WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual tensile elongation

  1. Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Ove; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1996-01-01

    Two residues of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA were identified and subjected to mutational analysis. Lys-89 and Asn-90 were each replaced by either Ala or Glu. The four single mutants were denoted K89A, K89E, N90A, and N90E, respectively. The mutants...... were characterized with respect to thermal and chemical stability, GTPase activity, tRNA affinity, and activity in an in vitro translation assay. Most conspicuously tRNA affinities were reduced for all mutants. The results verify our structural analysis of elongation factor Tu in complex with aminoacyl....... Their functional roles are discussed in relation to the structure of elongation factor Tu in complex with aminoacyl-tRNA. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Aug-23...

  2. Initial Tensile and Residual Forces of Pigmented Elastomeric Ligatures from Various Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichai, Wassana; Anuwongnukroh, Niwat; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Kaypetch, Rattiporn; Tua-ngam, Peerapong

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the initial tensile and residual forces of pigmented elastomeric ligatures (clear, pink, and metallic) from three commercial brands - Brand 1 (USA), Brand 2 (USA), and Brand 3(China). Twelve elastomeric ligatures of each brand and color were evaluated for initial tensile and residual forces after stretching for 28 days at 37°C by a Universal Testing Machine. The results showed that the highest initial tensile force was 14.78 N, 20.71 N, and 15.1 N for the metallic color of Brand-1, pink color of Brand -2, and metallic color of Brand -3, respectively. There were significant (ptensile force of each brand, except clear and metallic color of Brand-1 & 3 and pink color of Brand-2 & 3. Similarly, among the pigmented ligatures from each brand, significant (ptensile force, except metallic color of Brand-1 & 3. Brand-3 had the highest residual force after 28 days, whereas the loss of force was 80-90% in Brand-1 & 2 and 20-30% in Brand-3. There were also significant (ptensile and residual forces among the three pigmented elastomeric ligatures of the three commercial brands.

  3. Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation Using Low Temperature Phase Transformation Filler Wire in Welded Armor Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Bunn, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Tzelepis, Demetrios A [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has been a persistent issue in welding of high-strength steels. Mitigating residual stresses is one of the most efficient ways to control HIC. The current study develops a proactive in-process weld residual stress mitigation technique, which manipulates the thermal expansion and contraction sequence in the weldments during welding process. When the steel weld is cooled after welding, martensitic transformation will occur at a temperature below 400 C. Volume expansion in the weld due to the martensitic transformation will reduce tensile stresses in the weld and heat affected zone and in some cases produce compressive residual stresses in the weld. Based on this concept, a customized filler wire which undergoes a martensitic phase transformation during cooling was developed. The new filler wire shows significant improvement in terms of reducing the tendency of HIC in high strength steels. Bulk residual stress mapping using neutron diffraction revealed reduced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the welds made by the new filler wire.

  4. Residual Tensile Strength and Bond Properties of GFRP Bars after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon S. Ellis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire, there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 °C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed that the residual strength generally decreases with increasing temperature exposure. However, as much as 83% of the original tensile strength and 27% of the original bond strength was retained after the specimens were heated to 400 °C and then cooled to ambient temperature. The residual bond strength is a critical parameter in post-fire strength assessments of GFRP-reinforced concrete members.

  5. Residual Tensile Strength and Bond Properties of GFRP Bars after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Devon S; Tabatabai, Habib; Nabizadeh, Azam

    2018-02-27

    The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire), there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete) of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 °C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed that the residual strength generally decreases with increasing temperature exposure. However, as much as 83% of the original tensile strength and 27% of the original bond strength was retained after the specimens were heated to 400 °C and then cooled to ambient temperature. The residual bond strength is a critical parameter in post-fire strength assessments of GFRP-reinforced concrete members.

  6. Reduction of tensile residual stresses during the drawing process of tungsten wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Ripoll, Manel; Weygand, Sabine M.; Riedel, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten wires are commonly used in the lighting industry as filaments for lamps. During the drawing process, the inhomogeneous deformation imparted by the drawing die causes tensile residual stresses at the wire surface in circumferential direction. These stresses have a detrimental effect for the wire because they are responsible for driving longitudinal cracks, known as splits. This work proposes two methods for reducing the residual stresses during wire drawing, namely applying an advanced die geometry and performing an inexpensive post-drawing treatment based on targeted bending operations. These two methods are analyzed with finite element simulations using material parameters obtained by mechanical tests on tungsten wires at different temperatures as input data. The computed results predict a substantial reduction of the circumferential residual stresses, thus reducing the risk of splitting.

  7. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of residual stresses in MMC tensile and fatigue specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.

    2000-01-01

    have been performed at RISO (Roskilde, DK) and HMI-BENSC (Berlin, D), for the determination of residual stress in AA2124 + 17% SiCp and AA359 + 20% SiCp specimens, submitted to tensile and fatigue tests. For each of the investigated samples, the macrostress has been separated from the elastic......, residual stresses are present in both the matrix and the particles microstructure, prior to any macroscopic loading. They vary with the temperature and with the type and level of loading imposed to the material, having a strong influence on the mechanical behaviour of MMCs. Neutron diffraction measurements...... and thermal mismatch microstresses. The results show that, in general, the main contribution to the stress state of both matrix and reinforcement is given by the thermal microstresses, already existing due to heat treatment prior to mechanical tests. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Influence of quenching cooling rate on residual stress and tensile properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-xun, E-mail: zhangyuxun198@163.com; Yi, You-ping, E-mail: yyp@csu.edu.cn; Huang, Shi-quan, E-mail: huangsqcsu@sina.com; Dong, Fei

