Three-Body Nuclear Forces from a Matrix Model
Hashimoto, Koji
2010-01-01
We compute three-body nuclear forces at short distances by using the nuclear matrix model of holographic QCD proposed in our previous paper with P. Yi. We find that the three-body forces at short distances are repulsive for (a) aligned three neutrons with averaged spins, and (b) aligned proton-proton-neutron / proton-neutron-neutron. These indicate that in dense states of neutrons such as cores of neutron stars, or in Helium-3 / tritium nucleus, the repulsive forces are larger than the ones estimated from two-body forces only.
Three-body force in the three-nucleon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, B.F.
1986-01-01
A brief summary of the symposium is presented. Three-nucleon force models are discussed, including the two-pion exchange potential, NN-ΔN coupled-channels model, and phenomenological parametrization. Relevant experimental data and model calculations are discussed including form factors, binding energies, charge radii, and charge density for 3 H and 3 He. A calculation of the EMC effect for 3 He is also made using Sasakawa's wave function and compared to experimental data obtained at SLAC. The paper ends with discussions of proton-deuteron scattering, investigations at intermediate energies, and QCD efforts to understand the three-body problem
Three-body forces in p-shell nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hees, A.G.M. van; Booten, J.G.L.; Glaudemans, P.W.M. (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)
1990-01-29
Within the (0 + 1){Dirac h}{omega} shell-model space for p-shell nuclei we found that a schematic three-body interaction in addition to a translationally invariant two-body interaction leads to a strongly improved description of energy levels. The present three-body interaction is related to the {Delta}-isobar intermediate-state model of the two-pion exchange three-nucleon interaction. (orig.).
Nuclear three-body force effect on a kaon condensate in neutron star matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo, W.; Li, A.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.
2004-01-01
We explore the effects of a microscopic nuclear three-body force on the threshold baryon density for kaon condensation in chemical equilibrium neutron star matter and on the composition of the kaon condensed phase in the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. Our results show that the nuclear three-body force affects strongly the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy and consequently reduces considerably the critical density for kaon condensation provided that the proton strangeness content is not very large. The dependence of the threshold density on the symmetry energy becomes weaker as the proton strangeness content increases. The kaon condensed phase of neutron star matter turns out to be proton rich instead of neutron rich. The three-body force has an important influence on the composition of the kaon condensed phase. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution in the nuclear symmetry energy results in a significant reduction of the proton and kaon fractions in the kaon condensed phase which is more proton-rich in the case of no three-body force. Our results are compared to other theoretical predictions by adopting different models for the nuclear symmetry energy. The possible implications of our results for the neutron star structure are also briefly discussed
Effect of three-body forces on the phase behavior of charged colloids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, J. Z.; Bratko, D.; Blanch, H. W.; Prausnitz, J. M.
2000-01-01
Statistical-thermodynamic theory for predicting the phase behavior of a colloidal solution requires the pair interaction potential between colloidal particles in solution. In practice, it is necessary to assume pairwise additivity for the potential of mean force between colloidal particles, but little is known concerning the validity of this assumption. This paper concerns interaction between small charged colloids, such as surfactant micelles or globular proteins, in electrolyte solutions and the multibody effect on phase behavior. Monte Carlo simulations for isolated colloidal triplets in equilateral configurations show that, while the three-body force is repulsive when the three particles are near contact, it becomes short-ranged attractive at further separations, contrary to a previous study where the triplet force is attractive at all separations. The three-body force arises mainly from hard-sphere collisions between colloids and small ions; it is most significant in solutions of monovalent salt at low concentration where charged colloids experience strong electrostatic interactions. To illustrate the effect of three-body forces on the phase behavior of charged colloids, we calculated the densities of coexisting phases using van der Waals-type theories for colloidal solutions and for crystals. For the conditions investigated in this work, even though the magnitude of the three-body force may be as large as 10% of the total force at small separations, three-body forces do not have a major effect on the densities of binary coexisting phases. However, coexisting densities calculated using Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory are much different from those calculated using our simulated potential of mean force. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Effect of three-body forces on the lattice dynamics of noble metals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A simple method to generate an effective electron–ion interaction pseudopotential from the energy wave number characteristic obtained by first principles calculations has been suggested. This effective potential has been used, in third order perturbation, to study the effect of three-body forces on the lattice ...
Analytical equation of state with three-body forces: Application to noble gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Río, Fernando del, E-mail: fdr@xanum.uam.mx; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Guzmán, Orlando; Moreno-Razo, José Antonio [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Apdo 55 534, México DF, 09340 (Mexico); Ramos, J. Eloy [Colegio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Mexico DF (Mexico)
2013-11-14
We developed an explicit equation of state (EOS) for small non polar molecules by means of an effective two-body potential. The average effect of three-body forces was incorporated as a perturbation, which results in rescaled values for the parameters of the two-body potential. These values replace the original ones in the EOS corresponding to the two-body interaction. We applied this procedure to the heavier noble gases and used a modified Kihara function with an effective Axilrod-Teller-Muto (ATM) term to represent the two- and three-body forces. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations with two- and three-body forces. There was good agreement between predicted, simulated, and experimental thermodynamic properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, up to twice the critical density and up to five times the critical temperature. In order to achieve 1% accuracy of the pressure at liquid densities, the EOS must incorporate the effect of ATM forces. The ATM factor in the rescaled two-body energy is most important at temperatures around and lower than the critical one. Nonetheless, the rescaling of two-body diameter cannot be neglected at liquid-like densities even at high temperature. This methodology can be extended straightforwardly to deal with other two- and three-body potentials. It could also be used for other nonpolar substances where a spherical two-body potential is still a reasonable coarse-grain approximation.
Study on 16O in the alpha particle model using three-body forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrello, D.A.
1979-01-01
A study of the ground state of 16 O is made using an alpha particle model, all without internal structure, interacting through two-and three-body forces. Some nuclear properties of 16 O, such as binding energy and gaps, are also studied. (L.C.) [pt
Three-body forces for electrons by the S-matrix method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Margaritelli, R.
1989-01-01
A electromagnetic three-body potential between eletrons is derived by the S-matrix method. This potential can be compared up to a certain point with other electromagnetic potentials (obtained by other methods) encountered in the literature. However, since the potential derived here is far more complete than others, this turns direct comparison with the potentials found in the literature somewhat difficult. These calculations allow a better understanding of the S-matrix method as applied to problems which involve the calculations of three-body nuclear forces (these calculations are performed in order to understand the 3 He form factor). Furthermore, these results enable us to decide between two discrepant works which derive the two-pion exchange three-body potential, both by the S-matrix method. (author) [pt
Study of 11Li+p elastic scattering using BHF formalism with three body force
Sharma, Manjari; Haider, W.
2018-04-01
In the present work we have analyzed the elastic scattering data of 11Li + p at 62, 68.4 and 75 MeV/nucleon, using the microscopic optical potential calculated within the framework of Brueckner-Hartree-Fock formalism (BHF). The calculation uses Argonne v18 and Urbana v14 inter-nucleon potentials and the Urbana IX (UVIX) model of three body force. The required nucleon-density distributions for 11Li are obtained using the semi-phenomenological model for nuclear density distributions. The optical potential has been obtained by folding the g-matrices as calculated in BHF (with and without three body forces) over the nucleon density distributions. We have used the exact method for calculating both the direct and the exchange parts of the spin-orbit potential. Our results reveal that the spin-orbit potential significantly contributes to 11Li+p elastic scattering at all three incident energies. Further, the calculated spin-orbit potential in BHF is much smaller and more diffused as compared with the phenomenological spin-orbit potential. The analysis reveals that the calculated microscopic optical potentials, with and without three body force using BHF approach with phenomenological form of density distribution, provides satisfactory agreement with the elastic scattering data for 11Li+p.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo Wei; Lu Guangcheng; Li Zenghua; Luo Peiyan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
2005-01-01
The finite temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (FTBHF) approach is extended by introducing a microscopic three-body force. Within the extended approach, the three-body force effects on the equation of state of hot nuclear matter and its temperature dependence have been investigated. The critical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition of hot nuclear matter have been calculated. It is shown that the three-body force provides a repulsive contribution to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. The repulsive effect of the three-body force becomes more pronounced as the density and temperature increase and consequently inclusion of the three-body force contribution in the calculation reduces the predicted critical temperature from about 16 MeV to about 13 MeV. By separating the contribution originated from the 2σ-exchange process coupled to the virtual excitation of a nucleon-antinucleon pair from the full three-body force, the connection between the three-body force effect and the relativistic correction from the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock has been explored. It turns out that the contribution of the 2σ-N(N-bar) part is more repulsive than that of the full three-body force and the calculated critical temperature is about 11 MeV if only the 2σ-N(N-bar) component of the three-body force is included which is lower than the value obtained in the case of including the full three-body force and is close to the value predicted by the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach. Our result provides a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between the values of critical temperature predicted from the FTBHF approach including the three-body force and the DBHF approach. (authors)
Three-body correlations and conditional forces in suspensions of active hard disks
Härtel, Andreas; Richard, David; Speck, Thomas
2018-01-01
Self-propelled Brownian particles show rich out-of-equilibrium physics, for instance, the motility-induced phase separation (MIPS). While decades of studying the structure of liquids have established a deep understanding of passive systems, not much is known about correlations in active suspensions. In this work we derive an approximate analytic theory for three-body correlations and forces in systems of active Brownian disks starting from the many-body Smoluchowski equation. We use our theory to predict the conditional forces that act on a tagged particle and their dependence on the propulsion speed of self-propelled disks. We identify preferred directions of these forces in relation to the direction of propulsion and the positions of the surrounding particles. We further relate our theory to the effective swimming speed of the active disks, which is relevant for the physics of MIPS. To test and validate our theory, we additionally run particle-resolved computer simulations, for which we explicitly calculate the three-body forces. In this context, we discuss the modeling of active Brownian swimmers with nearly hard interaction potentials. We find very good agreement between our simulations and numerical solutions of our theory, especially for the nonequilibrium pair-distribution function. For our analytical results, we carefully discuss their range of validity in the context of the different levels of approximation we applied. This discussion allows us to study the individual contribution of particles to three-body forces and to the emerging structure. Thus, our work sheds light on the collective behavior, provides the basis for further studies of correlations in active suspensions, and makes a step towards an emerging liquid state theory.
Lagrangian solutions to the three-body problem with forces r sup(-p) (p integer)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azeredo Campos, R. de; Ferreira, P.L.
1979-08-01
The exact solutions to the three-body problem in Celestial Mechanics, due to Lagrange (triangular solutions) and Euler (collinear solutions), are generalized to the case of forces r sup( - p) (p being an integer). The stability of the system is also investigated in a local sense (small variations about steady motion) for triangular and collinear solutions and conditions restricting the values of p for which there are stable oscillatory modes of vibration are obtained. Furthermore, for the solutions under consideration, Bohr or Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization is performed and compared, for some cases of interest, with the WKB approximation, derived from an Hamiltonian of the system obtained by reducing it to a one-body problem under the action of a central force at the system's center of mass. (Author) [pt
6Li in a three-body model with realistic Forces: Separable versus nonseparable approach
Hlophe, L.; Lei, Jin; Elster, Ch.; Nogga, A.; Nunes, F. M.
2017-12-01
Background: Deuteron induced reactions are widely used to probe nuclear structure and astrophysical information. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. However, it needs to be demonstrated that their solution based on separable interactions agrees exactly with solutions based on nonseparable forces. Methods: Momentum space Faddeev equations are solved with nonseparable and separable forces as coupled integral equations. Results: The ground state of 6Li is calculated via momentum space Faddeev equations using the CD-Bonn neutron-proton force and a Woods-Saxon type neutron(proton)-4He force. For the latter the Pauli-forbidden S -wave bound state is projected out. This result is compared to a calculation in which the interactions in the two-body subsystems are represented by separable interactions derived in the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) framework. Conclusions: We find that calculations based on the separable representation of the interactions and the original interactions give results that agree to four significant figures for the binding energy, provided that energy and momentum support points of the EST expansion are chosen independently. The momentum distributions computed in both approaches also fully agree with each other.
A proposal for investigating three-body forces in Aharonov-Bohm sytems
Ben-Aryeh, Y.
2009-01-01
Although there is no force on the electron in Aharonov-Bohm solenoid effect, the electron exerts a force on the solenoid related to the inequality of action and reaction forces of two subsystems in three-system configuration. The AB phase which is related to the force exerted by the electron on the solenoid . The momentum changes of the mechanical oscillator are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the changes in the momentum of the em fields. It is proposed to investigate momentum chan...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. P. Hallan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of perturbations in Coriolis and cetrifugal forces on the nonlinear stability of the equilibrium point of the Robe's (1977 restricted circular three-body problem has been studied when the density parameter K is zero. By applying Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM theory, it has been found that the equilibrium point is stable for all mass ratios μ in the range of linear stability 8/9+(2/3((43/25ϵ1−(10/3ϵ<μ<1, where ϵ and ϵ1 are, respectively, the perturbations in Coriolis and centrifugal forces, except for five mass ratios μ1=0.93711086−1.12983217ϵ+1.50202694ϵ1, μ2 = 0.9672922−0.5542091ϵ+ 1.2443968ϵ1, μ3=0.9459503−0.70458206ϵ+ 1.28436549ϵ1, μ4=0.9660792−0.30152273ϵ + 1.11684064ϵ1, μ5=0.893981−2.37971679ϵ + 1.22385421ϵ1, where the theory is not applicable.
Does weightlifting increase residual force enhancement?
Siebert, Tobias; Kurch, David; Blickhan, Reinhard; Stutzig, Norman
2016-07-05
The force maintained following stretching of an active muscle exceeds the isometric force at the same muscle length. This residual force enhancement (RFE) is different for various muscles. It is currently unknown whether training induces changes in RFE. Weightlifters perform a large number of eccentric contractions during training, and RFE might be functionally relevant. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is increased RFE in weightlifters versus a reference group. Therefore, we measured external reaction forces during a multi-joint leg extension in weightlifters (n=10) and a reference group (n=11) using a motor driven leg press dynamometer (ISOMED 2000). Steady state isometric forces after stretching were compared to the corresponding forces obtained during isometric reference contractions. Statistical analyses yielded a significant RFE for both groups (pweightlifting group versus the reference group. We conclude that long-term weightlifting has only a minor influence on RFE. We speculate that the specific training including a combination of eccentric and concentric exercises induced almost no changes in titin-isoform expression which may be responsible for generation of RFE after active muscle stretching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amado, R.D.
1975-01-01
An overview of the formal theory of the three-body problem as it has developed in the past twelve years is given. The formal structure of the theory, some of the techniques that have developed for handling the theory, and some results on how general quantum mechanical principles structure the results, are presented. The discussion is held entirely in the context of non-relativistic quantum mechanics with short-range forces. In this presentation the main outline of the theory is stressed, often at the expense of mathematical rigour [pt
Musielak, Z E; Quarles, B
2014-06-01
The three-body problem, which describes three masses interacting through Newtonian gravity without any restrictions imposed on the initial positions and velocities of these masses, has attracted the attention of many scientists for more than 300 years. In this paper, we present a review of the three-body problem in the context of both historical and modern developments. We describe the general and restricted (circular and elliptic) three-body problems, different analytical and numerical methods of finding solutions, methods for performing stability analysis and searching for periodic orbits and resonances. We apply the results to some interesting problems of celestial mechanics. We also provide a brief presentation of the general and restricted relativistic three-body problems, and discuss their astronomical applications.
Marchal, Christian
1990-01-01
Recent research on the theory of perturbations, the analytical approach and the quantitative analysis of the three-body problem have reached a high degree of perfection. The use of electronics has aided developments in quantitative analysis and has helped to disclose the extreme complexity of the set of solutions. This accelerated progress has given new orientation and impetus to the qualitative analysis that is so complementary to the quantitative analysis. The book begins with the various formulations of the three-body problem, the main classical results and the important questions and conje
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tral, antisymmetric spin-orbit (ALS), spin-orbit (LS) and tensor parts [14]. For SMPN, the central and ALS parts for 2f7/2–2f7/2 tbmes account for the majority of the downward shift of the ESPE of 2f7/2 with increasing valence neutron number (n). Variation in ALS part is primarily responsible for this shell gap observed at N = 90 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-07-29
+ excitation energies of even–even tin isotopes with > 82 compared to those with N < 82. However, none of the theoretical predictions using both realistic and empirical interactions can reproduce experimental data on ...
Three-body calculation of Be double-hypernuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Energy levels and bond energy of the double- hypernucleus are calculated by considering two- and three-cluster interactions. Interactions between constituent particles are contact interactions for reproducing the low binding energy of nuclei. The effective action is constructed to involve three-body forces. In this paper ...
Three-body calculation of Be double- hypernuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
body hyperonic nuclei using three-cluster ... accuracy of our present study to calculate the many-nucleon bound state with three-body forces [10]. In this paper ..... evidence for the production of 10 Be in an excited state. However, if the produced ...
Three-body problems with separable two-body interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, A.
1977-09-01
Faddeev equations for the three-body problem are reconsidered using separable two-body interactions. The separable potentials reduce the Faddeev equations to coupled integral equations in one continuous variable. Numerical calculations for the resulting integral equations are carried out using separable two-body interactions which include both attraction and repulsion potentials. Each of the separable attraction and repulsion potentials used is taken as a spin-dependent central force together with tensor forces. The potential functions of the different parts of the two body interactions are taken to be of the Yamaguchi, Gaussian, Tabakin, Mongan and Reid forms. Each of the nuclei 6 Li, 9 Be and 12 C is taken to be composed of three particles according to the cluster structure description of nuclei. The binding energies of the nuclei 6 Li, 9 Be and 12 C are calculated as a three-body problem and in the framework of the Faddeev formalism
Three-body unitarity with isobars revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mai, M.; Hu, B. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Doering, M. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Pilloni, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Szczepaniak, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN (United States); Indiana University, Physics Department, Bloomington, IN (United States)
2017-09-15
The particle exchange model of hadron interactions can be used to describe three-body scattering under the isobar assumption. In this study we start from the 3 → 3 scattering amplitude for spinless particles, which contains an isobar-spectator scattering amplitude. Using a Bethe-Salpeter Ansatz for the latter, we derive a relativistic three-dimensional scattering equation that manifestly fulfills three-body unitarity and two-body unitarity for the sub-amplitudes. This property holds for energies above breakup and also in the presence of resonances in the sub-amplitudes. (orig.)
Measurement of Forces and Moments Transmitted to the Residual Limb
2010-10-01
the floor, but only changes the length of the heel and toe lever arms. Additional evidence statements and the associated levels of confidence...Interface Biomechanical Correlate Force X Anterior-Posterior Force Perpendicular to Pylon Anterior-Posterior Force on Limb Braking and Propulsion...heel lever arm. The other significant changes were all less than 10% of the absolute values of the forces and moments. Significant differences in
Canonical three-body angular basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matveenko, A.V.
2001-01-01
Three-body problems are basic for the quantum mechanics of molecular, atomic, or nuclear systems. We demonstrate that their variational solution for rotational states can be greatly simplified. A special choice of coordinates (hyperspherical) and of the kinematics (body-fixed coordinate frame) allows one to choose basis functions in a form that makes the angular coupling trivial. (author)
Algebraic treatment of three-body problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.
1998-01-01
We discuss an algebraic treatment of three-body systems in terms of a U(7) spectrum-generating algebra. In particular, we develop the formalism for nonilnear configurations and present an algebraic description of vibrational and rotational excitations of, symmetric (X 3 ) and asymmetric tops (XY 2 and XYZ). The relevant point-group symmetry is incorporated exactly. (author)
Impact of Vial Capping on Residual Seal Force and Container Closure Integrity.
Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Ovadia, Robert; Lam, Philippe; Stauch, Oliver; Vogt, Martin; Roehl, Holger; Huwyler, Joerg; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander
2016-01-01
The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and computed tomography-to characterize different container closure system combinations that had been sealed using different capping process parameter settings. Additionally, container closure integrity of these samples was measured using helium leakage (physical container closure integrity) and compared to characterization data. The different capping equipment settings lead to residual seal force values from 7 to 115 N. High residual seal force values were achieved with high capping pre-compression force and a short distance between the capping plate and plunge. The choice of container closure system influenced the obtained residual seal force values. The residual seal force tester and piezoelectric measurements showed similar trends. All vials passed physical container closure integrity testing, and no stopper rupture was seen with any of the settings applied, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted for the studied container closure system with the chosen capping setting ranges. The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and
Three-Body Antikaon-Nucleon Systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shevchenko, Nina V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 58, č. 1 (2017), č. článku UNSP 6. ISSN 0177-7963 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04301S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : three-body * antikaon-nucleon * K p interactions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atom ic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atom s and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 0.877, year: 2016
Spin Discrimination in Three-Body Decays
Edelhäuser, Lisa; Singh, Ritesh K
2010-01-01
The identification of the correct model for physics beyond the Standard Model requires the determination of the spin of new particles. We investigate to which extent the spin of a new particle $X$ can be identified in scenarios where it decays dominantly in three-body decays $X\\to f\\bar{f} Y$. Here we assume that $Y$ is a candidate for dark matter and escapes direct detection at a high energy collider such as the LHC. We show that in the case that all intermediate particles are heavy, one can get information on the spins of $X$ and $Y$ at the LHC by exploiting the invariant mass distribution of the two standard model fermions. We develop a model-independent strategy to determine the spins without prior knowledge of the unknown couplings and test it in a series of Monte Carlo studies.
Influence of Joint Angle on Residual Force Enhancement in Human Plantar Flexors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atsuki Fukutani
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Compared to pure isometric contractions, isometric muscle force at a given length is larger when the eccentric contraction is conducted before the isometric contraction. This phenomenon is widely known as residual force enhancement, and has been confirmed consistently in isolated muscle experiments. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether residual force enhancement also occurs in human plantar flexors and to examine its joint angle dependence. Eleven men participated in this study. Isometric joint torque was measured in a Control trial (pure isometric contraction and Residual force enhancement (RFE trial (isometric contraction after eccentric contraction at plantar flexion 0° (Short condition and dorsiflexion 15° (Long condition. Fascicle length and pennation angle of the medial gastrocnemius were measured simultaneously to evaluate the influence of architectural parameters on isometric joint torque. Isometric joint torque observed in the Short condition was not significantly different between the Control and RFE trials (Control: 42.9 ± 8.0 Nm, RFE: 45.1 ± 8.4 Nm (p = 0.200. In contrast, significant differences in isometric joint torque were observed in the Long condition between Control and RFE trials (Control: 40.5 ± 9.3 Nm, RFE: 47.1 ± 10.5 Nm (p = 0.001. Fascicle length and pennation angle were not different between Control and RFE trials in the Short and Long conditions. Isometric joint torque was larger when eccentric contraction was conducted before isometric contraction while architectural differences were not observed, indicating that residual force enhancement occurs in human plantar flexors. However, the influence of residual force enhancement may be limited in dorsiflexed positions because the magnitude of residual force enhancement is considered to be prominent in the descending limb (long muscle length condition and small in the ascending limb (short muscle length condition where human plantar flexors operate in
Initial Tensile and Residual Forces of Pigmented Elastomeric Ligatures from Various Brands
Wichai, Wassana; Anuwongnukroh, Niwat; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Kaypetch, Rattiporn; Tua-ngam, Peerapong
2017-11-01
This study aimed to investigate the initial tensile and residual forces of pigmented elastomeric ligatures (clear, pink, and metallic) from three commercial brands - Brand 1 (USA), Brand 2 (USA), and Brand 3(China). Twelve elastomeric ligatures of each brand and color were evaluated for initial tensile and residual forces after stretching for 28 days at 37°C by a Universal Testing Machine. The results showed that the highest initial tensile force was 14.78 N, 20.71 N, and 15.1 N for the metallic color of Brand-1, pink color of Brand -2, and metallic color of Brand -3, respectively. There were significant (pbrand, except clear and metallic color of Brand-1 & 3 and pink color of Brand-2 & 3. Similarly, among the pigmented ligatures from each brand, significant (pBrand-1 & 3. Brand-3 had the highest residual force after 28 days, whereas the loss of force was 80-90% in Brand-1 & 2 and 20-30% in Brand-3. There were also significant (pbrand, except metallic color of Brand-1. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the initial tensile and residual forces among the three pigmented elastomeric ligatures of the three commercial brands.
The self-consistent field model for Fermi systems with account of three-body interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.M. Poluektov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a microscopic model of self-consistent field, the thermodynamics of the many-particle Fermi system at finite temperatures with account of three-body interactions is built and the quasiparticle equations of motion are obtained. It is shown that the delta-like three-body interaction gives no contribution into the self-consistent field, and the description of three-body forces requires their nonlocality to be taken into account. The spatially uniform system is considered in detail, and on the basis of the developed microscopic approach general formulas are derived for the fermion's effective mass and the system's equation of state with account of contribution from three-body forces. The effective mass and pressure are numerically calculated for the potential of "semi-transparent sphere" type at zero temperature. Expansions of the effective mass and pressure in powers of density are obtained. It is shown that, with account of only pair forces, the interaction of repulsive character reduces the quasiparticle effective mass relative to the mass of a free particle, and the attractive interaction raises the effective mass. The question of thermodynamic stability of the Fermi system is considered and the three-body repulsive interaction is shown to extend the region of stability of the system with the interparticle pair attraction. The quasiparticle energy spectrum is calculated with account of three-body forces.
Three body dynamics in dense gravitational systems
Moody, Kenneth
In this thesis, I have used several techniques to answer the following questions: How many black hole binaries will a cluster produce, and will they have the required properties to be seen by our gravitational wave detectors? How often does the crowded environment of star forming cluster allow the exchange of a planet between stars? To answer these questions, I have studied three scenarios: the interaction of black holes in clusters, the effect of the Kozai mechanism on pulsars in clusters, and the effect of an exchanged planetary body on a planetary system. I have examined the interactions of a system of black holes in a globular cluster in which the black holes have different masses with a more realistic distribution. In my thesis, black hole masses are derived from population synthesis models and span a range of a few up to 50 or 80 [Special characters omitted.] depending on metallicity. My new calculations have reduced the efficiency of three-body interactions in ejecting the binary due to their non- equal masses. I also use timescales derived from earlier simulations of clusters (Sigurdsson 1995) to determine the end state of individual binaries interacting with single black holes. While N-body simulations of black hole systems such as in O'Leary et al. (2006) are less model dependent, my method can easily adapt to advances in the understanding of the processes that make black holes and rapidly produce results on rates of binary black hole mergers for gravitational wave observations and the possibilities of intermediate mass black hole seeds. Numerous black hole binaries are produced by clusters, they are hardened in the potential of the cluster, and the most massive black holes survive the interactions. Interactions with the other black holes preferentially produce binaries with higher eccentricities. I found that as many as one in seven binaries will coalesce within a Hubble time, and with the strength of signal that their higher mass gives they would rival
A simple coordinate space approach to three-body problems ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We show how to treat the dynamics of an asymmetric three-body system consisting of one heavy and two identical light particles in a simple coordinate space variational approach. The method is constructive and gives an efﬁcient way of resolving a three-body system to an effective two-body system. It is illustrated by ...
Three-body segment musculoskeletal model of the upper limb
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valdmanová L.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The main aim is to create a computational three-body segment model of an upper limb of a human body for determination of muscle forces generated to keep a given loaded upper limb position. The model consists of three segments representing arm, forearm, hand and of all major muscles connected to the segments. Muscle origins and insertions determination corresponds to a real anatomy. Muscle behaviour is defined according to the Hill-type muscle model consisting of contractile and viscoelastic element. The upper limb is presented by a system of three rigid bars connected by rotational joints. The whole limb is fixed to the frame in the shoulder joint. A static balance problem is solved by principle of virtual work. The system of equation describing the musculoskeletal system is overdetermined because more muscles than necessary contribute to get the concrete upper limb position. Hence the mathematical problem is solved by an optimization method searching the least energetically-consuming solution. The upper limb computational model is verified by electromyography of the biceps brachii muscle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geoffrey A Power
Full Text Available Despite an age-related loss of voluntary isometric and concentric strength, muscle strength is well maintained during lengthening muscle actions (i.e., eccentric strength in old age. Additionally, in younger adults during lengthening of an activated skeletal muscle, the force level observed following the stretch is greater than the isometric force at the same muscle length. This feature is termed residual force enhancement (RFE and is believed to be a combination of active and passive components of the contractile apparatus. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of RFE in older adults and utilize aging as a muscle model to explore RFE in a system in which isometric force production is compromised, but structural mechanisms of eccentric strength are well-maintained. Therefore, we hypothesised that older adults will experience greater RFE compared with young adults. Following a reference maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC of the dorsiflexors in 10 young (26.1 ± 2.7 y and 10 old (76.0 ± 6.5 y men, an active stretch was performed at 15°/s over a 30° ankle joint excursion ending at the same muscle length as the reference MVCs (40° of plantar flexion. Any additional torque compared with the reference MVC therefore represented RFE. In older men RFE was ~2.5 times greater compared to young. The passive component of force enhancement contributed ~37% and ~20% to total force enhancement, in old and young respectively. The positive association (R(2 = 0.57 between maintained eccentric strength in old age and RFE indicates age-related mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of eccentric strength likely contributed to the observed elevated RFE. Additionally, as indicated by the greater passive force enhancement, these mechanisms may be related to increased muscle series elastic stiffness in old age.
Sieradzan, Adam K; Niadzvedtski, Andrei; Scheraga, Harold A; Liwo, Adam
2014-05-13
Continuing our effort to introduce d-amino-acid residues in the united residue (UNRES) force field developed in our laboratory, in this work the C α ··· C α ··· C α backbone-virtual-bond-valence-angle (θ) potentials for systems containing d-amino-acid residues have been developed. The potentials were determined by integrating the combined energy surfaces of all possible triplets of terminally blocked glycine, alanine, and proline obtained with ab initio molecular quantum mechanics at the MP2/6-31G(d,p) level to calculate the corresponding potentials of mean force (PMFs). Subsequently, analytical expressions were fitted to the PMFs to give the virtual-bond-valence potentials to be used in UNRES. Alanine represented all types of amino-acid residues except glycine and proline. The blocking groups were either the N -acetyl and N ', N '-dimethyl or N -acetyl and pyrrolidyl group, depending on whether the residue next in sequence was an alanine-type or a proline residue. A total of 126 potentials (63 symmetry-unrelated potentials for each set of terminally blocking groups) were determined. Together with the torsional, double-torsional, and side-chain-rotamer potentials for polypeptide chains containing d-amino-acid residues determined in our earlier work (Sieradzan et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. , 2012 , 8, 4746), the new virtual-bond-angle (θ) potentials now constitute the complete set of physics-based potentials with which to run coarse-grained simulations of systems containing d-amino-acid residues. The ability of the extended UNRES force field to reproduce thermodynamics of polypeptide systems with d-amino-acid residues was tested by comparing the experimentally measured and the calculated free energies of helix formation of model KLALKLALxxLKLALKLA peptides, where x denotes any d- or l- amino-acid residue. The obtained results demonstrate that the UNRES force field with the new potentials reproduce the changes of free energies of helix formation upon d
Coulomb effects in deuteron stripping reactions as a three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, A.
1981-08-01
Deuteron stripping nuclear reactions are reconsidered as a three-body problem. The Coulomb effects between the proton and the target nucleus are investigated. The mathematical formalism introduces three-body integral equations which can be exactly calculated for such simple models. These coupled integral equations suitably include the Coulomb effects due to replusive or attractive Coulomb potential. Numerical calculations of the differential cross-sections of the reactions 28 Si(d,p) 29 Si and 40 Ca(d,p) 41 Ca are carried out showing the importance of the Coulomb effects. The angular distributions of these reactions are theoretically calculated and fitted to the experimental data. From this fitting, reasonable spectroscopic factors are obtained. Inclusion of Coulomb force in the three-body model are found to improve the results by a percentage of about 6.826%. (author)
Relativistic three-body quark model of light baryons based on hypercentral approach
Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we have treated the light baryons as a relativistic three-body bound system. Inspired by lattice QCD calculations, we treated baryons as a spin-independent three-quark system within a relativistic three-quark model based on the three-particle Klein-Gordon equation. We presented the analytical solution of three-body Klein-Gordon equation with employing the constituent quark model based on a hypercentral approach through which two- and three-body forces are taken into account. Herewith the average energy values of the up, down and strange quarks containing multiplets are reproduced. To describe the hyperfine structure of the baryon, the splittings within the SU(6)-multiplets are produced by the generalized Gürsey Radicati mass formula. The considered SU(6)-invariant potential is popular "Coulomb-plus-linear" potential and the strange and non-strange baryons spectra are in general well reproduced.
Scattering Length Scaling Laws for Ultracold Three-Body Collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Incao, J.P.; Esry, B.D.
2005-01-01
We present a simple and unifying picture that provides the energy and scattering length dependence for all inelastic three-body collision rates in the ultracold regime for three-body systems with short-range two-body interactions. Here, we present the scaling laws for vibrational relaxation, three-body recombination, and collision-induced dissociation for systems that support s-wave two-body collisions. These systems include three identical bosons, two identical bosons, and two identical fermions. Our approach reproduces all previous results, predicts several others, and gives the general form of the scaling laws in all cases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pezeshk Hamid
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering energy function to detect a correct protein fold from incorrect ones is very important for protein structure prediction and protein folding. Knowledge-based mean force potentials are certainly the most popular type of interaction function for protein threading. They are derived from statistical analyses of interacting groups in experimentally determined protein structures. These potentials are developed at the atom or the amino acid level. Based on orientation dependent contact area, a new type of knowledge-based mean force potential has been developed. Results We developed a new approach to calculate a knowledge-based potential of mean-force, using pairwise residue contact area. To test the performance of our approach, we performed it on several decoy sets to measure its ability to discriminate native structure from decoys. This potential has been able to distinguish native structures from the decoys in the most cases. Further, the calculated Z-scores were quite high for all protein datasets. Conclusions This knowledge-based potential of mean force can be used in protein structure prediction, fold recognition, comparative modelling and molecular recognition. The program is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/surfield
Dargeviciute, Gintare; Masiulis, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan
2013-10-15
We studied the relation between two common force modifications in skeletal muscle: the prolonged force depression induced by unaccustomed eccentric contractions, and the residual force depression (rFD) observed immediately after active shortening. We hypothesized that rFD originates from distortion within the sarcomeres and the extent of rFD: 1) correlates to the force and work performed during the shortening steps, which depend on sarcomeric integrity; and 2) is increased by sarcomeric disorganization induced by eccentric contractions. Nine healthy untrained men (mean age 26 yr) participated in the study. rFD was studied in electrically stimulated knee extensor muscles. rFD was defined as the reduction in isometric torque after active shortening compared with the torque in a purely isometric contraction. Eccentric contractions were performed as 50 repeated drop jumps with active deceleration to 90° knee angle, immediately followed by a maximal upward jump. rFD was assessed before and 5 min to 72 h after drop jumps. The series of drop jumps caused a prolonged force depression, which was about two times larger at 20-Hz than at 50-Hz stimulation. There was a significant correlation between increasing rFD and increasing mechanical work performed during active shortening both before and after drop jumps. In addition, a given rFD was obtained at a markedly lower mechanical work after drop jumps. In conclusion, the extent of rFD correlates to the mechanical work performed during active shortening. A series of eccentric contractions causes a prolonged reduction of isometric force. In addition, eccentric contractions exaggerate rFD, which further decreases muscle performance during dynamic contractions.
Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
body abrasive wear characteristic of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. For this, the three-body abrasion test is done on dry abrasion test rig (TR-50)and analysed using Taguchi's experimental design ...
Analytical solution of relativistic three-body bound systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A.A. [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-10-15
In this paper we have investigated in detail the relativistic three-body bound states. We carried out calculations in six-dimensional representation on the basis of the Jacobi coordinates. The obtained second-degree differential equation is solved by using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method and the energy eigenvalues are obtained. Consequently we obtained the binding energy of the three-nucleon bound system. Here we used the generalized Woods-Saxon spin-independent potential in our calculations. The dependence of the three-body binding energy on the potential parameters is also investigated. (orig.)
Gravitational waves from periodic three-body systems.
Dmitrašinović, V; Suvakov, Milovan; Hudomal, Ana
2014-09-05
Three bodies moving in a periodic orbit under the influence of Newtonian gravity ought to emit gravitational waves. We have calculated the gravitational radiation quadrupolar waveforms and the corresponding luminosities for the 13+11 recently discovered three-body periodic orbits in Newtonian gravity. These waves clearly allow one to distinguish between their sources: all 13+11 orbits have different waveforms and their luminosities (evaluated at the same orbit energy and body mass) vary by up to 13 orders of magnitude in the mean, and up to 20 orders of magnitude for the peak values.
