Three children with available imaging at the time of diagnosis were included in the study. All three children had primary tumour in the head and neck region: one in the maxilla, one in the occipital bone (extra-axial but with intracranial extension) and one with an unusual tumour growing exophytically from the subcutaneous tissues adjacent to the occipital bone. All tumours were iso/hypointense both on T1- and T2-weighted MRI, and showed marked contrast enhancement in their non-ossified components. CT allowed identification of bone destruction and remodelling. Our findings are consistent with previously reported cases of MNTI regarding age at presentation and location in the head and neck region. Our MR findings did not demonstrate the typical pattern of T1-shortening expected from melanin deposition. (orig.)

  17. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  18. The role of choline (Cho) in the diagnostics and differentiation of brain tumours with HMRS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiecka, B.; Urbanik, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of the research was a comprehensive analysis of Cho concentration and Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cho+Cr ratios for the purposes of the diagnostics and differentiation of brain tumours (the type of the pathological lesion in patients with brain tumours) with the use of HMRS technique. Material/Methods: The HMRS examinations were performed with the use of the MRI Signa Excite 1.5 T system, in PRESS technique (TR = 1500 ms, TE = 35 ms) and involved 100 patients with brain tumours (age range: 18 to 81 yrs, mean age 50.61). Spectra were taken from three different locations: tumour centre, the tumour edge and contralateral unchanged cerebral tissue. All patients underwent surgery followed by histopathological analysis, on the basis of which two groups were separated (benign tumours, malignant tumours - 50 cases each). Additionally, 30 healthy volunteers in the age of 20 to 79 years (mean age 40.8) were examined. Results: The comparison of the examined patients with the control group revealed significantly higher Cho concentrations in patients with brain tumours. The analysis of Cho concentration was also performed with consideration of the age factor (under and over 60 years of age). Significantly lower mean Cho concentrations were discovered in a group of patients under 60 years of age. The analysis of Cho concentrations and Cho/Cr ratios reveled statistical significance for two factors: voxel location factor and the type of the pathological lesion. The average of Cho concentration and Cho/Cr ratios were higher in the group of patients with malignant tumours. The highest Cho concentrations and Cho/Cr ratios were observed in the tumour centre. The relative NAA/Cho and NAA/Cho+Cr ratios were statistically significant when taking into consideration the voxel location factor only. The results received from contralateral normal cerebral tissue (the internal model) were compared with control group (the external model). Mean values of Cho concentration were

  19. The relationship between temporal variation of hypoxia, polarographic measurements and predictions of tumour response to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Dasu, Alexandru; Karlsson, Mikael

    2004-10-01

    The polarographic oxygen sensor is one of the most used devices for in vivo measurements of oxygen and many other measurement techniques for measuring tumour hypoxia are correlated with electrode measurements. Little is known however about the relationship between electrode measurements and the real tissue oxygenation. This paper investigates the influence of the temporal change of the hypoxic pattern on the electrode measurements and the tumour response. Electrode measurements and tumour response were simulated using a computer program that allows both the calculation of the tissue oxygenation with respect to the two types of hypoxia that might arise in tumours and the virtual insertion of the electrode into the tissue. It was therefore possible to control the amount of each type of hypoxia in order to investigate their influence on the measurement results. Tissues with several vascular architectures ranging from well oxygenated to poorly oxygenated were taken into consideration as might be seen in practice. The influence of the electrode measurements on the treatment outcome was estimated by calculating the tumour control probability for the tumours characterized either by the real or by the measured tumour oxygenation. We have simulated electrode oxygen measurements in different types of tissues, covering a wide range of tumour oxygenations. The results of the simulations showed that the measured distribution depends on the details of the vascular network and not on the type of hypoxia. We have also simulated the effects of the temporal change of the acute hypoxic pattern due to the opening and the closure of different blood vessels during a full fractionated treatment. The results of this simulation suggested that the temporal variation of the hypoxic pattern does not lead to significantly different results for the electrode measurements or the predicted tumour control probabilities. In conclusion, it was found that the averaging effect of the electrode leads

  20. Nanoparticle-triggered in situ catalytic chemical reactions for tumour-specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2018-03-21

    Tumour chemotherapy employs highly cytotoxic chemodrugs, which kill both cancer and normal cells by cellular apoptosis or necrosis non-selectively. Catalysing/triggering the specific chemical reactions only inside tumour tissues can generate abundant and special chemicals and products locally to initiate a series of unique biological and pathologic effects, which may enable tumour-specific theranostic effects to combat cancer without bringing about significant side effects on normal tissues. Nevertheless, chemical reaction-initiated selective tumour therapy strongly depends on the advances in chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology and biomedicine. This emerging cross-disciplinary research area is substantially different from conventional cancer-theranostic modalities in clinics. In response to the fast developments in cancer theranostics based on intratumoural catalytic chemical reactions, this tutorial review summarizes the very-recent research progress in the design and synthesis of representative nanoplatforms with intriguing nanostructures, compositions, physiochemical properties and biological behaviours for versatile catalytic chemical reaction-enabled cancer treatments, mainly by either endogenous tumour microenvironment (TME) triggering or exogenous physical irradiation. These unique intratumoural chemical reactions can be used in tumour-starving therapy, chemodynamic therapy, gas therapy, alleviation of tumour hypoxia, TME-responsive diagnostic imaging and stimuli-responsive drug release, and even externally triggered versatile therapeutics. In particular, the challenges and future developments of such a novel type of cancer-theranostic modality are discussed in detail to understand the future developments and prospects in this research area as far as possible. It is highly expected that this kind of unique tumour-specific therapeutics by triggering specific in situ catalytic chemical reactions inside tumours would provide a novel but efficient