    2016-09-30

    To balance the quenching residual stress and the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, the influence of cooling rate on the residual stress and tensile properties was investigated by numerical simulation and quenching experiments. During the quenching experiments, 2A14 aluminum alloy samples were treated with different water temperatures (20 °C, 70 °C, 100 °C) and a step quenching process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the residual stress. Prior to them, the quenching sensitivity was studied. For this purpose, the time-temperature-properties (TTP) curves were measured and the alloy microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloys were mainly determined by the cooling rate within the quenching sensitive temperature range from 300 to 400 °C. Lower cooling rates reduced the tensile strength and yield strength due to a decrease amount of fine precipitates, and reduced the residual stress with the reduction of plastic strain and the degree of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. In addition, the residual stress changed faster than the tensile properties with decreasing cooling rate. Therefore, warm water (70 °C) was used to balance the residual stress and tensile properties of 140-mm-thick 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings, since it can achieve low cooling rates. Furthermore, by combining this characteristic and the material quenching sensitivity, step quenching produced similar tensile properties and lower residual stress, compared with the sample quenched in warm water (70 °C), by increasing cooling rate within quenching sensitivity range and reducing it in other ranges.

  9. Influence of quenching cooling rate on residual stress and tensile properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-xun; Yi, You-ping; Huang, Shi-quan; Dong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    To balance the quenching residual stress and the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, the influence of cooling rate on the residual stress and tensile properties was investigated by numerical simulation and quenching experiments. During the quenching experiments, 2A14 aluminum alloy samples were treated with different water temperatures (20 °C, 70 °C, 100 °C) and a step quenching process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the residual stress. Prior to them, the quenching sensitivity was studied. For this purpose, the time-temperature-properties (TTP) curves were measured and the alloy microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloys were mainly determined by the cooling rate within the quenching sensitive temperature range from 300 to 400 °C. Lower cooling rates reduced the tensile strength and yield strength due to a decrease amount of fine precipitates, and reduced the residual stress with the reduction of plastic strain and the degree of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. In addition, the residual stress changed faster than the tensile properties with decreasing cooling rate. Therefore, warm water (70 °C) was used to balance the residual stress and tensile properties of 140-mm-thick 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings, since it can achieve low cooling rates. Furthermore, by combining this characteristic and the material quenching sensitivity, step quenching produced similar tensile properties and lower residual stress, compared with the sample quenched in warm water (70 °C), by increasing cooling rate within quenching sensitivity range and reducing it in other ranges.

  10. Post-uniform elongation and tensile fracture mechanisms of Fe-18Mn-0.6C-xAl twinning-induced plasticity steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ha-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Nam, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Fabrègue, Damien; Park, Myeong-heom; Tsuji, Nobuhiro; Lee, Young-Kook

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the complicated interrelationship between necking, post-uniform elongation (e_p_u), strain rate sensitivity (SRS), fracture mechanism and Al concentration in Fe-18Mn-0.6C-xAl twinning-induced plasticity steels. Many tensile tests were conducted for in- and ex-situ observations of necking, fracture surfaces, crack propagation and the density and size of micro-voids with the assistance of a high-speed camera and X-ray tomographic equipment. The addition of Al increased e_p_u, SRS and reduction ratios in dimension of the neck part of tensile specimens, and also changed fracture mode from quasi-cleavage to ductile fracture at the edge part. The quasi-cleavage surface of Al-free specimen was induced by edge and side cracks occurring along grain boundary junctions and twin boundaries within the edges and side surfaces where local deformation bands meet. The ductile-fracture surface of 1.5 %Al-added specimen was formed by the coalescence of micro-voids. While the side-to-middle crack propagation occurred in Al-free and 1 %Al-added specimens due to side cracks, the middle-to-side crack propagation was observed in 1.5 %Al-added specimen. The Al-free specimen had the larger size of the 20 largest voids compared to the 1.5 %Al-added specimen despite its lower void density and local strain due to the accelerated growth of voids near the tips of side cracks. Evaluating the negligible e_p_u of Al-free specimen by SRS is not deemed to be reasonable due to its inappreciable necking and side cracks. The improvement of e_p_u in 1.5 %Al-added specimen is primarily due to disappearance of edge and side cracks.

  11. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid Green Composites during Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Katogi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35–45 °C and 35–55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 103 cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35–45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 103 cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35–55 °C, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composite at 103 cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 103 cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  12. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid) Green Composites during Thermal Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katogi, Hideaki; Takemura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Motoki

    2016-07-14

    This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35-45 °C and 35-55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 10³ cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35-45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35-55 °C, tensile strength and Young's modulus of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 10³ cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  13. The Effect of Egg Yolk Chicken Utilization In Fat Liquoring Process to Tensile Strength, Elongation at Break, Water Absorption and Shank Skin Leather Stitch Tear Strength of Combination Tanning (Chrome – Tannine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research were to examine level of egg yolk chicken utilization that effective in fat liquoring process to tensile strength, elongation at break, watter absorptin and stitchtear strength of combination tann (Chrome – tannine of shank skin. The material used were fresh shank skin which seven week old, fresh egg with prserved for not more seven days. Data analyse used  in this study was complete randomice desaign (CRD. The research treatment was level of egg yolk utilization that are 5 % (P1, 7,5 % (P2, 10,0 % (P3 and 12,5 % (P4. Each treatment repeated four times, and the control using 6,0 % paradol HISN oil (%age calculated from the weight of wet blue. The result shown that rates of tensile strength of P1, P2, P3, P4 respectively were 67,93, 88,09, 89,31, 70,00 kg/cm2. Elongation at break by 24,5, 29,5, 30,0, 28,0 %. Watter absorption by 181,54, 146,20, 132,81, 132,56 %, and stritchtear strength by 43,00, 63,80, 69,50, 60,98 kg/cm. The utilization level of egg yolk 10 % could produce a better tensile strength and elongation at break, watter absorption and stitchtearstrength. It was suggested for used as fat liquoring agent in tanning process shsnk., skin leather. Keywords : Fat liquoring, Tensile strength, Elongation at break, Watter absorbtion,Stitchtear strength