Khuder, T; Yunus, N; Sulaiman, E; Ibrahim, N; Khalid, T; Masood, M
2017-05-01
This study aimed to investigate residual ridge resorption (RRR) of anterior and posterior maxillary and mandibular edentulous ridges, in patients treated with mandibular implant overdentures (IOD) and compare with conventional complete denture (CD) wearers, and to determine at each location, the association of RRR with the occlusal forces distribution and other patients' variables. The anterior and posterior RRR of IOD (six males, 17 females) and CD (12 males, 11 females) groups were determined using baseline and follow-up dental panaromic radiographs (DPT) (mean intervals 4 ± 1·8 years). The bone ratios were calculated using proportional area: anatomic to fixed reference areas and mean difference of ratios between the intervals determined RRR. The ridge locations included anterior and posterior maxillary and posterior mandibular arches. The T-Scan III digital occlusal system was used to record anterior and posterior percentage occlusal force (%OF) distributions. There were significant differences in anterior and posterior %OF between treatment groups. Two-way anova showed RRR was significant for arch locations (P = 0·005), treatment group (IOD versus CD) (P = 0·001), however, no significant interaction (P = 0·799). Multivariate regression analyses showed significant association between RRR and %OF at anterior maxilla (P = 0·000) and posterior mandible (P = 0·023) and for treatment groups at posterior maxilla (P = 0·033) and mandibular areas (P = 0·021). Resorption was observed in IOD compared to CD groups, with 8·5% chance of less resorption in former and 7·8% in the latter location. Depending on arch location, ridge resorption at various locations was associated with occlusal force distribution and/or treatment groups (implant prostheses or conventional complete dentures). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Three-body interactions and the Landau levels using Nikiforov ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this article, the eigenvalues for the three-body interactions on the line and the Landau levels in the presence of topological defects have been regenerated by the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. Two exhaustive lists of such exactly solvable potentials are given.
Mass-imbalanced Three-Body Systems in Two Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.
2013-01-01
We consider three-body systems in two dimensions with zero-range interactions for general masses and interaction strengths. The momentum-space Schr\\"odinger equation is solved numerically and in the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation. The BO expression is derived using separable potentials and y...
Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper is about the development of bi-directional E-glass fibre-based polyester composites filled with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) fillers, respectively. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three-body abrasive wear characteristic of fabricated composites has been ...
The three-body problem and equivariant Riemannian geometry
Alvarez-Ramírez, M.; García, A.; Meléndez, J.; Reyes-Victoria, J. G.
2017-08-01
We study the planar three-body problem with 1/r2 potential using the Jacobi-Maupertuis metric, making appropriate reductions by Riemannian submersions. We give a different proof of the Gaussian curvature's sign and the completeness of the space reported by Montgomery [Ergodic Theory Dyn. Syst. 25, 921-947 (2005)]. Moreover, we characterize the geodesics contained in great circles.
Efimov resonances in atomic three-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mezei, J. Zs.; Papp, Z.
2006-01-01
In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143201 (2005)], we reported an accumulation of three-body resonant states attached to n=2 and higher two-body thresholds. A more careful investigation revealed that there are resonances of the same kind above the n=1 threshold as well. This suggests that the resonances attached to the thresholds are Efimov resonances
The three-body problem from Pythagoras to Hawking
Valtonen, Mauri; Kholshevnikov, Konstantin; Mylläri, Aleksandr; Orlov, Victor; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka
2016-01-01
This book, written for a general readership, reviews and explains the three-body problem in historical context reaching to latest developments in computational physics and gravitation theory. The three-body problem is one of the oldest problems in science and it is most relevant even in today’s physics and astronomy. The long history of the problem from Pythagoras to Hawking parallels the evolution of ideas about our physical universe, with a particular emphasis on understanding gravity and how it operates between astronomical bodies. The oldest astronomical three-body problem is the question how and when the moon and the sun line up with the earth to produce eclipses. Once the universal gravitation was discovered by Newton, it became immediately a problem to understand why these three-bodies form a stable system, in spite of the pull exerted from one to the other. In fact, it was a big question whether this system is stable at all in the long run. Leading mathematicians attacked this problem over more than...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barford, Thomas; Birse, Michael C
2005-01-01
A distorted-wave version of the renormalization group is applied to scattering by an inverse-square potential and to three-body systems. In attractive three-body systems, the short-distance wavefunction satisfies a Schroedinger equation with an attractive inverse-square potential, as shown by Efimov. The resulting oscillatory behaviour controls the renormalization of the three-body interactions, with the renormalization-group flow tending to a limit cycle as the cut-off is lowered. The approach used here leads to single-valued potentials with discontinuities as the bound states are cut off. The perturbations around the cycle start with a marginal term whose effect is simply to change the phase of the short-distance oscillations, or the self-adjoint extension of the singular Hamiltonian. The full power counting in terms of the energy and two-body scattering length is constructed for short-range three-body forces
Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.
1996-01-01
Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)
The scattering matrix element of the three body reactive collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morsy, M.W.; Hilal, A.A.; El-Sabagh, M.A.
1980-08-01
The optical model approximation has been applied to a previously derived set of coupled equations representing the dynamics of the three-body reactive scattering. The Schroedinger equation obtained describing the scattering problem has then been solved by inserting the effective mass approximation. The asymptotic requirements for both the entrance and exit channels, respectively, have been supplied to give the scattering matrix element of the reactive collision. (author)
Three-body decays: structure, decay mechanism and fragment properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Jensen, A.S.; Fedorov, D.V.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Kirsebom, O.S.; Garrido, E.
2009-01-01
We discuss the three-body decay mechanisms of many-body resonances. R-matrix sequential description is compared with full Faddeev computation. The role of the angular momentum and boson symmetries is also studied. As an illustration we show the computed ?-particle energy distribution after the decay of 12 C(1 + ) resonance at 12.7 MeV. This article is based on the presentation by R. Alvarez-Rodriguez at the Fifth Workshop on Critical Stability, Erice, Sicily. (author)
Three-body parameter for Efimov states in 6Li
Huang, Bo; O'Hara, Kenneth M.; Grimm, Rudolf; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Petrov, Dmitry S.
2014-10-01
We present a state-of-the-art reanalysis of experimental results on Efimov resonances in the three-fermion system of 6Li. We discuss different definitions of the three-body parameter (3BP) for Efimov states and adopt a definition that excludes effects due to deviations from universal scaling for low-lying states. We develop a finite-temperature model for the case of three distinguishable fermions and apply it to the excited-state Efimov resonance to obtain the most accurate determination to date of the 3BP in an atomic three-body system. Our analysis of ground-state Efimov resonances in the same system yields values for the three-body parameter that are consistent with the excited-state result. Recent work has suggested that the reduced 3BP for atomic systems is a near-universal quantity, almost independent of the particular atom involved. However, the value of the 3BP obtained for 6Li is significantly (˜20 % ) different from that previously obtained from the excited-state resonance in Cs. The difference between these values poses a challenge for theory.
Comment on the three-body theory for period changes in RS CVn systems
Van Buren, D.
1986-01-01
In the three-body theory for period variations in RS CVn systems, the timing residuals are interpreted as light-travel time differences as the eclipsing system moves about the barycenter of the triple. These residuals can require a larger orbit than Kepler's law allows, given the time scale of the period variations. For only two of eight systems investigated, SV Cam and V471 Tau, is the theory plausible in that the inferred barycentric motion of the binary is smaller than the orbit of the third body, and the inferred properties of the third body are both reasonable and consistent with its remaining hidden. The theory is thus not a general theory for period changes. Observational testing of the theory is straightforward and may lead to the detection of 'brown dwarfs' associated with eclipsing systems through their kinematic effects.
Photofragment translational spectroscopy of three body dissociations and free radicals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
North, Simon William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-04-01
This dissertation describes several three-body dissociations and the photodissociation of methyl radicals studied using photofragment translational spectroscopy. The first chapter provides an introduction to three body dissociation, examines current experimental methodology, and includes a discussion on the treatment of photofragment translational spectroscopy data arising from three-body fragmentation. The ultraviolet photodissociation of azomethane into two methyl radicals and nitrogen is discussed in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the photodissociation of acetone at 248 nm and 193 nm. At 248 nm the translational energy release from the initial C-C bond cleavage matches the exit barrier height and a comparison with results at 266 nm suggests that
Asteroids in three-body mean motion resonances with planets
Smirnov, Evgeny A.; Dovgalev, Ilya S.; Popova, Elena A.
2018-04-01
We have identified all asteroids in three-body mean-motion resonances in all possible planets configurations. The identification was done dynamically: the orbits of the asteroids were integrated for 100,000 yrs and the set of the resonant arguments was numerically analyzed. We have found that each possible planets configuration has a lot of the resonant asteroids. In total 65,972 resonant asteroids (≈14.1% of the total number of 467,303 objects from AstDyS database) have been identified.
LHCb: Can LHCb Study Three Body Decays with Neutrals?
Fawcett, W
2013-01-01
In this poster we present the first attempt to use a new method to measure CP violation in Dalitz plots. This method is unbinned, model independent and has a greater sensitivity than binned methods. Preliminary studies have been made using the three body decays $D^0 \\rightarrow K_\\rm{S}^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$, which is especially challenging since there is one neutral particle in each of the final states. An attempt to visualise where CP violation occurs in Dalitz plots is also presented.
Three-body cluster state in 11B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawabata, T.; Akimune, H.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Itoh, M.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.; Kishi, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakaguchi, H.; Shimbara, Y.; Tamii, A.; Terashima, S.; Uchida, M.; Wakasa, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Yoshida, H.P.; Yosoi, M.
2007-01-01
The cluster structures of the excited states in 11 B are studied by analyzing the isoscalar monopole and quadrupole strengths in the 11 B(d,d ' ) reaction at E d =200 MeV. The excitation strengths are compared with the predictions by the shell-model and antisymmetrized molecular-dynamics (AMD) calculations. It is found that the large monopole strength for the 3/2 3 - state at E x =8.56 MeV is well described by the AMD calculation and is an evidence for a developed three-body 2α+t cluster structure
Ultracold Three-Body Collisions near Overlapping Feshbach Resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Incao, J. P.; Esry, B. D.
2009-01-01
We present a comprehensive collection of ultracold three-body collisions properties near overlapping Feshbach resonances. Our results incorporate variations of all scattering lengths and demonstrate novel collisional behavior, such as atom-molecule interference effects. Taking advantage of the unique ways in which these collisions reflect Efimov physics, new pathways to control atomic and molecular losses open up. Further, we show that overlapping resonances can greatly improve the chances of observing multiple Efimov features in an ultracold quantum gas for nearly any system.
The three-body problem in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antunes, A.C.B.
1973-01-01
Different methods used in the analysis of the scattering of an elementary particle by a system of two bound particles are compared. All particles are considered spinless and distinguishable from each other. Two approaches are used in the treatment of the problem. In the first method we build an effective - potential which accounts for the interaction of the incident particle with the bound system. The second approach consists in treating the target as a system of two particles, whose momentum distribution is given by the bound state wavefunction. The three body system is then treated by the techniques of the multiple scattering series and of Glauber theory. (author)
Quasi-Three Body Systems: Properties and Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M. Ya.
2017-01-01
We investigate systems of three mutually interacting particles with masses m e , m μ , M that obey the following inequality m e ≪ m μ ≪ M. Then the three-body problem reduces to the two-body scattering or structure of m e in the field of the pseudo-nucleus m μ M. We calculate analytically the properties of considered systems, such as the scattering cross-sections, hyperfine splitting, Auger decay of exited states and Lamb shifts, presenting them as expansions in powers of the parameter β=m e /m μ ≪1. (author)
New results on order and spacing of levels for two- and three-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.; Martin, A.; Richard, J.M.; Taxil, P.
1987-01-01
The authors propose sufficient conditions on the potential binding a two-body system to compare; the energy of a state with angular momentum iota+1 to the average of the energies of the neighbouring states with angular momentum iota, the spacings of the successive iota = O excitations. Applications to quarkonium physics are given. The authors also find a condition giving the sign of the parameter Δ controlling the pattern of levels obtained by perturbing the lowest positive parity excitation of a three-body system bound by harmonic oscillator two body forces
Morris, Titus; Bogner, Scott
2016-09-01
The In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG) has been applied successfully to the ground state of closed shell finite nuclei. Recent work has extended its ability to target excited states of these closed shell systems via equation of motion methods, and also complete spectra of the whole SD shell via effective shell model interactions. A recent alternative method for solving of the IM-SRG equations, based on the Magnus expansion, not only provides a computationally feasible route to producing observables, but also allows for approximate handling of induced three-body forces. Promising results for several systems, including finite nuclei, will be presented and discussed.
Native Frames: Disentangling Sequential from Concerted Three-Body Fragmentation
Rajput, Jyoti; Severt, T.; Berry, Ben; Jochim, Bethany; Feizollah, Peyman; Kaderiya, Balram; Zohrabi, M.; Ablikim, U.; Ziaee, Farzaneh; Raju P., Kanaka; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.
2018-03-01
A key question concerning the three-body fragmentation of polyatomic molecules is the distinction of sequential and concerted mechanisms, i.e., the stepwise or simultaneous cleavage of bonds. Using laser-driven fragmentation of OCS into O++C++S+ and employing coincidence momentum imaging, we demonstrate a novel method that enables the clear separation of sequential and concerted breakup. The separation is accomplished by analyzing the three-body fragmentation in the native frame associated with each step and taking advantage of the rotation of the intermediate molecular fragment, CO2 + or CS2 + , before its unimolecular dissociation. This native-frame method works for any projectile (electrons, ions, or photons), provides details on each step of the sequential breakup, and enables the retrieval of the relevant spectra for sequential and concerted breakup separately. Specifically, this allows the determination of the branching ratio of all these processes in OCS3 + breakup. Moreover, we find that the first step of sequential breakup is tightly aligned along the laser polarization and identify the likely electronic states of the intermediate dication that undergo unimolecular dissociation in the second step. Finally, the separated concerted breakup spectra show clearly that the central carbon atom is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the laser field.
Remarks On Deformation In Snow With Residual Stress And Gravitational Force By Detonation Impact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siavosh Ahmadi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Estimation of strain (deformation and strain energy at the time of an explosion has been undertaken in the present investigation. A basic concept of explosive pressure which is required for the estimation of strain and strain energy has been drawn from the underwater explosion with suitable modification to the present studies. One of the most significant aspects of the present investigation is to augment the model by accounting it for gravitational force and residual stresses which are of realistic in nature. Studies consist of computational aspect by observing the variation of strain and strain energy with respect to material parameters such as Elastic modulus (E, poisons ratio (?, density (?, and flow parameters such as peak pressure (Pm, sound velocity (Vs, and length of snow slab (L. One of the interesting observation found in the computational aspect is, the deformation is found to decrease as the velocity of sound (Vs in snow increases which appears to be strange but found factual. The model has been compared with the other existing papers in the literature and found that, the present model yields to better results. ABSTRAK: Anggaran regangan (canggaan dan tenaga regangan pada masa letupan diambil kira dalam kajian ini. Konsep asas tekanan letupan yang diperlukan untuk anggaran regangan dan tenaga regangan diperolehi daripada letupan bawah air dengan pengubahsuaian yang sesuai dalam kajian terkini. Antara aspek penting dalam kajian ini adalah penambahan model dengan mengambil kira daya graviti dan tegasan sisa yang sebenar. Kajian terdiri daripada aspek pengiraan, dengan memerhatikan variasi regangan dan tenaga regangan terhadap parameter bahan seperti modulus anjal (E, nisbah Poisson’s (?, ketumpatan (?, dan parameter aliran seperti tekanan puncak (Pm, halaju bunyi (Vs, dan panjang papak salji (L. Antara pemerhatian menarik yang ditemui dalam aspek pengiraan ialah, canggaan didapati berkurangan ketika halaju bunyi (Vs salji bertambah
Nuclear structure with unitarily transformed two-body plus phenomenological three-body interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, Anneke
2011-02-02
The importance of three-nucleon forces for a variety of nuclear structure phenomena is apparent in various investigations. This thesis provides a first step towards the inclusion of realistic three-nucleon forces by studying simple phenomenological threebody interactions. The Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM) and the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) provide two different approaches to derive soft phase-shift equivalent nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions via unitary transformations. Although their motivations are quite different the NN interactions obtained with the two methods exhibit some similarities. The application of the UCOM- or SRG-transformed Argonne V18 potential in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation and including the second-order energy corrections emerging from many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) reveals that the systematics of experimental ground-state energies can be reproduced by some of the interactions considering a series of closed-shell nuclei across the whole nuclear chart. However, charge radii are systematically underestimated, especially for intermediate and heavy nuclei. This discrepancy to experimental data is expected to result from neglected three-nucleon interactions. As first ansatz for a three-nucleon force, we consider a finite-range three-body interaction of Gaussian shape. Its influence on ground-state energies and charge radii is discussed in detail on the basis of HF plus MBPT calculations and shows a significant improvement in the description of experimental data. As the handling of the Gaussian three-body interaction is time-extensive, we show that it can be replaced by a regularized three-body contact interaction exhibiting a very similar behavior. An extensive study characterizes its properties in detail and confirms the improvements with respect to nuclear properties. To take into account information of an exact numerical solution of the nuclear eigenvalue problem, the No-Core Shell Model is applied to
Relativistic three-body effects in black hole coalescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campanelli, Manuela; Dettwyler, Miranda; Lousto, Carlos O.; Hannam, Mark
2006-01-01
Three-body interactions are expected to be common in globular clusters and in galactic cores hosting supermassive black holes. We consider an equal-mass binary black hole system in the presence of a third black hole. Using numerically generated binary black hole initial data sets, and first and second-order post-Newtonian (1PN and 2PN) techniques, we find that the presence of the third black hole has non-negligible relativistic effects on the location of the binary's innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), and that these effects arise at 2PN order. For a stellar-mass black hole binary in orbit about a supermassive black hole, the massive black hole has stabilizing effects on the orbiting binary, leading to an increase in merger time and a decrease of the terminal orbital frequency, and an amplification of the gravitational radiation emitted from the binary system by up to 6%
Three body mechanisms in hadron collisions. The A = 3 system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frascaria, R.
1988-01-01
Three-body mechanisms in hadron collisions, and the role of the A = 3 system are reviewed, and the excitation functions of the proton deuteron system in interactions at energies up to 2.9 GeV are discussed. Meson productions at large angles reveal structures due to the mesonic degrees of freedom in the interaction of the proton with the deuteron, exciting n * isobars in intermediate states. Propagation in the nuclei does not seem to change the properties of these isobars. The meson double scattering mechanism provides a way to understand coherent meson production in pd capture. It is difficult to say whether this coherent process corresponds to eigenstates of the A = 3 system. The sharing of the momentum transfer between the three nucleons renders impossible the observation of high momentum components in coherent proton captures. The possible contribution of the electromagnetic probe in hadron physics with a multi GeV electron accelerator is mentioned
Equivalent local potentials for three-body scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alt, E.O.; Fiedeldey, H.; Sofianos, S.A.
1987-01-01
It is of considerable interest to apply the inverse scattering method at fixed energy, yielding energy-dependent potentials, to a problem in which the full dynamics of a composite-particle reaction is incorporated in an exact manner. This was implemented by calculating complete sets of phase shifts for elastic nd scattering, at various energies and for all partial waves which are exact within the numerical accuracy achieved. The S-matrices constructed from them are then used as input for a fixed-E inversion to deduce a quantal equivalent local potential which correctly takes into account the effects of the full three-body dynamics on the elastic channel, and of the Pauli principle. 6 refs.; 6 figs
Three body dynamics and its applications to exoplanets
Musielak, Zdzislaw
2017-01-01
This brief book provides an overview of the gravitational orbital evolution of few-body systems, in particular those consisting of three bodies. The authors present the historical context that begins with the origin of the problem as defined by Newton, which was followed up by Euler, Lagrange, Laplace, and many others. Additionally, they consider the modern works from the 20th and 21st centuries that describe the development of powerful analytical methods by Poincare and others. The development of numerical tools, including modern symplectic methods, are presented as they pertain to the identification of short-term chaos and long term integrations of the orbits of many astronomical architectures such as stellar triples, planets in binaries, and single stars that host multiple exoplanets. The book includes some of the latest discoveries from the Kepler and now K2 missions, as well as applications to exoplanets discovered via the radial velocity method. Specifically, the authors give a unique perspective in rel...
Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanabe, H.; Ohta, K.
1986-07-01
We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P 33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P 11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P 33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P 33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1 D 2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference Δσ L (pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P 11 interaction. (author)
Free time minimizers for the three-body problem
Moeckel, Richard; Montgomery, Richard; Sánchez Morgado, Héctor
2018-03-01
Free time minimizers of the action (called "semi-static" solutions by Mañe in International congress on dynamical systems in Montevideo (a tribute to Ricardo Mañé), vol 362, pp 120-131, 1996) play a central role in the theory of weak KAM solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (Fathi in Weak KAM Theorem in Lagrangian Dynamics Preliminary Version Number 10, 2017). We prove that any solution to Newton's three-body problem which is asymptotic to Lagrange's parabolic homothetic solution is eventually a free time minimizer. Conversely, we prove that every free time minimizer tends to Lagrange's solution, provided the mass ratios lie in a certain large open set of mass ratios. We were inspired by the work of Da Luz and Maderna (Math Proc Camb Philos Soc 156:209-227, 1980) which showed that every free time minimizer for the N-body problem is parabolic and therefore must be asymptotic to the set of central configurations. We exclude being asymptotic to Euler's central configurations by a second variation argument. Central configurations correspond to rest points for the McGehee blown-up dynamics. The large open set of mass ratios are those for which the linearized dynamics at each Euler rest point has a complex eigenvalue.
Sequential three-body breakup of a CO 2 + beam
Rajput, Jyoti; Ablikim, U.; Zohrabi, M.; Jochim, Bethany; Berry, Ben; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.
2016-05-01
The dissociative double ionization of a CO2+beam leading to the three-body fragmentation channel C+ + O+ + O+ can have its origin in either a sequential or concerted process. In case of the sequential mechanism, the first step is a two-body breakup into CO2+ + O+, followed by a second step wherein CO2+ further fragments into C+ + O+. The rotation of the CO2+ formed during the first step has been used to discriminate between the sequential and non-sequential mechanisms in experiments which employ multi-coincidence momentum imaging techniques for detecting recoil fragments. We propose a novel way to look at this discriminating feature in terms of the angle of rotation of the CO2+ intermediate. We will also discuss the implications on the measured momentum distribution of detecting indistinguishable fragments in a coincidence measurement. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. BJ was also supported by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05-06OR23100).
Global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharaf M.A.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem is purposed by using the transformation z = x+iy = ν cos n(u+iv, where i = √−1, 0 < ν ≤ 1 and n is a positive integer. The method is developed analytically and computationally. For the analytical developments, analytical solutions in power series of the pseudotime τ are obtained for positions and velocities (u, v, u', v' and (x, y, x˙, y˙ in both regularized and physical planes respectively, the physical time t is also obtained as power series in τ. Moreover, relations between the coefficients of the power series are obtained for two consequent values of n. Also, we developed analytical solutions in power series form for the inverse problem of finding τ in terms of t. As typical examples, three symbolic expressions for the coefficients of the power series were developed in terms of initial values. As to the computational developments, the global regularized equations of motion are developed together with their initial values in forms suitable for digital computations using any differential equations solver. On the other hand, for numerical evolutions of power series, an efficient method depending on the continued fraction theory is provided.
Imaging three-body breakup involving two identical fragments
Feizollah, Peyman; Severt, T.; Jochim, Bethany; Berry, Ben; Kanaka Raju, P.; Zohrabi, M.; Rajput, Jyoti; Ablikim, U.; Kaderiya, B.; Ziaee, Farzaneh; Rudenko, A.; Rolles, D.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.
2017-04-01
We study the strong-field fragmentation of CO2 and CO2+ into C++O++O+ as examples of three-body breakup involving two identical fragments. This process can happen through concerted- or sequential-breakup mechanisms. In concerted breakup, the two O+ fragments play indistinguishable roles. In sequential breakup, however, one of the O+ fragments comes from the first fragmentation step of CO23+, and the other one comes from unimolecular dissociation of CO2+ in the second step. Therefore, in sequential breakup the two O+ fragments may be distinguished. A method is proposed that allows us to separate the concerted and sequential processes when the lifetime of the intermediate molecule is much longer than its rotational period. As a result, it is possible to experimentally distinguish the two O+ fragments in the sequential process. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy.
MONDian three-body predictions for LISA Pathfinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bevis, Neil; Magueijo, Joao; Trenkel, Christian; Kemble, Steve
2010-01-01
In previous work it was shown that modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theories predict anomalously strong tidal stresses near the saddle points of the Newtonian gravitational potential. An analytical examination of the saddle between two bodies revealed a linear and a nonlinear solution, valid for the outer and inner regions. Here we present a numerical algorithm for solving the MOND equations. We check the code against the two-body analytical solutions and explore the region transitioning between them. We then develop a realistic model for the MONDian effects on the saddles of the Sun-Earth-Moon system (including further sources is straightforward). For the Sun-Earth saddle we find that the two-body results are almost unchanged, with corrections increasing from full to new Moon. In contrast, the Moon saddle is an intrinsically three-body problem, but we numerically find a recipe for adapting the two-body solution to this case, by means of a suitable rescaling and axis reorientation. We explore possible experimental scenarios for LISA Pathfinder and the prospect of a visit to the saddle(s) at the end of the mission. Given the chaotic nature of the orbits, awareness of the full range of the possibilities is crucial for a realistic prediction. We conclude that even with very conservative assumptions on the impact parameter, the accelerometers are abundantly sensitive to vindicate or rule out the theory.
Global Regularization Method for Planar Restricted Three-body Problem
Sharaf, M. A.; Dwidar, H. R.
2015-12-01
In this paper, global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem is purposed by using the transformation z=x+iy=ν cos n(u+iv), where i=√{-1}, 0 < ν ≤ 1 and n is a positive integer. The method is developed analytically and computationally. For the analytical developments, analytical solutions in power series of the pseudo-time τ are obtained for positions and velocities (u,v,u',v') and (x,y,dot{x},dot{y}) in both regularized and physical planes respectively, the physical time {t} is also obtained as power series in τ. Moreover, relations between the coefficients of the power series are obtained for two consequent values of {n}. Also, we developed analytical solutions in power series form for the inverse problem of finding τ in terms of {t}. As typical examples, three symbolic expressions for the coefficients of the power series were developed in terms of the initial values. As to the computational developments, the global regularized equations of motion are developed together with their initial values in forms suitable for digital computations using any differential equations solver. On the other hand, for the numerical evolutions of power series, an efficient method depending on the continued fraction theory is provided.
Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canham, David L.
2009-05-20
The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, {sup 20}C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of {sup 20}C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D{sup 0} and D{sup *0} mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)
Universal Three-Body Physics in Ultracold KRb Mixtures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wacker, L. J.; Jørgensen, N. B.; Birkmose, Danny Matthiesen
2016-01-01
Ultracold atomic gases have recently become a driving force in few-body physics due to the observation of the Efimov effect. While initially observed in equal mass systems, one expects even richer few-body physics in the mass-imbalanced case. In previous experiments with ultracold mixtures of pot...
Appendix to the report from the low-residue soldering task force: Phase 2 results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J.; Huffman, D.D. [and others
1995-12-01
The LRSTF report for Phase I of its evaluation of low-residue soldering was issued in June 1995. This Appendix summarizes the results of follow-on testing performed in Phase II and compares electrical test results for both phases. Deliberate decisions were made by the LRSTF in Phase I to challenge the design guideline limits in MILSTD-275, Printed Wiring for Electronic Equipment The LRSTF considered this approach to produce a ``worst case`` design and provide useful information about the robustness of LR soldering processes. As such, good design practices were sometimes deliberately violated in designing the LRSTF board. This approach created some anomalies for both LR boards and RMA/cleaned controls. Phase II testing verified that problems that affected both RMA/cleaned and LR boards in Phase I were design related.
Magnetic force nanotherapy: feasibility and tolerance in a trial with residual tumors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gneveckow, U.; Scholz, R.; Jordan, A.; Cho, C.H.; Feussner, A.; Eckelt, L.; Wust, P.
2005-01-01
Full text: In February 2004 a clinical trial on the feasibility and tolerability of the magnetic force nanotherapy was started. Magnetic force nanotherapy is a new treatment concept for local tumors. The energy deposited by a homogeneous AC magnetic field is transformed into heat by a transducer. This transducer, nanosized superparamagnetic particles dispersed in water (magnetic fluid), is infiltrated into a selected target by minimal invasive intervention. Due to their subdomain size, these particles show no hysteresis behavior. Therefore, the behavior is independent on any previous exposures to magnetic fields. In contrast to hysteresis heating with multidomain-particles, the energy of the magnetic field is transformed to heat by both Brownian rotation and Neel relaxation. In addition, a special 'tumorphil' coating of the ironoxide cores increases the cellular uptake of the particles into tumor cells, which binds the particles in the tumor region. Thus a particular high power density can be achieved in the tumor and directly regulated by the magnetic field amplitude, whereas the normal tissue lacking magnetic fluid is only slightly affected. Both, deep seated and superficial tumors are accessible with a minimum of invasion and a selectable target temperature. To heat the magnetic fluid under clinical conditions, an applicator system has been built to generate a magnetic field in any desired body region. The first results of the feasibility of the magnetic force nanotherapy on different tumor entities are shown here. Until now 18 of 25 patients of the trial were recruited. 4 in the group of CT-guided instillation, 8 with intraoperative instillation of the magnetic nanoparticles and 6 patients with prostate carcinoma under TRUS control. Except of two cases the instillation was successful and at least one thermotherapy could be performed. Temperatures between 40 and 46 o C could be measured whereas calculated temperatures ranged between 42 and 52 o C. Field
Nucleon-nucleon scattering length from three-body reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodek, K.
1989-01-01
Experiments aimed at the measurement of the singlet scattering lengths 1 a np and 1 a nn of the NN-interaction in the presence of a heavy spectator are described. The values obtained are compared with the results of measurements of other reactions. The very good agreement of the experimental values of 1 a np from all breakup reactions and elastic scattering as well as agreement of the values of 1 a nn from breakup reactions and disagreement with the value from the π - d → nnγ reaction cast doubts on the hypothesis ascribing this discrepancy to a 3N-force. This result also suggests a stronger effect of a violation of the charge independence principle than previously accepted. 101 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs. (author)
Dominant, Residual, and Emergent: Opposing Forces Hovering over John Dos Passos’ U.S.A
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahmat Ollah Mahtabi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate John Dos Passos’s U.S.A. Trilogy; The 42nd Parallel (1930; 1919 (1932; and The Big Money (1936 in the light of Raymond Williams. Analyzing the trilogy in terms of Williams’ hegemonic forces between dominant and emergent, it is recognized that the trilogy is full of tragic lives of characters living in the capitalist society of America. According to what Williams says, there are clashes between cultures in a society. He believes that the dominant culture constantly changes and it would not let other cultures to become the controlling power in the society. This tragedy is not an individual experience, but is rather like a collective consciousness. Each and every character is doing their best to change their condition into better but is opposed by the dominant. This is exactly in line with the idea of Williams that the dominant is able to project its own ideology and way of seeing the world so that the subordinated ones accept it as something natural and common. Although there are different types of hegemony including economic and cultural ones, hegemony in this trilogy is mostly the affirmation of the relations between economic and super-structural aspects of it.
Three-body scattering problem in the fixed center approximation: The case of attraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kudryavtsev, Alexander E. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gani, Vakhid A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Romanov, Alexander I. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
We study the scattering of a light particle on a bound pair of heavy particles (e.g., the deuteron) within the fixed center approximation in the case of light-heavy attraction, solving the integral equation for the three-body Green's function both in the coordinate and in the momentum space. The results for the three-body scattering amplitude appear to be ambiguous -they depend on a single real parameter. This parameter may be fixed by a three-body input, e.g., the three-body scattering length. We also solve the integral equation for the three-body Green function in the momentum space, introducing a finite cut-off. We show that all three approaches are equivalent. We also discuss how our approach to the problem matches with the introduction of three-body contact interaction as done by other authors. (orig.)
Three-body forces, relativistic effects, isobars, and pions in nuclear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiringa, R.B.
1983-01-01
Conventional microscopic calculations in nuclear physics start from a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. The many-body Schroedinger equation is then solved to obtain the ground state energy, wave function, and expectation values of other quantities of interest. Such a procedure gives a qualitative description of nuclear saturation properties, but it is now well established that the simple H is quantitatively inadequate. For example, the light nuclei are underbound with too large a charge radius, while nuclear matter is overbound at far too high a density. This note reviews recent studies that go beyond the simple H. These include 1) the introduction of three-nucleon potentials, 2) estimates of relativistic effects, 3) the introduction of isobar degrees of freedom in the two-body potential, and 4) probing the influence of pion degrees of freedom on nuclear systems
Graybill, George
2007-01-01
Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.
Investigation of halo structure of He by hyperspherical three-body ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a fairly stable core. It is interesting to note that no two-body subsystem of the three-body system is bound, which gives rise to the mythical name of 'Borromean rings' to these exotic nuclei [7]. The typical structure of Borromean three-body system resembles the heraldic symbol of the Italian Princess of Borromeo. Its crest has ...
Evolved chiral Hamiltonians at the three-body level and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calci, Angelo
2014-07-14
Based on the fundamental symmetries of QCD, chiral effective field theory (EFT) provides two- (NN), three- (3N), four- (4N), and many-nucleon interactions in a consistent and systematic scheme. Recent developments to construct chiral NN+3N interactions at different chiral orders and regularizations enable exciting nuclear structure investigations as well as a quantification of the fundamental uncertainties resulting from the chiral expansion and regularization. We present the complete toolchain to employ the present and future chiral NN, 3N, and 4N interactions in nuclear structure calculations and emphasize technical developments in the three- and four-body space, such as the similarity renormalization group (SRG), the frequency conversion, and the transformation to the JT-coupled scheme. We study the predictions of the chiral NN+3N interactions in ab initio nuclear structure calculations with the importance-truncated no-core shell model and coupled-cluster approach. We demonstrate that the inclusion of chiral 3N forces improves the overall agreement with experiment for excitation energies of p-shell nuclei and it qualitatively reproduces the systematics of nuclear binding energies throughout the nuclear chart up to heavy tin isotopes. In this context it is necessary to introduce truncations in the three-body model space and we carefully analyze their impact and confirm the reliability of the reported results. The SRG evolution induces many-nucleon forces that generally cannot be included in the calculations and constitute a major limitation for the applicability of SRG-evolved chiral forces. We study the origin and effect of the induced many-nucleon forces and propose a modification of the interaction, which suppresses the induced beyond-3N forces. This enables applications of the chiral interactions far beyond the mid-p shell. Furthermore, we test alternative formulations of SRG generators aiming to prevent the induced many-body forces from the outset. The
Effects of three-body interactions on the dynamics of entanglement in spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Cuihua; Wu Yinzhong; Li Zhenya
2009-01-01
With the consideration of three-body interaction, dynamics of pairwise entanglement in spin chains is studied. The dependence of pairwise entanglement dynamics on the type of coupling, and distance between the spins is analyzed in a finite chain for different initial states. It is found that, for an Ising chain, three-body interactions are not in favor of preparing entanglement between the nearest neighbor spins, while three-body interactions are favorable for creating entanglement between remote spins from a separable initial state. For an isotropic Heisenberg chain, the pairwise concurrence will decrease when three-body interactions are considered both for a separable initial state and for a maximally entangled initial state, however, three-body interactions will retard the decay of the concurrence in an Ising chain when the initial state takes the maximally entangled state.
Variation of adhesive force at the interface of Pd and SrTiO3 as a consequence of residual stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazarpour, Soroush; Cirera, Albert
2011-01-01
Initially, Pd thin films were deposited over a hard substrate using electron beam physical vapour deposition. The growth and the surface roughness of the films were analysed and their effects upon the conventional indentation test were discussed. Afterwards, an experimental method is described which can measure the critical fracture force in thin films using oscillating indentation. Initially, repetitive contacts at a single point with the purpose of identifying the fracture time provide the fracture force versus fracture time plot. Non-linear curve fitting of the data reveals the theoretical fracture force by a single indentation, which is called the critical fracture force. Arguments are put forward to show the relation between piling up height and applied force. Discrepancies were observed in the plot of the ratio between total indentation depth and piling up height versus applied force when higher loads than a critical fracture force were applied. Discrepancies appear as a result of indenting the substrate. A nanoscratch test facilitated the possibility of measuring adhesion strength and adhesion energy of the films considering the measured critical fracture force as the maximum applied force. The relation between residual compressive stresses, adhesion strength, plastic deformation and piling up area was discussed using dislocation theories. Indentation with high applied loads leaves behind large plastic deformation and reduces the accuracy and reliability of the test results. Hence, lower loads (in the order of nanonewtons) were applied using atomic force microscopy in the friction mode. A pulling off force was mapped in each thickness of Pd films. The results confirm that the area around a hillock exhibits a higher pulling off force due to the local stress relaxation as a consequence of hillock formation. By repeating the mapping process over different areas with various applying forces, the plot of the pulling off force versus applied load was drawn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others
1995-06-01
The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.