  1. The administration of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 exerts an immunomodulatory effect against a breast tumour in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Félix; Carino, Silvia; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    Antitumour activity is one of the health-promoting effects attributed to probiotics specially analysed from preclinical models, mostly murine. Here, the effect of milk fermented by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei CRL 431, on a murine breast cancer model was analysed. Mice were fed with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei or unfermented milk before and after tumour injection. Rate of tumour development, cytokines in serum, IgA, CD4, CD8, F4/80 and cytokines positive cells in mammary glands were determined. Microvasculature in the tumour tissues was monitored. The effect of fermented milk administration after tumour injection was also evaluated. It was observed that probiotic administration delayed or blocked tumour development. This effect was associated to modulation of the immune response triggered by the tumour. The area occupied by blood vessels decreased in the tumours from mice given fermented milk which agrees with their small tumours, and fewer side effects. Finally, it was observed that probiotic administration after tumour detection was also beneficial to delay the tumour growth. In conclusion, we showed in this study the potential of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL431 to stimulate the immune response against this breast tumour, avoiding or delaying its growth when it was preventively administrated and also when the administration started after tumour cells injection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary bone tumours of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Azouz, E.M.; Campbell, J.; Marton, D.; Morris, L.; Padovani, J.; Sprague, P.; Beluffi, G.; Berzero, G.F.; Cherubino, P.; Adelaide Children's Hospital; Hospital for Children, Perth; Montreal Children's Hospital, Quebec; Saint Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec; Children's Hospital, Denver, CO; Hopital des Enfants, 13 - Marseille; Pavia Univ.; Pavia Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one primary bone tumours of the hand in children from 8 paediatric hospitals are reported. Osteochondromas and enchondromas were not included. Our material consisted of 16 patients with common tumours (3 Ewing's sarcoma, 5 aneurysmal bone cyst, 6 osteoid osteoma and 2 epithelioma) and 5 patients with uncommon tumours (osteoma, simple bone cyst, haemangiopericytoma, capillary angiomatous tumour and benign ossifying fibroma or osteoblastoma). The X-ray diagnosis of the common tumours should have high concordance with histology, whereas that of uncommon tumours in much more difficult and uncertain. The characteristic features of Ewing's sarcoma are stressed as all our children with this tumour had a delayed diagnosis and a fatal outcome. Differential diagnosis with other short tubular bone lesions of the hand - specifically osteomyelitis - is discussed and the posibilities of microscopic diagnosis are stressed. (orig.)

  3. Teratoid Wilms tumour with chemotherapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Gahine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Teratoid Wilms tumour (a rare histologic variant in a 4 year old male who presented with an abdominal lump. Wilms Tumour with paracaval lymphadenopathy and tumour thrombi in right renal vein and inferior vena cava was made radiologically. FNAC report was suggestive of Wilms tumour and patient was subjected to 6 cycles of chemotherapy with not much reduction in size. Post nephrectomy histological diagnosis of Teratoid Wilms tumour was established. Resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is thought to be due to presence of well differentiated histologic appearance. Teratoid Wilms tumour is usually not an aggressive neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively good if the tumour is excised completely thus surgery being the best treatment.

  4. MRI of primary meningeal tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H.K.; Na, D.G.; Byun, H.S.; Han, B.K.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, I.O.; Shin, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours. (orig.)

  5. Effect of dietary olaquindox on the growth of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.) and the distribution of its residues in fish tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huitao; Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Lu

    2014-10-01

    Olaquindox (OLA), one of quinoxaline-N, N-dioxides, has been put under ban. However it was used as a medicinal feed additive early; it promotes the growth of livestock and prevents them from dysentery and bacterial enteritis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary OLA on the growth of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.) and the histological distribution of OLA and its metabolite 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in fish tissues. Four diets containing 0 (control), 42.5, 89.5 and 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA, respectively, were formulated and tested, 3 cages (1.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.5 m) each diet and 100 juveniles (9.75 ± 0.35 g) each cage. The fish were fed to satiation twice a day at 05:00 am and 17:00 pm for 8 weeks. The survival rate of fish fed the diet containing 42.5 and 89.5 mg kg-1 OLA was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet containing 0 and 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA ( P diet containing 42.5 and 89.5 mg·kg-1 OLA was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet without OLA (control) ( Pdiet with 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA. Fish fed the diet with 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA had the highest content of OLA and MQCA in liver (3.44 and 0.39 mg kg-1, respectively), skin (0.46 and 0.09 mg kg-1, respectively) and muscle (0.24 and 0.06 mg kg-1, respectively). In average, fish fed the diet containing OLA had the highest content of OLA and MQCA in liver which was followed by skin and muscle ( P diet containing OLA, thus imposing a potential safety risk to human health.

  6. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  7. Somatostatin receptor imaging in intracranial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Scheidhauer, K.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.; Luyken, C.; Hildebrandt, G.; Klug, N.

    1998-01-01

    The somatostatin analogue [ 111 In-DTPA-d-Phe 1 ]-octreotide ( 111 In-octreotide) allows scintigraphic visualization of somatostatin receptor-expressing tissue. While it is well known that a large variety of tissues express somatostatin receptors and 111 In-octreotide scintigraphy has a clearly defined role in various neuroendocrine diseases, the clinical value of 111 In-octreotide scintigraphy in brain tumours is still under clinical investigation. In 124 patients with 141 brain lesions (63 meningiomas, 24 pituitary adenomas, 10 gliomas WHO class I and II, 12 gliomas WHO class III and IV, 11 neurinomas and 2 neurofibromas, 7 metastases and 12 other varieties: three non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, two epidermoids, one abscess, one angioleiomyoma, one chordoma, one haemangiopericytoma, one osteosarcoma, one plasmacytoma and one pseudocyst), 111 In-octreotide scintigraphy was performed 4-6 and 24 h after i.v. injection of 110-220 MBq 111 In-octreotide. Planar images of the head in four views with a 128 x 128 matrix and single-photon emission tomographic images (64 x 64 matrix) were acquired, and lesions were graded according to qualitative tracer uptake. Fifty-nine of the 63 meningiomas showed moderate to intense tracer uptake. Nine of 24 pituitary adenomas were visible; the remaining 15 did not show any tracer uptake. None of the class I and II gliomas with an intact blood-brain barrier were detected whereas 11/12 class III and IV gliomas showed 111 In-octreotide uptake. None of the neurinomas or neurofibromas were positive. Five of seven metastases were classified as positive, as were the osteosarcoma, two of three non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, one abscess, one angioleiomyoma, one chordoma and one haemangiopericytoma. The other varieties (one non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma, two epidermoids, one plasmacytoma and one pseudocyst) did not show 111 In-octreotide uptake. The results demonstrate that a large variety of intracranial lesions express somatostatin receptors and

  8. Modelling the helium plasma jet delivery of reactive species into a 3D cancer tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szili, Endre J.; Oh, Jun-Seok; Fukuhara, Hideo; Bhatia, Rishabh; Gaur, Nishtha; Nguyen, Cuong K.; Hong, Sung-Ha; Ito, Satsuki; Ogawa, Kotaro; Kawada, Chiaki; Shuin, Taro; Tsuda, Masayuki; Furihata, Mutsuo; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furuta, Hiroshi; Ito, Masafumi; Inoue, Keiji; Hatta, Akimitsu; Short, Robert D.