  14. Influence of the microstructural changes and induced residual stresses on tensile properties of wrought magnesium alloy friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commin, Loreleï; Dumont, Myriam; Rotinat, René; Pierron, Fabrice; Masse, Jean-Eric; Barrallier, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of AZ31 FSW mechanical behaviour. ► Early yielding occurs in the TMAZ, the nugget and base metal zones undergo almost no plastic strains. ► Texture gradient in the TMAZ localises the deformations in this area. ► Residual stresses have a major influence in FSW mechanical behaviour. - Abstract: Friction stir welding induces a microstructural evolution and residual stresses that will influence the resulting mechanical properties. Friction stir welds produced from magnesium alloy hot rolled plates were studied. Electron back scattered diffraction was used to determine the texture evolution, residual stresses were analysed using X ray diffraction and tensile tests coupled with speckle interferometry were performed. The residual stresses induced during friction stir welding present a major influence on the final mechanical properties.

  15. Effect of prior machining deformation on the development of tensile residual stresses in weld-fabricated nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevey, P.S.; Mason, P.W.; Hornbach, D.J.; Molkenthin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear systems may be subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure if the sum of residual and applied stresses exceeds a critical threshold. Residual stresses developed by prior machining and welding may either accelerate or retard SCC, depending on their magnitude and sign. A combined x-ray diffraction and mechanical procedure was used to determine the axial and hoop residual stress and yield strength distributions into the inside-diameter surface of a simulated Alloy 600 penetration J-welded into a reactor pressure vessel. The degree of cold working and the resulting yield strength increase caused by prior machining and weld shrinkage were calculated from the line-broadening distributions. Tensile residual stresses on the order of +700 MPa were observed in both the axial and the hoop directions at the inside-diameter surface in a narrow region adjacent to the weld heat-affected zone. Stresses exceeding the bulk yield strength were found to develop due to the combined effects of cold working of the surface layers during initial machining and subsequent weld shrinkage. The residual stress and cold work distributions produced by prior machining were found to influence strongly the final residual stress state developed after welding

  16. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of the Effect of Axial and Transverse Compression on the Residual Tensile Properties of Ballistic Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib C. Chowdhury

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic impact induces multiaxial loading on Kevlar® and polyethylene fibers used in protective armor systems. The influence of multiaxial loading on fiber failure is not well understood. Experiments show reduction in the tensile strength of these fibers after axial and transverse compression. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD simulations to explain and develop a fundamental understanding of this experimental observation since the property reduction mechanism evolves from the atomistic level. An all-atom MD method is used where bonded and non-bonded atomic interactions are described through a state-of-the-art reactive force field. Monotonic tension simulations in three principal directions of the models are conducted to determine the anisotropic elastic and strength properties. Then the models are subjected to multi-axial loads—axial compression, followed by axial tension and transverse compression, followed by axial tension. MD simulation results indicate that pre-compression distorts the crystal structure, inducing preloading of the covalent bonds and resulting in lower tensile properties.

  17. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  18. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo, E-mail: yongskim@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 10{sup 13} to 1 × 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2}. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples’ surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson–Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  19. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1016 protons/cm2. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples' surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson-Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  20. Murine elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is posttranslationally modified by novel amide-linked ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol moieties. Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteheart, S.W.; Shenbagamurthi, P.; Chen, L.; Cotter, R.J.; Hart, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Elongation Factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha), an important eukaryotic translation factor, transports charged aminoacyl-tRNA from the cytosol to the ribosomes during poly-peptide synthesis. Metabolic radiolabeling with [ 3 H] ethanolamine shows that, in all cells examined, EF-1 alpha is the major radiolabeled protein. Radiolabeled EF-1 alpha has an apparent Mr = 53,000 and a basic isoelectric point. It is cytosolic and does not contain N-linked oligosaccharides. Trypsin digestion of murine EF-1 alpha generated two major [ 3 H]ethanolamine-labeled peptides. Three peptides were sequenced and were identical to two distinct regions of the human EF-1 alpha protein. Blank sequencing cycles coinciding with glutamic acid in the human cDNA-derived sequence were also found to release [ 3 H]ethanolamine, and compositional analysis of these peptides confirmed the presence of glutamic acid. Dansylation analysis demonstrates that the amine group of the ethanolamine is blocked. These results indicate that EF-1 alpha is posttranslationally modified by the covalent attachment of ethanolamine via an amide bond to at least two specific glutamic acid residues (Glu-301 and Glu-374). The hydroxyl group of the attached ethanolamine was shown by mass spectrometry and compositional analysis, to be further modified by the addition of a phosphoglycerol unit. This novel posttranslational modification may represent an important alteration of EF-1 alpha, comparable to the regulatory effects of posttranslational methylation of EF-1 alpha lysine residues

  1. Tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate coated natural fabric Sterculia urens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available stress, Young's modulus and % elongation at break were determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The effect of alkali treatment and the polymethyl methacrylate coating on tensile properties of the fabric was studied. The morphology of the fabric...