Invariant Manifolds, the Spatial Three-Body Problem and Space Mission Design
Gomez, G.; Koon, W. S.; Lo, Martin W.; Marsden, J. E.; Masdemont, J.; Ross, S. D.
2001-01-01
The invariant manifold structures of the collinear libration points for the spatial restricted three-body problem provide the framework for understanding complex dynamical phenomena from a geometric point of view. In particular, the stable and unstable invariant manifold 'tubes' associated to libration point orbits are the phase space structures that provide a conduit for orbits between primary bodies for separate three-body systems. These invariant manifold tubes can be used to construct new spacecraft trajectories, such as 'Petit Grand Tour' of the moons of Jupiter. Previous work focused on the planar circular restricted three-body problem. The current work extends the results to the spatial case.
The d-α elastic scattering and the lithium-6 in a three-body model with separable interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charnomordic, Brigitte.
1976-01-01
This work consists in a three-body treatment of the six nucleon system. The model is constructed by considering two identical nucleons and a structureless alpha particle. Such a system can be described by the Faddeev-Lovelace equations. A partial antisymetrization is performed taking into account the identity of the nucleons. Pairwise interacting particles with nonlocal separable forces are introduced. Two-body potentials are chosen in each n-n and n-α partial wave. After an analysis of the existing separable interactions, new n-α and 1S0 parametrization are constructed. The sensitivity to the tensor force and the role of the N-α description are especially studied. The case of d-α elastic scattering is also discussed. The observables: differential cross-section, analyzing powers and transfer polarization coefficients are calculated and compared with experiments. The results show the ability of a three-body model with separable interactions in describing the main properties of the d-α elastic scattering and lithium-6 [fr
Efimov Physics and the Three-Body Parameter within a Two-Channel Framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Peder Klokmose; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.
2012-01-01
scaling laws. We recover known results for broad Feshbach resonances with small effective range, whereas in the case of narrow resonances we find a distinct non-monotonic behavior of the threshold at which the lowest Efimov trimer merges with the three-body continuum. To address the issue of the physical...... origin of the three-body parameter we provide a physically clear model for the relation between three-body physics and typical two-body atom-atom interactions. Our results demonstrate that experimental information from narrow Feshbach resonances and/or mixed systems are of vital importance to pin down...... the relation of two- and three-body physics in atomic systems....
Three-body interactions and the elastic constants of hcp solid 4He
Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.
2017-09-01
The effect of three-body interactions on the elastic properties of hexagonal close packed solid 4He is investigated using variational path integral (VPI) Monte Carlo simulations. The solid's nonzero elastic constants are calculated, at T = 0 K and for a range of molar volumes from 7.88 cm3/mol to 20.78 cm3/mol, from the bulk modulus and the three pure shear constants C0, C66, and C44. Three-body interactions are accounted for using our recently reported perturbative treatment based on the nonadditive three-body potential of Cencek et al. Previous studies have attempted to account for the effect of three-body interactions on the elastic properties of solid 4He; however, these calculations have treated zero point motions using either the Einstein or Debye approximations, which are insufficient in the molar volume range where solid 4He is characterized as a quantum solid. Our VPI calculations allow for a more accurate treatment of the zero point motions which include atomic correlation. From these calculations, we find that agreement with the experimental bulk modulus is significantly improved when three-body interactions are considered. In addition, three-body interactions result in non-negligible differences in the calculated pure shear constants and nonzero elastic constants, particularly at higher densities, where differences of up to 26.5% are observed when three-body interactions are included. We compare to the available experimental data and find that our results are generally in as good or better agreement with experiment as previous theoretical investigations.
Plasma effects in three-body recombination of high-Z bare ions with electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pajek, M.
1999-01-01
The influence of plasma effects on three-body recombination of bare ions with electrons in cold plasma in the electron cooler is discussed in context of recombination ''enhancement'' observed in storage ring experiments. We show that for high-Z bare ions and low electron temperatures and densities the cooler plasma becomes ''nonideal'', leading to the enhancement of the three-body recombination rates. This effect is described in terms of the Debye screening length within the ''rigid shift'' approximation. We demonstrate, that in cold (T∼1-10 K) anisotropic plasma the screening effect substantially enhances the three-body recombination rates for very high n-states. The relaxation of high Rydberg states below the field ionization cut-off, set in storage ring experiments, is discussed. The calculations are confronted with the experimental results obtained in storage ring experiments. (orig.)
Tests of the discretized-continuum method in three-body dipole strengths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinilla, E.C., E-mail: epinilla@ulb.ac.be [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P. 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Baye, D., E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.be [Physique Quantique, C.P. 165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P. 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Descouvemont, P., E-mail: pdesc@ulb.ac.be [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P. 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Horiuchi, W., E-mail: whoriuchi@riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0918 (Japan); Suzuki, Y., E-mail: suzuki@nt.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0918 (Japan)
2011-08-15
We investigate the {sup 6}He dipole distribution in a three-body {alpha}+n+n model. Two approaches are used to describe the three-body 1{sup -} continuum: the discretized-continuum method, where the scattering wave functions are approximated by square-integrable functions, and the R-matrix formalism, where their asymptotic behaviour is taken into account. We show that some ambiguity exists in the pseudostate method, owing to the smoothing technique, necessary to derive continuous distributions. We show evidence for the important role of the halo structure in the E1 dipole strength. We also address the treatment of Pauli forbidden states in the three-body wave functions.
More than six hundred new families of Newtonian periodic planar collisionless three-body orbits
Li, XiaoMing; Liao, ShiJun
2017-12-01
The famous three-body problem can be traced back to Isaac Newton in the 1680s. In the 300 years since this "three-body problem" was first recognized, only three families of periodic solutions had been found, until 2013 when Šuvakov and Dmitrašinović [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 114301 (2013)] made a breakthrough to numerically find 13 new distinct periodic orbits, which belong to 11 new families of Newtonian planar three-body problem with equal mass and zero angular momentum. In this paper, we numerically obtain 695 families of Newtonian periodic planar collisionless orbits of three-body system with equal mass and zero angular momentum in case of initial conditions with isosceles collinear configuration, including the well-known figure-eight family found by Moore in 1993, the 11 families found by Šuvakov and Dmitrašinović in 2013, and more than 600 new families that have never been reported, to the best of our knowledge. With the definition of the average period T = T/L f, where L f is the length of the so-called "free group element", these 695 families suggest that there should exist the quasi Kepler's third law T* ≈ 2:433 ± 0:075 for the considered case, where T ≈ = T | E|3/2 is the scale-invariant average period and E is its total kinetic and potential energy, respectively. The movies of these 695 periodic orbits in the real space and the corresponding close curves on the "shape sphere" can be found via the website: http://numericaltank.sjtu.edu.cn/three-body/three-body.htm.
Three-body correlations in the ground-state decay of 26O
Kohley, Z.; Baumann, T.; Christian, G.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Luther, B.; Lunderberg, E.; Jones, M.; Mosby, S.; Smith, J. K.; Spyrou, A.; Thoennessen, M.
2015-03-01
Background: Theoretical calculations have shown that the energy and angular correlations in the three-body decay of the two-neutron unbound 26O can provide information on the ground-state wave function, which has been predicted to have a dineutron configuration and 2 n halo structure. Purpose: To use the experimentally measured three-body correlations to gain insight into the properties of 26O , including the decay mechanism and ground-state resonance energy. Method: 26O was produced in a one-proton knockout reaction from 27F and the 24O+n +n decay products were measured using the MoNA-Sweeper setup. The three-body correlations from the 26O ground-state resonance decay were extracted. The experimental results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations in which the resonance energy and decay mechanism were varied. Results: The measured three-body correlations were well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulations but were not sensitive to the decay mechanism due to the experimental resolutions. However, the three-body correlations were found to be sensitive to the resonance energy of 26O . A 1 σ upper limit of 53 keV was extracted for the ground-state resonance energy of 26O . Conclusions: Future attempts to measure the three-body correlations from the ground-state decay of 26O will be very challenging due to the need for a precise measurement of the 24O momentum at the reaction point in the target.
Three-body couplings in RMF and its effects on hyperonic star equation of state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsubakihara, K., E-mail: tsubaki@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University (Japan); Ohnishi, A. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University (Japan)
2013-09-20
We develop a relativistic mean field (RMF) model with explicit three-body couplings and apply it to hyperonic systems and neutron star matter. Three-baryon repulsion is a promising ingredient to answer the massive neutron star puzzle; when strange hadrons such as hyperons are taken into account, the equation of state (EOS) becomes too soft to support the observed two-solar-mass neutron star. We demonstrate that it is possible to consistently explain the massive neutron star and hypernuclear data when we include three-body couplings and modify the hyperon–vector meson couplings from the flavor SU(3) value.
Stability of the three-body Coulomb systems with J=1 in the oscillator representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinejkhan, M.D.; Efimov, G.V.
1995-01-01
The oscillator representation is applied to calculate the energy spectrum of three-body Coulomb systems with J total angular momentum. For the three-body Coulomb systems with J=1 and arbitrary masses the region of stability is determined. For the systems (A + A - e - ), (pe - C + ), (pB - e - ) and (D + e - e + ), the values for the critical masses of A-, B-, C- and D-particles are obtained: m A =2.22m e , m B =1.49m e , m C =2.11m e and m D =4.15m e . 18 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs
Systematic study of baryons in a three-body quark model
Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.
2016-09-01
We investigated the structure of baryons within a three-body quark model based on hypercentral approach. We considered an SU(6)-invariant potential consisting of the well-known "Coulomb-plus-linear" potential plus some multipole interactions as V ( x) ∝ x - n with n > 2. Then, through an analytical solution, we obtained the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the three-body problem and evaluated some observables such as the mass spectrum of light baryons and both the electromagnetic elastic form factors, and the charge radii of nucleons. We compared our results with the experimental data and showed that the present model provides a good description of the observed resonances.
Investigation of light baryons in a three-body quark model
Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.
2017-02-01
We present a three-body quark model based on hypercentral approach for investigating the internal structure of light baryons. The analytically obtained energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the three-body problem have been used in the calculations of the mass spectrum of light baryons and electromagnetic elastic form factors of nucleon. The magnetic moments and charge radii of nucleon have also been calculated. We have compared the evaluated observables with experimental data and it has been shown that the present model provides a good description of the observed resonances.
On the inherent self-excited macroscopic randomness of chaotic three-body system
Liao, Shijun; Li, Xiaoming
2014-01-01
What is the origin of macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)? This is one of the most fundamental open questions for human being. In this paper, 10000 samples of reliable (convergent), multiple-scale (from 1.0E-60 to 100) numerical simulations of a chaotic three-body system indicate that, without any external disturbance, the microscopic inherent uncertainty (in the level of 1.0E-60) due to physical fluctuation of initial positions of the three-body system enlarges exponentially into macroscopi...
Using Three-Body Recombination to Extract Electron Temperatures of Ultracold Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fletcher, R. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Rolston, S. L.
2007-01-01
Three-body recombination, an important collisional process in plasmas, increases dramatically at low electron temperatures, with an accepted scaling of T e -9/2 . We measure three-body recombination in an ultracold neutral xenon plasma by detecting recombination-created Rydberg atoms using a microwave-ionization technique. With the accepted theory (expected to be applicable for weakly coupled plasmas) and our measured rates, we extract the plasma temperatures, which are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements early in the plasma lifetime. The resulting electron temperatures indicate that the plasma continues to cool to temperatures below 1 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hackl, A.E.; Sammer, G.; Winter, B.
2001-01-01
At its sixth session in July 1998, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) working group on abatement techniques recommended the establishment of a task force on the management of by-products and residues containing heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The aim of the task force was to support the parties, via the working group on abatement techniques, to comply with the requirements of the Aarhus protocols on heavy metals and POPs, and particularly those concerning the use and management of wastes containing these pollutants from different industrial sectors, including waste incineration. The task force built an earlier work conducted by the first task force an by-products utilization and waste management from fuel treatment and combustion (1986-91) and the second task force on by-product utilization from stationary installations (1991-96), and their respective status reports. Austria agreed to chair the task force, which held four meetings (Salzburg, Brussels, Ottawa and Zagreb) and one editorial conference (Frascati/Rome). Beside the lead country Belgium, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Italy, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia and the UN/ECE secretary were members of the task force. The work of the task force was also supported by EURELECTRIC, who hosted the meeting in Brussels and EUROCHLOR, who supported the writing of the Chlor-Alkali Chapter. The task force addressed the management of by-products and residues from the following industrial sectors: waste incineration; co-incineration; thermal electric power production; small-scale firing energy production; iron and steel production; aluminum production; copper, lead and zinc production; pulp and paper production; oil refineries; and chlor-alkali electrolysis. Information on these sectors was collected and reviewed. A questionnaire for most of the sectors was prepared and distributed to member states, requesting information an the management of the by
Contact parameters in two dimensions for general three-body systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.
2014-01-01
a subsystem is composed of two identical non-interacting particles. We also show that the three-body contact parameter is negligible in the case of one non-interacting subsystem compared to the situation where all subsystem are bound. As example, we present results for mixtures of Lithium with two Cesium...
Three-body interactions in many-body effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furnstahl, R.J.
2004-01-01
This contribution is an advertisement for applying effective field theory (EFT) to many-body problems, including nuclei and cold atomic gases. Examples involving three-body interactions are used to illustrate how EFT's quantify and systematically eliminate model dependence, and how they make many-body calculations simpler and more powerful
Three-body analysis of 11Li and its β-decay to deuteron channel ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The ground state wave function of 11Li obtained in a three-body model proposed earlier (S Kumar and V S Bhasin, Phys. Rev. C65, 034007 (2002)) has been employed to study the probability distributions, momentum distributions and n–n correlation. Complex scaling method has been used to find the energy positions and ...
A new method for calculating the hyperspherical functions for the quantum mechanics of three bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marsh, S.; Buck, B.
1982-01-01
Using the shift operators of Hughes (J. Phys. A.; 6:48 and 281 (1973)) for the group SU(3) in an O(3) basis, a simple method is developed to obtain the three-body hyperspherical functions of a definite symmetry for any angular momentum in a given SU(3) representation. (author)
Frolov, Alexei M.; Smith, Vedene H., Jr.
2003-05-01
The exponential variational expansion is applied to highly accurate computations of the ground states in the Ps- and inftyH- ions. The determined variational energies for these systems are -0.262 005 070 232 980 107 7335 and -0.527 751 016 544 377 196 5668 au respectively. These energies and corresponding wavefunctions are significantly more accurate than values known from earlier studies. A number of bound state properties are determined for the Ps- ion. The method of scalar coupling for three-body systems is developed. A general analytical expression is derived for the overlap integral between two scalar functions phi(r32, r31, r21) and psi(r32, r31), written in relative coordinates and one-particle coordinates respectively. The case of bound S(L = 0) states in Coulomb three-body systems is discussed in detail. In this case, explicit analytical formulae for the three-body scalar coupling coefficients have been produced and tested in actual highly accurate calculations for the Ps- and inftyH- ions. The approach developed in this work can be applied to a large number of real three-body problems.
Effects of three-body atomic interaction and optical lattice on solitons ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We make use of a coordinate-free approach to implement Vakhitov–Kolokolov criterion for stability analysis in order to study the effects of three-body atomic recombination and lattice potential on the matter–wave bright solitons formed in Bose–Einstein condensates. We analytically demonstrate that. the critical number of ...
A new class of three-body states beyond the Efimov effect
Guevara, Nicolais L.; Esry, Brett D.
2012-06-01
Recently, we have identified a new type of three-body bound state for three identical bosons interacting via attractive two-body 1/r^2 potentials [1]. These three-body states are bound even when the two-body subsystem does not support a dimer state. In fact, there are an infinity of such states. We will present an extension of this work to the system with two identical bosons (B) and one distinguishable particle (X). We have investigated the spectrum of this BBX system assuming only that the B+X interaction is an attractive 1/r^2 potential. We have again found an infinite number of three-body bound states even though the two-body potential does not support a bound state. This effect is shown to exist at large mass ratios (MB/MX) and depends on the strength of the two-body interaction. The most favorable case is the molecular-type system, i.e., MB/MX1. While these new three-body states resemble Efimov states they originate from fundamentally different physics.[4pt] [1] N. L. Guevara, Yujun Wang, and B. D. Esry, arXiv:1110.0476 (2011)
Low-lying spectra in anharmonic three-body oscillators with a strong short-range
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2003-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 38 (2003), s. 9929-9941 ISSN 0305-4470 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : three-body Schrodinger equation * limit * large repulsion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2003
Correlation properties of a three-body bosonic mixture in a harmonic trap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barfknecht, R. E.; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Foerster, A.
2016-01-01
We make use of a simple pair correlated wave function approach to obtain results for the ground-state densities and momentum distribution of a one-dimensional three-body bosonic system with different interactions in a harmonic trap. For equal interactions this approach is able to reproduce the kn...
Stripping reactions in a three-body system. Comparison of DWBA and exact solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brinati, J.R.
1976-01-01
Stripping reactions 'a estados no continuo' are studied in a three particle system. Since the three-body problem has an exact treatment, comparison will be made between the exact solution and the DWBA model solution. This problem is more complex in the continuous case, as shown in the convergence problem of the standard DWBA amplitude radial integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaytsev, S A
2010-01-01
The possibility of using straight-line paths of integration in computing the integral representation of the three-body Coulomb Green's function is discussed. In our numerical examples two different kinds of integration contours in the complex energy planes are considered. It is demonstrated that straight-line paths, which cross the positive real axis, are suitable for numerical computation.
Effects of three-body atomic interaction and optical lattice on solitons ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kolokolov criterion for stability analysis in order to study the effects of three-body atomic recombi- nation and lattice potential on the matter–wave bright solitons formed in Bose–Einstein condensates. We analytically demonstrate that (i) the critical ...
Investigation of halo structure of 6 He by hyperspherical three-body ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
They also attempted to undertake a detailed numerical analysis by computing integral equations for ... Hyperspherical three-body model calculation for the ground state of 6He nucleus has been reported by ... we first calculate the binding energy and some related geometrical quantities to compare our calculation with the ...
Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao
2017-01-01
This study examined the influence of the elongation of attached crossbridges and residual force enhancement on joint torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). Electrically evoked submaximal tetanic plantar flexions were adopted. Concentric contractions were evoked in the following three conditions: after 2 s isometric preactivation (ISO condition), after 1 s isometric then 1 s eccentric preactivation (ECC condition), and after 1 s eccentric then 1 s isometric preactivation (TRAN condition). Joint torque and fascicle length were measured during the concentric contraction phase. While no differences in fascicle length were observed among conditions at any time points, joint torque was significantly higher in the ECC than TRAN condition at the onset of concentric contraction. This difference would be caused by the dissipation of the elastic energy stored in the attached crossbridges induced by eccentric preactivation in TRAN condition due to 1 s transition phase. Furthermore, joint torques observed 0.3 and 0.6 s after concentric contraction were significantly larger in the ECC and TRAN conditions than in the ISO condition while no difference was observed between the ECC and TRAN conditions. Since the elastic energy stored in the attached crossbridges would have dissipated over this time frame, this result suggests that residual force enhancement induced by eccentric preactivation also contributes to joint torque enhancement by the SSC. PMID:28386453
Huijts, K.M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831867; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725; Schramkowski, G.P.; Schuttelaars, H.M.
2011-01-01
An analytical and a numerical model are used to understand the response of velocity and sediment distributions over Gaussian-shaped estuarine cross-sections to changes in tidal forcing and water depth. The estuaries considered here are characterized by strong mixing and a relatively weak
Weak response of cold symmetric nuclear matter at three-body cluster level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lovato, Alessandro, E-mail: lovato@anl.gov [SISSA, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Losa, Cristina [SISSA, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Benhar, Omar [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy)
2013-03-01
We have studied the Fermi and Gamow–Teller responses of cold symmetric nuclear matter within a unified dynamical model, suitable to account for both short- and long-range correlation effects. The formalism of correlated basis functions has been used to construct two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators. The inclusion of the three-body cluster term allowed for the incorporation in our scheme of a realistic model of three-nucleon interactions, referred to as Urbana IX (UIX). Moreover, our results show that the sizable dependence of the effective weak operator on the details of the correlation functions is in fact unphysical, and disappears once the three-body cluster term is taken into account.
Three-body problem in quantum mechanics: Hyperspherical elliptic coordinates and harmonic basis sets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Tonzani, Stefano
2004-01-01
Elliptic coordinates within the hyperspherical formalism for three-body problems were proposed some time ago [V. Aquilanti, S. Cavalli, and G. Grossi, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 1362 (1986)] and recently have also found application, for example, in chemical reaction theory [see O. I. Tolstikhin and H. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 8899 (1998)]. Here we consider their role in providing a smooth transition between the known 'symmetric' and 'asymmetric' parametrizations, and focus on the corresponding hyperspherical harmonics. These harmonics, which will be called hyperspherical elliptic, involve products of two associated Lame polynomials. We will provide an expansion of these new sets in a finite series of standard hyperspherical harmonics, producing a powerful tool for future applications in the field of scattering and bound-state quantum-mechanical three-body problems
Lagrangian relative equilibria for a gyrostat in the three-body problem: bifurcations and stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guirao, Juan L G; Vera, Juan A, E-mail: juan.garcia@upct.e, E-mail: juanantonio.vera@upct.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Hospital de Marina, 30203 Cartagena, Region de Murcia (Spain)
2010-05-14
In this paper we consider the non-canonical Hamiltonian dynamics of a gyrostat in the frame of the three-body problem. Using geometric/mechanic methods we study the approximate dynamics of the truncated Legendre series representation of the potential of an arbitrary order. Working in the reduced problem, we study the existence of relative equilibria that we refer to as Lagrange type following the analogy with the standard techniques. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the linear stability of Lagrangian relative equilibria if the gyrostat morphology form is close to a sphere. Thus, we generalize the classical results on equilibria of the three-body problem and many results on them obtained by the classic approach for the case of rigid bodies.
The motion and control of a complex three-body space tethered system
Shi, Gefei; Zhu, Zhanxia; Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Jianping; Tang, Biwei
2017-11-01
This paper is mainly devoted to investigating the dynamics and stability control of a three body-tethered satellite system which contains a main satellite and two subsatellites connected by two straight, massless and inextensible tethers. Firstly, a detailed mathematical model is established in the central gravitational field. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the established system are investigated and analyzed. Based on the dynamic analysis, a novel sliding mode prediction model (SMPM) control strategy is proposed to suppress the motion of the built tethered system. The numerical results show that the proposed underactuated control law is highly effective in suppressing the attitude/libration motion of the underactuated three-body tethered system. Furthermore, cases of different target angles are also examined and analyzed. The simulation results reveal that even if the final equilibrium states differ from different selections of the target angles, the whole system can still be maintained in acceptable areas.
Critical points of the Bose–Hubbard model with three-body local interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avila, C.A.; Franco, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá (Colombia); Souza, A.M.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Figueira, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva-Valencia, J., E-mail: jsilvav@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá (Colombia)
2014-09-12
Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we study a one-dimensional system of bosons that interact with a local three-body term. We calculate the phase diagram for higher densities, where the Mott insulator lobes are surrounded by the superfluid phase. We also show that the Mott insulator lobes always grow as a function of the density. The critical points of the Kosterlitz–Thouless transitions were determined through the von Neumann block entropy, and its dependence on the density is given by a power law with a negative exponent. - Highlights: • We studied the Bose–Hubbard model with a local three-body interaction term. • We show that the Mott insulator lobes always grow as a function of the density. • We found a power law dependence of the critical point position with the density.
JSPAM: A restricted three-body code for simulating interacting galaxies
Wallin, J. F.; Holincheck, A. J.; Harvey, A.
2016-07-01
Restricted three-body codes have a proven ability to recreate much of the disturbed morphology of actual interacting galaxies. As more sophisticated n-body models were developed and computer speed increased, restricted three-body codes fell out of favor. However, their supporting role for performing wide searches of parameter space when fitting orbits to real systems demonstrates a continuing need for their use. Here we present the model and algorithm used in the JSPAM code. A precursor of this code was originally described in 1990, and was called SPAM. We have recently updated the software with an alternate potential and a treatment of dynamical friction to more closely mimic the results from n-body tree codes. The code is released publicly for use under the terms of the Academic Free License ("AFL") v. 3.0 and has been added to the Astrophysics Source Code Library.
Non-integrability of the Anisotropic Stormer Problem and the Isosceles Three-Body Problem
Nomikos, D. G.; Papageorgiou, V. G.
2009-02-01
We study the Anisotropic Stormer Problem (ASP) and the Isosceles Three-Body Problem (IP), from the viewpoint of integrability, using Morales-Ramis theory and its generalization. The study of their integrability presents particular interest since they model important physical phenomena. Both problems can be reduced with respect to the S1 symmetry. Almeida and Stuchi [M.A. Almeida, T.J. Stuchi, Non-integrability of the anisotropic Stormer problem with angular momentum, Physica D 189 (2004) 219-233] proved that the reduced ASP is non-integrable for almost all values of the parameters. In this paper we establish the non-integrability (in the extended Liouville sense) of the remaining cases. The IP is a special case of the three-body problem and it can be considered as a generalization of the Sitnikov problem. Here we prove that the complexified reduced IP does not admit an additional independent meromorphic first integral.
Incorporation of threshold phenomena in the three-body Coulomb continuum wavefunctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berakdar, J.
1996-01-01
In this work a three-body Coulomb wavefunction for the description of two continuum electrons moving in the field of a nucleus is constructed such that the Wannier threshold law for double escape is reproduced and the asymptotic Coulomb boundary conditions as well as the Kato cusp conditions are satisfied. It is shown that the absolute value of the total cross section, as well as the spin asymmetry, are well described by the present approach. Further, the excess-energy sharing between the two escaping electrons is calculated and analysed in light of the Wannier theory predictions. This is the first time an analytical three-body wavefunction is presented which is asymptotically exact and capable of describing threshold phenomena. 37 refs., 3 figs
Realizing all reduced syzygy sequences in the planar three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeckel, Richard; Montgomery, Richard
2015-01-01
The configuration space of the planar three-body problem, reduced by rotations and with collisions excluded, has a rich topology which supports a large set of free homotopy classes. These classes have a simple description in terms of syzygy (or eclipse) sequences. Each homotopy class corresponds to a unique ‘reduced’ syzygy sequence. We prove that each reduced syzygy sequence is realized by a periodic solution of the rotation-reduced Newtonian planar three-body problem. The realizing solutions have small, nonzero angular momentum, repeatedly come very close to triple collision, and have lots of ‘stutters’—repeated syzygies of the same type, which cancel out up to homotopy. The heart of the proof stems from the work by one of us on symbolic dynamics arising out of the central configurations after the triple collision is blown up using McGehee's method. We end with a list of open problems. (paper)
Dynamics and control of three-body tethered system in large elliptic orbits
Shi, Gefei; Zhu, Zhanxia; Zhu, Zheng H.
2018-03-01
This paper investigates the dynamic characteristics a three-body tethered satellite system in large elliptic orbits and the control strategy to suppress the libration of the system in orbital transfer process. The system is modeled by a two-piece dumbbell model in the domain of true anomaly. The model consists of one main satellite and two subsatellites connected with two straight, massless and inextensible tethers. Two control strategies based on the sliding mode control are developed to control the libration to the zero state and the steady state respectively. The results of numerical simulations show that the proposed control scheme has good performance in controlling the libration motion of a three-body tethered satellite system in an elliptic orbit with large eccentricity by limited control inputs. Furthermore, Hamiltonians in both states are examined and it shows that less control input is required to control the libration motion to the steady state than that of zero state.
Nonlinear Dynamics of a Two-Chain, Three-Body Formation System
Xu, Ming; Wei, Yan; Liu, Shengli
2012-12-01
Multibody formation constitutes a new architecture wherein the functional capabilities of a monolithic satellite are distributed, and some planned missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits offered by the use of satellite formations. The nonlinear dynamics of a two-chain, three-body formation system located on a circular orbit on the Earth is presented in this paper with the assist of nonlinear theory in astrodynamics. Different from only five libration points solved from the circular restricted three-body system, there exist sixteen equilibria for the chain system yielded by its geometry of the pseudo-potential function. For some hyperbolic equilibria, an iterative procedure is developed to correct numerically periodic orbits near them, which are referred as Lyapunov orbits in this paper. The invariant manifolds originating from those orbits are employed by Poincaré mapping to create the heteroclinic or homoclinic trajectories, and some non-transversal intersections between them are addressed in this paper.
Three-body analysis of 11Li and its β-decay to deuteron channel ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Three-body analysis of 11Li and its β-decay to deuteron channel and to halo analog state. 11Be∗ (18.3 ... a deeper understanding of the two-neutron halo structure, the situation is still far from clear. Previous investigations [7–12] ... tentials for n–n and n-9Li interactions. Our analysis [15] also suggests a marginal role played ...
Simplified three-body model for 11Li and 9Li-neutron momentum correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhukov, M.V.; Fedorov, D.V.; Danilin, B.V.; Vaagen, J.S.
1991-01-01
The structure of 11 Li is investigated in the approximate three-body approach COSMA. Correlated momentum distributions for 9 Li-n as well as spatial densities are calculated. The results show that while momentum distributions for individual fragments are unable to discriminate between trial wave functions corresponding to quite different configuration mixtures, correlation experiments could provide the essential information to pin down the 11 Li (neuton halo) structure. (orig.)
Asymptotic form of three-body (dtμ)+ and (ddμ)+ wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kino, Y.; Shimamura, I.; Armour, E.A.G.; Kamimura, M.
1996-01-01
In order to investigate a discrepancy between existing literature values for the normalization constant in the asymptotic form of three-body wave functions for (DTμ) + , we report the results of a new calculation of the normalization constants for this system as well as the related system (DDμ) + . These were obtained by fitting to accurate variational wave functions with special care being taken to describe the long-range behavior. (orig.)
Lyapunov vs. geometrical stability analysis of the Kepler and the restricted three body problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yahalom, A.; Levitan, J.; Lewkowicz, M.; Horwitz, L.
2011-01-01
In this Letter we show that although the application of standard Lyapunov analysis predicts that completely integrable Kepler motion is unstable, the geometrical analysis of Horwitz et al. predicts the observed stability. This seems to us to provide evidence for both the incompleteness of the standard Lyapunov analysis and the strength of the geometrical analysis. Moreover, we apply this approach to the three body problem in which the third body is restricted to move on a circle of large radius which induces an adiabatic time dependent potential on the second body. This causes the second body to move in a very interesting and intricate but periodic trajectory; however, the standard Lyapunov analysis, as well as methods based on the parametric variation of curvature associated with the Jacobi metric, incorrectly predict chaotic behavior. The geometric approach predicts the correct stable motion in this case as well. - Highlights: → Lyapunov analysis predicts Kepler motion to be unstable. → Geometrical analysis predicts the observed stability. → Lyapunov analysis predicts chaotic behavior in restricted three body problem. → The geometric approach predicts the correct stable motion in restricted three body problem.
Connecting orbits and invariant manifolds in the spatial restricted three-body problem
Gómez, G.; Koon, W. S.; Lo, M. W.; Marsden, J. E.; Masdemont, J.; Ross, S. D.
2004-09-01
The invariant manifold structures of the collinear libration points for the restricted three-body problem provide the framework for understanding transport phenomena from a geometrical point of view. In particular, the stable and unstable invariant manifold tubes associated with libration point orbits are the phase space conduits transporting material between primary bodies for separate three-body systems. These tubes can be used to construct new spacecraft trajectories, such as a 'Petit Grand Tour' of the moons of Jupiter. Previous work focused on the planar circular restricted three-body problem. This work extends the results to the three-dimensional case. Besides providing a full description of different kinds of libration motions in a large vicinity of these points, this paper numerically demonstrates the existence of heteroclinic connections between pairs of libration orbits, one around the libration point L1 and the other around L2. Since these connections are asymptotic orbits, no manoeuvre is needed to perform the transfer from one libration point orbit to the other. A knowledge of these orbits can be very useful in the design of missions such as the Genesis Discovery Mission, and may provide the backbone for other interesting orbits in the future.
Three-body fragmentation of methane dications produced by slow A r8 + -ion impact
Zhang, Y.; Jiang, T.; Wei, L.; Luo, D.; Wang, X.; Yu, W.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.; Wei, B.
2018-02-01
The three-body fragmentation dynamics of CH4 2 + dications induced by single-electron capture of slow (3-keV/u) A r8 + ions is investigated. The experiment is performed on a newly built, highly charged ion collision platform which consists of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) setup. Using the COLTRIMS methodology, the complete kinematical information is determined for two three-body breakup channels, CH4 2 +→H++CH2 ++H and CH4 2 +→H2 ++C H++H . Then analyzing the complete kinematics with the Dalitz plot, very different fragmentation mechanisms (e.g., sequential and/or concerted pathway) are clearly identified for the two channels. To confirm the existence of some possible fragmentation pathways, we also simulate corresponding Dalitz plots employing a simple classical mechanical model. For the H++CH2 ++H channel, the dependence of the fragmentation pathway on its kinetic energy release is studied, which reflects the different nature of the corresponding states of CH4 2 + dications. Furthermore, the kinetic energy ratio of two ionic fragments is analyzed to infer the three-body fragmentation mechanism of CH4 2 + dications.
Restricted three-body problem in effective-field-theory models of gravity
Battista, Emmanuele; Esposito, Giampiero
2014-04-01
One of the outstanding problems of classical celestial mechanics was the restricted three-body problem, in which a planetoid of small mass is subject to the Newtonian attraction of two celestial bodies of large mass, as it occurs, for example, in the Sun-Earth-Moon system. On the other hand, over the last decades, a systematic investigation of quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential has been carried out in the literature on quantum gravity. The present paper studies the effect of these tiny quantum corrections on the evaluation of equilibrium points. It is shown that, despite the extreme smallness of the corrections, there exists no choice of sign of these corrections for which all qualitative features of the restricted three-body problem in Newtonian theory remain unaffected. Moreover, first-order stability of equilibrium points is characterized by solving a pair of algebraic equations of fifth degree, where some coefficients depend on the Planck length. The coordinates of stable equilibrium points are slightly changed with respect to Newtonian theory, because the planetoid is no longer at equal distance from the two bodies of large mass. The effect is conceptually interesting but too small to be observed, at least for the restricted three-body problems available in the solar system.
Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold 85Rb Rydberg gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Jianing
2010-01-01
Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.
Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold Rb85 Rydberg gas
Han, Jianing
2010-11-01
Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.233201 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.183002 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.011403 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.
Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials
Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.
2010-01-01
Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (sieved version of the simulant. The lunar dust displayed abrasivity to all of the test materials, which are likely to be used in lunar landing equipment. Based on this test experience and pilot results obtained, recommendations are made for systematic abrasion testing of candidate materials intended for use in lunar exploration systems and in other environments with similar dust challenges.
Low energy electron emission in a pure three body collision: C{sup 6+}+H
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tribedi, L.C. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Richard, P. [J. R. Macdonald Lab., Physics Dept., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Gulyas, L. [Inst. of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Science (ATOMKI), Debreccen (Hungary); Rudd, M.E. [Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
1999-07-01
We have investigated the energy and angular distributions of the low energy electron emission in a pure three-body ion-atom collision involving atomic hydrogen as target. The double differential ionization cross sections have been measured for C{sup 6+}+H ({nu} = 6-10 a.u.). The CDW-EIS calculations provide an excellent agreement with the data except some discrepancies in the backward angles. These observations clearly show that the two center mechanism plays a major role in emission of low energy electrons. (orig.)
Possible large CP violation in three-body decays of heavy baryon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhen-Hua Zhang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We propose a new mechanism which can introduce large CP asymmetries in the phase spaces of three-body decays of heavy baryons. In this mechanism, a large CP asymmetry is induced by the interference of two intermediate resonances, which subsequently decay into two different combinations of final particles. We apply this mechanism to the decay channel Λb0→pπ0π−, and find that the differential CP asymmetry can reach as large as 50%, while the regional CP asymmetry can reach as large as 16% in the interference region of the phase space.
Continuous atom laser with Bose-Einstein condensates involving three-body interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carpentier, A V; Michinel, H; Novoa, D [Area de Optica, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 (Spain); Olivieri, D N, E-mail: avcarpentier@uvigo.e [Area de Linguaxes e sistemas informaticos, Escola Superior de EnxenerIa Informatica, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 (Spain)
2010-05-28
We demonstrate, through numerical simulations, the emission of a coherent continuous matter wave of constant amplitude from a Bose-Einstein condensate in a shallow optical dipole trap. The process is achieved by spatial control of the variations of the scattering length along the trapping axis, including elastic three-body interactions due to dipole interactions. In our approach, the outcoupling mechanism is atomic interactions, and thus, the trap remains unaltered. We calculate analytically the parameters for the experimental implementation of this continuous wave atom laser.