    2018-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasmas have attracted significant worldwide attention for their potential beneficial effects in cancer therapy. In order to further improve the effectiveness of plasma in cancer therapy, it is important to understand the generation and transport of plasma reactive species into tissue fluids, tissues and cells, and moreover the rates and depths of delivery, particularly across physical barriers such as skin. In this study, helium (He) plasma jet treatment of a 3D cancer tumour, grown on the back of a live mouse, induced apoptosis within the tumour to a depth of 2.8 mm. The He plasma jet was shown to deliver reactive oxygen species through the unbroken skin barrier before penetrating through the entire depth of the tumour. The depth and rate of transport of He plasma jet generated H2O2, NO3 ‑ and NO2 ‑, as well as aqueous oxygen [O2(aq)], was then tracked in an agarose tissue model. This provided an approximation of the H2O2, NO3 ‑, NO2 ‑ and O2(aq) concentrations that might have been generated during the He plasma jet treatment of the 3D tumour. It is proposed that the He plasma jet can induce apoptosis within a tumour by the ‘deep’ delivery of H2O2, NO3 ‑ and NO2 ‑ coupled with O2(aq); the latter raising oxygen tension in hypoxic tissue.

  9. The tumour sink effect on the biodistribution of 68Ga-DOTA-octreotate: implications for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Hofman, Michael S.; Kong, Grace; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour sequestration of radiotracer may lead to decreased bioavailability in healthy tissue resulting in lower absorbed radiation dose to critical organs. This study aims to assess the impact of disease burden, body habitus and urinary excretion on the biodistribution of 68 Ga-DOTA-octreotate. Ten patients with highly varied burden of somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumour on 68 Ga-DOTA-octreotate positron emission tomography (PET)/CT were selected. Volumes of interest were drawn to derive the average uptake of renal parenchyma, spleen and body background, as well as to compute the fraction of injected activity sequestered in tumour and excreted in urine. Uptake values were assessed for correlation with tumour sequestration, weight, lean body weight, body surface area and urinary excretion. There was a trend for tumour sequestration, body habitus and urinary excretion to inversely influence all healthy tissue uptake values. In particular, renal uptake, splenic intensity and background soft tissue activity were all significantly correlated to composite factors combining tumour sequestration with body habitus and renal excretion. When combined with body habitus index or a body habitus index and renal excretion, tumour sequestration was strongly and significantly correlated inversely with renal uptake. Our results suggest that tumour sequestration of 68 Ga-DOTA-octreotate is a major factor leading to a sink effect that decreases activity concentration in healthy organs such as the kidney. However, body habitus and renal function also influence tissue biodistribution, in a synergistic fashion. Compared with a fixed-dose peptide receptor radionuclide therapy protocol, an adjusted-dose regimen tailored to tumour burden, body habitus and renal function may allow greater radiation dose to individual lesions without substantially adding to toxicity in normal tissues. (orig.)

  10. The tumour sink effect on the biodistribution of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotate: implications for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Laval University, Molecular Imaging Research Group, Medical Imaging Department, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Hofman, Michael S.; Kong, Grace; Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Tumour sequestration of radiotracer may lead to decreased bioavailability in healthy tissue resulting in lower absorbed radiation dose to critical organs. This study aims to assess the impact of disease burden, body habitus and urinary excretion on the biodistribution of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotate. Ten patients with highly varied burden of somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumour on {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotate positron emission tomography (PET)/CT were selected. Volumes of interest were drawn to derive the average uptake of renal parenchyma, spleen and body background, as well as to compute the fraction of injected activity sequestered in tumour and excreted in urine. Uptake values were assessed for correlation with tumour sequestration, weight, lean body weight, body surface area and urinary excretion. There was a trend for tumour sequestration, body habitus and urinary excretion to inversely influence all healthy tissue uptake values. In particular, renal uptake, splenic intensity and background soft tissue activity were all significantly correlated to composite factors combining tumour sequestration with body habitus and renal excretion. When combined with body habitus index or a body habitus index and renal excretion, tumour sequestration was strongly and significantly correlated inversely with renal uptake. Our results suggest that tumour sequestration of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotate is a major factor leading to a sink effect that decreases activity concentration in healthy organs such as the kidney. However, body habitus and renal function also influence tissue biodistribution, in a synergistic fashion. Compared with a fixed-dose peptide receptor radionuclide therapy protocol, an adjusted-dose regimen tailored to tumour burden, body habitus and renal function may allow greater radiation dose to individual lesions without substantially adding to toxicity in normal tissues. (orig.)

  11. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUV{sub max} cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Johannes [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Herrmann, Jochen; Adam, Gerhard; Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (r{sub s} = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  12. Mathematical modelling of the spatio-temporal response of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to a solid tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzavinos, Anastasios; Chaplain, Mark A J; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A

    2004-03-01

    In this paper a mathematical model describing the growth of a solid tumour in the presence of an immune system response is presented. In particular, attention is focused upon the attack of tumour cells by so-called tumour-infiltrating cytotoxic lymphocytes (TICLs), in a small, multicellular tumour, without necrosis and at some stage prior to (tumour-induced) angiogenesis. At this stage the immune cells and the tumour cells are considered to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium--cancer dormancy--a phenomenon which has been observed in primary tumours, micrometastases and residual disease after ablation of the primary tumour. Nonetheless, the precise biochemical and cellular mechanisms by which TICLs control cancer dormancy are still poorly understood from a biological and immunological point of view. Therefore we focus on the analysis of the spatio-temporal dynamics of tumour cells, immune cells and chemokines in an immunogenic tumour. The lymphocytes are assumed to migrate into the growing solid tumour and interact with the tumour cells in such a way that lymphocyte-tumour cell complexes are formed. These complexes result in either the death of the tumour cells (the normal situation) or the inactivation (sometimes even the death) of the lymphocytes. The migration of the TICLs is determined by a combination of random motility and chemotaxis in response to the presence of chemokines. The resulting system of four nonlinear partial differential equations (TICLs, tumour cells, complexes and chemokines) is analysed and numerical simulations are presented. We consider two different tumour geometries--multi-layered cell growth and multi-cellular spheroid growth. The numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of cell distributions that are quasi-stationary in time and heterogeneous in space. A linear stability analysis of the underlying (spatially homogeneous) ordinary differential equation (ODE) kinetics coupled with a numerical investigation of the ODE system reveals