  2. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabruri, Efendi, E-mail: effe004@lipi.go.id; Anwar, Moch Syaiful, E-mail: moch.syaiful.anwar@lipi.go.id; Prifiharni, Siska, E-mail: siska.prifiharni@lipi.go.id; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang [Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Gd. 470 Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  3. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabruri, Efendi; Anwar, Moch Syaiful; Prifiharni, Siska; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  4. In-situ X-ray residual stress measurement on a peened alloy 600 weld metal at elevated temperature under tensile load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunomura, Tomoaki; Maeguchi, Takaharu; Kurimura, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    In order to verify stability of residual stress improvement effect of peeing for mitigation of stress corrosion cracking in components of PWR plant, relaxation behavior of residual stress induced by water jet peening (WJP) on surface of alloy 600 weld metal (alloy 132) was investigated by in-situ X-ray residual stress measurement under thermal aging and stress condition considered for actual plant operation. Surface residual stress change was observed at the early stage of thermal aging at 360°C, but no significant further stress relaxation was observed after that. Applied stress below yield stress does not significantly affect stress relaxation behavior of surface residual stress. For the X-ray residual stress measurement, X-ray stress constant at room temperature for alloy 600 was determined experimentally with several surface treatment and existence of applied strain. The X-ray stress constant at elevated temperatures were extrapolated theoretically based on the X-ray stress constant at room temperature for alloy 600. (author)

  5. Residual tensile stresses and piezoelectric properties in BiFeO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2O3-PbTiO3 ternary solid solution perovskite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For low dielectric loss perovskite-structured (1-x-yBiFeO3-xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2O3-yPbTiO3 (BF-BZT-PT (x = 0.04-0.15 and y = 0.15-0.26 ceramics in rhombohedral/tetragonal coexistent phase, structural phase transitions were studied using differential thermal analyzer combined with temperature-dependent dielectric measurement. Two lattice structural phase transitions are disclosed in various BF-BZT-PT perovskites, which is different from its membership of BiFeO3 exhibiting just one lattice structural phase transition at Curie temperature TC= 830oC. Consequently, residual internal tensile stresses were revealed experimentally through XRD measurements on ceramic pellets and counterpart powders, which are reasonably attributed to special structural phase transition sequence of BF-BZT-PT solid solution perovskites. Low piezoresponse was observed and argued extrinsically resulting from residual tensile stresses pinning ferroelectric polarization switching. Post-annealing and subsequent quenching was found effective for eliminating residual internal stresses in those BZT-less ceramics, and good piezoelectric property of d33 ≥ 28 pC/N obtained for 0.70BF-0.08BZT-0.22PT and 0.05 wt% MnO2-doped 0.70BF-0.04BZT-0.26PT ceramics with TC ≥ 640oC, while it seemed no effective for those BZT-rich BF-BZT-PT ceramics with x = 0.14 and 0.15 studied here.

  6. Evaluation of ring tensile test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Anantharaman, S.; Balakrishnan, K.S.; Sivaramakrish, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Ring specimens of 5-mm width cut from Zircaloy-2 cladding of reactor operated fuel elements that had experienced 5000 to 15,000 MWD/T of fuel burnup were subjected to ring tensile testing. The true stress-true strain data points up to the onset of necking from the individual load-elongation curves of these specimens were used as input data in Voce's equation. The results reveal that the uniform elongation (UE) values generated using Voce's equation were within (UE-2)% of the experimental percent uniform elongation (UE%). The corresponding ultimate tensile strength values were within ±1%. The uncertainty inherently associated in the determination of gauge length introduces extraneous deformation in the rings tested. Previous results had shown that a 14% increase in cladding diameter caused the gauge length to increase by 40%. To simulate the contribution of extraneous deformation due to an increase in cladding diameter, an analysis of the variation of the tensile parameters (uniform elongation and ultimate tensile strength) due to increase in the gauge length in the range of 10 to 40% was carried out. The results are discussed

  7. Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

  8. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  9. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  10. Elongation of Flare Ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT (United States); Cassak, Paul A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV (United States); Priest, Eric R. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-20

    We present an analysis of the apparent elongation motion of flare ribbons along the polarity inversion line (PIL), as well as the shear of flare loops in several two-ribbon flares. Flare ribbons and loops spread along the PIL at a speed ranging from a few to a hundred km s{sup −1}. The shear measured from conjugate footpoints is consistent with the measurement from flare loops, and both show the decrease of shear toward a potential field as a flare evolves and ribbons and loops spread along the PIL. Flares exhibiting fast bidirectional elongation appear to have a strong shear, which may indicate a large magnetic guide field relative to the reconnection field in the coronal current sheet. We discuss how the analysis of ribbon motion could help infer properties in the corona where reconnection takes place.