On the motion of classical three-body system with consideration of quantum fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gevorkyan, A. S., E-mail: g-ashot@sci.am [NAS of RA, Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems (Armenia)
2017-03-15
We obtained the systemof stochastic differential equations which describes the classicalmotion of the three-body system under influence of quantum fluctuations. Using SDEs, for the joint probability distribution of the total momentum of bodies system were obtained the partial differential equation of the second order. It is shown, that the equation for the probability distribution is solved jointly by classical equations, which in turn are responsible for the topological peculiarities of tubes of quantum currents, transitions between asymptotic channels and, respectively for arising of quantum chaos.
Three-body structure of low-lying {sup 18}Ne states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lay, J.A. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus C (Denmark); Garrido, E.; Romero-Redondo, C. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain)
2010-05-15
We investigate to what extent {sup 18}Ne can be descibed as a three-body system made of an inert {sup 16}O core and two protons. We compare to experimental data and occasionally to shell model results. We obtain three-body wave functions with the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method. We study the spectrum of {sup 18}Ne, the structure of the different states and the predominant transition strengths. Two 0{sup +}, two 2{sup +}, and one 4{sup +} bound states are found where they are all known experimentally. Also one 3{sup +} close to threshold is found and several negative-parity states, 1{sup -}, 3{sup -}, 0{sup -}, 2{sup -}, most of them bound with respect to the {sup 16}O excited 3{sup -} state. The structures are extracted as partial-wave components, as spatial sizes of matter and charge, and as probability distributions. Electromagnetic decay rates are calculated for these states. The dominating decay mode for the bound states is E2 and occasionally also M1. (orig.)
Coulomb Fourier transformation: A novel approach to three-body scattering with charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alt, E.O.; Levin, S.B.; Yakovlev, S.L.
2004-01-01
A unitary transformation of the three-body Hamiltonian which describes a system of two charged and one neutral particles is constructed such that the Coulomb potential which acts between the charged particles is explicitly eliminated. The transformed Hamiltonian and, in particular, the transformed short-range pair interactions are worked out in detail. Thereby it is found that, after transformation, the short-range potentials acting between the neutral and either one of the charged particles become simply Fourier transformed but, in addition, multiplied by a function that represents the Coulombic three-body correlations originating from the action of the other charged particle on the considered pair. This function which is universal as it does not depend on any property of the short-range interaction is evaluated explicitly and its singularity structure is described in detail. In contrast, the short-range potential between the charged particles remains of two-body type but occurs now in the 'Coulomb representation'. Specific applications to Yukawa and Gaussian potentials are given. Since the Coulomb-Fourier-transformed Hamiltonian does no longer contain the Coulomb potential or any other effective interaction of long range, standard methods of short-range few-body scattering theory are applicable
6 Li and d + α scattering in a three-body momentum space Faddeev model (I)
Jin, Lei; Hlophe, Linda; Elster, Charlotte; Nogga, Andreas; Nunes, Filomena M.
2017-09-01
The (d , p) transfer reaction constitutes an important tool for extracting nuclear structure information such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients. In order to treat the dynamics in all reaction channels on the same footing, it is advantageous to view the (d , p) reaction as a three-body problem (n + p + A) within a Faddeev framework. Coulomb poses severe difficulties when studying these reactions on heavy nuclei with momentum space Faddeev equations. One way to address the challenges is to formulate the problem without screening and using separable interactions. An important first step in testing this formulation is to consider the ground state of 6Li, since this system has been studied in detail before within a three-body n + p + α ansatz. For the np interaction, we employ e.g. the CD-Bonn potential, and for n + α and p + α interactions Wood-Saxon type potentials. We introduce a projection method for the Pauli forbidden state which acts only in the relevant subsystem and thus leaves the structure of the Faddeev equations unaltered. Results for the energy and structure of the 6Li ground state will be presented for both the separable and non-separable approaches. Our results demonstrate the accuracy of the separable approach. Supported in part by the U.S. NSF under Contract PHY-1520972 and PHY-1520929, and U.S. DoE under Contract DE-FG02-93ER40756.
Continuation of periodic orbits in the Sun-Mercury elliptic restricted three-body problem
Peng, Hao; Bai, Xiaoli; Xu, Shijie
2017-06-01
Starting from resonant Halo orbits in the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CRTBP), Multi-revolution Elliptic Halo (ME-Halo) orbits around L1 and L2 points in the Sun-Mercury Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem (ERTBP) are generated systematically. Three pairs of resonant parameters M5N2, M7N3 and M9N4 are tested. The first pair shows special features and is investigated in detail. Three separated characteristic curves of periodic orbit around each libration point are obtained, showing the eccentricity varies non-monotonically along these curves. The eccentricity of the Sun-Mercury system can be achieved by continuation method in just a few cases. The stability analysis shows that these orbits are all unstable and the complex instability occurs with certain parameters. This paper shows new periodic orbits in both the CRTBP and the ERTBP. Totally four periodic orbits with parameters M5N2 around each libration points are extracted in the Sun-Mercury ERTBP.
Two- and three-body fragmentation of CO 2 + induced by intense ultrashort laser pulses
Rajput, Jyoti; Ablikim, U.; Zohrabi, M.; Jochim, Bethany; Berry, Ben; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.
2016-05-01
We have studied the fragmentation dynamics of a CO2+molecular-ion beam in the strong-field regime using >= 32 fs laser pulses (about 795 nm and 1x 1016 W/ cm2) . A coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging method was used to measure all ionic and neutral fragments formed during this multiphoton process. The angular distributions for the dominant two-body fragmentation channels CO+ + O, CO2+ + O and CO+ + O+ show two features, one predominantly aligned with the polarization axis and the other close to isotropic. The angular distributions for the three-body channels C+ + O+ + O and C+ + O+ + O+, populated via dissociative ionization, show the polarization axis lying preferentially in the molecular plane. We will discuss the kinetic energy release, angular distributions and relative production probability of the observed two- and three-body fragmentation channels. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. BJ was also supported by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05- 06OR23100).
Exact Analytical Solutions in Three-Body Problems and Model of Neutrino Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takibayev N.Zh.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Exact analytic solutions are obtained in three-body problem for the scattering of light particle on the subsystem of two ﬁxed centers in the case when pair potentials have a separable form. Solutions show an appearance of new resonance states and dependence of resonance energy and width on distance between two ﬁxed centers. The approach of exact analytical solutions is expanded to the cases when two-body scattering amplitudes have the Breit-Wigner’s form and employed for description of neutron resonance scattering on subsystem of two heavy nuclei ﬁxed in nodes of crystalline lattice. It is shown that some resonance states have widths close to zero at the certain values of distance between two heavy scatterer centers, this gives the possibility of transitions between states. One of these transitions between three-body resonance states could be connected with process of electron capture by proton with formation of neutron and emission of neutrino. This exoenergic process leading to the cooling of star without nuclear reactions is discussed.
Periodic orbits for space-based reflectors in the circular restricted three-body problem
Salazar, F. J. T.; McInnes, C. R.; Winter, O. C.
2017-05-01
The use of space-based orbital reflectors to increase the total insolation of the Earth has been considered with potential applications in night-side illumination, electric power generation and climate engineering. Previous studies have demonstrated that families of displaced Earth-centered and artificial halo orbits may be generated using continuous propulsion, e.g. solar sails. In this work, a three-body analysis is performed by using the circular restricted three body problem, such that, the space mirror attitude reflects sunlight in the direction of Earth's center, increasing the total insolation. Using the Lindstedt-Poincaré and differential corrector methods, a family of halo orbits at artificial Sun-Earth L_2 points are found. It is shown that the third order approximation does not yield real solutions after the reflector acceleration exceeds 0.245 mm s^{-2}, i.e. the analytical expressions for the in- and out-of-plane amplitudes yield imaginary values. Thus, a larger solar reflector acceleration is required to obtain periodic orbits closer to the Earth. Derived using a two-body approach and applying the differential corrector method, a family of displaced periodic orbits close to the Earth are therefore found, with a solar reflector acceleration of 2.686 mm s^{-2}.
Emerging bosons with three-body interactions from spin-1 atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazza, L.; Rizzi, M.; Cirac, J. I.; Lewenstein, M.
2010-01-01
We study two many-body systems of bosons interacting via an infinite three-body contact repulsion in a lattice: a pairs quasicondensate induced by correlated hopping and the discrete version of the Pfaffian wave function. We propose to experimentally realize systems characterized by such interaction by means of a proper spin-1 lattice Hamiltonian: spin degrees of freedom are locally mapped into occupation numbers of emerging bosons, in a fashion similar to spin-1/2 and hardcore bosons. Such a system can be realized with ultracold spin-1 atoms in a Mott insulator with a filling factor of 1. The high versatility of these setups allows us to engineer spin-hopping operators breaking the SU(2) symmetry, as needed to approximate interesting bosonic Hamiltonians with three-body hardcore constraint. For this purpose we combine bichromatic spin-independent superlattices and Raman transitions to induce a different hopping rate for each spin orientation. Finally, we illustrate how our setup could be used to experimentally realize the first setup, that is, the transition to a pairs quasicondensed phase of the emerging bosons. We also report on a route toward the realization of a discrete bosonic Pfaffian wave function and list some open problems for reaching this goal.
Equilibrium configurations of the tethered three-body formation system and their nonlinear dynamics
Xu, Ming; Zhu, Jian-Min; Tan, Tian; Xu, Shi-Jie
2012-12-01
This paper considers nonlinear dynamics of tethered three-body formation system with their centre of mass staying on a circular orbit around the Earth, and applies the theory of space manifold dynamics to deal with the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of the equilibrium configurations of the system. Compared with the classical circular restricted three body system, sixteen equilibrium configurations are obtained globally from the geometry of pseudo-potential energy surface, four of which were omitted in the previous research. The periodic Lyapunov orbits and their invariant manifolds near the hyperbolic equilibria are presented, and an iteration procedure for identifying Lyapunov orbit is proposed based on the differential correction algorithm. The non-transversal intersections between invariant manifolds are addressed to generate homoclinic and heteroclinic trajectories between the Lyapunov orbits. (3,3)-and (2,1)-heteroclinic trajectories from the neighborhood of one collinear equilibrium to that of another one, and (3,6)- and (2,1)-homoclinic trajectories from and to the neighborhood of the same equilibrium, are obtained based on the Poincaré mapping technique.
Three-body problem in d-dimensional space: Ground state, (quasi)-exact-solvability
Turbiner, Alexander V.; Miller, Willard; Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.
2018-02-01
As a straightforward generalization and extension of our previous paper [A. V. Turbiner et al., "Three-body problem in 3D space: Ground state, (quasi)-exact-solvability," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 50, 215201 (2017)], we study the aspects of the quantum and classical dynamics of a 3-body system with equal masses, each body with d degrees of freedom, with interaction depending only on mutual (relative) distances. The study is restricted to solutions in the space of relative motion which are functions of mutual (relative) distances only. It is shown that the ground state (and some other states) in the quantum case and the planar trajectories (which are in the interaction plane) in the classical case are of this type. The quantum (and classical) Hamiltonian for which these states are eigenfunctions is derived. It corresponds to a three-dimensional quantum particle moving in a curved space with special d-dimension-independent metric in a certain d-dependent singular potential, while at d = 1, it elegantly degenerates to a two-dimensional particle moving in flat space. It admits a description in terms of pure geometrical characteristics of the interaction triangle which is defined by the three relative distances. The kinetic energy of the system is d-independent; it has a hidden sl(4, R) Lie (Poisson) algebra structure, alternatively, the hidden algebra h(3) typical for the H3 Calogero model as in the d = 3 case. We find an exactly solvable three-body S3-permutationally invariant, generalized harmonic oscillator-type potential as well as a quasi-exactly solvable three-body sextic polynomial type potential with singular terms. For both models, an extra first order integral exists. For d = 1, the whole family of 3-body (two-dimensional) Calogero-Moser-Sutherland systems as well as the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz model is reproduced. It is shown that a straightforward generalization of the 3-body (rational) Calogero model to d > 1 leads to two primitive quasi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magli, R.; Fredrikze, H.; Barocchi, F.
1991-01-01
We present an analysis of the density dependence of the static structure factor in low density 36 Ar gas at T = 140 K, from which we derive the three-body contribution. Within the experimental accuracy, the three-body contribution in the linear density expansion for the Fourier transform of the direct correlation function C(k) agrees, for 3 -1 , with theoretical calculations based on a pair potential and the Axilrod-Teller three-body potential, eventually modified for short-range effects; for k -1 the neutron diffraction data show a behaviour significantly different with respect to the theoretical predictions
Time-frequency analysis of the restricted three-body problem: transport and resonance transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vela-Arevalo, Luz V; Marsden, Jerrold E
2004-01-01
A method of time-frequency analysis based on wavelets is applied to the problem of transport between different regions of the solar system, using the model of the circular restricted three-body problem in both the planar and the spatial versions of the problem. The method is based on the extraction of instantaneous frequencies from the wavelet transform of numerical solutions. Time-varying frequencies provide a good diagnostic tool to discern chaotic trajectories from regular ones, and we can identify resonance islands that greatly affect the dynamics. Good accuracy in the calculation of time-varying frequencies allows us to determine resonance trappings of chaotic trajectories and resonance transitions. We show the relation between resonance transitions and transport in different regions of the phase space
Fractographic and three body abrasion behaviour of Al-Garnet-C hybrid chill cast composites
Bandekar, Nityanand; Prasad, M. G. Anantha
2017-08-01
Fractographic and tribological behaviour of hybrid composite of aluminum alloy LM13 matrix with garnet and carbon was investigated. Conventional stir casting technique was used to fabricate the composites with chill cast technique. Various chill materials like Copper, Steel, Iron and Silicon carbide were used to improve the directional solidification. The garnet being added ranges from 3 to 12 wt-% in steps of 3wt-% and constant 3wt-% of carbon. The experiment evaluates the mechanical, fractographic and three body abrasion behaviour of the hybrid composites for various parameters of load, garnet and chills. Microstructural characterization of the composite samples revealed a uniform distribution of reinforcements with minimum clustering. SEM was used for examine worn surfaces. The addition of garnet and carbon reinforcement decreases the wear rate of hybrid composites. Fracture behaviour showed the changes from ductile mode to brittle mode of failure. Further, directional chilling with copper chill improves the wear resistance of the composites.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremenko, Vasily; Pastukhova, Tatiana; Chabak, Yuliia; Efremenko, Alexey; Shimizu, Kazumichi; Kusumoto, Kenta; Brykov, Michail
2018-01-01
The effect of heat treatment and chromium contents (up to 9.1 wt.%) on the wear resistance of spheroidal carbide cast iron (9.5 wt.% V) was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, dilatometry and three-body abrasive testing. It was found that quenching from 760 C and 920 C improved the alloys' wear resistance compared to the as-cast state due to the formation of metastable austenite transforming into martensite under abrasion. The wear characteristics of alloys studied are 1.6 - 2.3 times higher than that of reference cast iron (12 wt.% V) having stable austenitic matrix. Chromium addition decreases surface damage due to the formation of M_7C_3 carbides, while it reduces wear resistance owing to austenite stabilization to abrasion-induced martensite transformation. The superposition of these factors results in decreasing the alloys' wear behaviour with chromium content increase.
Shape space figure-8 solution of three body problem with two equal masses
Yu, Guowei
2017-06-01
In a preprint by Montgomery (https://people.ucsc.edu/~rmont/Nbdy.html), the author attempted to prove the existence of a shape space figure-8 solution of the Newtonian three body problem with two equal masses (it looks like a figure 8 in the shape space, which is different from the famous figure-8 solution with three equal masses (Chenciner and Montgomery 2000 Ann. Math. 152 881-901)). Unfortunately there is an error in the proof and the problem is still open. Consider the α-homogeneous Newton-type potential, 1/rα, using action minimization method, we prove the existence of this solution, for α \\in (1, 2) ; for α=1 (the Newtonian potential), an extra condition is required, which unfortunately seems hard to verify at this moment.
B+ → K− π+ π+: Three-Body Final State Interactions and Kπ Isospin States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogueira, J. H. Alvarenga; Frederico, T.; Lourenço, O.
2017-01-01
In this exploratory study, final state interactions are considered to formulate the B meson decay amplitude for the Kππ channel. The Faddeev decomposition of the Bethe–Salpeter equation is used in order to build a relativistic three-body model within the light-front framework. The S-wave scattering amplitude for the Kπ system is considered in the 1/2 and 3/2 isospin channels with the set of inhomogeneous integral equations solved perturbatively. In comparison with previous results for the D meson decay in the same channel, one has to consider the different partonic processes, which build the source amplitudes, and the larger absorption to other decay channels appears, that are important features to be addressed. As in the D decay case, the convergence of the rescattering perturbative series is also achieved with two-loop contributions. (author)
Motions of Kepler circumbinary planets in restricted three-body problem under radiating primaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dermawan, B., E-mail: budider@as.itb.ac.id; Hidayat, T., E-mail: taufiq@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Huda, I. N., E-mail: ibnu.nurul@students.itb.ac.id; Mandey, D., E-mail: mandey.de@gmail.com; Utama, J. A., E-mail: judhistira@yahoo.com; Tampubolon, I., E-mail: ihsan.tampubolon@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Wibowo, R. W., E-mail: ridlo.w.wibowo@gmail.com [Department of Computational Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
By observing continuously a single field of view in the sky, Kepler mission reveals outstanding results on discoveries of exoplanets. One of its recent progress is the discoveries of circumbinary planets. A circumbinary planet is an exoplanet that moves around a binary system. In this study we investigate motions of Kepler circumbinary planets belong to six binary systems, namely Kepler-16, -34, -35, -38, -47, and -413. The motions are considered to follow the Restricted Three-Body Problem (RTBP). Because the primaries (central massive objects) are stars, they are both radiatives, while the planet is an infinitesimal object. The primaries move in nearly circular and elliptic orbits with respect to their center of masses. We describe, in general, motions of the circumbinary planets in RTBP under radiating primaries. With respect to the averaged zero velocity curves, we show that motions of the exoplanets are stable, in accordance with their Hill stabilities.
Tails and bridges in the parabolic restricted three-body problem
Barrabés, Esther; Cors, Josep M.; Garcia-Taberner, Laura; Ollé, Mercè
2017-12-01
After a close encounter of two galaxies, bridges and tails can be seen between or around them. A bridge would be a spiral arm between a galaxy and its companion, whereas a tail would correspond to a long and curving set of debris escaping from the galaxy. The goal of this paper is to present a mechanism, applying techniques of dynamical systems theory, that explains the formation of tails and bridges between galaxies in a simple model, the so-called parabolic restricted three-body problem, i.e. we study the motion of a particle under the gravitational influence of two primaries describing parabolic orbits. The equilibrium points and the final evolutions in this problem are recalled,and we show that the invariant manifolds of the collinear equilibrium points and the ones of the collision manifold explain the formation of bridges and tails. Massive numerical simulations are carried out and their application to recover previous results are also analysed.
Efimov states and bound state properties in selected nuclear and molecular three-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huber, H.S.
1978-01-01
The search is made among selected three-body systems for possible Efimov state behavior. In order to carry out this analysis of phenomenological potentials a new mathematical approach, the FCM (Faddeev-coordinate-momentum) technique, is developed. The analysis then proceeds through the framework of the Faddeev equations by employing the UPE (unitary pole expansion) to reduce these equations to numerically feasible form. The systems chosen for analysis are the 4 He trimer and the three-α model of 12 C. Efimov states are not found in 12 C, thus answering speculation among nuclear theorists. The 4 He trimer, on the other hand, manifests Efimov states for each potential considered and the characteristics of these states are extensively analyzed. Since Efimov states are predicted by all of the phenomenological potentials considered, these states would seem to be a realistically fundamental property of the 4 He trimer system
Combined mean-field and three-body model tested on the 26O nucleus
Hove, D.; Garrido, E.; Sarriguren, P.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Jensen, A. S.; Zinner, N. T.
2017-06-01
We combine few- and many-body degrees of freedom in a new computationally efficient model applicable to both bound and continuum states and adaptable to different subfields of physics. We formulate a self-consistent three-body model for a core nucleus surrounded by two valence nucleons, where the core is treated in the mean-field approximation and the same effective Skyrme interaction is used between both core and valence nucleons. We apply the model to 26O, where we reproduce the known experimental data as well as phenomenological models with more parameters. The decay of the ground state is found to proceed directly into the continuum without effect of the virtual sequential decay through the well-reproduced d3 /2 resonance of 25O.
Measurements of Charmless Three-Body and Quasi-Two-Body B Decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrera, Barbara
2000-08-28
The authors present preliminary results of a search for several exclusive charmless hadronic B decays from electron-positron annihilation data collected by the BaBar detector near the Upsilon(4S) resonance. These include three-body decay modes with final states h{+-}h{sup minus-plus}h{+-} and h{+-}h{sup minus-plus}pi{sup 0}, and quasi-two-body decay modes with final states X{sup 0}h and X{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}, where h = pi or K and X{sup 0} = eta-prime or omega. They find beta(B{sup 0} --> rho{sup minus-plus}pi{sup {+-}}) = (49{+-}13{sub {minus}5}{sup +6}) x 10{sup {minus}6} and beta(B{sup +} --> eta-prime-K{sup +}) = (62{+-}18{+-}8) x 10{sup {minus}6} and present upper limits for right other decays.
Three-body decays B →ϕ (ρ )K γ in perturbative QCD approach
Wang, Chao; Liu, Jing-Bin; Li, Hsiang-nan; Lü, Cai-Dian
2018-02-01
We study the three-body radiative decays B →ϕ (ρ )K γ induced by a flavor-changing neutral current in the perturbative QCD approach. Pseudoscalar-vector (P V ) distribution amplitudes (DAs) are introduced for the final-state ϕ K (ρ K ) pair to capture important infrared dynamics in the region with a small P V -pair invariant mass. The dependence of these P V DAs on the parton momentum fraction is parametrized in terms of the Gegenbauer polynomials, and the dependence on the meson momentum fraction is derived through their normalizations to timelike P V form factors. In addition to the dominant electromagnetic penguin, the subleading chromomagnetic penguin, quark-loop and annihilation diagrams are also calculated. After determining the P V DAs from relevant branching-ratio data, the direct C P asymmetries and decay spectra in the P V -pair invariant mass are predicted for each B →ϕ (ρ )K γ mode.
On an efficient and accurate method to integrate restricted three-body orbits
Murison, Marc A.
1989-01-01
This work is a quantitative analysis of the advantages of the Bulirsch-Stoer (1966) method, demonstrating that this method is certainly worth considering when working with small N dynamical systems. The results, qualitatively suspected by many users, are quantitatively confirmed as follows: (1) the Bulirsch-Stoer extrapolation method is very fast and moderately accurate; (2) regularization of the equations of motion stabilizes the error behavior of the method and is, of course, essential during close approaches; and (3) when applicable, a manifold-correction algorithm reduces numerical errors to the limits of machine accuracy. In addition, for the specific case of the restricted three-body problem, even a small eccentricity for the orbit of the primaries drastically affects the accuracy of integrations, whether regularized or not; the circular restricted problem integrates much more accurately.
Schultz, Sabine; Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Handel, Gerhard
2010-01-01
To compare wear performance and resistance to crack propagation (K1C) of commercial restorative materials and their flowable variations. A potential correlation between three-body wear and fracture toughness, modulus of elasticity, fracture work, Vickers hardness, and filler content was investigated. Seven restoratives (five composites, one ormocer, and one compomer) and their corresponding flowable materials were used to determine and compare the three-body wear with a bolus of millet-seed shells and rice food (Willytec). The wear characteristics were measured by profilometry after 50,000, 100,000, 150,000, and 200,000 loading cycles. The fracture toughness value, K1C (MPam1/2), for each single-edged notched specimen was measured in a three-point bending test (universal testing machine 1446, Zwick). Fracture work and modulus of elasticity were calculated from the load curves. Vickers hardness was measured (HV hardness tester, Zwick) according to DIN 50133. The veneering composite Sinfony (3M ESPE) was used as a reference material. Heavily filled composites experienced less wear than their flowable variations. The nanofiller composites revealed better wear results than hybrid composites, compomers, and ormocers. After 200,000 load cycles, the lowest wear rates were detected for Grandio (14 microm; Voco), and the highest mean values were found for Dyract AP (104 microm; Dentsply DeTrey). The values for fracture toughness (K1C) ranged from 0.82 to 3.64 MPam1/2. Highest K1C data was exhibited by the nanocomposite Nanopaq (Schutz Dental). All tested restorative materials exhibited higher fracture toughness than their low-viscosity variations. The wear resistance of the newer generation composites with incorporated nanofiller or microfiller particles increased to a high extent. Flowables show less resistance against wear and crack propagation because of their lower filler content. The reduced mechanical properties limit their use as a restorative to small noncontact
Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.
2004-05-17
Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.
Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paris Mark W.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN. The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n and (n; n-α to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1 nucleon-nucleon (NN anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = 3−2${{{3^ - }} \\over 2}$ and first excited state (Jπ = 1−2${{{1^ - }} \\over 2}$ of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.
Properties of three-body decay functions derived with time-like jet calculus beyond leading order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugiura, Tetsuya
2002-01-01
Three-body decay functions in time-like parton branching are calculated using the jet calculus to the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The phase space contributions from each of the ladder diagrams and interference diagrams are presented. We correct part of the results for the three-body decay functions calculated previously by two groups. Employing our new results, the properties of the three-body decay functions in the regions of soft partons are examined numerically. Furthermore, we examine the contribution of the three-body decay functions modified by the restriction resulting from the kinematical boundary of the phase space for two-body decay in the parton shower model. This restriction leads to some problems for the parton shower model. For this reason, we propose a new restriction introduced by the kinematical boundary of the phase space for two-body decay. (author)
Observation of the Borromean Three-Body Förster Resonances for Three Interacting Rb Rydberg Atoms.
Tretyakov, D B; Beterov, I I; Yakshina, E A; Entin, V M; Ryabtsev, I I; Cheinet, P; Pillet, P
2017-10-27
Three-body Förster resonances at long-range interactions of Rydberg atoms were first predicted and observed in Cs Rydberg atoms by Faoro et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 8173 (2015)NCAOBW2041-172310.1038/ncomms9173]. In these resonances, one of the atoms carries away an energy excess preventing the two-body resonance, leading thus to a Borromean type of Förster energy transfer. But they were in fact observed as the average signal for the large number of atoms N≫1. In this Letter, we report on the first experimental observation of the three-body Förster resonances 3×nP_{3/2}(|M|)→nS_{1/2}+(n+1)S_{1/2}+nP_{3/2}(|M^{*}|) in a few Rb Rydberg atoms with n=36, 37. We have found here clear evidence that there is no signature of the three-body Förster resonance for exactly two interacting Rydberg atoms, while it is present for N=3-5 atoms. This demonstrates the assumption that three-body resonances can generalize to any Rydberg atom. As such resonance represents an effective three-body operator, it can be used to directly control the three-body interactions in quantum simulations and quantum information processing with Rydberg atoms.
Salomone, Salvatore; Piazza, Cateno; Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Cardì, Francesco; Gugliotta, Barbara; Drago, Filippo
2014-02-01
To assess the relative bioavailability of a new subcutaneous (SC) diclofenac hydroxypropyl b-cyclodextrin (HPbCD) formulation administered to three body sites: quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. This was a pilot, single-dose, randomized, three-way crossover relative bioavailability study. A total of 12 healthy subjects received a single SC injection of diclofenac HPbCD 50 mg/1 mL in the quadriceps, gluteus, or abdomen. The AUC was comparable after SC diclofenac HPbCD in the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. The Cmax was comparable after SC administration in the quadriceps or abdomen, and ~ 17% higher in the gluteus. The absorption was rapid (30 minutes) after administration of the treatment at any site. The treatment was well tolerated. The relative bioavailability of SC diclofenac HPbCD was comparable when administered to the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. The new diclofenac formulation can therefore be administered subcutaneously to any of these sites without clinically significant differences. A further adequately powered study would be necessary to reveal any differences among injection sites in terms of peak plasma concentration.
On the difficulties of a single three-body Lippmann-Schwinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawada, Tatsuro; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Thushima, Kathuhide.
1991-01-01
First, we point out that the often quoted non-uniqueness argument on a single three-body Lippmann-Schwinger equation (the LS equation) is either not valid because the manipulation leading to it is not justifiable, or inconsequential because the non-uniqueness can easily be discerned and eliminated. Next, we discuss the property of the kernel with energy independent absorbing potentials (EIAP) of general forms. We find that the use of EIAP as in the CDCC approach dose not make the kernel compact. It remains non-compact no matter what we use for two-body potentials. Finally, we investigate in what sense the LS equation is solvable in terms of the CDCC approach. When the wave function inside the right-hand side (RHS) of the LS equation is restricted to a small CDCC model space, the difference between the RHS and the ordinary asymptotic form assumed in the approach is found to diverge asymptotically due to contributions from higher partial waves. We conclude that the CDCC solution cannot be claimed to be the solution to the LS equation, not unless it is restricted to a small model space. (author)
On the triad of three-body Lippmann-Schwinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawada, Tatsuro; Thushima, Kathuhide; Miyagawa, Kazuya.
1990-01-01
The equivalence problem between the Faddeev equation and the usual triad of three-body Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equations (LS triad) is re-investigated. We maintain that the LS triad does not qualify as an integral equation since its integral kernel is not uniquely defined. We give a derivation of the LS triad that is truly equivalent to the Faddeev equation (FE-LS triad) in a manner in which the correspondence to the Faddeev equation is apparent. The relation between the Faddeev components and the solution of the FE-LS triad is clarified. By probing this relation, we derive an identity that is satisfied by the solution of the LS triad, and which corresponds to the projection property of adjoint Moeller operators as formulated by Sandhas. We find that this identity is a consequence of more fundamental identities satisfied by the Faddeev components. We conclude that although the usual LS triad is a valid relation satisfied by the solution of the FE-LS triad, it is not truly equivalent to the Faddeev equation. In particular, even in the absence of rearrangement channels, we find it necessary to retain the FE-LS triad. (author)
Spectroscopy of {sup 12}C within the boundary condition for three-body resonant states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurokawa, Chie [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: chie@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Kato, Kiyoshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)
2007-08-01
The 3{alpha}-cluster structure of excited states in {sup 12}C is investigated by taking into account the correct boundary condition for three-body resonant states. In this study, we adopt the Complex Scaling Method (CSM), which enables us to obtain the resonant states that can be described as square integrable states with the same boundary conditions as those of the bound states, and calculate not only resonance energies but also the total decay widths of the 3{alpha} system. We compare the calculated resonance parameters to the experimental data and also to the previous 3{alpha} model results obtained with a bound state approximation. Our results well explain the many observed levels and give an assurance for the presence of the second 2{sup +} state, which is expected by the 3{alpha} model calculations with the approximations of bound state or two-body scattering. As for the negative-parity states, it is considered that the calculated 4{sup -} state is assigned to the observed E{sub x}=13.4MeV state. Through the calculation of channel amplitudes, the obtained third 0{sup +} state is found to have a s-wave dominant and a more dilute structure compared to the second 0{sup +} state.
Three-body interactions in liquid and solid hydrogen: Evidence from vibrational spectroscopy
Hinde, Robert
2008-03-01
In the cryogenic low-density liquid and solid phases of H2 and D2, the H2 and D2 molecules retain good rotational and vibrational quantum numbers that characterize their internal degrees of freedom. High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopic experiments provide extremely sensitive probes of these degrees of freedom. We present here fully-first-principles calculations of the infrared and Raman spectra of liquid and solid H2 and D2, calculations that employ a high-quality six-dimensional coupled-cluster H2-H2 potential energy surface and quantum Monte Carlo treatments of the single-molecule translational degrees of freedom. The computed spectra agree very well with experimental results once we include three-body interactions among the molecules, interactions which we also compute using coupled-cluster quantum chemical methods. We predict the vibrational spectra of liquid and solid H2 at several temperatures and densities to provide a framework for interpreting recent experiments designed to search for superfluid behavior in small H2 droplets. We also present preliminary calculations of the spectra of mixed H2/D2 solids that show how positional disorder affects the spectral line shapes in these systems.
Studies of $C\\!P$-violation in charmless three-body $b$-hadron decays
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00401396
Violation of combined charge and parity inversion ($C\\!P$) is a property of the Standard Model that results in a fundamental difference between particles and anti-particles. The single source of $C\\!P$-violation in the Standard Model is insufficient to explain the dominance of matter over anti-matter in the contemporary universe, however, thus far, there has been no clear observation of $C\\!P$-violation beyond the Standard Model. Constraints on various $C\\!P$-violating observables are now precise enough that these represent sensitive tests for physics beyond the Standard Model. This thesis firstly documents the observation of two three-body $b$-baryon decays, and measurements of their phase-space integrated $C\\!P$-asymmetries, which are some of the first to be performed on baryon decays. These measurements provide useful information on hadronisation in $b$-baryon decays, on the intermediate decay dynamics, and give a potential avenue to search for $C\\!P$-violation in baryon decays. An amplitude analysis of th...
Solving three-body-breakup problems with outgoing-flux asymptotic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randazzo, J. M.; Frapiccini, A. L.; Colavecchia, F. D.; Buezas, F.; Gasaneo, G.
2011-01-01
An analytically solvable three-body collision system (s wave) model is used to test two different theoretical methods. The first one is a configuration interaction expansion of the scattering wave function using a basis set of Generalized Sturmian Functions (GSF) with purely outgoing flux (CISF), introduced recently in A. L. Frapicinni, J. M. Randazzo, G. Gasaneo, and F. D. Colavecchia [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 101001 (2010)]. The second one is a finite element method (FEM) calculation performed with a commercial code. Both methods are employed to analyze different ways of modeling the asymptotic behavior of the wave function in finite computational domains. The asymptotes can be simulated very accurately by choosing hyperspherical or rectangular contours with the FEM software. In contrast, the CISF method can be defined both in an infinite domain or within a confined region in space. We found that the hyperspherical (rectangular) FEM calculation and the infinite domain (confined) CISF evaluation are equivalent. Finally, we apply these models to the Temkin-Poet approach of hydrogen ionization.
Three-body correlations in the decay of $^{10}$He and $^{13}$Li
Jonson, B; Cortina-Gil, D; Simon, H; Emling, H; Nyman, G; Nilsson, T; Johansson, H T; Borge, M J G; Paschalis, S; Muenzenberg, G; Zhukov, M V; Weick, H; Pramanik, U Datta; LeBleis, T; Meister, M; Reifarth, R; Chulkov, L V; Lantz, M; Riisager, K; Mahata, K; Suemmerer, K; Langer, C; Chatillon, A; Richter, A; Kulessa, R; Palit, R; Aksyutina, Yu; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Shulgina, N B; Prokopowicz, W; Forssen, C; Ickert, G; Fynbo, H O U; Tengblad, O; Boretzky, K
2010-01-01
The very exotic nuclear resonance systems. He-10 and Li-13, are produced in proton-knockout reactions from relativistic beams of Li-11 and Be-14. The experimentally determined energy and angular correlations between their decay products, He-8 + n + n and Li-11 + n + n, are analyzed using an expansion of decay amplitudes in a restricted set of hyperspherical harmonics. By considering only a small number of terms it is possible to extract the expansion coefficients directly from the experimental three-body correlations. This provides a model-independent way of getting information about the decay process. on the structure of the decaying nucleus and on the quantum characteristics of the binary subsystems The results show that the He-8 + n + n relative-energy spectrum can be interpreted as consisting of two resonances, an I-pi = 0(+) ground state and an excited I-pi = 2(+) state. The Li-11 + n + n relative-energy spectrum is interpreted as an I-pi = 3/2(-) ground state overlapping with excited states having a str...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hemanth Rajashekaraiah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Various amounts of short fibers (glass and carbon and particulate fillers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, silicon carbide (SiC, and alumina (Al2O3 were systematically introduced into the thermoplastic copolyester elastomer (TCE matrix for reinforcement purpose. The mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and Tan δ by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and three-body abrasive wear performance on a dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester have been investigated. For abrasive wear study, the experiments were planned according to L27 orthogonal array by considering three factors and three levels. The complex moduli for TCE hybrid composites were pushed to a higher level relative to the TCE filled PTFE composite. At lower temperatures (in the glassy region, the storage modulus increases with increase in wt.% of reinforcement (fiber + fillers and the value is maximum for the composite with 40 wt.% reinforcement. The loss modulus and damping peaks were also found to be higher by the incorporation of SiC and Al2O3 microfillers. The routine abrasive wear test results indicated that TCE filled PTFE composite exhibited better abrasion resistance. Improvements in the abrasion resistance, however, have not been achieved by short-fiber and particlaute filler reinforcements. From the Taguchi’s experimental findings, optimal combination of control factors were obtained for minimum wear volume and also predictive correlations were proposed. Further, the worn surface morphology of the samples was discussed.