  13. Roles of K+ channels in regulating tumour cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo

    2004-06-01

    K+ channels are a most diverse class of ion channels in the cytoplasmic membrane and are distributed widely in a variety of cells including cancer cells. Cell proliferation and apoptosis (programmed cell death or cell suicide) are two counterparts that share the responsibility for maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Evidence has been accumulating from fundamental studies indicating that tumour cells possess various types of K+ channels, and that these K+ channels play important roles in regulating tumour cell proliferation and apoptosis, i.e. facilitating unlimited growth and promoting apoptotic death of tumour cells. The potential implications of K+ channels as a pharmacological target for cancer therapy and a biomarker for diagnosis of carcinogenesis are attracting increasing interest. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of current status of research on K+ channels/currents in tumour cells. Focus is placed on the roles of K+ channels/currents in regulating tumour cell proliferation and apoptosis. The possible mechanisms by which K+ channels affect tumour cell growth and death are discussed. Speculations are also made on the potential implications of regulation of tumour cell proliferation and apoptosis by K+ channels. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  14. The desmoid tumour: Therapeutic results of surgical intervention as compared to those achieved with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weindler, J.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the case reports of nine patients treated for desmoid tumours in the light of 62 such cases described in the relevant literature between 1975 and 1979. Among the patients analysed for the purposes of this study 9 had desmoid tumours treated at our clinic, while the other 60 cases were described in the relevant literature of the past 5 years. The methods used in this cohort were surgery for 37 patients, radiation for 20 patients, excision and post-surgical radiation for 5 patients and various other treatments for the remaining cases. Careful analysis and assessment of the results led to the conclusion that the vast majority of desmoids can be expected to show a satisfactory response to radiation, even though no clear therapeutic superiority could be established for either radical excision or radiation. If surgery is chosen, this should be carried out with the aim of removing all of the tumour. In circumstances precluding radical excision it appears wise to use post-surgical radiation. Follow-up examinations should be carried out in all patients so as to permit immediate diagnosis and treatment of any recurrent tumours. Each desmoid tumour is to be treated on an individual basis. In small tumours it is safer to remove not only the lesion itself but also some of the surrounding intact tissue, tumours at a more advanced stage should be subjected to radiation or both surgery and subsequent radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Mapping the tumour HLA ligandome by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenmann, Lena Katharina; Marcu, Ana; Stevanović, Stefan

    2018-04-15

    The entirety of HLA-presented peptides is referred to as the HLA ligandome of a cell or tissue, in tumours often termed immunopeptidome. Mapping the tumour immunopeptidome by mass spectrometry (MS) comprehensively views the pathophysiologically relevant antigenic signature of human malignancies. MS is an unbiased approach stringently filtering the candidates to be tested as opposed to epitope prediction algorithms. In the setting of peptide-specific immunotherapies, MS-based strategies significantly diminish the risk of lacking clinical benefit, as they yield highly enriched amounts of truly presented peptides. Early immunopeptidomic efforts were severely limited by technical sensitivity and manual spectra interpretation. The technological progress with development of orbitrap mass analysers and enhanced chromatographic performance led to vast improvements in mass accuracy, sensitivity, resolution and speed. Concomitantly, bioinformatic tools were developed to process MS data, integrate sequencing results, and to deconvolute multi-allelic datasets. This enabled the immense advancement of tumour immunopeptidomics. Studying the HLA-presented peptide repertoire bears high potential for both answering basic scientific questions and translational application. Mapping the tumour HLA ligandome has started to significantly contribute to target identification for the design of peptide-specific cancer immunotherapies in clinical trials and compassionate need treatments. In contrast to prediction algorithms, rare HLA allotypes and HLA class II can be adequately addressed when choosing MS-guided target identification platforms. Herein, we review the identification of tumour HLA ligands focusing on sources, methods, bioinformatic data analysis, translational application and provide an outlook on future developments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Skull base tumours part I: Imaging technique, anatomy and anterior skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    Advances in cross-sectional imaging, surgical technique and adjuvant treatment have largely contributed to ameliorate the prognosis, lessen the morbidity and mortality of patients with skull base tumours and to the growing medical investment in the management of these patients. Because clinical assessment of the skull base is limited, cross-sectional imaging became indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of patients with suspected skull base pathology and the radiologist is increasingly responsible for the fate of these patients. This review will focus on the advances in imaging technique; contribution to patient's management and on the imaging features of the most common tumours affecting the anterior skull base. Emphasis is given to a systematic approach to skull base pathology based upon an anatomic division taking into account the major tissue constituents in each skull base compartment. The most relevant information that should be conveyed to surgeons and radiation oncologists involved in patient's management will be discussed.

  17. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Methods Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4 in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2 vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. Results High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and

  18. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacman, David; Merkel, Susanne; Croner, Roland; Papadopoulos, Thomas; Brueckl, Wolfgang; Dimmler, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4) in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2) vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4)), lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival) using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and shorter survival. Stromal TGF-beta receptor 2

  19. Variations in tumour oxygen tension (pO{sub 2}) during accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guichard, M. [Laboratory of Radiobiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif (France); Eschwege, F. [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif (France); Luboinski, B. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif (France); Wibault, P. [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif (France); Weeger, P. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif (France); Lusinchi, A.; Lartigau, E. [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif (France)

    1998-05-01

    The study was performed to assess the effect of accelerated radiotherapy on oxygenation of primary tumours and metastatic nodes in patients with advanced head and neck tumours. In 14 patients with head and neck tumour, oxygen tension (pO{sub 2}) was evaluated in normal tissues and tumours (primary tumour or metastatic neck node) before (0 Gy) and after 2 weeks (32 Gy) of accelerated radiotherapy (70 Gy in 3.5 weeks, with three daily fractions). Radiotherapy was combined with carbogen breathing in 5 patients. pO{sub 2} was measured using a polarographic technique. For pooled normal tissues, median pO{sub 2} was 38 mmHg before treatment and 46 mmHg after 2 weeks. For tumours, very low values (<2 mmHg) represented 20% of the recorded values before treatment and 10% after 2 weeks. The relative increase in tumour oxygenation was more pronounced for primary tumours (median pO{sub 2} 12 mmHg before treatment versus 26 mmHg after 2 weeks, P<0.05) than for metastatic nodes (respectively, 20 and 27 mmHg P=0.1). For the 5 patients who breathed carbogen during accelerated radiotherapy, the median pO{sub 2} was 44 mmHg at 2 weeks, compared with 13.5 mmHg before treatment (P=0.05). Very low pO{sub 2} values, corresponding to tumour hypoxia, were found in the tumours (primary and metastatic neck nodes) prior to accelerated treatment. During the first 2 weeks of accelerated treatment, an increase in median pO{sub 2} was found in nine of the 14 tumours, together with a decrease in the frequency of very low values. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  1. RA-XII inhibits tumour growth and metastasis in breast tumour-bearing mice via reducing cell adhesion and invasion and promoting matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hoi-Wing; Zhao, Si-Meng; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-11-23