  11. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on tensile properties of ultradrawn polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Shozo; Sakami, Hiroshi

    1977-01-01

    The deformation of ultradrawn polyethylene was previously shown that crystalline chains were pulled out by the tension applied to tie chains which connected crystal blocks. This paper deals with the effects of γ-ray irradiation on crosslinking which prevent crystalline chains being pulled out and to improve the tensile properties. The tensile strength of high density polyethylene, drawn by a factor of 40, increased from 73 to 113 kg/mm 2 at 20 0 C and from 13 to 42 kg/mm 2 at 80 0 C with increasing irradiation dose from zero to 100 Mrad. The tensile elongation, the residual strain measured by cyclic strain test, and the rate of stress decrease by the stress relaxation measurement diminished with increasing irradiation dose. These facts showed the existence of preventive effects by crosslinks on pulling. The stress-strain relation of crosslinked polymer was calculated thermodynamically from the melting of crystalline chains accompanied by the sliding of chains, assuming that the sliding of crystalline chains was brought about by an unbalance of the tension applied to tie chains with which both sides of crystalline chains were connected. The equation of stress was derived; stress increased with increasing strain and was proportional to the Gibbs' free energy of fusion. The observed stress-strain relations obeyed the above mentioned equation. (auth.)

  12. (R)-β-lysine-modified elongation factor P functions in translation elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Zou, S Betty; Rajkovic, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) with (R)-β-lysine at a conserved lysine residue activates the protein in vivo and increases puromycin reactivity of the ribosome in vitro. The additional hydroxylation of EF-P at the same lysine residue by the YfcM protein has......-(β)-lysyl-EF-P showed 30% increased puromycin reactivity but no differences in dipeptide synthesis rates when compared with the β-lysylated form. Unlike disruption of the other genes required for EF-P modification, deletion of yfcM had no phenotypic consequences in Salmonella. Taken together, our findings indicate...

  13. Size and temperature dependence of the tensile mechanical properties of zinc blende CdSe nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Bing; Chen, Na; Xie, Yiqun; Ye, Xiang; Gu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The effect of size and temperature on the tensile mechanical properties of zinc blende CdSe nanowires is investigated by all atoms molecular dynamic simulation. We found the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus will decrease as the temperature and size of the nanowire increase. The size and temperature dependence are mainly attributed to surface effect and thermally elongation effect. High reversibility of tensile behavior will make zinc blende CdSe nanowires suitable for building efficient nanodevices.

  14. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  15. The effect of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) from rattan biomass as filler and citric acid as co-plasticizer on tensile properties of sago starch biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Halimatuddahliana; Harahap, Hamidah; Afandy, Yayang; Fath, M. Thoriq Al

    2017-11-01

    Biocomposite containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from rattan biomass as fillers and citric acid as co-plasticizer. Rattan biomass is a fiber waste from processing industry of rattan which contains 37.6% cellulose. Isolation of alpha cellulose from rattan biomass was prepared by using three stages: delignification, alkalization, and bleaching. It was delignificated with 3.5% HNO3 and NaNO2, precipitated with 17.5% NaOH, bleaching process with 10% H2O2. The preparation of CNC includes acid hydrolysis using 45% H2SO4 and followed by mechanical processes of ultrasonication, centrifugation, and filtration with a dialysis membrane. Biocomposite was prepared using a solution casting method, which includes 1-4 wt % CNC as fillers, 10-40 wt% citric acid as co-plasticizer and 30 wt% glycerol as plasticizer. The results of TGA, SEM and XRD characteristic of CNC show that CNC has low residue mass, rod like and network like shape with crystallinity index 84.46%. Biocomposite characteristic consists of SEM, tensile strength and elongation at break. The resultshows that biocomposites by addition of CNC and citric acid have a smooth surface and homogeneous distribution of fillers. The tensile strength of biocomposites was increased by addition CNC and citric acid. The addition of CNC decreases the elongation at break but by addition of citric acid, the elongation at break was increased.

  16. Evolution of cleared channels in neutron-irradiated pure copper as a function of tensile strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile specimens of pure copper were neutron irradiated at similar to323 K to a displacement dose of 0.3 dpa (displacement per atom). Five irradiated specimens were tensile tested at 300 K, but four of the specimens were stopped at specific strains -just before the yield point at similar to90......% of the macroscopic yield, at 1.5% and 5% elongation, and near the ultimate tensile strength at 14.5% elongation, with the 5th specimen tested to failure (e(T) = 22%). SEM and TEM characterization of the deformed specimens revealed that the plastic strain was confined primarily to the 'cleared' channels only...

  17. Mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial tensile strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kazufumi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation, we investigated the mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons in terms of their edge shape under a uniaxial tensile strain. The nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag edges retain their structure under a large tensile strain, while the nanoribbons with chiral edges are fragile against the tensile strain compared with those with armchair and zigzag edges. The fracture started at the cove region, which corresponds to the border between the zigzag and armchair edges for the nanoribbons with chiral edges. For the nanoribbons with armchair edges, the fracture started at one of the cove regions at the edges. In contrast, the fracture started at the inner region of the nanoribbons with zigzag edges. The bond elongation under the tensile strain depends on the mutual arrangement of covalent bonds with respect to the strain direction.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF JACQUARD KNITTED FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An objective approach to select the best fabric for technical and home textiles consists in mechanical properties evaluation. The goal of this study is to analyze the behavior of knitted fabrics undergoing stretch stress. In this respect, three types of 2 colors Rib structure (backstripes jacquard, twillback jacquard and double-layered 3x3 rib fabric have been presented and tested for tensile strength and elongation on three directions. First, the elasticity and the behavior of knitted Rib fabrics were described The fabrics were knitted using 100% PAN yarns with Nm 1/15x2 on a E5 CMS 330 Stoll V-bed knitting machine, and have been tested using INSTROM 5587 Tensile Testing Machine in respect of standards conditions. After a relaxation period, 15 specimens were prepared, being disposed at 0°, 45 and 90 angles to the wale direction on the flat knitted panel. The tensile strength and the elongation values were recorded and mean values were computed. After strength and tensile elongation testing for 3 types of rib based knitted fabrics, one can see that the double layer knit presents the best mechanical behavior, followed by birds-eyebacking 2 colors Jacquard and then back striped Jacquard. For tensile stress in bias direction, the twillbacking Jacquard has a good breakage resistance value due to the higher number of rib sinker loops in structure that are positioned on the same direction with the tensile force. The twillbacking Jacquard structure could be considered as an alternative for the base material for decorative and home textile products.