L^1 -optimality conditions for the circular restricted three-body problem
Chen, Zheng
2016-11-01
In this paper, the L^1 -minimization for the translational motion of a spacecraft in the circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is considered. Necessary conditions are derived by using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP), revealing the existence of bang-bang and singular controls. Singular extremals are analyzed, recalling the existence of the Fuller phenomenon according to the theories developed in (Marchal in J Optim Theory Appl 11(5):441-486, 1973; Zelikin and Borisov in Theory of Chattering Control with Applications to Astronautics, Robotics, Economics, and Engineering. Birkhäuser, Basal 1994; in J Math Sci 114(3):1227-1344, 2003). The sufficient optimality conditions for the L^1 -minimization problem with fixed endpoints have been developed in (Chen et al. in SIAM J Control Optim 54(3):1245-1265, 2016). In the current paper, we establish second-order conditions for optimal control problems with more general final conditions defined by a smooth submanifold target. In addition, the numerical implementation to check these optimality conditions is given. Finally, approximating the Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system by the CRTBP, an L^1 -minimization trajectory for the translational motion of a spacecraft is computed by combining a shooting method with a continuation method in (Caillau et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 114:137-150, 2012; Caillau and Daoud in SIAM J Control Optim 50(6):3178-3202, 2012). The local optimality of the computed trajectory is asserted thanks to the second-order optimality conditions developed.
Study of charmless three-body decays of neutral B mesons with the LHCb spectrometer
Sobczak, Krzysztof Grzegorz
This thesis describes an exploratory work on three-body charmless neutral $B$ mesons decays containing either a $K_S$ or $\\pi^0$. The events are reconstructed with the LHCb spectrometer installed at Cern (Geneva, CH) recording the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The phenomenology of such modes is rich and covers the possibility to measure all angles of the unitarity triangle linked to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The single example of the $\\gamma$ measurement is explored in this document. The LHC accelerator and the most relevant sub-detector elements of the LHCb spectrometer are described in details. In particular, emphasis is given to the calorimetry system for which the calibration and alignment of the PreShower (PRS) of the electromagnetic calorimeter has been performed. We used particles at minimum ionisation deposit for such a task. The calibration results until year 2011 are reported as well as the method of the PS alignment with respect to the tra...
Three bodies of practice in a traditional South Indian martial art.
Zarrilli, P B
1989-01-01
This paper describes three interconnected conceptions of the body in kalarippayattu, the martial tradition of Kerala, South India. It traces continuities and discontinuities among concepts and practices recorded in classic source texts and contemporary martial practice for each of the three 'bodies of practice'. The first is the fluid body of humors and saps. The second is the body as superstructure composed of bones, muscles, and vital spots (marma-s), which supports the fluid body. The concepts and practices of the first two bodies are based on the regional tradition of Ayurveda. They constitute the external physical body (sthula-śarira). The third, subtle or interior body (suksma-śarira) is thought to be encased within the physical body. It provides an experiential map of practice and is the basis for higher stages of meditation. The long-term practice of the martial art (1) makes the body fluid so that healthful congruence of the humors occurs, (2) establishes an intuitive and practical knowledge of vital points (marma) useful in fighting (prayogam) and in treating injuries, and (3) purifies the subtle body and awakens the internal vital energy (prana-vayu) that is manifest as the power (śakti) of the master in combat or medical practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the interrelationship between these three concepts of the body in the accomplished practice of the martial practitioner.
Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System in the Restricted Three-Body Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey V. Ershkov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3 bodies in regard to each other. Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in detail the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m3 around the 2nd of two giant-bodies m1, m2 (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories, the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumptions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2nd giant-body m2 (planet and the centre of mass of 3rd body (moon with additional effective mass ξ·m2 placed in that centre of mass ξ·m2+m3, where ξ is the dimensionless dynamical parameter. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass ξ·m2+m3 it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-elliptic orbit of 3rd body (moon around the 2nd body m2 (planet for most of the moons of the planets in Solar System.
The rectilinear three-body problem as a basis for studying highly eccentric systems
Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Gaitanas, M.
2018-01-01
The rectilinear elliptic restricted three-body problem (TBP) is the limiting case of the elliptic restricted TBP when the motion of the primaries is described by a Keplerian ellipse with eccentricity e'=1, but the collision of the primaries is assumed to be a non-singular point. The rectilinear model has been proposed as a starting model for studying the dynamics of motion around highly eccentric binary systems. Broucke (AIAA J 7:1003-1009, 1969) explored the rectilinear problem and obtained isolated periodic orbits for mass parameter μ =0.5 (equal masses of the primaries). We found that all orbits obtained by Broucke are linearly unstable. We extend Broucke's computations by using a finer search for symmetric periodic orbits and computing their linear stability. We found a large number of periodic orbits, but only eight of them were found to be linearly stable and are associated with particular mean motion resonances. These stable orbits are used as generating orbits for continuation with respect to μ and e'systems of very highly eccentric orbits can be found in stable resonant configurations. As an application we present a stability study for the planetary system HD7449.
Ni, Xiao-Ting; Wu, Xin
2014-10-01
The time-transformed leapfrog scheme of Mikkola & Aarseth was specifically designed for a second-order differential equation with two individually separable forms of positions and velocities. It can have good numerical accuracy for extremely close two-body encounters in gravitating few-body systems with large mass ratios, but the non-time-transformed one does not work well. Following this idea, we develop a new explicit symplectic integrator with an adaptive time step that can be applied to a time-dependent Hamiltonian. Our method relies on a time step function having two distinct but equivalent forms and on the inclusion of two pairs of new canonical conjugate variables in the extended phase space. In addition, the Hamiltonian must be modified to be a new time-transformed Hamiltonian with three integrable parts. When this method is applied to the elliptic restricted three-body problem, its numerical precision is explicitly higher by several orders of magnitude than the nonadaptive one's, and its numerical stability is also better. In particular, it can eliminate the overestimation of Lyapunov exponents and suppress the spurious rapid growth of fast Lyapunov indicators for high-eccentricity orbits of a massless third body. The present technique will be useful for conservative systems including N-body problems in the Jacobian coordinates in the the field of solar system dynamics, and nonconservative systems such as a time-dependent barred galaxy model in a rotating coordinate system.
Studies of continuum states in${16}$ Ne using three-body correlation techniques
Marganiec, J; Aksouh, F; Aksyutina, Yu; Alvarez-Pol, H; Aumann, T; Beceiro-Novo, S; Boretzky, K; Borge, M J G; Chartier, M; Chatillon, A; Chulkov, L V; Cortina-Gil, D; Emling, H; Ershova, O; Fraile, L M; Fynbo, H O U; Galaviz, D; Geissel, H; Heil, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Hoffmann, J; Johansson, H T; Jonson, B; Karagiannis, C; Kiselev, O A; Kratz, J V; Kulessa, R; Kurz, N; Langer, C; Lantz, M; Le Bleis, T; Lemmon, R; Litvinov, Yu A; Mahata, K; Müntz, C; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Nyman, G; Ott, W; Panin, V; Paschalis, S; Perea, A; Plag, R; Reifarth, R; Richter, A; Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Rossi, D; Riisager, K; Savran, D; Schrieder, G; Simon, H; Stroth, J; Sümmerer, K; Tengblad, O; Weick, H; Wiescher, M; Wimmer, C; Zhukov, M V
2015-01-01
Two-proton decay of the unbound $ T_{z} =-2$ nucleus$^{16}$Ne , produced in one-neutron knockout from a 500 MeV/u$^{17}$Ne beam, has been studied at GSI. The ground state, at a resonance energy 1.388(15) MeV, ( $ \\Gamma =0.082(15)$ MeV) above the$^{14}$O +p+p threshold, and two narrow resonances at $ E_{r} =3.220(46)$ MeV and 7.57(6) MeV have been investigated. A comparison of the energy difference between the first excited 2$^{+}$ state and the 0$^{+}$ ground state in$^{16}$Ne with its mirror nucleus$^{16}$C reveals a small Thomas-Ehrman shift (TES) of $ +70(46)$ keV. A trend of the TES for the T = 2 quintet is obtained by completing the known data with a prediction for$^{16}$F obtained from an IMME analysis. The decay mechanisms of the observed three resonances were revealed from an analysis of the energy and angular correlations of the$^{14}$O +p+p decay products. The ground state decay can be considered as a genuine three-body (democratic) mode and the excited states decay sequentially via states in the i...
A non-orthogonal harmonic-oscillator basis for three-body problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrello, D.A.; Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Chacon, E.
1979-01-01
A set of harmonic-oscillator states suitable for the representation of the wave function of the bound states of a system of three identical particles, is presented. As an illustration of the possibilities of the states defined in this paper, they are applied in a variational determination of the lowest symmetric S state of 12 C, in the model of three structureless α particles interacting through the Coulomb force plus a phenomenological two-body force. (author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Ai, Qing; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun, E-mail: junxiong@bnu.edu.cn; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-09-15
We investigate the stability and phase transition of localized modes in Bose–Einstein Condensates (BECs) in an optical lattice with the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model by considering both two- and three-body interactions. We find that there are three types of localized modes, bright discrete breather (DB), discrete kink (DK), and multi-breather (MUB). Moreover, both two- and three-body on-site repulsive interactions can stabilize DB, while on-site attractive three-body interactions destabilize it. There is a critical value for the three-body interaction with which both DK and MUB become the most stable ones. We give analytically the energy thresholds for the destabilization of localized states and find that they are unstable (stable) when the total energy of the system is higher (lower) than the thresholds. The stability and dynamics characters of DB and MUB are general for extended lattice systems. Our result is useful for the blocking, filtering, and transfer of the norm in nonlinear lattices for BECs with both two- and three-body interactions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wamba, Etienne; Mohamadou, Alidou; Ekogo, Thierry B.; Atangana, Jacque; Kofane, Timoleon C.
2011-01-01
The parametric modulational instability for a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a cubic–quintic nonlinearity is analyzed. This model describes the dynamics of BECs, with both two- and three-body interatomic interactions trapped in an optical lattice. We identify and discuss the salient features of the three-body interaction in the parametric modulational instability. It is shown that the three-body interaction term can both, shift as well as narrow the window of parametric instability, and also change the behavior of a modulationally stable and parametrically unstable BEC with attractive two-body interaction. We explore this instability through the multiple-scale analysis and identify it numerically. The effect of the three body losses have also been investigated. -- Highlights: ► The parametric MI for the 1D GPE with a cubic–quintic nonlinearity is analyzed. ► The two- and three-body recombination and time-dependent scattering length is considered. ► We generate bright matter waves soliton through MI.
Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3}) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} 2CH{sub 3} + SO; (2a) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + SOCH{sub 3}; and (2b) SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} SO + CH{sub 3}. Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH{sub 3} and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2.
Studies of continuum states in 16Ne using three-body correlation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Boretzky, K.; Chatillon, A.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O.A.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Yu.A.; Muentz, C.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Aumann, T.; Panin, V.; Borge, M.J.G.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L.V.; Ershova, O.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Wimmer, C.; Fraile, L.M.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Riisager, K.; Galaviz, D.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Johansson, H.T.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Zhukov, M.V.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Mahata, K.; Paschalis, S.; Savran, D.; Stroth, J.; Wiescher, M.
2015-01-01
Two-proton decay of the unbound T z =-2 nucleus 16 Ne, produced in one-neutron knockout from a 500 MeV/u 17 Ne beam, has been studied at GSI. The ground state, at a resonance energy 1.388(15) MeV, (Γ = 0.082(15) MeV) above the 14 O+p+p threshold, and two narrow resonances at E r = 3.220(46) MeV and 7.57(6) MeV have been investigated. A comparison of the energy difference between the first excited 2 + state and the 0 + ground state in 16 Ne with its mirror nucleus 16 C reveals a small Thomas-Ehrman shift (TES) of +70(46) keV. A trend of the TES for the T = 2 quintet is obtained by completing the known data with a prediction for 16 F obtained from an IMME analysis. The decay mechanisms of the observed three resonances were revealed from an analysis of the energy and angular correlations of the 14 O+p+p decay products. The ground state decay can be considered as a genuine three-body (democratic) mode and the excited states decay sequentially via states in the intermediate nucleus 15 F, the 3.22 MeV state predominantly via the 15 F ground-state resonance, while the 7.57 MeV state decays via the 5/2 + resonance in 15 F at 2.8 MeV above the 14 O+p+p threshold. Further, from an analysis of angular correlations, the spin-parity of the 7.57 MeV state has been determined as I π = 2 + and assigned as the third 2 + state in 16 Ne based on a comparison with 16 C. (orig.)
Basilio, Ralph Ramos
Spacecraft formation flying involves operating multiple spacecraft in a pre-determined geometrical shape such that the configuration yields both individual and system benefits. One example is an over-flight of the same spatial position by spacecraft in geocentric orbit with the intent to create a complementary data set of remotely sensed observables. Another example is controlling to a high degree of accuracy the distance between spacecraft in heliocentric orbit to create a virtual, large-diameter interferometer telescope. Although Keplerian orbits provide the basic framework for general and precision spacecraft formation flying they also present limitations. Spacecraft are generally constrained to operate only in circular and elliptical orbits, parabolic paths, or hyperbolic trajectories around celestial bodies. Applying continuation methods and bifurcation theory techniques to the circular, restricted three-body problem - where stable and unstable periodic orbits exist around equilibrium points - creates an environment that is more orbit rich. After surmounting a similar challenge with test particles in the circular, restricted three-vortex problem in fluid mechanics as a proof-of-concept, it was shown that spacecraft traveling in uncontrolled motion along separate and distinct planar or three-dimensional periodic orbits could be placed in controlled motion, i.e. a controller is enabled and later disabled at precisely the proper positions, to have them phase-locked on a single periodic orbit. Although it was possible to use this controller in a resonant frequency/orbit approach to establish a formation, it was clearly shown that a separate controller could be used in conjunction with the first to expedite the formation establishment process. Creation of these dynamically natural spacecraft formations or multi-spacecraft platforms will enable the 'loiter, synchronize/coordinate, and observe' approach for future engineering and scientific missions where flexibility
CP asymmetries in three-body B{sup ±} decays to charged pions and kaons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti [Physique des Particules, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succ. centre-ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Gronau, Michael [Physics Department, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Rosner, Jonathan L., E-mail: rosner@hep.uchicago.edu [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5620 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2013-10-07
CP asymmetries have been measured recently by the LHCb collaboration in three-body B{sup +} decays to final states involving charged pions and kaons. Large asymmetries with opposite signs at a level of about 60% have been observed in B{sup ±}→π{sup ±}(or K{sup ±})π{sup +}π{sup −} and B{sup ±}→π{sup ±}K{sup +}K{sup −} for restricted regions in the Dalitz plots involving π{sup +}π{sup −} and K{sup +}K{sup −} with low invariant mass. U-spin is shown to predict corresponding ΔS=0 and ΔS=1 asymmetries with opposite signs and inversely proportional to their branching ratios, in analogy with a successful relation predicted thirteen years ago between asymmetries in B{sub s}→K{sup −}π{sup +} and B{sup 0}→K{sup +}π{sup −}. We compare these predictions with the measured integrated asymmetries. Effects of specific resonant or non-resonant partial waves on enhanced asymmetries for low-pair-mass regions of the Dalitz plot are studied in B{sup ±}→π{sup ±}π{sup +}π{sup −}. The closure of low-mass π{sup +}π{sup −} and K{sup +}K{sup −} channels involving only ππ↔KK{sup ¯} rescattering may explain by CPT approximately equal magnitudes and opposite signs measured in B{sup ±}→π{sup ±}π{sup +}π{sup −} and B{sup ±}→π{sup ±}K{sup +}K{sup −}.
Spacecraft trajectories to the L3 point of the Sun-Earth three-body problem
Tantardini, Marco; Fantino, Elena; Ren, Yuan; Pergola, Pierpaolo; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.
2010-11-01
Of the three collinear libration points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CR3BP), L3 is that located opposite to the Earth with respect to the Sun and approximately at the same heliocentric distance. Whereas several space missions have been launched to the other two collinear equilibrium points, i.e., L1 and L2, taking advantage of their dynamical and geometrical characteristics, the region around L3 is so far unexploited. This is essentially due to the severe communication limitations caused by the distant and permanent opposition to the Earth, and by the gravitational perturbations mainly induced by Jupiter and the close passages of Venus, whose effects are more important than those due to the Earth. However, the adoption of a suitable periodic orbit around L3 to ensure the necessary communication links with the Earth, or the connection with one or more relay satellites located at L4 or L5, and the simultaneous design of an appropriate station keeping-strategy, would make it possible to perform valuable fundamental physics and astrophysics investigations from this location. Such an opportunity leads to the need of studying the ways to transfer a spacecraft (s/c) from the Earth’s vicinity to L3. In this contribution, we investigate several trajectory design methods to accomplish such a transfer, i.e., various types of two-burn impulsive trajectories in a Sun-s/c two-body model, a patched conics strategy exploiting the gravity assist of the nearby planets, an approach based on traveling on invariant manifolds of periodic orbits in the Sun-Earth CR3BP, and finally a low-thrust transfer. We examine advantages and drawbacks, and we estimate the propellant budget and time of flight requirements of each.
Evolution of the halo family in the radial solar sail circular restricted three-body problem
Verrier, Patricia; Waters, Thomas; Sieber, Jan
2014-12-01
We present a detailed investigation of the dramatic changes that occur in the halo family when radiation pressure is introduced into the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP). This photo-gravitational CRTBP can be used to model the motion of a solar sail orientated perpendicular to the Sun-line. The problem is then parameterized by the sail lightness number, the ratio of solar radiation pressure acceleration to solar gravitational acceleration. Using boundary-value problem numerical continuation methods and the AUTO software package (Doedel et al. in Int J Bifurc Chaos 1:493-520, 1991) the families can be fully mapped out as the parameter is increased. Interestingly, the emergence of a branch point in the retrograde satellite family around the Earth at acts to split the halo family into two new families. As radiation pressure is further increased one of these new families subsequently merges with another non-planar family at , resulting in a third new family. The linear stability of the families changes rapidly at low values of , with several small regions of neutral stability appearing and disappearing. By using existing methods within AUTO to continue branch points and period-doubling bifurcations, and deriving a new boundary-value problem formulation to continue the folds and Krein collisions, we track bifurcations and changes in the linear stability of the families in the parameter and provide a comprehensive overview of the halo family in the presence of radiation pressure. The results demonstrate that even at small values of there is significant difference to the classical CRTBP, providing opportunity for novel solar sail trajectories. Further, we also find that the branch points between families in the solar sail CRTBP provide a simple means of generating certain families in the classical case.
Residual deposits (residual soil)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khasanov, A.Kh.
1988-01-01
Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks
Goharshadi, Elaheh K; Abbaspour, Mohsen
2006-07-01
We have performed the molecular dynamics simulation to obtain energy and pressure of argon, krypton, and xenon at different temperatures using a HFD-like potential which has been obtained with an inversion of viscosity data at zero pressure. The contribution of three-body dispersion resulting from third-order triple-dipole interactions has been computed using an accurate simple relation between two-body and three-body interactions developed by Marcelli and Sadus. Our results indicate that this simple three-body potential which was originally used in conjunction with the BFW potential is also valid when used with the HFD-like potential. This appears to support the conjecture that the relationship is independent of the two-body potential. The energy and pressure obtained are in good overall agreement with the experiment, especially for argon. A comparison of our simulated results with HMSA and ODS integral equations and a molecular simulation have been also included.
Dynamics and Matter-Wave Solitons in Bose-Einstein Condensates with Two- and Three-Body Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By means of similarity transformation, this paper proposes the matter-wave soliton solutions and dynamics of the variable coefficient cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation arising from Bose-Einstein condensates with time-dependent two- and three-body interactions. It is found that, under the effect of time-dependent two- and three-body interaction and harmonic potential with time-dependent frequency, the density of atom condensates will gradually diminish and finally collapse.
Studies of continuum states in {sup 16}Ne using three-body correlation techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marganiec, J. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Research Division GSI, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Wamers, F. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Research Division GSI, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Boretzky, K.; Chatillon, A.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O.A.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Yu.A.; Muentz, C.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Alvarez-Pol, H.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aumann, T.; Panin, V. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Borge, M.J.G. [CERN, ISOLDE-EP, Geneva (Switzerland); CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Chartier, M. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Chulkov, L.V. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershova, O.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Wimmer, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fraile, L.M. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, FAMN, Madrid (Spain); Fynbo, H.O.U.; Riisager, K. [University of Aarhus, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus (Denmark); Galaviz, D.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansson, H.T.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Zhukov, M.V. [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Fundamental Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kratz, J.V. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); Kulessa, R. [Uniwersytet Jagellonski, Instytut Fizyki, Krakov (Poland); Lantz, M. [Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen foer fysik och astronomi, Uppsala (Sweden); Le Bleis, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E12, Garching (Germany); Lemmon, R. [STFC Daresbury Lab, Warrington, Nuclear Physics Group, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Mahata, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Trombay (India); Paschalis, S. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Savran, D. [Research Division GSI, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stroth, J. [Goethe Universitaet, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wiescher, M. [University of Notre Dame, JINA, Notre Dame, IN (United States)
2015-01-01
Two-proton decay of the unbound T{sub z} =-2 nucleus {sup 16}Ne, produced in one-neutron knockout from a 500 MeV/u {sup 17}Ne beam, has been studied at GSI. The ground state, at a resonance energy 1.388(15) MeV, (Γ = 0.082(15) MeV) above the {sup 14}O+p+p threshold, and two narrow resonances at E{sub r} = 3.220(46) MeV and 7.57(6) MeV have been investigated. A comparison of the energy difference between the first excited 2{sup +} state and the 0{sup +} ground state in {sup 16}Ne with its mirror nucleus {sup 16}C reveals a small Thomas-Ehrman shift (TES) of +70(46) keV. A trend of the TES for the T = 2 quintet is obtained by completing the known data with a prediction for {sup 16}F obtained from an IMME analysis. The decay mechanisms of the observed three resonances were revealed from an analysis of the energy and angular correlations of the {sup 14}O+p+p decay products. The ground state decay can be considered as a genuine three-body (democratic) mode and the excited states decay sequentially via states in the intermediate nucleus {sup 15}F, the 3.22 MeV state predominantly via the {sup 15}F ground-state resonance, while the 7.57 MeV state decays via the 5/2{sup +} resonance in {sup 15}F at 2.8 MeV above the {sup 14}O+p+p threshold. Further, from an analysis of angular correlations, the spin-parity of the 7.57 MeV state has been determined as I{sup π} = 2{sup +} and assigned as the third 2{sup +} state in {sup 16}Ne based on a comparison with {sup 16}C. (orig.)
Duran-Matute, M.; Gerkema, T.; Sassi, M.
2016-01-01
In multiple-inlet coastal systems like the western Dutch Wadden Sea, the tides (and their interaction with the bathymetry), the fresh water discharge, and the wind drive a residual flow through the system. In the current paper, we study the effect of the wind on the residual volume transport through
Hyperspherical functions and quantum-mechanical three-body problem with application to carbon 12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Letz, H.
1975-01-01
In this work a system of three identical particles (bosons) interacting by a particular two-body force is discussed. Using the complete set of the hyperspherical functions (K-harmonics), analytical expressions for eigenvalues and wave functions of the stationary states are found. The numerical evaluation gives a level sequence for a definite pair of potential parameters similar to that of the nucleus carbon 12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motovilov, A.K.
2005-01-01
We describe the basic structure of the two- and three-body T-matrices, scattering matrices, and resolvents continued to the unphysical energy sheets. The description is based on the explicit representations that have been found for analytically continued kernels of the T-operators. (author)
Three-body matrix elements for calculations of mean field and exp(S) ground sate correlations
Mihaila, Bogdan; Heisenberg, Jochen H.
1999-01-01
In this document we present our approach to the computation of three-body matrix elements, based on the Urbana family of three-nucleon potentials. The calculations refer only to the necessary matrix elements needed to include the three-nucleon interaction in the manner presented in nucl-th/9912023.
Method of resonating groups in the Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism for three-body nuclear problem
Nasirov, M Z
2002-01-01
The Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism for three-body nuclear problem is considered. For solution of the equations the method of resonant groups have applied. The calculations of tritium binding energy and doublet nd-scattering length have been carried out. The results obtained shows that Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism is very simple and effective. (author)
Wang, Shoucheng; Huang, Guoqing; Wu, Xin
2018-02-01
In this paper, we survey the effect of dissipative forces including radiation pressure, Poynting–Robertson drag, and solar wind drag on the motion of dust grains with negligible mass, which are subjected to the gravities of the Sun and Jupiter moving in circular orbits. The effect of the dissipative parameter on the locations of five Lagrangian equilibrium points is estimated analytically. The instability of the triangular equilibrium point L4 caused by the drag forces is also shown analytically. In this case, the Jacobi constant varies with time, whereas its integral invariant relation still provides a probability for the applicability of the conventional fourth-order Runge–Kutta algorithm combined with the velocity scaling manifold correction scheme. Consequently, the velocity-only correction method significantly suppresses the effects of artificial dissipation and a rapid increase in trajectory errors caused by the uncorrected one. The stability time of an orbit, regardless of whether it is chaotic or not in the conservative problem, is apparently longer in the corrected case than in the uncorrected case when the dissipative forces are included. Although the artificial dissipation is ruled out, the drag dissipation leads to an escape of grains. Numerical evidence also demonstrates that more orbits near the triangular equilibrium point L4 escape as the integration time increases.
Analysis tools for precision studies of hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneider, Sebastian Philipp
2013-02-14
Due to the running coupling constant of Quantum Chromodynamics one of the pillars of the Standard Model, the strong interactions, is still insufficiently understood at low energies. In order to describe the interactions of hadrons that form in this physical regime, one has to devise methods that are non-perturbative in the strong coupling constant. In particular hadronic three-body decays and transition form factors present a great challenge due to the complex analytic structure ensued by strong final-state interactions. In this thesis we present two approaches to tackle these processes. In the first part we use a modified version of non-relativistic effective field theory to analyze the decay {eta}{yields}3{pi}. This perturbative low-energy expansion is ideally suited to study the effects of {pi}{pi} rescattering and contributes greatly to the understanding of the slope parameter of the {eta}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0} Dalitz plot, a quantity that is strongly influenced by final-state interactions and has presented a long-standing puzzle for theoretical approaches. In the second part we present dispersion relations as a non-perturbative means to study three-particle decays. Using the example of {eta}'{yields}{eta}{pi}{pi} we give a detailed introduction to the framework and its numerical implementation. We confront our findings with recent experimental data from the BES-III and VES collaborations and discuss whether the extraction of {pi}{eta} scattering parameters, one of the prime motives to study this decay channel, is feasible in such an approach. A more clear-cut application is given in our study of the decays {omega}/{phi}{yields}3{pi} due to the relative simplicity of this decay channel: our results are solely dependent on the {pi}{pi} P-wave scattering phase shift. We give predictions for the Dalitz plot distributions and compare our findings to very precise data on {phi}{yields}3{pi} by the KLOE and CMD-2 collaborations. We also predict Dalitz plot
Restricted Three-Body Dynamics and Morphologies of Early Novae Shells and their Spectral Signatures
Lynch, D. K.; Mazuk, S.; Campbell, E.; Venturini, C. C.
2003-08-01
The goal of this work is to calculate emission line profiles of classical novae systems for comparison to line profiles we observe in an attempt to deduce geometrical and dynamical properties of the system from the spectra. The material ejected by the thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf (WD) is modeled as a large number of massless particles that are launched instantaneously and move ballistically thereafter. Each particle's position is propagated independently in three-dimensional space with a particle's track terminating if it impacts the WD or the secondary. Predicted line profiles, assuming an optically thin shell, are generated by computing a histogram of the number of particles in radial velocity space for a given observing projection. At high ejection velocities, a nearly spherical shell is produced. At ejection speeds near the WD's escape velocity, very complicated and ever changing geometries result and the material remains close to the system's barycenter. We present animations of computer simulations of novae shell development and the associated line profiles. This work supported by The Aerospace Corporation's Independent Research and Development program and by the US Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center through the Mission Oriented Investigation and Experimentation program, under contract F4701-00-C-0009 with the US Air Force.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yan; Chen Yong; Zhang Kezhi
2009-01-01
We study the dynamic behaviour of Bose-Einstein condensates with two- and three-atom interactions in optical lattices with analytical and numerical methods. It is found that the steady-state relative population displays tuning-fork bifurcation when the system parameters are changed to certain critical values. In particular, the existence of the three-body interaction not only transforms the bifurcation point of the system but also greatly affects the macroscopic quantum self-trapping behaviours associated with the critically stable steady-state solution. In addition, we investigated the influence of the initial conditions, three-body interaction, and the energy bias on the macroscopic quantum self-trapping. Finally, by applying the periodic modulation on the energy bias, we observed that the relative population oscillation exhibits a process from order to chaos, via a series of period-doubling bifurcations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, N.M.; Pushkash, A.M.
1985-01-01
In accordance with the main idea of the phase function method the two-body off-shell scattering amplitudes are considered as the limit of the scattering amplitude sequence corresponding to the sequence of the R-radius cut-off potentials. The explicit analytical expression for the scattering amplitudes function is obtained in the case of separable potentials, due to which the three-body problem is investigated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Narayan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The oblateness and the photogravitational effects of both the primaries on the location and the stability of the triangular equilibrium points in the elliptical restricted three-body problem have been discussed. The stability of the triangular points under the photogravitational and oblateness effects of both the primaries around the binary systems Achird, Lyeten, Alpha Cen-AB, Kruger 60, and Xi-Bootis, has been studied using simulation techniques by drawing different curves of zero velocity.
Frolov, Alexei M.
2018-03-01
The universal variational expansion for the non-relativistic three-body systems is explicitly constructed. This universal expansion can be used to perform highly accurate numerical computations of the bound state spectra in various three-body systems, including Coulomb three-body systems with arbitrary particle masses and electric charges. Our main interest is related to the adiabatic three-body systems which contain one bound electron and two heavy nuclei of hydrogen isotopes: the protium p, deuterium d and tritium t. We also consider the analogous (model) hydrogen ion ∞H2+ with the two infinitely heavy nuclei.
Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Cheung, Gary Shun-Pan; Lee, Chan-Joo; Kim, Byung-Min; Park, Jeong-Kil; Kang, Soon-Il
2008-06-01
The study was aimed to compare the stress distribution during simulated root canal shaping and to estimate the residual stress thereafter for some nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Three brands of instruments (ProFile, ProTaper, and ProTaper Universal; Dentsply Maillefer) were scanned with micro-computed tomography to produce a real-size, 3-dimensional model for each. The stresses on the instrument during simulated shaping of a root canal were analyzed numerically by using a 3-dimensional finite-element package, taking into account the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the nickel-titanium material. From the simulation, the original ProTaper design showed the greatest pull in the apical direction and the highest reaction torque from the root canal wall, whereas ProFile showed the least. In ProTaper, stresses were concentrated at the cutting edge, and the residual stress reached a level close to the critical stress for phase transformation of the material. The residual stress was highest in ProTaper followed by ProTaper Universal and ProFile.
Cardoso, W. B.; Avelar, A. T.; Bazeia, D.
2011-03-01
We deal with the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation which is used to describe a cloud of dilute bosonic atoms that interact under competing two- and three-body scattering potentials. We study the case where the cloud of atoms is strongly confined in two spatial dimensions, allowing us to build an unidimensional nonlinear equation,controlled by the nonlinearities and the confining potentials that trap the system along the longitudinal coordinate. We focus attention on specific limits dictated by the cubic and quintic coefficients, and we implement numerical simulations to help us to quantify the validity of the procedure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, W. B.; Avelar, A. T.; Bazeia, D.
2011-01-01
We deal with the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation which is used to describe a cloud of dilute bosonic atoms that interact under competing two- and three-body scattering potentials. We study the case where the cloud of atoms is strongly confined in two spatial dimensions, allowing us to build an unidimensional nonlinear equation,controlled by the nonlinearities and the confining potentials that trap the system along the longitudinal coordinate. We focus attention on specific limits dictated by the cubic and quintic coefficients, and we implement numerical simulations to help us to quantify the validity of the procedure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakata, Hiroya, E-mail: nakata.h.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-62 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Kojimachi Business Center Building, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Fedorov, Dmitri G., E-mail: d.g.fedorov@aist.go.jp [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Zahariev, Federico; Schmidt, Michael W.; Gordon, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry and Ames Laboratory, US-DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kitaura, Kazuo [Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2015-03-28
Analytic second derivatives of the energy with respect to nuclear coordinates have been developed for spin restricted density functional theory (DFT) based on the fragment molecular orbital method (FMO). The derivations were carried out for the three-body expansion (FMO3), and the two-body expressions can be obtained by neglecting the three-body corrections. Also, the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) Hessian for FMO3 can be obtained by neglecting the density-functional related terms. In both the FMO-RHF and FMO-DFT Hessians, certain terms with small magnitudes are neglected for computational efficiency. The accuracy of the FMO-DFT Hessian in terms of the Gibbs free energy is evaluated for a set of polypeptides and water clusters and found to be within 1 kcal/mol of the corresponding full (non-fragmented) ab initio calculation. The FMO-DFT method is also applied to transition states in S{sub N}2 reactions and for the computation of the IR and Raman spectra of a small Trp-cage protein (PDB: 1L2Y). Some computational timing analysis is also presented.
Cao, Wei-Guang; Zhou, Tian-Yi; Xie, Yi
2017-10-01
As a continuing investigation of an earlier work that establishes the collinear solutions to the three-body problem with general masses under a scalar-tensor theory, we study these solutions and prove their uniqueness up to the first order post-Newtonian approximation. With the help of observed bounds on the scalar field in the Solar System, we show that the seventh-order polynomial equation determining the distance ratio among the three masses has either one or three positive roots. However, in the case with three positive roots, it is found that two positive roots break down the slow-motion condition for the post-Newtonian approximation so that only one positive root is physically valid. The resulting uniqueness suggests that the locations of the three masses are very close to their Newtonian positions with post-Newtonian corrections of general relativity and the scalar field. We also prove that, in the framework of the scalar-tensor theory, the angular velocity of the collinear configuration is always less than the Newtonian one when all other parameters are fixed. These results are valid only for three-body systems where upper-bounds on the scalar field are compatible with those of the Solar System. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11573015 and J1210039, and the Innovation Training Project for Undergraduates of Nanjing University, China
Grant, Julian; Luxford, Yoni
2008-12-01
Concerns about intercultural communication practices in child and family health were raised during a South Australian ethnographic study. The family partnership model was observed as a universal pedagogic tool introduced into the host organisation in 2003. It has a role in shaping and reshaping cultural production within child health practice. In this study, we draw on insights from postcolonial feminist scholarship together with three-body analysis to critique the theoretical canons of care that inform intercultural communication in the child and family health setting. We contend that although the family partnership model may be very useful, its intended universal application is problematic in the context of multiculture. Issues of race, gender and class were seemingly unattended when using a communication approach based in historical scientific rationalism. Liberal interpretations of discourses of equity and empathy arising out of contemporary models of communication were often adopted by child and family health nurses and protected them from seeing the inherent binaries that constrain practice. Insights from postcolonial feminist thinking enabled us to recognise the problems of applying theory to practice in a linear fashion. We demonstrate the use of three-body analysis as a deconstruction strategy to refigure how theory might be understood and worked with in the multiculture that is Australia.
Celletti, A; Lega, E
2003-01-01
The stability of some asteroids, in the framework of the restricted three- body problem, has been recently proved in \\cite{CC03} by developing an isoenergetic KAM theorem. More precisely, having fixed a level of energy related to the motion of the asteroid, the stability can be obtained by showing the existence of nearby trapping invariant tori living on the same energy level. The analytical results are compatible with the astronomical observations, since the theorem is valid for the realistic mass-ratio of the primaries. The model adopted in \\cite{CC03} is the planar, circular, restricted three-body model, in which only the most significant contributions of the Fourier development of the perturbation are retained. In this paper we investigate numerically the stability of the same asteroids considered in \\cite{CC03} (namely, Iris, Victoria and Renzia). In particular, we implement the nowadays standard method of frequency- map analysis and we compare our investigation with the analytical results on the planar,...
Zhang, Chi; Liu, Song; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhou, Yaoqi
2004-02-01
Structure prediction on a genomic scale requires a simplified energy function that can efficiently sample the conformational space of polypeptide chains. A good energy function at minimum should discriminate native structures against decoys. Here, we show that a recently developed, residue-specific, all-atom knowledge-based potential (167 atomic types) based on distance-scaled, finite ideal-gas reference state (DFIRE-all-atom) can be substantially simplified to 20 residue types located at side-chain center of mass (DFIRE-SCM) without a significant change in its capability of structure discrimination. Using 96 standard multiple decoy sets, we show that there is only a small reduction (from 80% to 78%) in success rate of ranking native structures as the top 1. The success rate is higher than two previously developed, all-atom distance-dependent statistical pair potentials. Applied to structure selections of 21 docking decoys without modification, the DFIRE-SCM potential is 29% more successful in recognizing native complex structures than an all-atom statistical potential trained by a database of dimeric interfaces. The potential also achieves 92% accuracy in distinguishing true dimeric interfaces from artificial crystal interfaces. In addition, the DFIRE potential with the C(alpha) positions as the interaction centers recognizes 123 native structures out of a comprehensive 125-protein TOUCHSTONE decoy set in which each protein has 24,000 decoys with only C(alpha) positions. Furthermore, the performance by DFIRE-SCM on newly established 25 monomeric and 31 docking Rosetta-decoy sets is comparable to (or better than in the case of monomeric decoy sets) that of a recently developed, all-atom Rosetta energy function enhanced with an orientation-dependent hydrogen bonding potential.
Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor); Luquette, Richard J.; Sanner, Robert M.
2003-01-01
Precision Formation Flying is an enabling technology for a variety of proposed space-based observatories, including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), the associated MAXIM pathfinder mission, and the Stellar Imager. An essential element of the technology is the control algorithm. This paper discusses the development of a nonlinear, six-degree of freedom (6DOF) control algorithm for maintaining the relative position and attitude of a spacecraft within a formation. The translation dynamics are based on the equations of motion for the restricted three body problem. The control law guarantees the tracking error convergences to zero, based on a Lyapunov analysis. The simulation, modelled after the MAXIM Pathfinder mission, maintains the relative position and attitude of a Follower spacecraft with respect to a Leader spacecraft, stationed near the L2 libration point in the Sun-Earth system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, Kalanand; /Nehru U.
2008-02-22
The authors present measurements of the relative branching ratios, Dalitz plot structures and CP-asymmetry values in the three-body singly Cabibbo-suppressed decays D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy ring at SLAC. The author applies the results of the D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} analysis to extracting CP-violation parameters related to the CKM angle {gamma} (or {phi}{sub 3}) using the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}} K{sup -}.
On the cosmic-ray spectra of three-body lepton-flavor-violating dark matter decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carone, Christopher D.; Cukierman, Ari; Primulando, Reinard
2011-01-01
We consider possible leptonic three-body decays of spin-1/2, charge-asymmetric dark matter. Assuming a general Dirac structure for the four-fermion contact interactions of interest, we study the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra and show that good fits to the current data can be obtained for both charged-lepton-flavor-conserving and flavor-violating decay channels. We find that different choices for the Dirac structure of the underlying decay operator can be significantly compensated by different choices for the dark matter mass and lifetime. The decay modes we consider provide differing predictions for the cosmic-ray positron fraction at energies higher than those currently probed at the PAMELA experiment; these predictions might be tested at cosmic-ray detectors like AMS-02.
Three-body decays of Higgs bosons at LEP2 and application to a hidden fermiophobic Higgs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akeroyd, A.G.
1999-01-01
We study the decays of Higgs bosons to a lighter Higgs boson and a virtual gauge boson in the context of the non-supersymmetric two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We consider the phenomenological impact at LEP2 and find that such decays, when open, may be dominant in regions of parameter space and thus affect current Higgs boson search techniques. Three-body decays would be a way of producing light neutral Higgs bosons which have so far escaped detection at LEP due to suppressed couplings to the Z, and are of particular importance in the 2HDM (Model I) which allows both a light fermiophobic Higgs and a light charged scalar
Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M
1972-01-01
Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli
Measurements of $C\\!P$ violation in the three-body phase space of charmless $B^{\\pm}$ decays
Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander
2014-01-01
The charmless three-body decay modes $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$, $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-}$, $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ are reconstructed using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector. The inclusive $C\\!P$ asymmetries of these modes are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-})= +0.025 \\pm 0.004 \\pm 0.004 \\pm 0.007, \\end{eqnarray} \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-}) = -0.036 \\pm 0.004 \\pm 0.002 \\pm 0.007, \\end{eqnarray} \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-})= +0.058 \\pm 0.008 \\pm 0.009 \\pm 0.007, \\end{eqnarray} \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-})= -0.123 \\pm 0.017 \\pm 0.012 \\pm 0.007, \
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boesten, L.G.J.
1978-01-01
Calculations on the threshold ionization of H, He + and Li 2+ by electrons have been performed to study the so-called 'post-collision interaction' (P.C.I.) effects which appear to affect the threshold ionization process significantly. These effects are caused by the long range Coulomb interactions between the two electrons as they move away from the nucleus. The long range interactions are fully taken into account in the classical three-body collision theory. In quantum mechanical theories, however, it is difficult to account for these interactions. This theory has been used to study the ionization of He + -ions by electron impact up to much higher energies (up till ten times the threshold energy). The results are compared with experimental results of Dolder et al. (1961) and with results of quantum mechanical calculations. Results are given for ionization of helium atoms by electron or proton impact. This collision process, in which four particles are involved, can under certain circumstances be treated as a collision process in which only three particles are involved. Calculations are performed concerning: a) cross sections for ionization of metastable helium atoms by electron impact, b) cross sections for ionization of ground-state helium atoms by fast proton impact (energy and angular distributions of ejected electrons), c) generalized oscillator strengths for ionization of helium by fast proton impact
Effect of abrasive grit size on wear of manganese-zinc ferrite under three-body abrasion
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa
1987-01-01
Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites under three-body abrasion. The abrasion mechanism of Mn-Zn ferrite changes drastically with the size of abrasive grits. With 15-micron (1000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion of Mn-Zn ferrite is due principally to brittle fracture; while with 4- and 2-micron (4000- and 6000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion is due to plastic deformation and fracture. Both microcracking and plastic flow produce polycrystalline states on the wear surfaces of single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites. Coefficient of wear, total thickness of the deformed layers, and surface roughness of the wear surfaces increase markedly with an increase in abrasive grit size. The total thicknesses of the deformed layers are 3 microns for the ferrite abraded by 15-micron SiC, 0.9 microns for the ferrite abraded by 4-micron SiC, and 0.8 microns for the ferrite abraded by 1-micron SiC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousif, B.F.; Nirmal, Umar; Wong, K.J.
2010-01-01
This work aims to investigate the wear and frictional behaviour of a new epoxy composite based on treated betelnut fibres subjected to three-body abrasion using different abrasive particle sizes (500 μm, 714 μm and 1430 μm) and sliding velocities (0.026-0.115 m s -1 ) at constant applied load (5 N) using a newly developed Linear Tribo Machine. The worn surfaces of the composite were studied using scanning electron microscope. The work revealed that the predominant wear mechanism of treated betelnut fibre reinforced epoxy (T-BFRE) composite sliding against grain sands was plastic deformation, pitting and pullout of betelnut fibres. The composite exhibited higher values in frictional coefficient when it was subjected against coarse sand. Besides, the abrasive wear of the composite is depending on the size of abrasive particles and sliding velocity. Higher weight loss is noticed at high sliding velocities. The specific wear rate for the composite subjected to three different sand particles follow the order of: coarse > grain > fine sands respectively.
Three-body fragmentation of multiply charged nitrous oxide induced by Ar8 +- and Xe15 +-ion impact
Khan, Arnab; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Misra, Deepankar
2017-07-01
We study multiple ionization and subsequent dissociation of nitrous oxide (N2O ) in collisions with 1 a.u. Ar8 + and Xe15 + ions. The experiments are performed by using a recoil ion momentum spectrometer (RIMS) equipped with a position- and time-sensitive detector which allows the measurement of the momenta of fragment ions in coincidence. By measuring the momentum vectors of the recoiling fragment ions various important parameters, such as kinetic energy release and those related to molecular structure prior to fragmentation, have been derived. Furthermore, the projectile-charge-state dependence of the fragmentation dynamics of N2O is investigated and a very mild dependence has been noticed in a few channels. In addition, we also study the concerted and sequential mechanisms in the three-body decay of N2Oq + (where q ≤7 ). It has been observed that N2Oq + breaks up mainly in a concerted manner except for the N2O3 +→N++N++O+ (1,1,1) and N2O4 +→N2 ++N++O+ (2,1,1) channels. For both these channels, the presence of an intermediate rotating NO2 + has been identified. Furthermore, by using Dalitz plot analysis, we have been able to separate various mutually mixed channels of highly charged N2Oq + .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gieg, W.; Rank, V.
1942-10-15
In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.
Pousse, Alexandre; Robutel, Philippe; Vienne, Alain
2017-08-01
In the framework of the planar and circular restricted three-body problem, we consider an asteroid that orbits the Sun in quasi-satellite motion with a planet. A quasi-satellite trajectory is a heliocentric orbit in co-orbital resonance with the planet, characterized by a nonzero eccentricity and a resonant angle that librates around zero. Likewise, in the rotating frame with the planet, it describes the same trajectory as the one of a retrograde satellite even though the planet acts as a perturbator. In the last few years, the discoveries of asteroids in this type of motion made the term "quasi-satellite" more and more present in the literature. However, some authors rather use the term "retrograde satellite" when referring to this kind of motion in the studies of the restricted problem in the rotating frame. In this paper, we intend to clarify the terminology to use, in order to bridge the gap between the perturbative co-orbital point of view and the more general approach in the rotating frame. Through a numerical exploration of the co-orbital phase space, we describe the quasi-satellite domain and highlight that it is not reachable by low eccentricities by averaging process. We will show that the quasi-satellite domain is effectively included in the domain of the retrograde satellites and neatly defined in terms of frequencies. Eventually, we highlight a remarkable high eccentric quasi-satellite orbit corresponding to a frozen ellipse in the heliocentric frame. We extend this result to the eccentric case (planet on an eccentric motion) and show that two families of frozen ellipses originate from this remarkable orbit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irgaziev, B.F.; Alt, E.O.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.
1999-01-01
The amplitude for the Coulomb breakup of a light nucleus in the field of a highly charged ion is considered in the framework of the distorted wave approach, with particular emphasis being laid on correctly taking into account the three-body Coulomb interactions in the final state. Numerical calculations have been performed for the double differential cross section for the reaction 208 Pb( 8 B, 7 Be p) 208 Pb. They clearly demonstrate the importance of long-range three-body Coulomb correlations in the astrophysically interesting regime when the ejectiles have extremely small relative energies. Refs. 9 (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Zumelzu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The persistent adhesion of salmon muscle to food container walls after treatment with urea solution was observed. This work evaluated the diffusion of antibiotics from the salmon muscle to the polyethylene terephthalate (PET coating protecting the electrolytic chromium coated steel (ECCS plates. New aquaculture production systems employ antibiotics such as florfenicol, florfenicol amine, oxytetracycline, and erythromycin to control diseases. The introduction of antibiotics is a matter of concern regarding the effects on human health and biodiversity. It is important to determine their impact on the adhesion of postmortem salmon muscle to can walls and the surface and structural changes affecting the functionality of multilayers. This work characterized the changes occurring in the multilayer PET polymer and steel of containers by electron microscopy, 3D atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analyses. A robust mass spectrometry methodology was employed to determine the presence of antibiotic residues. No evidence of antibiotics was observed on the protective coating in the range between 0.001 and 2.0 ng/mL; however, the presence of proteins, cholesterol, and alpha-carotene was detected. This in-depth profiling of the matrix-level elements is relevant for the use of adequate materials in the canning export industry.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozdneev, S.A.
1982-01-01
The cross sections for the dissociative attachment of electrons to hydrogen halide molecules are calculated in the multiple-scattering approximation in a three-body system. The calculations are carried out using modified Faddeev equations for three charged particles. The results are compared with experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.
1980-01-01
Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt
Three-nucleon forces and the trinucleon bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friar, J.L.; Frois, B.
1986-04-01
A summary of the bound-state working group session of the ''International Symposium on the Three-Body Force in the Three-Nucleon System'' is presented. The experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces has centered on two ground state properties: the tritium binding energy and the trinucleon form factors. Both are discussed
RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...
This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.
The role of three-body coulomb fields versus final state interactions in the decay of 12C-α-12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quebert, J.L.; Bertault, D.; Scheurer, J.N.; Fouan, J.P.
1980-01-01
The alpha emission in 16 O + 12 C→ 12 C + α + 12 C has been thoroughly studied in the region of the rapidity plot: Ysub(α)=Ysub(c.m.). The three-body coulomb fields, as well as configurations close to alignment, account for the alpha yield which is observed. The apparent competition between direct and sequential decays is well explained by the coulomb break-up
St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Ayotte, Pierre; Lucas, Michel
2017-11-22
Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification systems for Indigenous youth. We estimated overweight and obesity prevalence among Cree youth of Eeyou Istchee according to three BMI classification systems, assessed the level of agreement between them, and evaluated their accuracy through body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors. Data on 288 youth (aged 8-17 years) were collected. Overweight and obesity prevalence were estimated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Agreement was measured with weighted kappa (κw). Associations with body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated by analysis of variance. Obesity prevalence was 42.7% with IOTF, 47.2% with CDC, and 49.3% with WHO criteria. Agreement was almost perfect between IOTF and CDC (κw = 0.93), IOTF and WHO (κw = 0.91), and WHO and CDC (κw = 0.94). Means of body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors were significantly higher (P trend obesity, regardless of the system used. Youth considered overweight by IOTF but obese by CDC or WHO exhibited less severe clinical obesity. IOTF seems to be more accurate in identifying obesity in Cree youth.
Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailov, R V
2005-01-01
The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Fathi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available A three-body model is devised to study differential and total cross sections for the excitation of helium atom under impact of energetic protons. The actual process is a four body one but in the present model the process is simplified into a three-body one. In this model, an electron of helium atom is assumed to be inactive and only one electron of the atom is active. Therefore, the active electron is assumed to be in an atomic state with a potential of the nucleus, T, being screened by the inactive electron, e, and, thus, an effective charge of Ze. As a result, the ground state, 11S, or the excited states, 21S and 21P, wave function of the active electron is deduced from similar hydrogenic wave functions assuming effective charge, Ze for the combined nucleus (T+e. In this three-body model, the Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace formalism for excitation channel is used to calculate the transition amplitude. In the first order approximation, electronic and nuclear interaction is assumed in the collision to be A(1e=
Yang, Bing-Fang; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Ning
2017-04-01
Motivated by the search for flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) top quark decays at the LHC, we calculate the rare Higgs three body decay H → Wbc induced by top-Higgs FCNC coupling in the littlest Higgs model with T-parity (LHT). We find that the branching ratio of H → Wbc in the LHT model can reach O(10-7) in the allowed parameter space. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305049, 11405047), Startup Foundation for Doctors of Henan Normal University (11112, qd15207) and Education Department Foundation of Henan Province(14A140010)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazantzis, P.G.
1979-01-01
New families of three-dimensional double-symmetric periodic orbits are determined numerically in the Sun-Jupiter case of the restricted three-body problem. These families bifurcate from the 'vertical-critical' orbits (αsub(ν) = -1, csub(ν) = 0) of the 'basic' plane families i. g 1 g 2 h, a, m and I. Further the numerical procedure employed in the determination of these families has been described and interesting results have been pointed out. Also, computer plots of the orbits of these families have been shown in conical projections. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcilazo, H., E-mail: humberto@esfm.ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gal, A., E-mail: avragal@savion.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2013-01-02
The {pi}{Lambda}N-{pi}{Sigma}N coupled-channel system with quantum numbers (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) is studied in a relativistic three-body model, using two-body separable interactions in the dominant p-wave pion-baryon and {sup 3}S{sub 1}YN channels. Three-body equations are solved in the complex energy plane to search for quasibound state and resonance poles, producing a robust narrow {pi}{Lambda}N resonance about 10-20 MeV below the {pi}{Sigma}N threshold. Viewed as a dibaryon, it is a {sup 5}S{sub 2} quasibound state consisting of {Sigma}(1385)N and {Delta}(1232)Y components. Comparison is made between the present relativistic model calculation and a previous, outdated nonrelativistic calculation which resulted in a {pi}{Lambda}N bound state. Effects of adding a K{sup Macron }NN channel are studied and found insignificant. Possible production and decay reactions of this (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) dibaryon are discussed.
Poincaré, Henri
2017-01-01
Here is an accurate and readable translation of a seminal article by Henri Poincaré that is a classic in the study of dynamical systems popularly called chaos theory. In an effort to understand the stability of orbits in the solar system, Poincaré applied a Hamiltonian formulation to the equations of planetary motion and studied these differential equations in the limited case of three bodies to arrive at properties of the equations’ solutions, such as orbital resonances and horseshoe orbits. Poincaré wrote for professional mathematicians and astronomers interested in celestial mechanics and differential equations. Contemporary historians of math or science and researchers in dynamical systems and planetary motion with an interest in the origin or history of their field will find his work fascinating. .
Monte-Carlo simulation and analysis of the spectrum of p + sup 1 sup 1 B three-body sequential decay
Li Chen; Meng Qiu Ying; Zhang Pei Hua; Lin Er Kang
2002-01-01
The new experimental data of sup 1 sup 1 B(p, alpha sub 1) sup 8 Be* sup ( sup 1 sup ) (2 alpha) three-body decay show that the continuous alpha spectrum of the two alpha particles produced by the intermediate nuclear sup 8 Be* sup ( sup 1 sup ) looks like a saddle type distribution. To explain the experimental facts, the authors have written a Monte Carlo simulation program to the p + sup 1 sup 1 B reaction. The calculation results of the program indicate that the anisotropy distribution emission of the decay alpha particles produced by sup 8 Be* sup ( sup 1 sup ) can give a satisfying explanation to the experimental spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A., E-mail: ramazani@kvi.nl [Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Mahjour-Shafiei, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439955961 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Amir-Ahmadi, H.R. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bacher, A.D.; Bailey, C.D. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Biegun, A. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Eslami-Kalantari, M. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gašparić, I. [Rudjer Bošković Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Kistryn, St. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Kozela, A. [University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg (Canada); Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J.G. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Micherdzinska, A.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Krakow (Poland); Moeini, H.; Shende, S.V. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Stephan, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Stephenson, E.J. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Sworst, R. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Krakow (Poland)
2013-10-01
We have studied spin observables in the three-body break-up reaction in deuteron–deuteron scattering in the phase-space regime that corresponds to the quasi-free deuteron–proton scattering process with the neutron as spectator. The data are compared to measurements of the elastic deuteron–proton scattering process and state-of-the-art Faddeev calculations. The results for iT{sub 11} and T{sub 22} for the quasi-free scattering data agree very well with previously published elastic-scattering data. A significant discrepancy is found for T{sub 20}, which could point to a break-down of the quasi-free assumption.
Arnot, C. S.; McInnes, C. R.; McKay, R. J.; Macdonald, M.; Biggs, J.
2018-02-01
This paper presents rich new families of relative orbits for spacecraft formation flight generated through the application of continuous thrust with only minimal intervention into the dynamics of the problem. Such simplicity facilitates implementation for small, low-cost spacecraft with only position state feedback, and yet permits interesting and novel relative orbits in both two- and three-body systems with potential future applications in space-based interferometry, hyperspectral sensing, and on-orbit inspection. Position feedback is used to modify the natural frequencies of the linearised relative dynamics through direct manipulation of the system eigenvalues, producing new families of stable relative orbits. Specifically, in the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire frame, simple adaptations of the linearised dynamics are used to produce a circular relative orbit, frequency-modulated out-of-plane motion, and a novel doubly periodic cylindrical relative trajectory for the purposes of on-orbit inspection. Within the circular restricted three-body problem, a similar minimal approach with position feedback is used to generate new families of stable, frequency-modulated relative orbits in the vicinity of a Lagrange point, culminating in the derivation of the gain requirements for synchronisation of the in-plane and out-of-plane frequencies to yield a singly periodic tilted elliptical relative orbit with potential use as a Lunar far-side communications relay. The Δ v requirements for the cylindrical relative orbit and singly periodic Lagrange point orbit are analysed, and it is shown that these requirements are modest and feasible for existing low-thrust propulsion technology.
Boito, D.; Dedonder, J.-P.; El-Bennich, B.; Escribano, R.; Kamiński, R.; Leśniak, L.; Loiseau, B.
2017-12-01
We introduce parametrizations of hadronic three-body B and D weak decay amplitudes that can be readily implemented in experimental analyses and are a sound alternative to the simplistic and widely used sum of Breit-Wigner type amplitudes, also known as the isobar model. These parametrizations can be particularly useful in the interpretation of C P asymmetries in the Dalitz plots. They are derived from previous calculations based on a quasi-two-body factorization approach in which two-body hadronic final-state interactions are fully taken into account in terms of unitary S - and P -wave π π , π K , and K K ¯ form factors. These form factors can be determined rigorously, fulfilling fundamental properties of quantum field-theory amplitudes such as analyticity and unitarity, and are in agreement with the low-energy behavior predicted by effective theories of QCD. They are derived from sets of coupled-channel equations using T -matrix elements constrained by experimental meson-meson phase shifts and inelasticities, chiral symmetry, and asymptotic QCD. We provide explicit amplitude expressions for the decays B±→π+π-π±, B →K π+π-, B±→K+K-K±, D+→π-π+π+, D+→K-π+π+, and D0→KS0π+π-, for which we have shown in previous studies that this approach is phenomenologically successful; in addition, we provide expressions for the D0→KS0K+K- decay. Other three-body hadronic channels can be parametrized likewise.
Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I.; Mazelle, C.
2016-12-01
The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the stellar radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with a Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalization of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain [1989] Icarus, 81, 145-163. In this third paper, we investigate the effect of the stellar radiation pressure on the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CR3BP), called also the photogravitational CR3BP, and its implication on the escape and the stability of planetary exospheres, especially for hot Jupiters. In particular, we describe the transformation of the equipotentials and the location of the Lagrange points, and we provide a modified equation for the Hill sphere radius that includes the influence of the radiation pressure. Finally, an application to the hot Jupiter HD 209458b and hot Neptune GJ 436b reveals the existence of a blow-off escape regime induced by the stellar radiation pressure.
Rodrigues Cavalcante, Ana Barbara; Joram, Christian
In the first part of the thesis, we present studies on three-body charmless $B^\\pm$ decays. The analysis is performed using LHCb dataset from proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 8 TeV collected in 2011 and 2012, respectively, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.1 fb$^{-1}$. We measured the inclusive $CP$ asymmetry of the four channels: $B^\\pm\\to K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm K^+ K^-$, $B^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $B^\\pm\\to \\pi^\\pm K^+ K^-$. $CP$ asymmetries were also studied along the phase space. The second part of this thesis is devoted to my contribution to the LHCb SciFi Tracker, a detector made of scintillating fibres. It presents the experimental setups used to characterise the scintillating fibres which need to meet specific requirements to be able to operate under the running conditions foreseen for the LHCb upgrade. In addition, we discuss the results on the development of fibres made of a new class of scintillating material denominated as Nanostruc...
Residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper presents methodologies for residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components using linear elastic and nonlinear fracture mechanics principles. The effect of cohesive forces due to aggregate bridging has been represented mathematically by employing tension softening models. Various tension ...
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012
2012-01-01
The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…
Chin, Chih-Hao; Lee, Shih-Huang
2012-01-14
We investigated two-body (binary) and three-body (triple) dissociations of ethanedial, propanal, propenal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene on the ground potential-energy surfaces using quantum-chemical and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations; most attention is paid on the triple dissociation mechanisms. The triple dissociation includes elimination of a hydrogen molecule from a combination of two separate terminal hydrogen atoms; meanwhile, the rest part simultaneously decomposes to two stable fragments, e.g., C(2)H(4), C(2)H(2), or CO. Transition structures corresponding to the concerted triple dissociation were identified using the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory and total energies were computed using the method CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df, 2p). The forward barrier height of triple dissociation has a trend of ethanedial butadiene, pertaining to the reaction enthalpy. Ratios of translational energies of three separate fragments could be estimated from the transition structure of triple dissociation. The synchronous concerted dissociation of propanal, propenal, and 1-butene leading to three different types of molecular fragments by breaking nonequivalent chemical bonds is rare. The triple dissociation of propanal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene were investigated for the first time. To outline a whole picture of dissociation mechanisms, some significant two-body dissociation channels were investigated for the calculations of product branching ratios. The triple dissociation plays an important role in the three carbonyl compounds, but plays a minor or negligible role in the three hydrocarbons.
Studies of Three-Body Decay of B to J/ψηK and B(Bs to ηcπK*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Behnam Mohammadi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the B0→J/ψηK0 and B+→J/ψηK+ decay by using the Dalitz plot analysis. As we know there are tree, penguin, emission, and emission-annihilation diagrams for these decay modes in the factorization approach. The transition matrix element is factorized into a B→ηK form factor multiplied by J/ψ decay constant and also a B→K form factor multiplied by J/ψη decay constant. According to QCD factorization approach and using the Dalitz plot analysis, we calculate the branching ratios of the B0→J/ψηK0 and B+→J/ψηK+ three-body decay in view of the η-η' mixing and obtain the value of the (9.22-1.47+2.67×10-5, while the experimental results of them are (8±4×10-5 and (10.8±3.3×10-5, respectively. In this research we also analyze the B(Bs→ηcπK* decay which is similar to the previous decay, but there is no experimental data for the last decay. Since for calculations of the B(Bs→ηcπK* decay we use assumptions of the B→J/ψηK decay, we hope that if this decay will be measured by the LHCb in the future, the experimental results will be in agreement with our calculations.
Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi
2012-01-01
In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berecz, I.
1982-01-01
Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)
2007-06-01
Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.
1982-01-01
The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.
Agricultural pesticide residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuehr, F.
1984-01-01
The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines
1999-01-01
The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development
[Residual neuromuscular blockade].
Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D
2017-06-01
Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.
TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals
Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.
Residuation in orthomodular lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chajda Ivan
2017-04-01
Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.
Characterization of Hospital Residuals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.
1997-01-01
The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-06-01
The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues
DelPhiForce web server: electrostatic forces and energy calculations and visualization.
Li, Lin; Jia, Zhe; Peng, Yunhui; Chakravorty, Arghya; Sun, Lexuan; Alexov, Emil
2017-11-15
Electrostatic force is an essential component of the total force acting between atoms and macromolecules. Therefore, accurate calculations of electrostatic forces are crucial for revealing the mechanisms of many biological processes. We developed a DelPhiForce web server to calculate and visualize the electrostatic forces at molecular level. DelPhiForce web server enables modeling of electrostatic forces on individual atoms, residues, domains and molecules, and generates an output that can be visualized by VMD software. Here we demonstrate the usage of the server for various biological problems including protein-cofactor, domain-domain, protein-protein, protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions. The DelPhiForce web server is available at: http://compbio.clemson.edu/delphi-force. delphi@clemson.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
Measurement of Forces and Moments Transmitted to the Residual Limb
2009-08-01
8217. The correction to the coordinates is carried out using a rotation matrix, | Rfr |, which is applied to all data points (vectors) obtained in Step 1...for, since lean will represent rotations about these axes. The correction of the X’Y’Z’ coordinates can be accomplished by a rotation matrix | Rfr
Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Roy, Cynthia; Muckle, Gina; Lucas, Michel
2015-07-01
Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification systems, to measure agreement between those classification systems, and to investigate whether BMI status as defined by these classification systems is associated with levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Data were collected on 290 school-aged children (aged 8-14 years; 50.7% girls) from the Nunavik Child Development Study with data collected in 2005-2010. Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood sampled. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, and obese according to BMI classification systems. Weighted kappa (κw) statistics assessed agreement between different BMI classification systems, and multivariate analysis of variance ascertained their relationship with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. The combined prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.9% (with 6.6% obesity) with IOTF, 24.1% (11.0%) with CDC, and 40.4% (12.8%) with WHO classification systems. Agreement was the highest between IOTF and CDC (κw = .87) classifications, and substantial for IOTF and WHO (κw = .69) and for CDC and WHO (κw = .73). Insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels were significantly higher from normal weight to obesity, regardless of classification system. Among obese subjects, higher insulin level was observed with IOTF. Compared with other systems, IOTF classification appears to be more specific to identify overweight and obesity in Inuit children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)
1997-04-01
Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Thomas Budde
, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...
Composition of carbonization residues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hupfer; Leonhardt
1943-11-27
This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.
Designing with residual materials
Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.
2013-01-01
Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies
Residual stresses in material processing
Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.
Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.
A verification of quantum field theory – measurement of Casimir force
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
: F = &z where & is the force constant and z is the cantilever deflection. The cantilever is calibrated and the residual potential difference between the grounded sphere and plate is measured using the electrostatic force between them. The detail ...
Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.
1985-01-01
Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.
Composition of carbonization residues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hupfer; Leonhardt
1943-11-30
This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.
Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel
2017-04-01
Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Anne Mette
2013-01-01
The interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown dramatically over the last three years in Greenland. A vast geographical area with a tiny population, Greenland has recently obtained self-government status and is going through a rapid development economically and socially...... as the country moves towards embracing extractive industries (oil, gas and mining) as a path to development. Both government, civil society and business are increasingly looking for new and innovative ways of joining forces across sectors to solve some of the country's many critical social issues. Greenlandic...... companies have over the last 23 years embraced the concept of strategic CSR and are increasingly engaging in cross-sector partnerships as part of their CSR strategy. The partnerships take different forms both in regards to number of partners, focus areas and level of strategic engagement. In the article...
Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics
Wright, Steve
2016-01-01
This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.
Residual magnetic field in rotary machines; Campo magnetico residual en maquinas rotatorias
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez V, Esteban A; Apanco R, Marcelino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2007-07-01
The residual magnetism is a phenomenon in which the magnetic dipoles of a substance are oriented in a certain degree. On the other hand, when internal forces exist capable of aligning elementary magnetic dipoles of a material, a permanent magnet is obtained. Just as in a conductor or in a material, in the elements of a rotary electrical machine magnetic fields can be induced that produce a residual magnetism or magnetization. In the rotary electrical machines, the magnetization phenomenon causes serious problems, such as the generation of induced currents that propitiate the mechanical wear in bearings, collars, trunnions and inclusive in the shaft, by effects known as pitting, frosting and spark tracks, as well as erroneous readings in vibration and temperature sensors, that in some cases can cause the shut down of the machine. In this article are presented the general concepts on the residual magnetism in rotary electrical machines, the causes that originate it and the problems that arises, as well as the demagnetization of the components that have residual magnetic field. The results obtained by the area of Electrical Equipment of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas are revised, during the execution of activities related to the measurement and elimination of the residual magnetic field in rotary electrical machines. [Spanish] El magnetismo residual es un fenomeno en el que los dipolos magneticos de una sustancia se encuentran orientados en un grado determinado. Por otro lado, cuando existen fuerzas internas capaces de alinear los dipolos magneticos elementales de un material, se tiene un iman permanente. Al igual que en un conductor o un material, en los elementos de una maquina electrica rotatoria se pueden inducir campos magneticos que producen un magnetismo residual o magnetizacion. En las maquinas electricas rotatorias, el fenomeno de magnetizacion causa graves problemas, como la generacion de corrientes inducidas que propician el desgaste mecanico
An Orthogonal Residual Procedure for Nonlinear Finite Element Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, S.
A general and robust solution procedure for nonlinear finite element equations with limit points is developed. At each equilibrium iteration the magnitude of the load is adjusted such that the residual force is orthogonal to the current displacement increment from the last equilibrium state...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco
2016-01-01
Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...
Three-body charmless B decays workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Haim, E.; Chauveau, J.; Hartfiel, B.; Ocariz, J.; Charles, J.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this workshop was multifarious: -) to present and discuss the current experimental perspectives based on the full expected statistics from B-factories by 2008, -) to share and further develop analysis methods, -) to present and discuss the theoretical work on the subject, -) to discuss the future of B-factories, and -) to establish a work plan until 2009. The contributions have focused on 3 body charmless B decays and mostly 3 body hadronic charmless B decays, they have also dealt with semileptonic decays, radiative decays, charm and charmonium decays, and scattering processes. This document gathers the slides of the presentations
Three-body charmless B decays workshop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Haim, E.; Chauveau, J.; Hartfiel, B.; Ocariz, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), 75 - Paris (France); Charles, J. [LPT, 13 - Marseille (France)
2006-07-01
The purpose of this workshop was multifarious: -) to present and discuss the current experimental perspectives based on the full expected statistics from B-factories by 2008, -) to share and further develop analysis methods, -) to present and discuss the theoretical work on the subject, -) to discuss the future of B-factories, and -) to establish a work plan until 2009. The contributions have focused on 3 body charmless B decays and mostly 3 body hadronic charmless B decays, they have also dealt with semileptonic decays, radiative decays, charm and charmonium decays, and scattering processes. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.
Three-body hadron systems with strangeness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez Torres, A., E-mail: amartine@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Khemchandani, K.P. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jido, D. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kanada-En' yo, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Oset, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)
2013-09-20
Recently, many efforts are being put in studying three-hadron systems made of mesons and baryons and interesting results are being found. In this talk, we summarize the main features of the formalism used to study such three hadron systems with strangeness S=−1,0 within a framework built on the basis of unitary chiral theories and solution of the Faddeev equations. In particular, we present the results obtained for the πK{sup ¯}N, KK{sup ¯}N and KKK{sup ¯} systems and their respective coupled channels. In the first case, we find four Σ's and two Λ's with spin-parity J{sup P}=1/2{sup +}, in the 1500–1800 MeV region, as two meson-one baryon s-wave resonances. In the second case, a 1/2{sup +}N{sup ⁎} around 1900 MeV is found. For the last one a kaon close to 1420 MeV is formed, which can be identified with K(1460)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)
1998-05-01
The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)
Comparison of three empirical force fields for phonon calculations in CdSe quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelley, Anne Myers [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States)
2016-06-07
Three empirical interatomic force fields are parametrized using structural, elastic, and phonon dispersion data for bulk CdSe and their predictions are then compared for the structures and phonons of CdSe quantum dots having average diameters of ~2.8 and ~5.2 nm (~410 and ~2630 atoms, respectively). The three force fields include one that contains only two-body interactions (Lennard-Jones plus Coulomb), a Tersoff-type force field that contains both two-body and three-body interactions but no Coulombic terms, and a Stillinger-Weber type force field that contains Coulombic interactions plus two-body and three-body terms. While all three force fields predict nearly identical peak frequencies for the strongly Raman-active “longitudinal optical” phonon in the quantum dots, the predictions for the width of the Raman peak, the peak frequency and width of the infrared absorption peak, and the degree of disorder in the structure are very different. The three force fields also give very different predictions for the variation in phonon frequency with radial position (core versus surface). The Stillinger-Weber plus Coulomb type force field gives the best overall agreement with available experimental data.
Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.
2015-01-01
Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...
Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9
Monastyrskyy, Bohdan
2011-01-01
This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.
Landfilling of waste incineration residues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi
2002-01-01
Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...
Statistical inference on residual life
Jeong, Jong-Hyeon
2014-01-01
This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.
Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Passerini Andrea
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.
Stefanescu, Dan Mihai
2011-01-01
Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco
Residual stress by repair welds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao
2003-01-01
Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)
Wang, Zhimin; Bai, Huaiyong; Zhang, Luyu; Jiang, Haoyu; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui; Gledenov, Yu. M.; Sedysheva, M. V.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.
2017-10-01
Cross sections of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) three-body reaction were measured at En=4.0 , 4.5, and 5.0 MeV using a twin gridded ionization chamber and a thin-film 10B sample. The present paper is the second part of the work. A digital data-acquisition system was developed for the gridded ionization chamber based on the waveform digitizer. A thin-film 10B sample was designed and prepared. The number of 10B atoms in the sample was determined by the relative method using the thermal neutron induced 10B(nt h,α )7Li and 6Li(nt h,t )4He reactions with a 6LiF sample as the reference. The measurement of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) reaction was performed at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of Peking University. In the measurement, the double-coincidence technique was used, which involves the forward-backward and the grid-anode coincidence. In the data processing, the effective event area in the forward two-dimensional spectrum and the time window in the drift-time spectrum were employed to reject the background events. Cross sections of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) and 10B(n ,α )7Li reactions were obtained. The present results are compared with the data of existing measurements and evaluations.
RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...
This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.
Coevolution of amino acid residues in the key photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco.
Wang, Mingcong; Kapralov, Maxim V; Anisimova, Maria
2011-09-23
One of the key forces shaping proteins is coevolution of amino acid residues. Knowing which residues coevolve in a particular protein may facilitate our understanding of protein evolution, structure and function, and help to identify substitutions that may lead to desired changes in enzyme kinetics. Rubisco, the most abundant enzyme in biosphere, plays an essential role in the process of carbon fixation through photosynthesis, thus facilitating life on Earth. This makes Rubisco an important model system for studying the dynamics of protein fitness optimization on the evolutionary landscape. In this study we investigated the selective and coevolutionary forces acting on large subunit of land plants Rubisco using Markov models of codon substitution and clustering approaches applied to amino acid substitution histories. We found that both selection and coevolution shape Rubisco, and that positively selected and coevolving residues have their specifically favored amino acid composition and pairing preference. The mapping of these residues on the known Rubisco tertiary structures showed that the coevolving residues tend to be in closer proximity with each other compared to the background, while positively selected residues tend to be further away from each other. This study also reveals that the residues under positive selection or coevolutionary force are located within functionally important regions and that some residues are targets of both positive selection and coevolution at the same time. Our results demonstrate that coevolution of residues is common in Rubisco of land plants and that there is an overlap between coevolving and positively selected residues. Knowledge of which Rubisco residues are coevolving and positively selected could be used for further work on structural modeling and identification of substitutions that may be changed in order to improve efficiency of this important enzyme in crops.