    Cancer cells acquire invasive ability to degrade and adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) and migrate to adjacent tissues. This ultimately results metastasis. Hence, the present study investigated the in vitro effects of cyclopeptide glycoside, RA-XII on cell adhesion, invasion, proliferation and matrix degradation, and its underlying mechanism in murine breast tumour cells, 4T1. The effect of RA-XII on tumour growth and metastasis in 4T1-bearing mice was also investigated. Our results showed that RA-XII inhibited tumour cell adhesion to collagen, fibronectin and laminin, RA-XII also reduced the expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule, intracellular adhesion molecule and integrins, and integrin binding. In addition, RA-XII significantly inhibited breast tumour cell migration via interfering cofilin signaling and chemokine receptors. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type of plasminogen activator, and the expressions of ECM-associated proteinases were attenuated significantly by RA-XII. Furthermore, RA-XII induced G1 phase arrest and inhibited the expressions of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. RA-XII inhibited the expressions of molecules in PI3K/AKT, NF-kappaB, FAK/pSRC, MAPK and EGFR signaling. RA-XII was also shown to have anti-tumour, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activities in metastatic breast tumour-bearing mice. These findings strongly suggested that RA-XII is a potential anti-metastatic agent for breast cancer.

  2. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  3. Pleural inflammatory myofibroblastoma: a locally aggressive intra-thoracic tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosney John

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 41-year old non-smoking woman presented with persistent pleural effusion. Pleural fluid was hemorrhagic and fluid cytology was negative for malignant cells. A working diagnosis of chronic haemothorax was made and standard right thoracotomy was performed to identify the source of bleeding. A 10 × 10 cms poorly circumscribed mass containing blood clots, altered blood, fibrous tissue, and gelatinous debris was found and demonstrated features of inflammatory myofibroblastoma on immunohistochemistry. Thirteen months later, the patient developed a local recurrence, which was treated surgically. Semi-solid physical appearance of this tumour has not been reported previously. This case report further adds to the diagnostic dilemma related with this tumour.

  4. Intraoperative 3-tesla MRI in the management of paediatric cranial tumours - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avula, Shivaram; Garlick, Deborah; Abernethy, Laurence J.; Mallucci, Connor L.; Pizer, Barry; Crooks, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) has been gaining recognition because of its value in the neurosurgical management of cranial tumours. There is limited documentation of its value in children. To review the initial experience of a paediatric 3-Tesla ioMRI unit in the management of cranial tumours. Thirty-eight children underwent ioMRI during 40 cranial tumour resections using a 3-Tesla MR scanner co-located with the neurosurgical operating theatre. IoMRI was performed to assess the extent of tumour resection and/or to update neuronavigation. The intraoperative and follow-up scans, and the clinical records were reviewed. In 27/40 operations, complete resection was intended. IoMRI confirmed complete resection in 15/27 (56%). As a consequence, surgical resection was extended in 5/27 (19%). In 6/27 (22%), ioMRI was equivocal for residual tumour. In 13/40 (33%) operations, the surgical aim was to partially resect the tumour. In 7 of the 13 (54%), surgical resection was extended following ioMRI. In our initial experience, ioMRI has increased the rate of complete resection, with intraoperative surgical strategy being modified in 30% of procedures. Collaborative analysis of ioMRI by the radiologist and neurosurgeon is vital to avoid errors in interpretation. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomography evaluation of mast cell tumours; Avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada dos mastocitomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Matera, Julia Maria; Macedo, Thais; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandao Fonseca, E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia

    2012-07-01

    The mast cell tumours are common tumours of the canine skin. Computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role in tumours evaluation and staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CT as a method of assessing characteristics of mast cell tumors. Ten dogs with mast cell tumor were evaluated. CT was performed before and after the intravenous injection of hydro soluble ionic iodine. Attenuation, contrast enhancement, cleavage with adjacent tissues and the unidimensional measurement of each lesion was determined in it maximum diameter, in transversal plane. Concerning the attenuation characteristic, 50% were homogeneous and 50% heterogeneous. The contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 50% of cases, heterogeneous in 40% and peripheral in 10%. Fifty percent of the tumours showed loss of plane of cleavage and 30% partial loss. This information can help in directing the patients that will be undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. (author)

  6. Hooked on fat: the role of lipid synthesis in cancer metabolism and tumour development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenke, Franziska; Peck, Barrie; Miess, Heike; Schulze, Almut

    2013-01-01

    An increased rate of lipid synthesis in cancerous tissues has long been recognised as an important aspect of the rewired metabolism of transformed cells. However, the contribution of lipids to cellular transformation, tumour development and tumour progression, as well as their potential role in facilitating the spread of cancerous cells to secondary sites, are not yet fully understood. In this article, we review the recent findings that support the importance of lipid synthesis and metabolism in tumorigenesis. Specifically, we explore the role of aberrant lipid biosynthesis in cancer cell migration and invasion, and in the induction of tumour angiogenesis. These processes are crucial for the dissemination of tumour cells and formation of metastases, which constitute the main cause of cancer mortality. PMID:24203995

  7. Contemporary management of benign parotid tumours - the increasing evidence for extracapsular dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P A; Ammar, M; Matharu, J

    2017-01-01

    Benign parotid tumours have historically often been managed surgically by superficial parotidectomy. While this approach usually gives a generous cuff of surrounding normal parotid tissue to increase tumour margins, it requires a much larger incision than the increasingly used extracapsular dissection (ECD) technique. Furthermore, superficial parotidectomy can result in marked facial hollowing, Frey syndrome and an increased risk of both temporary and permanent facial nerve weakness. ECD has been popularised as a safe alternative to parotidectomy primarily for the removal of mobile, benign parotid tumours with safe outcomes and reduced risk to the facial nerve. In this article, we review the growing body of evidence for ECD and include our own experience confirming the move away from superficial parotidectomy in contemporary practice for the treatment of benign parotid tumours. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Detection of circulating tumour cells on mRNA levels with established breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebisch, Michael; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Andergassen, Ulrich; Hutter, Stephan; Neugebauer, Julia; Engelstädter, Verena; Günthner-Biller, Maria; Jeschke, Udo; Friese, Klaus; Rack, Brigitte

    2013-03-01

    Circulating tumour cells were detected and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood, based on the fact that the expression of certain genes is upregulated in tumour tissues in comparison to surrounding blood cells. Calibration curves showing gene expression as functions of the number of tumour cells within a blood sample were prepared. Blood samples were therefore spiked with cells of breast cancer cell lines, RNA was extracted, transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA) and used in real-time PCR reaction on the Cytokeratins (CK) 8, 18 and 19. Calibration curves were generated by Microsoft™ Excel®. Relative quantification curves of gene expression in different breast cancer cell lines showed no unitary tendencies. The oscillations in the relative quantification curves of gene expression suggested an occurrence of immunological effects, leading to an apparent agglutination of added tumour cells together with the blood cells of the sample. Thus, strategies to obtain evaluable results should be considered.