  19. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  20. Effect of alkali treatment on the morphology and tensile properties of Cordia dichotoma fabric/polycarbonate composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The newly identified natural fabric from the tree of Cordia dichotoma was coated with polycarbonate. Tensile parameters, such as, tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and percentage of elongation at the break of the fabrics were determined using a...

  1. Tensile behavior of dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmuga Sundaram, N.; Murugan, N.

    2010-01-01

    The heat treatable aluminium alloy AA2024 is used extensively in the aircraft industry because of its high strength to weight ratio and good ductility. The non-heat treatable aluminium alloy AA5083 possesses medium strength and high ductility and used typically in structural applications, marine, and automotive industries. When compared to fusion welding processes, friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process which is best suitable for joining these alloys. The friction stir welding parameters such as tool pin profile, tool rotational speed, welding speed, and tool axial force influence the mechanical properties of the FS welded joints significantly. Dissimilar FS welded joints are fabricated using five different tool pin profiles. Central composite design with four parameters, five levels, and 31 runs is used to conduct the experiments and response surface method (RSM) is employed to develop the model. Mathematical regression models are developed to predict the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation (TE) of the dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloys 2024-T6 and 5083-H321, and they are validated. The effects of the above process parameters and tool pin profile on tensile strength and tensile elongation of dissimilar friction stir welded joints are analysed in detail. Joints fabricated using Tapered Hexagon tool pin profile have the highest tensile strength and tensile elongation, whereas the Straight Cylinder tool pin profile have the lowest tensile strength and tensile elongation. The results are useful to have a better understanding of the effects of process parameters, to fabricate the joints with desired tensile properties, and to automate the FS welding process.

  2. Thermal and tensile properties of alumina filled PET nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2018-05-01

    In the present investigation, nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephathalate)(PET) with different content (0 to 5 wt.%) of alumina nanoparticles (n-Al2O3) were prepared by melt-extrusion technique. Morphological characterization of samples was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphological analysis revealed that degree of dispersion of alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) was increased at lower content (i.e. upto 2 wt.%), which observed by TEM. Thermal and tensile measurements were carried out using and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and universal testing machine (UTM). The thermal analysis showed that the glass transition termperature (Tg), melting temperature (Tm), crystallization temperature (Tc) of PET/alumina nanocomposites (PNCs) were higher than neat PET (PET0). The heat enthalpy (ΔHm) of crystallization for PNCs was increased compared to PET0, which indicates that degree of crystallinity of PNCs also increased compared to PET0. The half-time (t0.5) of crystallization of PNCs were decreased compared to PET0 which indicates that the incorporation of ANPs nucleate the PET molecular chains and allowing the easily crystallization during nonisothermal process. The tensile analysis revealed that the tensile elastic modulus (i.e. Young's modulus) of PNCs increased almost linearly with increasing the content of ANPs while tensile elongation at break decreased nonlinearly. The tensile strength of PNCs increased with a 1 wt.% of ANPs whereas the higher content of ANPs decreased the tensile strength.

  3. Tensile Properties of Under-Matched Weld Joints for 950 MPa Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouji; Arakawa, Toshiaki; Akazawa, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Kousei; Matsuo, Hiroki; Nakagara, Kiyoyuki; Suita, Yoshikazu

    In welding of 950 MPa-class high tensile strength steel, preheating is crucial in order to avoid cold cracks, which, however, eventually increases welding deformations. One way to decrease welding deformations is lowering preheating temperature by using under-matched weld metal. Toyota and others clarify that although breaking elongation can decrease due to plastic constraint effect under certain conditions, static tensile of under-matched weld joints is comparable to that of base metal. However, there has still been no report about joint static tensile of under-matched weld joints applied to 950 MPa-class high tensile strength steel. In this study, we aim to research tensile strength and fatigue strength of under-matched weld joints applied to 950 MPa-class high tensile steel.

  4. Tensile properties and fracture mechanism of IN-100 superalloy in high temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan T. Jovanović

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tensile properties and fracture mechanism of a polycrystalline IN-100 superalloy have been investigated in the range from room temperature to 900°C. Optical microscopy (OM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM applying replica technique were used for microstructural investigation, whereas scanning electron microscopy (SEM was utilized for fracture study. High temperature tensile tests were carried out in vacuumed chamber. Results show that strength increases up to 700°C, and then sharply decreases with further increase in temperature. Elongation increases very slowly (6-7.5% till 500°C, then decreases to 4.5% at 900°C. Change in elongation may be ascribed to a change of fracture mechanism. Appearance of a great number of microvoids prevails up to 500°C resulting in a slow increase of elongation, whereas above this temperature elongation decrease is correlated with intergranular crystallographic fracture and fracture of carbides.