Coevolution of amino acid residues in the key photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kapralov Maxim V
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key forces shaping proteins is coevolution of amino acid residues. Knowing which residues coevolve in a particular protein may facilitate our understanding of protein evolution, structure and function, and help to identify substitutions that may lead to desired changes in enzyme kinetics. Rubisco, the most abundant enzyme in biosphere, plays an essential role in the process of carbon fixation through photosynthesis, thus facilitating life on Earth. This makes Rubisco an important model system for studying the dynamics of protein fitness optimization on the evolutionary landscape. In this study we investigated the selective and coevolutionary forces acting on large subunit of land plants Rubisco using Markov models of codon substitution and clustering approaches applied to amino acid substitution histories. Results We found that both selection and coevolution shape Rubisco, and that positively selected and coevolving residues have their specifically favored amino acid composition and pairing preference. The mapping of these residues on the known Rubisco tertiary structures showed that the coevolving residues tend to be in closer proximity with each other compared to the background, while positively selected residues tend to be further away from each other. This study also reveals that the residues under positive selection or coevolutionary force are located within functionally important regions and that some residues are targets of both positive selection and coevolution at the same time. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that coevolution of residues is common in Rubisco of land plants and that there is an overlap between coevolving and positively selected residues. Knowledge of which Rubisco residues are coevolving and positively selected could be used for further work on structural modeling and identification of substitutions that may be changed in order to improve efficiency of this important enzyme in crops.
Nitrogen availability of biogas residues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Sayed Fouda, Sara
2011-09-07
The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.
Residual stress analysis: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finlayson, T.R.
1983-01-01
The techniques which are or could be employed to measure residual stresses are outlined. They include X-ray and neutron diffraction. Comments are made on the reliability and accuracy to be expected from particular techniques
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Júlio C. U. Coelho
Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.
Effects on Machining on Surface Residual Stress of SA 508 and Austenitic Stainless Steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Seong Ho; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Jai Hak
2011-01-01
Primary water stress corrosion cracking has occurred in dissimilar weld areas in nuclear power plants. Residual stress is a driving force in the crack. Residual stress may be generated by weld or surface machining. Residual stress due to surface machining depends on the machining method, e.g., milling, grinding, or EDM. The stress is usually distributed on or near the surface of the material. We present the measured residual stress for machining on SA 508 and austenitic stainless steels such as TP304 and F316. The residual stress can be tensile or compressive depending on the machining method. The depth and the magnitude of the residual stress depend on the material and the machining method
A microscopic approach to Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces between metallic bodies
Barcellona, Pablo; Passante, Roberto
2015-04-01
We consider the Casimir-Polder interaction energy between a metallic nanoparticle and a metallic plate, as well as the Casimir interaction energy between two macroscopic metal plates, in terms of the many-body dispersion interactions between their constituents. Expressions for two- and three-body dispersion interactions between the microscopic parts of a real metal are first obtained, both in the retarded and non-retarded limits. These expressions are then used to evaluate the overall two- and three-body contributions to the macroscopic Casimir-Polder and Casimir force, and to compare them with each other, for the two following geometries: metal nanoparticle/half-space and half-space/half-space, where all the materials are assumed perfect conductors. The above evaluation is obtained by summing up the contributions from the microscopic constituents of the bodies (metal nanoparticles). In the case of nanoparticle/half-space, our results fully agree with those that can be extracted from the corresponding macroscopic results, and explicitly show the non-applicability of the pairwise approximation for the geometry considered. In both cases, we find that, while the overall two-body contribution yields an attractive force, the overall three-body contribution is repulsive. Also, they turn out to be of the same order, consistently with the known non applicability of the pairwise approximation. The issue of the rapidity of convergence of the many-body expansion is also briefly discussed.
Marine Tar Residues: a Review.
Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L
Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.
Universal relationship connecting various two-body effective residual interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knuepfer, W.; Huber, M.G.
1976-01-01
Starting from a momentum space analysis of the two-body matrix elements, a relation has been established between the size of the model space actually used in a specific calculation and the relevant properties of the effective residual interaction. It turns out that the two-body transition density acts like a filter function on the Fourier transform of the force; it exhibits a distinct structure which clearly reflects the size and the detailed properties of the configuration space actually used. From an investigation of this filter function an equivalence criterion for different effective residual two-body interactions has been established both for closed and open shell nuclei. This result can be used to construct simple although realistic effective forces. As an example, a model for a separable residual interaction is proposed in which the corresponding parameters are being clearly related to the nuclear radius (i.e., the mass number), to the quantum numbers (i.e., the angular momentum) of the state under consideration and to the size of the configuration space used. For a number of examples this force has been applied successfully for the description of low energy properties of both closed and open shell nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schilcher, K.
1997-05-01
Interaction forces in 'Scanning Force Microscopy' (SFM). Force curves revealed exponentially decaying, attractive forces between silicon tip and silicon sample in aqueous media. Replacing the silicon sample by a sheet of mica, the interaction forces had both, an attractive and a repulsive component. Addition of salts generally reduced the forces. At 500 mM salt concentration, the attractive force became quantized with a residual force value of 23 pN. The attractive force is attributed to the gain in energy of water molecules which are released from surface water into free water during tip-sample approach. This conclusion is supported by a statistical model. The repulsive force contribution in the case of mica, is caused by hydration forces due to the spatial organization of crystalline water on the mica surface. Anchoring of biological cells. Molecular resolution of cell surfaces by SFM requires cell anchoring without interference with cell physiology. For this a novel strategy, 'hydrophobic anchoring' was designed. It avoids strong attractive forces between cell and by using a flexible spacer molecule. It establishes anchoring by a lipid (bound to the spacer), which weakly interacts with the hydrophobic core of the cell membrane. The method was subjected to tests using RBL-2H3, CH0 αβ and HEK-293 cells. The strength of cell anchoring was assayed by shear forces. In all cases 'hydrophobic anchoring' via a spacer caused elective anchoring much beyond controls. Such cell anchoring was employed for the imaging of RBL-2H3 cells by SFM. Images showed considerable finer details than images of loosely adsorbed cells. With about 50 rim resolution, SFM succeeded in imaging microvilli, filopodia, single cytoskeletal fibers (microtubules, microfilaments) and vesicles. In addition, as a consequence of cell stimulation upon ionomycin treatment, lamellae formation and the appearance of secretory granules on top of them were observed which indicates the viability of anchored
Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10
Monastyrskyy, Bohdan
2013-08-31
We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.
Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy
Chu, L.
2018-01-01
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have
Sparse regularization for force identification using dictionaries
Qiao, Baijie; Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xuefeng
2016-04-01
The classical function expansion method based on minimizing l2-norm of the response residual employs various basis functions to represent the unknown force. Its difficulty lies in determining the optimum number of basis functions. Considering the sparsity of force in the time domain or in other basis space, we develop a general sparse regularization method based on minimizing l1-norm of the coefficient vector of basis functions. The number of basis functions is adaptively determined by minimizing the number of nonzero components in the coefficient vector during the sparse regularization process. First, according to the profile of the unknown force, the dictionary composed of basis functions is determined. Second, a sparsity convex optimization model for force identification is constructed. Third, given the transfer function and the operational response, Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation (SpaRSA) is developed to solve the sparse regularization problem of force identification. Finally, experiments including identification of impact and harmonic forces are conducted on a cantilever thin plate structure to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of SpaRSA. Besides the Dirac dictionary, other three sparse dictionaries including Db6 wavelets, Sym4 wavelets and cubic B-spline functions can also accurately identify both the single and double impact forces from highly noisy responses in a sparse representation frame. The discrete cosine functions can also successfully reconstruct the harmonic forces including the sinusoidal, square and triangular forces. Conversely, the traditional Tikhonov regularization method with the L-curve criterion fails to identify both the impact and harmonic forces in these cases.
Xu, Jun; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Mohideen, U.
2018-03-01
It is well known that residual electrostatic forces create significant difficulties in precise measurements of the Casimir force and the wide use of Casimir-operated microdevices. We experimentally demonstrate that, with the help of Ar-ion cleaning of the surfaces, it is possible to make electrostatic effects negligibly small compared to the Casimir interaction. Our experimental setup consists of a dynamic atomic force microscope supplemented with an Ar-ion gun and argon reservoir. The residual potential difference between the Au-coated surfaces of a sphere and those of a plate was measured both before and after in situ Ar-ion cleaning. It is shown that this cleaning decreases the magnitude of the residual potential by up to an order of magnitude and makes it almost independent of the separation. The gradient of the Casimir force was measured using ordinary samples subjected to Ar-ion cleaning. The obtained results are shown to be in good agreement both with previous precision measurements using specially selected samples and with theoretical predictions of the Lifshitz theory. The conclusion is made that the suggested method of in situ Ar-ion cleaning is effective in reducing the electrostatic effects and therefore is a great resource for experiments on measuring the Casimir interaction and for Casimir-operated microdevices.
Souza, Tomaz Fantin de; Soares, Carla Adriana Theis; Zottis, Juliana; Nunes, Rafael Menezes; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Hirsch, Thomas
2013-01-01
In this work, a drawing processed was simulated to calculate forces and the resulting residual stresses in the material. The calculated residual stresses were compared with experimentally measured residual stresses by the Neutron Diffraction Method. The modeled process was the Wire Drawing. The necessary parameters to model the process were taken from an industrial currently used process. Rods of an AISI 1045 steel with nominal diameters of 21.46 mm were reduced to 20.25 mm by drawing with an...
2010-07-01
... State residual market insurance entities and State worker's compensation funds. 50.19 Section 50.19... market insurance entities and State worker's compensation funds. (a) Policies in force on October 17... condition for Federal payment is waived for those State residual market insurance entities and State workers...
Residual stresses around Vickers indents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.
1995-01-01
The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones
Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.
1984-01-01
A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed
Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.
1985-05-01
We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, K. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.
1994-01-01
The in-reactor fuel rod support conditions against the fretting wear-induced damage can be evaluated by spacer grid residual spring deflection. In order to predict the spacer grid residual spring deflection as a function of burnup for various spring designs, a simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection has been developed and implemented in the GRIDFORCE program. The simulation methodology takes into account cladding creep rate, initial spring deflection, initial spring force, and spring force relaxation rate as the key parameters affecting the residual spring deflection. The simulation methodology developed in this study can be utilized as an effective tool in evaluating the capability of a newly designed spacer grid spring to prevent the fretting wear-induced damage
Labor Force Participation Rate
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...
Weltner, Klaus
1990-01-01
Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)
Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment
Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.
1997-01-01
Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.
Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.
2011-01-01
The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...
Carbaryl residues in maize products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.
1976-01-01
The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)
Combinatorial construction of toric residues
Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan
2004-01-01
The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...
Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.
2015-01-01
Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of
Ridgely, Charles T.
2010-01-01
Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…
Weld Residual Stress in Corner Boxing Joints
Kazuyoshi, Matsuoka; Tokuharu, Yoshii; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport
1998-01-01
Fatigue damage often occurs in corner boxing welded joints because of stress concentration and residual stress. The hot spot stress approach is applicable to stress concentration. However, the number of suitable methods for estimating residual stress in welded joints is limited. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the residual stress in corner boxing joints. The method of estimating residual stresses based on the inherent stress technique is presented. Residual stress measurements are per...
Solidification process for sludge residue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearce, K.L.
1998-01-01
This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria
Machine Arithmetic in Residual Classes,
1981-04-03
rsmainder/residue, as this ascape /-nsues from thp determination of system. It can be. zaalizpd ;n the presence of th- arithmetic urit, which wor~s in thz sys...modules Nj. Page 417. Proof. Proof ascaps /ensues directly from the theorem of Gauss. Actually/really, since according to condition (py, qj)-=-. then
Residual stress in polyethylene pipes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš
2016-01-01
Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016
Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)
1993-12-31
Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.
Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.
2016-01-01
We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.
Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista
2014-01-01
We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...
Tighe, Brian
2009-03-01
We study the statistics of contact forces in the force network ensemble, a minimal model of jammed granular media that emphasizes the role of vector force balance. We show that the force probability distribution can be calculated analytically by way of an analogy to equilibrium ensemble methods. In two dimensions the large force tail decays asymptotically as a Gaussian, distinct from earlier predictions, due to the existence of a conserved quantity related to the presence of local vector force balance. We confirm our predictions with highly accurate statistical sampling -- we sample the force distribution over more than 40 decades -- permitting unambiguous confrontation of theory with numerics. We show how the conserved quantity arises naturally within the context of any constant stress ensemble.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder
2002-01-01
We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....
Lopes, J H
2013-01-01
Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$
Anion induced conformational preference of Cα NN motif residues in functional proteins.
Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Mahua; Banerjee, Raja; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb
2017-12-01
Among different ligand binding motifs, anion binding C α NN motif consisting of peptide backbone atoms of three consecutive residues are observed to be important for recognition of free anions, like sulphate or biphosphate and participate in different key functions. Here we study the interaction of sulphate and biphosphate with C α NN motif present in different proteins. Instead of total protein, a peptide fragment has been studied keeping C α NN motif flanked in between other residues. We use classical force field based molecular dynamics simulations to understand the stability of this motif. Our data indicate fluctuations in conformational preferences of the motif residues in absence of the anion. The anion gives stability to one of these conformations. However, the anion induced conformational preferences are highly sequence dependent and specific to the type of anion. In particular, the polar residues are more favourable compared to the other residues for recognising the anion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Visualization of residual organic liquid trapped in aquifers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conrad, S.H.; Wilson, J.L.; Mason, W.R.; Peplinski, W.J.
1992-01-01
Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons and solvents. The flow visualization experiments described in this study examined the migration of organic liquids through the saturated zone of aquifers, with a primary focus on the behavior of the residual organic liquid saturation, referring to that portion of the organic liquid that is trapped by capillary forces. Etched glass micromodels were used to visually observe dynamic multiphase displacement processes in pore networks. The resulting fluid distributions were photographed. Pore and blob casts were produced by a technique in which an organic liquid was solidified in place within a sand column at the conclusion of a displacement. The columns were sectioned and examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes. Photomicrographs of these sections show the morphology of the organic phase and its location within the sand matrix. The photographs from both experimental techniques reveal that in the saturated zone large amounts of residual organic liquid are trapped as isolated blobs of microscopic size. The size, shape, and spatial distribution of these blobs of residual organic liquid affect the dissolution of organic liquid into the water phase and the biotransformation of organic components. These processes are of concern for the prediction of pollution migration and the design of aquifer remediation schemes
Radioactive material in residues of health services residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.
2006-01-01
The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)
RECOVERY OF WHEAT RESIDUE NITROGEN 15 AND RESIDUAL ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Therefore 85 kg ha-1 N as labelled ammonium sulfate (9.764% atomic excess) was applied in a three-split application. Fertiliser N recovery by wheat in the first year was 33.1%. At harvest, 64.8% of fertiliser N was found in the 0 - 80 cm profile as residual fertiliser-derived N; 2.1% of the applied N could not be accounted for ...
Sun, Jianbo; Finklea, Harry O; Liu, Yuxin
2017-03-24
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) residue has long been a critical challenge for practical applications of the transferred chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. Thermal annealing is empirically used for the removal of the PMMA residue; however experiments imply that there are still small amounts of residues left after thermal annealing which are hard to remove with conventional methods. In this paper, the thermal degradation of the PMMA residue upon annealing was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The study reveals that post-annealing residues are generated by the elimination of methoxycarbonyl side chains in PMMA and are believed to be absorbed on graphene via the π-π interaction between the conjugated unsaturated carbon segments and graphene. The post-annealing residues are difficult to remove by further annealing in a non-oxidative atmosphere due to their thermal and chemical stability. An electrolytic cleaning method was shown to be effective in removing these post-annealing residues while preserving the underlying graphene lattice based on Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies. Additionally, a solution-gated field effect transistor was used to study the transport properties of the transferred CVD graphene before thermal annealing, after thermal annealing, and after electrolytic cleaning, respectively. The results show that the carrier mobility was significantly improved, and that the p-doping was reduced by removing PMMA residues and post-annealing residues. These studies provide a more in-depth understanding on the thermal annealing process for the removal of the PMMA residues from transferred CVD graphene and a new approach to remove the post-annealing residues, resulting in a residue-free graphene.
Mitrinović, Dragoslav S
1993-01-01
Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...
Calcination/dissolution residue treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.
1994-09-01
Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination
EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL STRAINS ON ACOUSTIC QUALITY OF GUITAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariana Domnica STANCIU
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to assess how the residual deformations of the guitar neck influence the quality of the musical instrument, knowing that wood is a material whose rheological behavior is influenced by many factors, including humidity, temperature, duration, intensity and how is applied the forces. Thus, it were analyzed two types of classical guitar - standard, without deformations and the other type with deformations of the guitar neck. Were determined flatness deviations of the neck by measuring the distance between strings and fretboard, at 12th fret by means of standardize device. Subsequently, each type of guitar was tested acoustically, recording frequency and harmonics. In the case of guitar characterized by residual deformations, acoustic characteristics (octaves, harmonics, amplitude were significantly altered due to strings length modifications.
In-Situ Residual Tracking in Reduced Order Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph C. Slater
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD based reduced-order modelling is demonstrated to be a weighted residual technique similar to Galerkin's method. Estimates of weighted residuals of neglected modes are used to determine relative importance of neglected modes to the model. The cumulative effects of neglected modes can be used to estimate error in the reduced order model. Thus, once the snapshots have been obtained under prescribed training conditions, the need to perform full-order simulations for comparison is eliminates. This has the potential to allow the analyst to initiate further training when the reduced modes are no longer sufficient to accurately represent the predominant phenomenon of interest. The response of a fluid moving at Mach 1.2 above a panel to a forced localized oscillation of the panel at and away from the training operating conditions is used to demonstrate the evaluation method.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
D'Amato, Mark
1998-01-01
This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard
2014-01-01
outperformed existing tools with Bi-Force at least when following the evaluation protocols from Eren et al. Bi-Force is implemented in Java and integrated into the open source software package of BiCluE. The software as well as all used datasets are publicly available at http://biclue.mpi-inf.mpg.de....... of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...
Intermolecular and surface forces
Israelachvili, Jacob N
2011-01-01
This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr
Macroscopic forces from supersymmetry
Dimopoulos, Savas K
1996-01-01
We argue that theories in which supersymmetry breaking originates at low energies often contain scalar particles that mediate coherent gravitational strength forces at distances less than a cm. We estimate the strength and range of these forces in several cases. Present limits on such forces are inadequate. However new techniques, such as those based on small cryogenic mechanical oscillators, may improve the present limits by ten orders of magnitude or discover new forces as weak as 1 \\% of gravity at distances down to 40 microns.
Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.
Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G
2018-02-01
Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...
Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue
EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.
Climate forcings and feedbacks
Hansen, James
1993-01-01
Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption
Evaluating amber force fields using computed NMR chemical shifts.
Koes, David R; Vries, John K
2017-10-01
NMR chemical shifts can be computed from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a template matching approach and a library of conformers containing chemical shifts generated from ab initio quantum calculations. This approach has potential utility for evaluating the force fields that underlie these simulations. Imperfections in force fields generate flawed atomic coordinates. Chemical shifts obtained from flawed coordinates have errors that can be traced back to these imperfections. We use this approach to evaluate a series of AMBER force fields that have been refined over the course of two decades (ff94, ff96, ff99SB, ff14SB, ff14ipq, and ff15ipq). For each force field a series of MD simulations are carried out for eight model proteins. The calculated chemical shifts for the 1 H, 15 N, and 13 C a atoms are compared with experimental values. Initial evaluations are based on root mean squared (RMS) errors at the protein level. These results are further refined based on secondary structure and the types of atoms involved in nonbonded interactions. The best chemical shift for identifying force field differences is the shift associated with peptide protons. Examination of the model proteins on a residue by residue basis reveals that force field performance is highly dependent on residue position. Examination of the time course of nonbonded interactions at these sites provides explanations for chemical shift differences at the atomic coordinate level. Results show that the newer ff14ipq and ff15ipq force fields developed with the implicitly polarized charge method perform better than the older force fields. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...
9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.
2010-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...
Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, E.S.
1995-01-01
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....
Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe
Law, Michael; Gnaëpel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham
2006-11-01
Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines.
Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham
2006-01-01
Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines
Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. linked by α-(1- 4) glycosidic bonds into chains and chains. branch via α-(1- 6) linkage. Branching points are about every fourth residue – allows. glucose ...
Elementary Particles and Forces.
Quigg, Chris
1985-01-01
Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…
CERN AC
1998-01-01
The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies of phenomena in which they have a dominant role.
El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.
2015-01-01
In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.
Force interactions between magnetite, silica, and bentonite studied with atomic force microscopy
Dobryden, I.; Potapova, E.; Holmgren, A.; Weber, H.; Hedlund, J.; Almqvist, N.
2015-04-01
Iron ore pellets consist of variety of mineral particles and are an important refined product used in steel manufacturing. Production of high-quality pellets requires good understanding of interactions between different constituents, such as magnetite, gangue residues, bentonite, and additives. Much research has been reported on magnetite, silica, and bentonite surface properties and their effect on pellet strength but more scant with a focus on a fundamental particle-particle interaction. To probe such particle interaction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) using colloidal probe technique has proven to be a suitable tool. In this work, the measurements were performed between magnetite-magnetite, bentonite-magnetite, silica-bentonite, and silica-magnetite particles in 1 mM CaCl2 solution at various pH values. The interaction character, i.e., repulsion or attraction, was determined by measuring and analyzing AFM force curves. The observed quantitative changes in interaction forces were in good agreement with the measured zeta-potentials for the particles at the same experimental conditions. Particle aggregation was studied by measuring the adhesion force. Absolute values of adhesion forces for different systems could not be compared due to the difference in particle size and contact geometry. Therefore, the relative change of adhesion force between pH 6 and 10 was used for comparison. The adhesion force decreased for the magnetite-magnetite and bentonite-silica systems and slightly increased for the magnetite-bentonite system at pH 10 as compared to pH 6, whereas a pronounced decrease in adhesion force was observed in the magnetite-silica system. Thus, the presence of silica particles on the magnetite surface could have a negative impact on the interaction between magnetite and bentonite in balling due to the reduction of the adhesion force.
Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.
2006-01-01
The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)
Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)
2006-07-01
The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)
Residual Strength of Glued-in Bolts After 9 Years In Situ Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars
1996-01-01
deviation of 37 kN. Comparing this mean residual strength with previously recorded test data reveals a 5% strength reduction. The force displacement curves shows no plastic capacity in the connections. At fracture, a displacement between 0.4 mm and 1.0 mm was observed. In the majority of failures the bolts...
Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2012-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...
Process to recycle shredder residue
Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.
2001-01-01
A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.
Vorst, H.A. van der; Ye, Q.
1999-01-01
In this paper, a strategy is proposed for alternative computations of the residual vectors in Krylov subspace methods, which improves the agreement of the computed residuals and the true residuals to the level of O(u)kAkkxk. Building on earlier ideas on residual replacement and on insights in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mun, M. K.; Lee, C. H.; Em, V. T.
2001-01-01
In order to nondestructively measure in-depth residual stress distribution of the metallic materials, it is unique method to use neutron diffraction. In this paper the principles of residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction is described. The residual stress distribution of welded strainless steeel 304 plate using te HANARO residual stress instrument is also described
40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... residues and ethylamine distillation residues. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...
Residual analysis for spatial point processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper
process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....
Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, E.S.
1995-01-01
weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N...... and denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.
1999-05-01
This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.
Monitoring antibiotic residues in honey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica Cristina Cara,
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Next to the beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine, streptomycin is one of the mostly used antibiotics. High concentration of streptomycin could lead to ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Low concentration – as found in food – may cause allergies, destroy the intestinal flora and favor immunity to some pathogenic microorganisms. In 1948 chlortetracycline was isolated by Duggan as a metabolite and this was the first antibiotic substance of the group of tetracyclines. In the present paper there are presented the monitoring of the antibiotic residues in honey from Timis County. The residues of tetracycline and streptomycin in honey were determined by the method ELISA – a quantitative method of detection. The microtitre wells are coated with tetracycline and anti-streptomycin antibodies. Free antibiotic and immobilized antibiotic compete with the added antibiotic antibody (competitive immunoassay reaction. Any unbound antibody is then removed in a washing step. Bound conjugate enzymes convert the colorless chromogen into a blue product. The addition ofthe stop reagent leads to a color change from blue to yellow. The measurement is made photometrically at 450 nm. The absorption is inversely proportional to the antibiotic concentration in the sample.
Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.
2009-01-01
The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.
Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaan Özdedeli
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.
He, M.; Huang, C. H.; Wang, X. X.; Yang, F.; Zhang, N.; Li, F. G.
2017-10-01
The local residual stresses in microzones are investigated by the instrumented indentation method with the Berkovich indenter. The parameters required for determination of residual stresses are obtained from indentation load-penetration depth curves constructed during instrumented indentation tests on flat square 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy specimens with a central hole containing the compressive residual stresses generated by the cold extrusion process. The force balance system with account of the tensile and compressive residual stresses is used to explain the phenomenon of different contact areas produced by the same indentation load. The effect of strain-hardening exponent on the residual stress is tuned-off by application of the representative stress σ_{0.033} in the average contact pressure assessment using the Π theorem, while the yield stress value is obtained from the constitutive function. Finally, the residual stresses are calculated according to the proposed equations of the force balance system, and their feasibility is corroborated by the XRD measurements.
Vekstein, G.
2017-10-01
This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J
2016-01-01
development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...
Microtubule depolymerization induces traction force increase through two distinct pathways
Rape, Andrew; Guo, Wei-hui; Wang, Yu-li
2011-01-01
Traction forces increase after microtubule depolymerization; however, the signaling mechanisms underlying this, in particular the dependence upon myosin II, remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of traction force increase after nocodazole-induced microtubule depolymerization by applying traction force microscopy to cells cultured on micropatterned polyacrylamide hydrogels to obtain samples of homogeneous shape and size. Control cells and cells treated with a focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor showed similar increases in traction forces, indicating that the response is independent of FAK. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of myosin II did not prevent the increase of residual traction forces upon nocodazole treatment. This increase was abolished upon pharmacological inhibition of FAK. These results suggest two distinct pathways for the regulation of traction forces. First, microtubule depolymerization activates a myosin-II-dependent mechanism through a FAK-independent pathway. Second, microtubule depolymerization also enhances traction forces through a myosin-II-independent, FAK-regulated pathway. Traction forces are therefore regulated by a complex network of complementary signals and force-generating mechanisms. PMID:22193960
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shisler, Vernon
2001-01-01
This presentation concerns technology aimed at the dismounted soldier, Capstone demonstrations for FY06-07, fielding in the Objective Force time frame, strong interest in a lightweight weapon family...
Packing force data correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heiman, S.M.
1994-01-01
One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables
Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Binetti, Michael R
2008-01-01
.... It looks at the manner in which security assistance guidance is developed and executed. An examination of national level policy and the guidance from senior military and civilian leaders highlights the important role of Security Force Assistance...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...
Treder, Hans-Jürgen
1991-03-01
We discuss the possibility of “fifth forces” in relativistic gravitation theories of fourth order. The fifth force may be an analog to the “weak forces” in the theories of electroweak interactions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Preben Terndrup
1996-01-01
The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....
2009-05-01
Group 8-59. Cultures may be individualistic or collectivist in their orientation. An individualist culture is one in which the ties between...relatively little weight on offensive and defensive operations from a U.S. perspective . However, when U.S. forces accompany foreign security forces (FSF) in...precedence when conducting SFA. As a result, the brigade combat team (BCT) may be a supported command from a U.S. perspective as well as acting as
Joint Force Fires Coordination: Towards a Joint Force Answer
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Fearn, William
1997-01-01
.... Components compete for decisive effect not only with each other but with the joint force. The contemporary joint force is confederated, the joint force headquarters a weak arbitration authority...
MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Canova
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.
MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Aparecido Canova
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.
Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera
In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....
Forest residues in cattle feed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the
Effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation response of (100) copper single crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Li-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wang, Cheng-biao
2012-01-01
Experimental measurements were used to investigate the effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation of (100) copper single crystal. Equi-biaxial tensile and compressive stresses were applied to the copper single crystal using a special designed apparatus. It was found that residual stresses greatly affected peak load, curvature of the loading curve, elastically recovered depth, residual depth, indentation work, pile-up amount and contact area. The Suresh and Giannakopoulos and Lee and Kwon methods were used to calculate the residual stresses from load-depth data and morphology observation of nanoindents using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of the obtained results with stress values from strain gage showed that the residual stresses analyzed from the Suresh and Giannakopoulos model agreed well with the applied stresses. -- Highlights: ► Residual stresses greatly affected various nanoindentation parameters. ► The contact area can be accurately measured from AFM observation. ► The residual stresses analyzed from the S and G model agreed well with applied stresses.
Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.
Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer
2016-09-01
The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.
Distribution of residues and primitive roots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Replacing the function f by g, we get the required estimate for N(p, N). D. Proof of Theorem 1.1. When p = 7, we clearly see that (1, 2) is a consecutive pair of quadratic residue modulo 7. Assume that p ≥ 11. If 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p, then we have (9, 10) as a consecutive pair of quadratic residues modulo p, ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Stackpoole, M.; Bender-Koch, C.
2000-01-01
Iron oxide stabilized APC residues from MSWI were heat treated at 600°C and 900°C. The thermal treatments resulted in a change in product stability by forcing a transformation in the mineralogical structures of the products. The treatments, moreover, simulated somewhat the natural aging processes...... that would take place in a stabilized residue. Consequent changes in crystalline structure and heavy metal binding were examined....
Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented Classical Least Squares for the Simultaneous Determination of Diphenhydramine, Benzonatate, Guaifenesin and Phenylephrine in their Quaternary Mixture.
RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Løkke, Hans
1974-01-01
Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron
2008-01-01
This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...
Dong, Guanyu
2018-03-01
In order to analyze the microscopic stress field acting on residual oil droplets in micro pores, calculate its deformation, and explore the hydrodynamic mechanism of viscous-elastic fluids displacing oil droplets, the viscous-elastic fluid flow equations in micro pores are established by choosing the Upper Convected Maxwell constitutive equation; the numerical solutions of the flow field are obtained by volume control and Alternate Direction Implicit methods. From the above, the velocity field and microscopic stress field; the forces acting on residual oil droplets; the deformations of residual oil droplets by various viscous-elastic displacing fluids and at various Wiesenberg numbers are calculated and analyzed. The result demonstrated that both the normal stress and horizontal force acting on the residual oil droplets by viscous-elastic fluids are much larger compared to that of inelastic fluid; the distribution of normal stress changes abruptly; under the condition of the same pressure gradient in the system under investigation, the ratio of the horizontal forces acting on the residual oil droplets by different displacing fluids is about 1:8:20, which means that under the above conditions, the driving force on a oil droplet is 20 times higher for a viscous-elastic fluid compared to that of a Newtonian Fluid. The conclusions are supportive of the mechanism that viscous-elastic driving fluids can increase the Displacement Efficiency. This should be of help in designing new chemicals and selecting Enhanced Oil Recovery systems.
Electrochemical force microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.
2017-01-10
A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars
2009-01-01
ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and engin......ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design...
Deep residual networks of residual networks for image super-resolution
Wei, Xueqi; Yang, Fumeng; Wu, Congzhong
2017-11-01
Single image super-resolution (SISR), which aims at obtaining a high-resolution image from a single low-resolution image, is a classical problem in computer vision. In this paper, we address this problem based on a deep learning method with residual learning in an end-to-end manner. We propose a novel residual-network architecture, Residual networks of Residual networks (RoR), to promote the learning capability of residual networks for SISR. In residual network, the signal can be directly propagated from one unit to any other units in both forward and backward passes when using identity mapping as the skip connections. Based on it, we add level-wise connections upon original residual networks, to dig the optimization ability of residual networks. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of RoR, it can get a faster convergence speed and gain higher resolution accuracy from considerably increased depth.
Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.
2012-01-01
This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.
Process for measuring residual stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elfinger, F.X.; Peiter, A.; Theiner, W.A.; Stuecker, E.
1982-01-01
No single process can at present solve all problems. The complete destructive processes only have a limited field of application, as the component cannot be reused. However, they are essential for the basic determination of stress distributions in the field of research and development. Destructive and non-destructive processes are mainly used if investigations have to be carried out on original components. With increasing component size, the part of destructive tests becomes smaller. The main applications are: quality assurance, testing of manufactured parts and characteristics of components. Among the non-destructive test procedures, X-raying has been developed most. It gives residual stresses on the surface and on surface layers near the edges. Further development is desirable - in assessment - in measuring techniques. Ultrasonic and magnetic crack detection processes are at present mainly used in research and development, and also in quality assurance. Because of the variable depth of penetration and the possibility of automation they are gaining in importance. (orig./RW) [de
Madan, Ram C.; Shuart, Mark J.
1990-01-01
Blade-stiffened, compression-loaded cover panels were designed, manufactured, analyzed, and tested. All panels were fabricated from IM6/1808I interleafed graphite-epoxy. An orthotropic blade stiffener and an orthotropic skin were selected to satisfy the design requirements for an advanced aircraft configuration. All specimens were impact damaged prior to testing. Experimental results were obtained for three- and five-stiffener panels. Analytical results described interlaminar forces caused by impact and predicted specimen residual strength. The analytical results compared reasonably with the experimental results for residual strength of the specimens.
Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-06-11
The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.
Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues
Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...
Residual stresses in steel and zirconium weldments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Root, J.H.; Coleman, C.E.; Bowden, J.W.
1997-01-01
Three-dimensional scans of residual stress within intact weldments provide insight into the consequences of various welding techniques and stress-relieving procedures. The neutron diffraction method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses has been applied to a circumferential weld in a ferritic steel pipe of outer diameter 114 mm and thickness 8.6 mm. The maximum tensile stresses, 250 MPa in the hoop direction, are found at mid-thickness of the fusion zone. The residual stresses approach zero within 20 mm from the weld center. The residual stresses caused by welding zirconium alloy components are partially to blame for failures due to delayed-hydride cracking. Neutron diffraction measurements in a GTA-welded Zr-2.5 Nb plate have shown that heat treatment at 530 C for 1 h reduces the longitudinal residual strain by 60%. Neutron diffraction has also been used to scan the residual stresses near circumferential electron beam welds in irradiated and unirradiated Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes. The residual stresses due to electron beam welding appear to be lower than 130 MPa, even in the as-welded state. No significant changes occur in the residual stress pattern of the electron-beam welded tube, during a prolonged exposure to thermal neutrons and the temperatures typical of an operating nuclear reactor
Densification of FL Chains via Residuated Frames
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baldi, Paolo; Terui, K.
2016-01-01
Roč. 75, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-195 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Keywords : densifiability * standard completeness * residuated lattices * residuated frames * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016
Spatial resolution enhancement residual coding using hybrid ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a normal video frames possess distinct characteristics compared to a residual frame. In this paper, we .... analyze the characteristics of IP, MC and RE residuals (Kamisli 2010; Rao et al 2007). The estimation ..... Eslami R and Radha H 2007 A new family of nonredundant transforms using hybrid wavelets and directional filter ...
Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks
Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan
2016-01-01
We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate
Soil water evaporation and crop residues
Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...
Unicystic ameloblastoma arising from a residual cyst
Mahajan, Amit D; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Khurana, Neha M; Shah, Navin
2014-01-01
Intraoral swellings involving alveolar ridges in edentulous patients are clinically diagnosed as residual cysts, traumatic bone cysts, Stafne's jaw bone cavity, ameloblastoma and metastatic tumours of the jaw. This case report describes a residual cyst in a 68-year-old edentulous male patient which was enucleated and histopathologically confirmed as a unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:25199192
Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Pernille Erland
Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...
Distribution of residues and primitive roots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
quadratic residues and non-residues cases using some refinement of van der Warden's the- orem in combinatorial number theory. Therefore, in his proof, the constant p0(N) depends on the van der Warden number, which is very difficult to calculate for all N. For instance, recently, Luca and Thangadurai [8] proved that for all ...
Bioaccumulation and distribution of organochlorine residues across ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The transfer of organochlorine residues in the food chain and its distribution in the trophic levels was influenced by habitat, environmental conditions, feeding habit and biochemical composition of individual populations. The total residual concentration of OCPs in shellfish and fish ranged between 0.16 ppm and 0.69 ppm.
Power from wastewater and residual products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh-Jeppesen, K.
2007-01-01
Microbial fuel cells utilise wastewater and residual products from the pretreatment of straw to generate power. Denmark could lead the way......Microbial fuel cells utilise wastewater and residual products from the pretreatment of straw to generate power. Denmark could lead the way...
Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.
This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)
Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models
Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning
2012-01-01
The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…
77 FR 24671 - Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues
2012-04-25
... Food Safety and Inspection Service Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability and... availability of a compliance guide for the prevention of violative residues in livestock slaughter...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassen M. Ouakad
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.