  9. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10–15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  10. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Anne M.; Kraker, Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  11. Tumour Endoprosthetic Reconstruction for Primary Aggressive and Malignant Bone Tumours of the Distal Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Rubio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available At the Philippine General Hospital, tumour endoprostheses have become an option for reconstruction after limb saving surgery for primary bone tumors. We performed a retrospective review of patients with primary bone tumors of the distal femur who underwent tumor excision and reconstruction using tumor endoprostheses. Outcome measures included prosthetic survival, functional outcome and complications. Twenty-two patients were evaluated; 14 males and 8 females, with a mean age of 18 years and a mean follow-up of 56 months. The overall 2-year endoprosthetic survival rate was 86%. Mean MSTS was 23/30. There were a total of 6 revisions. Failure modes included 3 infections, 3 aseptic loosening, 4 structural failures, 2 soft tissue failures and 3 tumor progression. Our early results show that tumor endoprosthesis reconstruction is an acceptable option for patients with primary bone tumor of the distal femur. Survival rates, failure modes and functional outcomes are comparable to other reported studies.

  12. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M

    2012-05-30

    AbstractBackgroundNumerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study.ResultsA new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal.ConclusionsWe have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and\\/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  13. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagozdzon Agnieszka M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. Results A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. Conclusions We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  14. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M; O’Leary, Patrick; Callanan, John J; Crown, John; Gallagher, William M; Zagozdzon, Radoslaw

    2012-01-01

    Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques

  15. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, M.A.; Yusuf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  16. Surgery and subsequent rehabilitation for cervical spine tumours compressing neural structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwerski, Jerzy E

    2008-01-01

    Bone malignancies account for merely about 1.5% of all cancers, with a small percentage of these tumours developing in the cervical spine. However, the cervical spine is also the site of benign tumours and neoplasms involving not only bony tissue. Benign tumours do not metastasize but pose a threat to the spinal cord when located intrathecally. Even though such tumours do not represent malignancy, they are considered to be locally malignant. The most common cervical spine neoplasms are intradural tumours, usually extramedullary: neurofibromas, meningiomas or gliomas.Indications for surgery depend of the nature and location of the tumour and the consequences of tumour growth. Surgery is obviously necessary for intrathecal tumours compressing the spinal cord. The choice of surgical approach and manner of stabilisation depend primarily on the location of the lesion and the presence of spinal cord compression.Rehabilitation is indicated in all patients, but is particularly important, and at the same time difficult, when the growth of the tumour has resulted in neurological disturbances. The task is all the more difficult when in the presence of a massive and high spinal cord damage. Rehabilitation programmes should be designed individually for each patient and should account for the degree of paresis, stage of the underlying malignant disease, survival prognosis, disturbances in the function of other systems, apart from musculoskeletal apparatus, age of the patient, his or her commitment to treatment and other factors.The treatment of malignant neoplasms is usually associated with an unfavourable outcome. However, combination drug treatments, radiation therapy and surgery with subsequent rehabilitation will often prolong survival, ameliorate suffering and improve patients' quality of life.

  17. MMP9 expression in oesophageal adenocarcinoma is upregulated with visceral obesity and is associated with poor tumour differentiation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allott, Emma H

    2011-11-28

    Overweight and obesity is linked to increased incidence and mortality of many cancer types. Of all cancers, oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) displays one of the strongest epidemiological links with obesity, accounting for up to 40% of cases, but molecular pathways driving this association remain largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms underpinning the association of obesity and cancer, and to determine if visceral obesity is associated with aggressive tumour biology in OAC. Following co-culture with visceral adipose tissue explants, expression of genes involved in tumour cell invasion and metastasis (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9) were upregulated between 10-fold (MMP2) and 5000-fold (MMP9), and expression of tumour suppressor p53 was downregulated 2-fold in OAC cell lines. Western blotting confirmed these results at the protein level, while zymographic analysis detected increased activity of MMPs in OAC cell lines following co-culture with adipose tissue explants. When OAC cell lines were cultured with adipose tissue conditioned media (ACM) from visceral adipose tissue, increased proliferative, migratory and invasive capacity of tumour cells was observed. In OAC patient tumour biopsies, elevated gene expression of MMP9 was associated with visceral obesity, measured by visceral fat area, while increased gene expression of MMP9 and decreased gene expression of tumour suppressor p53 was associated with poor tumour differentiation. These novel data highlight an important role for visceral obesity in upregulation of pro-tumour pathways contributing to aggressive tumour biology, and may ultimately lead to development of stratified treatment for viscerally obese OAC patients. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tumour markers in germ cell tumours and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, K.

    1988-01-01

    In patients with germ cell tumours of gonadal and extragonadal origin both markers, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alphafetoprotein (AFP) are madatory for diagnosis and control of treatment. In seminoma, we found preoperatively elevated levels of hCG(+hCG-β) in 42/349 patients (12%) up to 1200 mlU/ml using a polyclonal radioimmunoassay (1. IRP hCG standard 75/537). Lactatedehydrogenase can be useful in marker negative patients. Serum levels reflect tumour burden even if not highly specific. Presently, placental alkaline phosphatase is under discussion for seminoma. However, commercial kits are not available. As a relatively high secretion of hCG/β/hCG was found in gestational trophoblastic diseases, this parameters may be useful for differential diagnosis in pregnancy. In the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma the determination of thyroglobulin (Tg) in combination with ultrasound of the thyroid and X-ray of the chest is sufficient. For Tg-determination thyroid hormone replacement therapy must be discontinued only in rare single cases with borderline levels, which need radioiodtesting additionally. Calcitonin is the most important marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Pentagastrin stimulated calcitonin as screening test is necessary, if multiple endocrine adenomatosis or the familial forms are suspected. In single cases benefit came from new scintigraphic methods such as 131 I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine or 201 thallium-chloride. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Tumour markers in germ cell tumours and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K.