  5. Device for measuring hole elongation in a bolted joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichorek, Gregory R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A device to determine the operable failure mode of mechanically fastened lightweight composite joints by measuring the hole elongation of a bolted joint is disclosed. The double-lap joint test apparatus comprises a stud, a test specimen having a hole, two load transfer plates, and linear displacement measuring instruments. The test specimen is sandwiched between the two load transfer plates and clamped together with the stud. Spacer washers are placed between the test specimen and each load transfer plate to provide a known, controllable area for the determination of clamping forces around the hole of the specimen attributable to bolt torque. The spacer washers also provide a gap for the mounting of reference angles on each side of the test specimen. Under tensile loading, elongation of the hole of the test specimen causes the stud to move away from the reference angles. This displacement is measured by the voltage output of two linear displacement measuring instruments that are attached to the stud and remain in contact with the reference angles throughout the tensile loading. The present invention obviates previous problems in obtaining specimen deformation measurements by monitoring the reference angles to the test specimen and the linear displacement measuring instruments to the stud.

  6. The life and death of translation elongation factor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene; Merrill, A.R.; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyses the translocation of the two tRNAs and the mRNA after peptidyl transfer on the 80S ribosome. Recent crystal structures of eEF2 and the cryo-EM reconstruction of its 80S complex now provide...... diphthamide residue, which is ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa....

  7. Effect of Kevlar and carbon fibres on tensile properties of oil palm/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, S. M. M.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Jawaid, M.; Cardona, F.; Ishak, M. R.; Yusof, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid composites with natural and synthetic fibers have captured the interests of many researchers. In this work, Kevlar/oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)/Kevlar and carbon/oil palm EFB hybrid/carbon composites were prepared using hand lay-up technique by keeping the oil palm EFB fiber as the core material. The tensile properties which include tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were investigated. It is observed that the tensile strength and modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites were much higher as compared with Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites. However, the elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites exhibited higher value as compared to carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites and oil palm EFB/epoxy composites. The tensile strength for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 93.6 MPa and the tensile modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 6.5 GPa. The elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites is 3.6%.

  8. Analysis of cracking potential and micro-elongation of linerboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supattra Panthai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Folding cracks of linerboards in relation to their micro-elongation and the forming conditions were studied using an industrial linerboard machine with a top former. The experiments consisted of the study of various forming conditions by manipulating the jet/wire speed ratio to produce linerboard with differences in fiber structures that were related to the cracked and uncracked products. The results showed that changes to the jet/wire speed ratio of about 0.01–0.02 to improve the tested folding endurance in the machine direction potentially produced folding cracks in the linerboard, which indicated an ambiguous interpretation of the foldability tests. The delaminated cracked layers were found to have a high folding endurance and tensile strength, while the decrease in the micro-elongation formulated in this study was found to be related to cracking. A lower micro-elongation of about 350–500 μm/N·g was found in a range of products with folding cracks.

  9. Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in static lead bismuth eutectic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian, E-mail: jliu12b@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Yan, Wei [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Sha, Wei [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Wang, Wei; Shan, Yiyin [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China)

    2016-05-15

    In order to assess the susceptibility of candidate structural materials to liquid metal embrittlement, this work investigated the tensile behaviors of ferritic-martensitic steel in static lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). The tensile tests were carried out in static lead bismuth eutectic under different temperatures and strain rates. Pronounced liquid metal embrittlement phenomenon is observed between 200 °C and 450 °C. Total elongation is reduced greatly due to the liquid metal embrittlement in LBE environment. The range of ductility trough is larger under slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. - Highlights: • The tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in LBE are investigated for the first time. • The SIMP is susceptible to LME at different strain rates and temperatures. • The total elongation is reduced greatly. • The ductility trough is wider under SSRT. • The tensile specimens rupture in brittle manner without obvious necking.

  10. Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in static lead bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Yan, Wei; Sha, Wei; Wang, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the susceptibility of candidate structural materials to liquid metal embrittlement, this work investigated the tensile behaviors of ferritic-martensitic steel in static lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). The tensile tests were carried out in static lead bismuth eutectic under different temperatures and strain rates. Pronounced liquid metal embrittlement phenomenon is observed between 200 °C and 450 °C. Total elongation is reduced greatly due to the liquid metal embrittlement in LBE environment. The range of ductility trough is larger under slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. - Highlights: • The tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in LBE are investigated for the first time. • The SIMP is susceptible to LME at different strain rates and temperatures. • The total elongation is reduced greatly. • The ductility trough is wider under SSRT. • The tensile specimens rupture in brittle manner without obvious necking.

  11. Tensile properties in zircaloy-II after 590 MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Y. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Victoria, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate radiation potential damage effects on the SINQ Zircaloy-rod target, four Zircaloy-II tensile specimens were irradiated at the PIREX facility in 1995 to a proton fluence about 3x10{sup 20} p/cm{sup 2}, which produced a radiation damage of about 1.35 displacements per atom (dpa). Tensile test results show that, although there is some reduction in tensile elongation, substantial ductility still exists after such irradiation dose which corresponds to the peak value obtained in the SINQ target for 23 days operation at 1 mA. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  12. Research on Design and Simulation of Biaxial Tensile-Bending Complex Mechanical Performance Test Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize a micro-mechanic performance test of biaxial tensile-bending-combined loading and solve the problem of incompatibility of test apparatus and observation apparatus, novel biaxial-combined tensile-bending micro-mechanical performance test apparatus was designed. The working principle and major functions of key constituent parts of test apparatus, including the servo drive unit, clamping unit and test system, were introduced. Based on the finite element method, biaxial tensile and tension-bending-combined mechanical performances of the test-piece were studied as guidance to learn the distribution of elastic deformation and plastic deformation of all sites of the test-piece and to better plan test regions. Finally, this test apparatus was used to conduct a biaxial tensile test under different pre-bending loading and a tensile test at different rates; the image of the fracture of the test-piece was acquired by a scanning electron microscope and analyzed. It was indicated that as the pre-bending force rises, the elastic deformation phase would gradually shorten and the slope of the elastic deformation phase curve would slightly rise so that a yield limit would appear ahead of time. Bending speed could exert a positive and beneficial influence on tensile strength but weaken fracture elongation. If bending speed is appropriately raised, more ideal anti-tensile strength could be obtained, but fracture elongation would decline.