1986-01-01
We present a phenomenological description of the ''fifth force'' which focuses on the implications of the existing data from satellite and geophysical measurements of gravity, the Eoetvoes experiment, decays into hyperphotons, and the energy-dependence of the K 0 - anti K 0 parameters
Abelmann, Leon
Principle of MFM In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the magnetic stray field above a very flat specimen, or sample, is detected by placing a small magnetic element, the tip, mounted on a cantilever spring very close to the surface of the sample (Figure 1). Typical dimensions are a cantilever length
Separation problems and forcing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zapletal, Jindřich
2013-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025
Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces
2013-12-01
expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and...military forces located there. The masked men appeared to be shooting and the army responded, shooting back.284 Whatever the stories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny
We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...
Residual stress measurement for injection molded components
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Achyut Adhikari
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Residual stress induced during manufacturing of injection molded components such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA affects the mechanical and optical properties of these components. These residual stresses can be visualized and quantified by measuring their birefringence. In this paper, a low birefringence polariscope (LBP is used to measure the whole-field residual stress distribution of these injection molded specimens. Detailed analytical and experimental study is conducted to quantify the residual stress measurement in these materials. A commercial birefringence measurement system was used to validate the results obtained to our measurement system. This study can help in material diagnosis for quality and manufacturing purpose and be useful for understanding of residual stress in imaging or other applications.
Fifth force, sixth force and all that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recami, E.; Tonin Zanchin, V.
1988-01-01
In the recent literature, a few claims appeared about possible deviations from the ordinary gravitational laws (both at the terrestrial and at the galactic level). The experimental evidence does not seem to be conclusive; nor its is clear if new forces are showing up, or if we have to accept actual deviations from Newton or Einstein gravitation (in the latter case, the validity of the very Equivalence Principle might be on the stage). In such a situation, the attempts by various authors at explaining the ''new effects'' just on the basis of the ordinary theory of General Relativity (for instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically questionable. In this pedagogically oriented paper, the problem is approached within the classical realm, by exploring whether the possible new effects can be accounted for through minimal modifications of the standard formulatiaon of General Relativity: in particular, through exploitation and extension of the role of the cosmological constant
Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.
Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D
2018-01-30
Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.
Residual stresses in zircaloy welds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R
2009-01-01
Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es
Residual complaints after neuralgic amyotrophy.
Cup, Edith H; Ijspeert, Jos; Janssen, Renske J; Bussemaker-Beumer, Chaska; Jacobs, Joost; Pieterse, Allan J; van der Linde, Harmen; van Alfen, Nens
2013-01-01
To develop recommendations regarding outcome measures and topics to be addressed in rehabilitation for persons with neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), this study explored which functions and activities are related to persisting pain in NA and which questionnaires best capture these factors. A questionnaire-based survey from 2 cross-sectional cohorts, one of patients visiting the neurology outpatient clinic and a cohort seen at a multidisciplinary plexus clinic. Two tertiary referral clinics based in the Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation from a university medical center provided the data. A referred sample of patients (N=248) with either idiopathic or hereditary NA who fulfilled the criteria for this disorder, in whom the last episode of NA had been at least 6 months ago and included brachial plexus involvement. Not applicable. Two custom clinical screening questionnaires were used as well as the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire-Dutch Language Version, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), the Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ), and Overall Disability Sum Score. The survey confirms the high prevalence of persisting pain and impairments. More than half of the patients were restricted by pain, while in those without pain 60% experienced residual paresis. Correlations show an intimate relation between pain, scapular instability, problems with overhead activities, and increased fatigability. A standard physical therapy approach was ineffective or aggravated symptoms in more than 50%. Pain and fatigue are strongly correlated to persisting scapular instability and increased fatigability of the affected muscles in NA. Our results suggest that an integrated rehabilitation approach is needed in which all of these factors are addressed. We further recommend using the SPADI and SDQ in future studies to evaluate the natural course and treatment effects in NA. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Ceramic laminates with tailored residual stresses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baudín, C.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Severe environments imposed by new technologies demand new materials with better properties and ensured reliability. The intrinsic brittleness of ceramics has forced scientists to look for new materials and processing routes to improve the mechanical behaviour of ceramics in order to allow their use under severe thermomechanical conditions. The laminate approach has allowed the fabrication of a new family of composite materials with strength and reliability superior to those of monolithic ceramics with microstructures similar to those of the constituent layers. The different ceramic laminates developed since the middle 1970´s can be divided in two large groups depending on whether the development of residual stresses between layers is the main design tool. This paper reviews the developments in the control and tailoring of residual stresses in ceramic laminates. The tailoring of the thickness and location of layers in compression can lead to extremely performing structures in terms of strength values and reliability. External layers in compression lead to the strengthening of the structure. When relatively thin and highly compressed layers are located inside the material, threshold strength, crack bifurcation and crack arrest during fracture occur.
Las severas condiciones de trabajo de las nuevas aplicaciones tecnológicas exigen el uso de materiales con mejores propiedades y alta fiabilidad. La potencialidad de uso de materiales frágiles, como los cerámicos, en estas aplicaciones exige el desarrollo de nuevos materiales y métodos de procesamiento que mejoren su comportamiento mecánico. El concepto de material laminado ha permitido la fabricación de una nueva familia de materiales con tensiones de fractura y fiabilidad superiores a las de materiales monolíticos con microestructuras similares a las de las láminas que conforman el laminado. Los distintos materiales laminados desarrollados desde mediados de los años 70 se pueden
Interface effect of nanoscaled adhesive interlayer on force transfer in biological microjoint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quan Yuan
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The interface effect of nanoscale adhesive interlayer plays a significant role in force transfer in biological microjoint. In this letter, the authors adopted shear lag theory and Gurtin–Murdoch model to investigate the influence of two typical residual interface shears on stress distribution. The dominant governing equations of global interfacial shear stress are established using the stress jump across the interface and the continuity condition of interlayers. The transferred force is evidently reduced by the parabolic residual interface shear, and linear residual interface shear exerts no influence on the axial force of hard layer. This study might be helpful for the parametric investigation on stress transfer in a complicated microjoint and the interface design of nanocomposite.
A study on residual stresses in laser surface hardening of a medium carbon steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Y.S.; Na, S.J.
1989-01-01
The transient thermal stress and the residual stress in laser surface-hardening treatment of a medium carbon steel were analysed by employing a new two-dimensional finite element model. In this formulation, a sliced solution domain, having one element in the hardening direction, was introduced to satisfy the self-equilibrium of the resultant force in the hardening direction. By using the proposed model, the thermal and residual stresses in the laser surface heat treatment were successively calculated. The thermal stress was induced mainly by the temperature gradient and the martensitic phase transformation; the phase transformation was found to have a greater influence on the residual stress than the temperature gradient. The simulation results revealed that a compressive residual stress region occurs near the hardened surface of the workpiece and a tensile residual stress region occurs in the interior of the workpiece, whereas the maximum tensile residual stress occurs along the centre of the laser scanning path in the interior region (y=0). In comparison with the gaussian distribution of the beam power, the square beam mode results in a wider, but shallower, hardened zone. The calculation results also showed that the high-power beam with the high scanning speed is more suitable for laser surface hardening than the low-power beam with the low scanning speed if the heat input per unit length of the workpiece is maintained constant. (orig.)
Residual DPCM about Motion Compensated Residual Signal for H.264 Lossless Coding
Han, Ki-Hun; Rao, Kamisetty R.; Lee, Yung-Lyul
In this letter, a new Inter lossless coding method based on a residual DPCM (Differential Pulse Code Modulation) is proposed to improve compression ratio in the H.264 standard. Since the spatial correlation in a residual block can be further exploited among the residual signals after motion estimation/compensation, horizontal or vertical DPCM in the residual signals can be applied to further reduce the magnitudes of the residual signals. The proposed method reduces the average bitrates of 3.5% compared with the Inter lossless coding of the H.264 standard.
Novel feature for catalytic protein residues reflecting interactions with other residues.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yizhou Li
Full Text Available Owing to their potential for systematic analysis, complex networks have been widely used in proteomics. Representing a protein structure as a topology network provides novel insight into understanding protein folding mechanisms, stability and function. Here, we develop a new feature to reveal correlations between residues using a protein structure network. In an original attempt to quantify the effects of several key residues on catalytic residues, a power function was used to model interactions between residues. The results indicate that focusing on a few residues is a feasible approach to identifying catalytic residues. The spatial environment surrounding a catalytic residue was analyzed in a layered manner. We present evidence that correlation between residues is related to their distance apart most environmental parameters of the outer layer make a smaller contribution to prediction and ii catalytic residues tend to be located near key positions in enzyme folds. Feature analysis revealed satisfactory performance for our features, which were combined with several conventional features in a prediction model for catalytic residues using a comprehensive data set from the Catalytic Site Atlas. Values of 88.6 for sensitivity and 88.4 for specificity were obtained by 10-fold cross-validation. These results suggest that these features reveal the mutual dependence of residues and are promising for further study of structure-function relationship.
Making nuclei by using nuclear forces. Overwhelming power and difficulties of π mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toki, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
This paper is contributed to the planed title of 'Thirty Years History of The Playing Fields of Physics'. These thirty years are exactly the period while the author has devoted himself to the research and study of physics. The title is centered on the papers on experiments. He wishes, however, to write based on his experience as a theoretical physicist on the nuclear physics as it should be and in which direction to be developed. He would like to dedicate this paper to the late Professors M. Muraoka and K. Sugimoto of Osaka University. In the section 2 of 'Overwhelming Power and Difficulty of π Mesons', the fundamental pictures of '2.1 Start of the Yukawa's π Meson theory', '2.2 Mayer-Jensen's shell model', '2.3 Nambu's chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking' are introduced briefly. In the section 3 of 'Physics Lead by the Nuclear Forces Including π Mesons', the subsection '3.1 Phenomenological nuclear force' is taken up at first, then '3.2 Structure of D and tensor forces', '3.3 Structure of triton and three body forces', '3.4 Tensor forces in α-particles' and '3.5 Shell structure of light nuclei developed by the Argonne group' are explained successively. In section 4 of 'Tensor Best Fitting Shell-Model', problems on '4.1 Halo structure of 11 Li brought about by the tensor force' and '4.2 Strong tensor correlated Hartree-Fock theory' are explained. In section 5 of 'Nuclear Structure in the age of K computer', present and future view is given in '5.1 Nuclear forces described on Quantum Chromo Dynamics', '5.2 Present status of the nuclear structure derived on the lattice QCD', '5.3 Three-body forces created by π mesons' and '5.4 Role of K computer in nuclear physics'. In section 6 of 'Fusion of D', a new way to reconsider this problem as one of the nuclear physics is presented. In the final section 7 of 'Exciting Nuclear Physics' a short summary and memories of Professor Sugimoto are given. (S. Funahashi)
Prediction of machining induced residual stresses
Pramod, Monangi; Reddy, Yarkareddy Gopi; Prakash Marimuthu, K.
2017-07-01
Whenever a component is machined, residual stresses are induced in it. These residual stresses induced in the component reduce its fatigue life, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Thus it is important to predict and control the machining-induced residual stress. A lot of research is being carried out in this area in the past decade. This paper aims at prediction of residual stresses during machining of Ti-6Al-4V. A model was developed and under various combinations of cutting conditions such as, speed, feed and depth of cut, the behavior of residual stresses were simulated using Finite Element Model. The present work deals with the development of thermo-mechanical model to predict the machining induced residual stresses in Titanium alloy. The simulation results are compared with the published results. The results are in good agreement with the published results. Future work involves optimization or the cutting parameters that effect the machining induced residual stresses. The results obtained were validated with previous work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redmond Clark
2009-04-30
Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better
Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry
2013-03-01
The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of "predicaments", in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder.
Residual stress field of ballised holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, Man On; He, Zhimin
2012-01-01
Ballising, involving pushing a slightly over-sized ball made of hard material through a hole, is a kind of cold working process. Applying ballising process to fastener holes produces compressive residual stress on the edge of the holes, and therefore increases the fatigue life of the components or structures. Quantification of the residual stress field is critical to define and precede the ballising process. In this article, the ballised holes are modeled as cold-expanded holes. Elastic-perfectly plastic theory is employed to analyze the holes with cold expansion process. For theoretical simplification, an axially symmetrical thin plate with a cold expanded hole is assumed. The elasticplastic boundaries and residual stress distribution surrounding the cold expanded hole are derived. With the analysis, the residual stress field can be obtained together with actual cold expansion process in which only the diameters of hole before and after cold expansion need to be measured. As it is a non-destructive method, it provides a convenient way to estimate the elastic-plastic boundaries and residual stresses of cold worked holes. The approach is later extended to the case involving two cold-worked holes. A ballised hole is looked upon as a cold expanded hole and therefore is investigated by the approach. Specimens ballised with different interference levels are investigated. The effects of interference levels and specimen size on residual stresses are studied. The overall residual stresses of plates with two ballised holes are obtained by superposing the residual stresses induced on a single ballised hole. The effects of distance between the centers of the two holes with different interference levels on the residual stress field are revealed
Three-dimensional knee joint contact forces during walking in unilateral transtibial amputees.
Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R
2014-08-22
Individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations have greater prevalence of osteoarthritis in the intact knee joint relative to the residual leg and non-amputees, but the cause of this greater prevalence is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare knee joint contact forces and the muscles contributing to these forces between amputees and non-amputees during walking using forward dynamics simulations. We predicted that the intact knee contact forces would be higher than those of the residual leg and non-amputees. In the axial and mediolateral directions, the intact and non-amputee legs had greater peak tibio-femoral contact forces and impulses relative to the residual leg. The peak axial contact force was greater in the intact leg relative to the non-amputee leg, but the stance phase impulse was greater in the non-amputee leg. The vasti and hamstrings muscles in early stance and gastrocnemius in late stance were the largest contributors to the joint contact forces in the non-amputee and intact legs. Through dynamic coupling, the soleus and gluteus medius also had large contributions, even though they do not span the knee joint. In the residual leg, the prosthesis had large contributions to the joint forces, similar to the soleus in the intact and non-amputee legs. These results identify the muscles that contribute to knee joint contact forces during transtibial amputee walking and suggest that the peak knee contact forces may be more important than the knee contact impulses in explaining the high prevalence of intact leg osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Виктор Васильевич Туганаев
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Flora rapid reaction forces – there are explerents that have high productivity and weak competitiveness. Their innately functional allocation is to plant disturbed acres as soon as possible preventing by that biosphere homeostasis disturbance. Disturbed acres were used to take place in geological history. Nowadays they take especially big areas. Considering a historical line of Dactylis glomerata L. authors suggest to separate out an especial group of anthropochores which they call medieophytes
Air Force Leadership Diversity
2017-04-06
College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. He grew up as part of an Air Force family, entered active duty in 1996, and is a career Aircraft Maintenance... artificially limit them to capping out at O-6 if we want to encourage diversity in our most senior leadership levels as we seek to create a stronger...but I am not sure it does. I find it interesting that as of 31 December 2016 the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence , Surveillance and
Guidelines for selection and presentation of residue values of pesticides
Velde-Koerts T van der; Hoeven-Arentzen PH van; Ossendorp BC; RIVM-SIR
2004-01-01
Pesticide residue assessments are executed to establish legal limits, called Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). MRLs are derived from the results of these pesticide residue trials, which are performed according to critical Good Agricultural Practice. Only one residue value per residue trial may be
RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: GAS DISTRIBUTION STAGE ...
This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Gas Distribution Stage 1 souce category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Gas Distribution Stage 1 source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.
Properties of residuals for spatial point processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baddeley, A.; Møller, Jesper; Pakes, A. G.
2008-01-01
For any point process in Rd that has a Papangelou conditional intensity λ, we define a random measure of ‘innovations' which has mean zero. When the point process model parameters are estimated from data, there is an analogous random measure of ‘residuals'. We analyse properties of the innovation...... and residuals, including first and second moments, conditional independence, a martingale property, and lack of correlation. Some large sample asymptotics are studied. We derive the marginal distribution of smoothed residuals by solving a distributional equivalence....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Applegate, J.S.
1995-01-01
This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald
Lissuaer, D
One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...
``Force,'' ontology, and language
Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia
2009-06-01
We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.
Zhu, Feng; Liao, Jiaxin; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Zou, Qi; Wu, Hao
2016-12-15
Bauxite residue often has poor physical conditions which impede plant growth. Native plant encroachment on a bauxite residue disposal area in Central China reveals that natural regeneration may improve its physicochemical properties. Residue samples collected from three different disposal ages were assessed to evaluate residue micromorphology and three-dimensional (3D) aggregate microstructure under natural regeneration. The residue aggregates in different disposal ages were divided in two sections: macro-aggregate (2-1mm) and micro-aggregate (0.25-0.05mm). Residue aggregate micromorphology was determined by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the residue aggregate microstructure was determined by synchrotron-based X-ray micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT) and image analysis techniques. Natural regeneration may improve residue aggregate stability and form a stable aggregate structure. Calcium content increased whilst sodium content decreased significantly on the surface of residue aggregates. Under natural soil-forming processes bauxite residue porosity, specific surface area, average length of paths, and average tortuosity of paths all significantly increased. This demonstrated that natural regeneration may stimulate the formation of stable aggregate structure in residues. Further understanding should focus on particle interaction forces and agglomeration mechanisms with the addition of external ameliorations. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leinonen, T.; Kemppainen, J.P. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1997-12-01
The aim of this project is to increase the productivity of a large drum chipper by developing a feeder device to be used especially when chipping logging residue. Logging residue from regeneration areas is the most important reserve of forest biomass for the production of renewable energy in Finland. It is possible ecologically and economically to use about 5 million m{sup 3} of logging residue yearly for energy purposes. Currently both large lorry based chippers and smaller forwarder based chippers are used for chipping logging residue. However even the latest versions of these chippers are not well equipped for chipping logging residue. The ball like shape of residue piles causes blockades, if too large amounts of residue are fed into the chipper. Keeping the material flow even is difficult. In this project a prototype of a feeder device will be designed and manufactured to exactly find out the problems, that occur when feeding logging residue to a chipper. The designed prototype is based on a tubular chassis, which supports a conveyor made of steel plates. Prototype also has a 2,5 m wide feeding table and a feeder roll, which is located above the conveyor just before the chipper opening. Both the conveyor and the feeder roll are powered by hydraulic motors. The maximum feeding force is 20 kN. For research purposes both hydraulic pressure and flow can be adjusted individually for both motors. During 1996 activities included designing and building the prototype feeder device. In 1997 the prototype will be tested to find out possible problems, which need to be cured. After problems are solved and other improvements are made, the feeder device will be installed to an existing chipper and then tested again to determine the productivity of the new feeder device compared to the old unit. (orig.)
Keppel, Theodore R.; Weis, David D.
2015-04-01
Measurement of residual structure in intrinsically disordered proteins can provide insights into the mechanisms by which such proteins undergo coupled binding and folding. The present work describes an approach to measure residual structure in disordered proteins using millisecond hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange in a conventional bottom-up peptide-based workflow. We used the exchange mid-point, relative to a totally deuterated control, to quantify the rate of H/D exchange in each peptide. A weighted residue-by-residue average of these midpoints was used to map the extent of residual structure at near single-residue resolution. We validated this approach both by simulating a disordered protein and experimentally using the p300 binding domain of ACTR, a model disordered protein already well-characterized by other approaches. Secondary structure elements mapped in the present work are in good agreement with prior nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The new approach was somewhat limited by a loss of spatial resolution and subject to artifacts because of heterogeneities in intrinsic exchange. Approaches to correct these limitations are discussed.
Force transmission in epithelial tissues.
Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C
2016-03-01
In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Experiences on Pretreatment and Pelletizing of Forestry Residues in Spain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortiz, L. [Univ. of Vigo (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environment
2006-07-15
The aim of this work is to assess the technical possibilities in order to use typical wastes from the Spanish forests so that to produce high quality Pellets as well as to study the technical problems in some specific by-products. One of the main barriers the Spanish market faces in order to consolidate the pelletizing technologies is the fact that there are very few industrial experiences of massive production using forestry residues biomass. Instead, industrial wastes such as sawdust and shavings have been more commonly used, to-day. To that purpose, a series of experiences on pretreatment and pelletizing of forestry residues are shown in this work, using to that end typical biomass forestry residues from the Mediterranean countries and making forced-drying studies, granulometric reduction and densifying experiences for the very first time in Spain. The engineering data were obtained from experiences with a trommel type dryer of about 1,000 Kg/h using pine wastes (P. pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and furze (Ulex europeaeus) as a raw material. Besides, the consumption in chipping and milling from wastes obtained from different parts of trees such as coniferous bark, branches, etc., are also analyzed, using to that end a pilot plant about 200 Kg/h. Finally, studies on pelletizing in a plant of 2,500 Kg/h capacity have been carried out. These in-depth studies try to determine the perspectives for forestry biomass management. Likewise, we also aim at pinning down the limits in using hard materials like the eucalyptus bark, as well as to grasp the potential of this type of wastes that have not been used in Spain yet.
Compression force-depth relationship during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Tomlinson, A E; Nysaether, J; Kramer-Johansen, J; Steen, P A; Dorph, E
2007-03-01
Recent clinical studies reporting the high frequency of inadequate chest compression depth (compression depth in certain patients. Using a specially designed monitor/defibrillator equipped with a sternal pad fitted with an accelerometer and a pressure sensor, compression force and depth was measured during CPR in 91 adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. There was a strong non-linear relationship between the force of compression and depth achieved. Mean applied force for all patients was 30.3+/-8.2 kg and mean absolute compression depth 42+/-8 mm. For 87 of 91 patients 38 mm compression depth was obtained with less than 50 kg. Stiffer chests were compressed more forcefully than softer chests (pcompressed more deeply than stiffer chests (p=0.001). The force needed to reach 38 mm compression depth (F38) and mean compression force were higher for males than for females: 29.8+/-14.5 kg versus 22.5+/-10.2 kg (pcompression depth with age, but a significant 1.5 kg mean decrease in applied force for each 10 years increase in age (pcompressions performed. Average residual force during decompression was 1.7+/-1.0 kg, corresponding to an average residual depth of 3+/-2 mm. In most out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims adequate chest compression depth can be achieved by a force<50 kg, indicating that an average sized and fit rescuer should be able to perform effective CPR in most adult patients.
Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy
Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris
We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation
Predictability of Forced Lorenz Systems
Li, Baosheng; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Zhong, Quanjia
2017-04-01
Based on the nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) approach, the influences of external forcing on the predictability are studied in the Lorenz systems with constant and quasi-periodic forces in this paper. The results indicate that for the Lorenz systems with constant and quasi-periodic forces, their predictability limits increase with the forcing strength. With the same magnitude and different directions, the constant or quasi-periodic forcing shows different effects on the predictability limit in the Lorenz system, and these effects become significant with the increase of the forcing strength. Generally speaking, the positive forcing leads to a higher predictability limit than the negative forcing. Therefore, when we think about the effects of positive and negative elements and phases in the atmosphere and ocean research, the predictability problems driven by different phases should be considered separately. In addition, the influences of constant and quasi-periodic forces on the predictability are different in the Lorenz system. The effect of the constant forcing on the predictability is mainly reflected in the linear phase of error growth, while the nonlinear phase should also be considered for the situation of the quasi-periodic forcing. The predictability limit of the system under constant forcing is longer than the system under quasi-periodic forcing. These results based on simple chaotic model could provide insight into the studies of the actual atmosphere predictability.
Efficient particle filtering through residual nudging
Luo, Xiaodong
2013-05-15
We introduce an auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, to the particle filter to enhance its performance in cases where it performs poorly. The main idea of residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norm of a state estimate in the observation space so that it does not exceed a pre-specified threshold. We suggest a rule to choose the pre-specified threshold, and construct a state estimate accordingly to achieve this objective. Numerical experiments suggest that introducing residual nudging to a particle filter may (substantially) improve its performance, in terms of filter accuracy and/or stability against divergence, especially when the particle filter is implemented with a relatively small number of particles. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.
Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Wang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator''s preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.
Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara
2014-01-01
This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...
Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.
1981-01-01
Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)
On the residual properties of damaged FRC
Zerbino, R.; Torrijos, M. C.; Giaccio, G.
2017-09-01
A discussion on the residual behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is performed based on two selected cases of concrete degradation: the exposure at High Temperatures and the development of Alkali Silica Reactions. In addition, and taking in mind that the failure mechanism in FRC is strongly related with the fibre pull-out strength, the bond strength in damaged matrices was shown concluding that the residual bond strength is less affected than the matrix strength. As the damage increases, the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity decrease, being the modulus of elasticity the most affected. There were no significant changes produced by the incorporation of fibres on the residual behaviour when compared with previous experience on plain damage concrete. Regarding the tensile behaviour although the first peak decreases as the damage increases, even for a severely damage FRC the residual stresses remain almost unaffected.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa (tensile) and minimum value of ... These results shows that the residual stresses obtained by prediction from the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.
Residual stress condition monitoring via sensor fusion in turning of Inconel 718
Simeone, A.; Segreto, T.; Teti, R.
2013-01-01
A multiple sensor monitoring system, equipped with cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensing units, was employed in association with advanced procedures for signal analysis, sensor fusion and cognitive decision making for residual stress evaluation in turning of Inconel 718 nickel alloy. Two signal processing and feature extraction methodologies, based respectively on sensory data statistical evaluation and Principal Component Analysis, were applied to the sensor signals generate...
Neutron diffraction residual strain / stress measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paradowska, Anna
2012-01-01
Residual stresses affect mechancial properties of materials and prodcuts, it is essential to estimate them practically in order to esatblish acceptable limits. Knowledge of the development of residual stresses in components at the various production stages- extrusion, rolling, machining, welding and heat treating-can be used to imporve product reliability and performance. This short article gives an example relevant to the power industry using ANSTO's 'Kowari' neutron strain scanner.
Nitrogen mineralization from organic residues: research opportunities.
Cabrera, M L; Kissel, D E; Vigil, M F
2005-01-01
Research on nitrogen (N) mineralization from organic residues is important to understand N cycling in soils. Here we review research on factors controlling net N mineralization as well as research on laboratory and field modeling efforts, with the objective of highlighting areas with opportunities for additional research. Among the factors controlling net N mineralization are organic composition of the residue, soil temperature and water content, drying and rewetting events, and soil characteristics. Because C to N ratio of the residue cannot explain all the variability observed in N mineralization among residues, considerable effort has been dedicated to the identification of specific compounds that play critical roles in N mineralization. Spectroscopic techniques are promising tools to further identify these compounds. Many studies have evaluated the effect of temperature and soil water content on N mineralization, but most have concentrated on mineralization from soil organic matter, not from organic residues. Additional work should be conducted with different organic residues, paying particular attention to the interaction between soil temperature and water content. One- and two-pool exponential models have been used to model N mineralization under laboratory conditions, but some drawbacks make it difficult to identify definite pools of mineralizable N. Fixing rate constants has been used as a way to eliminate some of these drawbacks when modeling N mineralization from soil organic matter, and may be useful for modeling N mineralization from organic residues. Additional work with more complex simulation models is needed to simulate both gross N mineralization and immobilization to better estimate net N mineralized from organic residues.
Disposal of radioactive residuals requires careful planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pontius, F.W.
1994-01-01
Radionuclides removed from source waters during water treatment become concentrated in residual liquids and sludges. Treatment technologies used to remove these contaminants from source waters may generate wastes that contain substantial radioactivity. Water systems that install one or more of these technologies in order to comply with the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) eventually adopted must dispose of the residuals. Disposal of radionuclide-containing wastes can be especially difficult, depending on the nature and amount of radioactivity present
Plutonium fuel fabrication residues and wastes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnal, T.; Cousinou, G.; Desille, H.
1982-04-01
This paper discusses the current situation in the fabrication plant at Cadarache with an annual plutonium throughput of several tons. Three major fabrication byproduct categories are defined in this plant: 1) scraps, directly recycled at the fabrication input station; 2) residues, byproducts recycled by chemical processes, or processed in washing and incineration stations; 3) wastes, placed in drums and evacuated directly to a waste conditioning station. The borderline between residues and wastes has yet to be precisely determined
Protein structure based prediction of catalytic residues
2013-01-01
Background Worldwide structural genomics projects continue to release new protein structures at an unprecedented pace, so far nearly 6000, but only about 60% of these proteins have any sort of functional annotation. Results We explored a range of features that can be used for the prediction of functional residues given a known three-dimensional structure. These features include various centrality measures of nodes in graphs of interacting residues: closeness, betweenness and page-rank centrality. We also analyzed the distance of functional amino acids to the general center of mass (GCM) of the structure, relative solvent accessibility (RSA), and the use of relative entropy as a measure of sequence conservation. From the selected features, neural networks were trained to identify catalytic residues. We found that using distance to the GCM together with amino acid type provide a good discriminant function, when combined independently with sequence conservation. Using an independent test set of 29 annotated protein structures, the method returned 411 of the initial 9262 residues as the most likely to be involved in function. The output 411 residues contain 70 of the annotated 111 catalytic residues. This represents an approximately 14-fold enrichment of catalytic residues on the entire input set (corresponding to a sensitivity of 63% and a precision of 17%), a performance competitive with that of other state-of-the-art methods. Conclusions We found that several of the graph based measures utilize the same underlying feature of protein structures, which can be simply and more effectively captured with the distance to GCM definition. This also has the added the advantage of simplicity and easy implementation. Meanwhile sequence conservation remains by far the most influential feature in identifying functional residues. We also found that due the rapid changes in size and composition of sequence databases, conservation calculations must be recalibrated for specific
Residual stress measurement at Budapest Neutron Center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyula, T.
2005-01-01
The use of residual stress measurements of different construction element and recent possibilities of Budapest Neutron Centre are presented. The details investigated already: gas turbine wheel, axial compressor blade, turbine blade and plastically deformed stainless steel. We demonstrated the use of a neutron scattering (SANS, residual stress, diffraction) for the materials behavior investigation in order to analyze the processes going on under the different mechanical loading. The direction of possible instrumental development is presented. (author)
Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif
2011-01-01
In this study we analyze and compare the climate impacts from the recovery, transport and combustion of forest residues (harvest slash and stumps), versus the climate impacts that would have occurred if the residues were left in the forest and fossil fuels used instead. We use cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) as an indicator of climate impacts, and we explicitly consider the temporal dynamics of atmospheric carbon dioxide and biomass decomposition. Over a 240-year period, we find that CRF is significantly reduced when forest residues are used instead of fossil fuels. The type of fossil fuel replaced is important, with coal replacement giving the greatest CRF reduction. Replacing oil and fossil gas also gives long-term CRF reduction, although CRF is positive during the first 10-25 years when these fuels are replaced. Biomass productivity is also important, with more productive forests giving greater CRF reduction per hectare. The decay rate for biomass left in the forest is found to be less significant. Fossil energy inputs for biomass recovery and transport have very little impact on CRF. -- Highlights: → Cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) can measure climate impacts of dynamic systems. → Climate impact is reduced when forest slash and stumps are used to replace fossil fuels. → Forest biofuels may cause short-term climate impact, followed by long-term climate benefit. → Forest residues should replace coal to avoid short-term climate impact. → Fossil energy used for biofuel recovery and transport has very little climate impact.
Muonic helium atom as a classical three-body problem
Stuchi, T. J.; Antunes, A. C. B.; Andreu, M. A.
2000-12-01
We study the classical problem of the muonic helium atom, a helium atom with one of its electrons replaced by a muon. First, we establish the connection of the model with the one-dimensional frozen planetary approximation of the helium atom and find that there is classically stable motion for the configuration α-particle-electron-muon, and no stable motion for the α-particle-muon-electron configuration. After that, we introduce the restricted muonic helium problem, a model for the movement of an electron in the potential of the α particle/muon pair moving in a circular orbit. In this model, the equilibrium points, their associated Lyapunov families of periodic orbits, and their stability parameters were studied. The most interesting feature is the stability of the halo orbits, for a range of energy values. The vicinity of the α particle is also studied, examining Poincaré sections for increasing energy values showing an increase of the chaotic motion.
Three-body interactions and the Landau levels using Nikiforov ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Here, the function π(s) and the parameter λ are defined as π(s) = σ − ˜τ. 2. ±. √( σ − ˜τ. 2. )2. − ˜σ + kσ,. (7) λ = λn = k + π (s),. (8) where π(s) obviously is a polynomial depending on the transformation function s(r). In the late sixties, Calogero [6] gave the complete solution of the Schrödinger equa- tion for three particles in one ...
Three body abrasion of laser surface alloyed aluminium AA1200
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mabhali, Luyolo AB
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser to improve the abrasion wear resistance. Aluminium surfaces reinforced with metal matrix composites and intermetallic phases were achieved. The phases present depended...
Mass Measurement Using Energy Spectra in Three-body Decays
Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Wardlow, Kyle
2016-01-01
In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this work we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction of the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off-shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indi...
Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
8.5. Figure 1. Typical appearance of wear scars on specimens. composite from the mould after curing. The cast of each composite is cured under a load of about 50 kg for 24 h ...... In similar fashion, for ZnO- filled E-glass fibre-based polyester composite, the arbitrary set of factor combination is taken i.e., A1B2C1D1E1 but.
Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Properties of bi-directional E-glass fibre. Density (g cm. −3. ) 2.55–2.6. Bulk modulus (GPa). 43–50. Elastic modulus (MPa). 2750–2875. Hardness (MPa). 3000–6000. Shear modulus (GPa). 30–36. Tensile strength (MPa). 1950–2050. Young's modulus (GPa). 72–85. Endurance limit (MPa). 2970–3110. Thermal expansion ( ...
Effect of three-body transformed Hamiltonian ( ) using full connected ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
KALIPADA ADHIKARI
2018-02-13
Feb 13, 2018 ... ˜H3 is constructed using CCSDT1-A model of Bartlett et al for the ground-state calculation. Contribution of transformed Hamiltonian through full connected triples ˜H3S. (1,0). 3 involves huge amount of computational operations that is time-consuming. Investigation on Cl2 and F2 molecules using cc-pVDZ ...
Three-body calculation of Be double- hypernuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
body hyperonic nuclei using three-cluster .... nucleus. The calculated binding energy also shows good agreement with the other theoretical methods. 366. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 83, No. 3, September 2014 .... 2.3 The Faddeev integral equation.
Flavour violating gluino three-body decays at LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartl, A.; Ginina, E. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Eberl, H.; Majerotto, W. [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Herrmann, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hidaka, K [Tokyo Gakugei Univ., Koganei (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Porod, W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik
2011-07-15
We study the effect of squark generation mixing on gluino production and decays at LHC in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) for the case that the gluino is lighter than all squarks and dominantly decays into three particles, g {yields} q q {chi}{sup 0}{sub k}, q anti q'{chi}{sup {+-}}{sub l}. We assume mixing between the second and the third squark generations in the up-type and down-type squark sectors. We show that this mixing can lead to very large branching ratios of the quark-flavour violating gluino threebody decays despite the strong constraints on quark-flavour violation (QFV) from the experimental data on B mesons. We also show that the QFV gluino decay branching ratios are very sensitive not only to the generation mixing in the squark sector, but also to the parameters of the neutralino and chargino sectors. We show that the branching ratio of the QFV gluino decay g {yields} c anti t(anti ct) anti {chi}{sup 0}{sub 1} can go up to {approx} 40%. Analogously, that of the QFV decay g {yields} s anti b(anti sb){chi}{sup 0}{sub 1} can reach {approx} 35%. We find that the rates of the resulting QFV signatures, such as pp{yields} tt anti c anti cE{sup mis}{sub T}, can be significant at LHC. This could have an important influence on the gluino searches at LHC. (orig.)
Temperature dependence of three-body ion-molecule reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehringer, H.; Arnold, F.
1983-01-01
The temperature dependence of the ion-molecule association reactions (i) N 2 + + N 2 + M → N 4 + + M (M=N 2 , He), (ii) O 2 + + O 2 + M → O 4 + + M (M=O 2 , He) and (iii) He + + 2He → He 2 + + He have been studied over an extended temperature range to temperatures as low as 30K with a recently constructed liquid helium-cooled ion drift tube. Over most of the temperature range the threebody reaction rate coefficients show an inverse temperature dependence proportional to Tsup(-n) with n in the range 0.6 to 2.9. This temperature dependence is quite consistent with current theories of ion molecule association. At low temperatures, however, a deviation from the Tsup(-n) dependence was observed for the association reactions (ii). For reactions (i) different temperature dependences were obtained for N 2 and He third bodies indicating an additional temperature dependence of the collisional stabilisation process. (Authors)
Ensemble Kalman filtering with residual nudging
Luo, X.
2012-10-03
Covariance inflation and localisation are two important techniques that are used to improve the performance of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) by (in effect) adjusting the sample covariances of the estimates in the state space. In this work, an additional auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, is proposed to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norms of state estimates in the observation space. In an EnKF with residual nudging, if the residual norm of an analysis is larger than a pre-specified value, then the analysis is replaced by a new one whose residual norm is no larger than a pre-specified value. Otherwise, the analysis is considered as a reasonable estimate and no change is made. A rule for choosing the pre-specified value is suggested. Based on this rule, the corresponding new state estimates are explicitly derived in case of linear observations. Numerical experiments in the 40-dimensional Lorenz 96 model show that introducing residual nudging to an EnKF may improve its accuracy and/or enhance its stability against filter divergence, especially in the small ensemble scenario.