    1988-02-01

    In patients with germ cell tumours of gonadal and extragonadal origin both markers, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alphafetoprotein (AFP) are madatory for diagnosis and control of treatment. In seminoma, we found preoperatively elevated levels of hCG(+hCG-..beta..) in 42/349 patients (12%) up to 1200 mlU/ml using a polyclonal radioimmunoassay (1. IRP hCG standard 75/537). Lactatedehydrogenase can be useful in marker negative patients. Serum levels reflect tumour burden even if not highly specific. Presently, placental alkaline phosphatase is under discussion for seminoma. However, commercial kits are not available. As a relatively high secretion of hCG/..beta../hCG was found in gestational trophoblastic diseases, this parameters may be useful for differential diagnosis in pregnancy. In the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma the determination of thyroglobulin (Tg) in combination with ultrasound of the thyroid and X-ray of the chest is sufficient. For Tg-determination thyroid hormone replacement therapy must be discontinued only in rare single cases with borderline levels, which need radioiodtesting additionally. Calcitonin is the most important marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Pentagastrin stimulated calcitonin as screening test is necessary, if multiple endocrine adenomatosis or the familial forms are suspected. In single cases benefit came from new scintigraphic methods such as /sup 131/I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine or /sup 201/thallium-chloride.

  20. Treatment Of Brain Tumours In Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancokova, T.

    2007-01-01

    Children tumours are the second most common oncologic diseases in childhood (20 %) with highest incidence of mortality in children oncology. Brain tumours form a heterogenous group of tumours with their classification,diagnostic criteria and therapeutic modalities. General principles of treatment involve neurosurgery, which is a prognostic factor, its radicality depends on localization. Radiotherapy has limitations in children until 3 years for possible late effects. Chemotherapy is effective in tumours with high growing rate. These days challenge is to improve therapeutic outcomes and minimalize toxicity of therapy. (author)

  1. Tumours of the pineal region in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.D.; Schulte, F.J.; Winkler, D.; Mueller, D.

    1988-01-01

    36 patients with tumours in the pineal region were treated between 1980 and 1986, 19 of whom were under 20 years of age. Diagnosis was based on cranial CT, supplemented to by MRI as from 1986. Preoperative angiography was peformed on all patients to demonstrate tumour vascularization and type of vascular supply. Stereotactic biopsies were complemented by intraoperative ventriculography. Stereotactic biopsy only was performed in 13 patients out of the total group to verify tumour histology. 23 patients were directly operated on primarily. 3 of these died postoperative. In cases of germ-cell tumours and pineal blastomas the total brain and the vertebral canal were irradiated. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  3. Significance of collateral arterial supply to Wilms' tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundkvist, K.; Esscher, T.; Jorulf, H.; Larsson, E.; Laeckgren, G.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of collateral arterial supply was examined by angiography in 19 children with Wilms' tumour. Collateral arterial supply was related to tumour size. Ten of 14 tumours displaying collateral circulation were entirely intrarenal at operation, confirmed by histopathology. Angiography in Wilms' tumour is indicated when the results of urography, ultrasonography or computed tomography are equivocal or extrarenal tumour growth is suggested. (orig.)

  4. Spontaneous regression of residual low-grade cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunny, Roxana S.; Saunders, Dawn E.; Hayward, Richard D.; Phipps, Kim P.; Harding, Brian N.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas (CLGAs) of childhood are benign tumours and are usually curable by surgical resection alone or combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. To undertake a retrospective study of our children with CLGA to determine the optimum schedule for surveillance imaging following initial surgery. In this report we describe the phenomenon of spontaneous regression of residual tumour and discuss its prognostic significance regarding future imaging. A retrospective review was conducted of children treated for histologically proven CLGA at Great Ormond Street Hospital from 1988 to 1998. Of 83 children with CLGA identified, 13 (15.7%) had incomplete resections. Two children with large residual tumours associated with persistent symptoms underwent additional treatment. Eleven children were followed by surveillance imaging alone for a mean of 6.83 years (range 2-13.25 years). Spontaneous tumour regression was seen in 5 (45.5%) of the 11 children. There were no differences in age, gender, symptomatology, histological grade or Ki-67 fractions between those with spontaneous tumour regression and those with progression. There was a non-significant trend that larger volume residual tumours progressed. Residual tumour followed by surveillance imaging may either regress or progress. For children with residual disease we recommend surveillance imaging every 6 months for the first 2 years, every year for years 3, 4 and 5, then every second year if residual tumour is still present 5 years after initial surgery. This would detect not only progressive or recurrent disease, but also spontaneous regression which can occur later than disease progression. (orig.)

  5. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  6. Distribution and tumour cytotoxicity of the radiosensitizer misonidazole (Ro-07-0582) in C57 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, J.E.; Smith, M.R.; Bugden, R.D.; Peckham, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution and clearance of misonidazole (MIS=Ro-07-0582) were studied in C57 mouse tissued and in transplants of Lewis lung tumour. The half life of the drug in blood after a dose of 1mg/g i.p. was 3 h. Some tissues, such as liver, were found to have consistently low MIS levels, and this was found to be due to degradation of the drug after removal of the tissues from the host. The in vivo cytotoxicity of MIS to Lewis lung tumour cells was studied using an in-vitro colony assay. After half of the tumours had been irradiated with 10 Gy to kill most of the oxic cells, the mice received i.p. injections of MIS. To simulate the longer drug exposure of human tumour cells (due to the longer half life in man) a repeated injection regime was used in some mice. There was no significant cell kill after a single dose, but with a prolonged exposure to the drug in the multiply injected animals, cell survival was reduced to 50% of control in both the irradiated and unirradiated tumours. Since the hypoxic fraction of the unirradiated tumour is probably not more than 30%, it would appear that MIS is not selectively cytotoxic to hypoxic cells. However, MIS had a much greater cytotoxic effect upon hypoxic Lewis lung tumour cells in vitro, with very little or no effect on cells grown in air. This would support the theory that the presence of hypoxic cells is essential for the expression of MIS cytotoxicity. (author)

  7. Malignant tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, E.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis analyses 317 patients with vulvar malignancies treated at the University Hospital, Lund, during 1960-1979. The three most common histological types of malignancy have been analysed. The oncological clinic in Lund has since the 1960's used a surgical technique where the primary tumour and the regional lymph nodes are operated on in two separate surgical seances. The vulvectomy is performed with tarm knife technique, and the wound is left open. The 5-year crude survival rate for the entire patient material treated with curative intention was over 60 %, which agrees well with reports from other centres. Our surgical approach using two separate seances has, however, much lower rates of postoperative complications and mortality than the rates in other reports. The overall most important prognostic factors for the patients with invasive vulvar malignancies are the presence of lymphatic metastases at the time of surgery, and the surgical radicality of the primary surgery. The treatment at most stages of tumour development and most histological types should include total vulvectomy preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymphadenectomy. Only local extirpation and hemivulvectomy are, however, indicated for small microinvasively growing squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Samll invasive onesided squamous cell carcinoma is best treated with ipsilateral surgery combined with preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Patients with metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes should receive additional irradiation of the inguinal and pelvic lymph node stations. (Author)

  8. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  9. Imaging of non-central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumours: Diagnostic features and correlation with outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, E.A.; McHugh, K.; Kimber, C.; Michalski, A

    2001-03-01

    AIM: To document the varied radiological features before, during, and after treatment of non-Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNETs), which are rare tumours of childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children with PNETs have been treated at our institution between 1990 and 1999. Full radiological and clinical follow-up was obtained in 29 (17 females, 12 males). Imaging was retrospectively reviewed, with particular attention to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Age range at diagnosis was 0-16 years old (mean 4.4 years). There were five main sites of tumour: head and neck (n = 7), scapula/axilla (n 2), chest (n = 11), abdomen (n = 3), and spinal/paraspinal (n = 6). Overall mortality was 62%. Tumours of the scapula or paraspinal region appear to show better survival than other sites. Of 23 patients who had Tc99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans at diagnosis, four patients showed widespread distant metastases, seven showed focal increased uptake in an adjacent bone only, and 12 had normal examinations. CT was performed in 25 patients and MRI in 20, both at diagnosis and follow-up. Average size of tumours at presentation was 4.5 cm in the paraspinal, head and neck and scapular regions and 7.5 cm in the chest and abdomen. Tumours were typically of soft tissue density on CT with the larger (>5 cm) masses tending to be more heterogeneous in character. The lesions were slightly higher signal than muscle on T1-weighted (T1W) MRI and all masses were heterogeneous on T2W sequences. Calcification was uncommon (n = 6) and generally sparse. Tumours tended to displace adjacent soft tissue structures such as vessels and bronchi rather than invade or encase them. Tumours rarely crossed the midline. Local or bony invasion was seen in 12 patients at diagnosis. Metastases were identified in the lung (n = 5), pleura (n = 2), brain (n = 4), bone (n = 4), lymph nodes (n = 2), liver (n = 2), subcutaneous tissues

  10. Histopathological features of breast tumours in BRCA1, BRCA2 and mutation-negative breast cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerola, Hannaleena; Heikkilä, Päivi; Tamminen, Anitta; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2005-01-01

    Histopathological features of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumours have previously been characterised and compared with unselected breast tumours; however, familial non-BRCA1/2 tumours are less well known. The aim of this study was to characterise familial non-BRCA1/2 tumours and to evaluate routine immunohistochemical and pathological markers that could help us to further distinguish families carrying BRCA1/2 mutations from other breast cancer families. Breast cancer tissue specimens (n = 262) from 25 BRCA1, 20 BRCA2 and 74 non-BRCA1/2 families were studied on a tumour tissue microarray. Immunohistochemical staining of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and p53 as well as the histology and grade of these three groups were compared with each other and with the respective information on 862 unselected control patients from the archives of the Pathology Department of Helsinki University Central Hospital. Immunohistochemical staining of erbB2 was also performed among familial cases. BRCA1-associated cancers were diagnosed younger and were more ER-negative and PgR-negative, p53-positive and of higher grade than the other tumours. However, in multivariate analysis the independent factors compared with non-BRCA1/2 tumours were age, grade and PgR negativity. BRCA2 cases did not have such distinctive features compared with non-BRCA1/2 tumours or with unselected control tumours. Familial cases without BRCA1/2 mutations had tumours of lower grade than the other groups. BRCA1 families differed from mutation-negative families by age, grade and PgR status, whereas ER status was not an independent marker

  11. [Valorization of biological resources in tumour libraries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelaghan, Thérèse

    2006-01-01

    The transfer and commercialization of biological materials, whether in the form of tumour samples, tissue samples or chemicals, and of the data base pertaining to such material have become a subject of considerable importance for both the private and public sectors involved in medical research. In order to fully appreciate and apprehend the process for the protection and the valuation of the transferred material, intellectual property law must be taken into account. As a result, a distinction is made between the tangible and intangible elements of the biological material and of the attached data base, thus providing the transferring entity the possibility to claim property rights to future intellectual property arising from the research regarding the transferred material. The transfer of biological material and attached data base without such contractual provisions can lead to the loss of this potential value as well as of physical and legal control over the material transferred by the providing entity. The intentions and the assumptions of the parties must be negotiated and written into terms of contract, at the risk of losing future value due to unexpressed assumptions concerning intangible property rights.

  12. Targeting the tumour vasculature: exploitation of low oxygenation and sensitivity to NOS inhibition by treatment with a hypoxic cytotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H E Baker

    Full Text Available Many cancer research efforts focus on exploiting genetic-level features that may be targeted for therapy. Tissue-level features of the tumour microenvironment also represent useful therapeutic targets. Here we investigate the presence of low oxygen tension and sensitivity to NOS inhibition of tumour vasculature as potential tumour-specific features that may be targeted by hypoxic cytotoxins, a class of therapeutics currently under investigation. We have previously demonstrated that tirapazamine (TPZ mediates central vascular dysfunction in tumours. TPZ is a hypoxic cytotoxin that is also a competitive inhibitor of NOS. Here we further investigated the vascular-targeting activity of TPZ by combining it with NOS inhibitor L-NNA, or with low oxygen content gas breathing. Tumours were analyzed via multiplex immunohistochemical staining that revealed irreversible loss of perfusion and enhanced tumour cell death when TPZ was combined with either low oxygen or a NOS inhibitor. Tumour growth rate was reduced by TPZ + NOS inhibition, and tumours previously resistant to TPZ-mediated vascular dysfunction were sensitized by low oxygen breathing. Additional mapping analysis suggests that tumours with reduced vascular-associated stroma may have greater sensitivity to these effects. These results indicate that poorly oxygenated tumour vessels, also being abnormally organized and with inadequate smooth muscle, may be successfully targeted for significant