  13. Tensile, swelling and morphological properties of bentonite-filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Muhamad Nadhli Amin; Ismail, Hanafi; Othman, Nadras

    2017-10-01

    Tensile, swelling and morphological properties of bentonite filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/Bt) composites were studied. The experiments were conducted at room temperature by using two rolled mill, universal testing machine (INSTRON), and American Standard Testing Method (ASTM) D471 for compounding, tensile testing, and swelling test, respectively. Results obtained indicated that a better tensile strength, elongation at break and tensile modulus were recorded as compared to the pure NBR particularly up to 90 phr of Bt loading. However, swelling (%) exhibited the opposite trend where the liquid uptake by the composites was indirectly proportional with the increasing of Bt loading. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used on the tensile fractured surface of the NBR/Bt composites have shown that the fillers were well embedded in the NBR matrix, for Bt loading up to 90 phr. The agglomeration of fillers occurred for Bt loading exceeding 90 phr.

  14. Effects of Laser Energies on Wear and Tensile Properties of Biomimetic 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuhuan; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Guoping; Gao, Yang; Tao, Lixi; Chen, Heng; Zhang, Jianlong; Zhou, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Inspired by the non-smooth surface of certain animals, a biomimetic coupling unit with various sizes, microstructure, and hardness was prepared on the surface of 7075 aluminum alloy. Following experimental studies were conducted to investigate the wear and tensile properties with various laser energy inputs. The results demonstrated that the non-smooth surface with biomimetic coupling units had a positive effect on both the wear resistance and tensile property of 7075 aluminum alloy. In addition, the sample with the unit fabricated by the laser energy of 420.1 J/cm2 exhibited the most significant improvement on the wear and tensile properties owing to the minimum grain size and the highest microhardness. Also, the weight loss of the sample was one-third of the untreated one's, and the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, and the elongation improved by 20, 20, and 34% respectively. Moreover, the mechanisms of wear and tensile properties improvement were also analyzed.

  15. High strain rate tensile curves of hyperquenched Z03 CN18-10 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, B.

    1978-01-01

    Tensile tests are presented at constant decreasing speeds, made at room temperature. This type of test can give a better evaluation of the structure behaviour in shock or burst loadings, because in that case the elongation speeds varies from high values to zero [fr

  16. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  17. The crystal structure of elongation factor G complexed with GDP, at 2.7 A resolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Czworkowski, J; Wang, J; Steitz, T A; Moore, P B

    1994-01-01

    Elongation factor G (EF-G) catalyzes the translocation step of protein synthesis in bacteria, and like the other bacterial elongation factor, EF-Tu--whose structure is already known--it is a member of the GTPase superfamily. We have determined the crystal structure of EF-G--GDP from Thermus thermophilus. It is an elongated molecule whose large, N-terminal domain resembles the G domain of EF-Tu, except for a 90 residue insert, which covers a surface that is involved in nucleotide exchange in E...

  18. Status of automated tensile machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satou, M.; Hamilton, M.L.; Sato, S.; Kohyama, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop the Monbusho Automated Tensile machine (MATRON) and install and operate it at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The machine is designed to provide rapid, automated testing of irradiated miniature tensile specimen in a vacuum at elevated temperatures. The MATRON was successfully developed and shipped to PNL for installation in a hot facility. The original installation plan was modified to simplify the current and subsequent installations, and the installation was completed. Detailed procedures governing the operation of the system were written. Testing on irradiated miniature tensile specimen should begin in the near future

  19. Tensile behavior of irradiated manganese-stabilized stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Tensile tests were conducted on seven experimental, high-manganese austenitic stainless steels after irradiation up to 44 dpa in the FFTF. An Fe-20Mn-12Cr-0.25C base composition was used, to which various combinations of Ti, W, V, B, and P were added to improve strength. Nominal amounts added were 0.1% Ti, 1% W, 0.1% V, 0.005% B, and 0.03% P. Irradiation was carried out at 420, 520, and 600{degrees}C on the steels in the solution-annealed and 20% cold-worked conditions. Tensile tests were conducted at the irradiation temperature. Results were compared with type 316 SS. Neutron irradiation hardened all of the solution-annealed steels at 420, 520, and 600{degrees}C, as measured by the increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile strength. The steel to which all five elements were added to the base composition showed the least amount of hardening. It also showed a smaller loss of ductility (uniform and total elongation) than the other steels. The total and uniform elongations of this steel after irradiation at 420{degrees}C was over four times that of the other manganese-stabilized steels and 316 SS. There was much less difference in strength and ductility at the two higher irradiation temperatures, where there was considerably less hardening, and thus, less loss of ductility. In the cold-worked condition, hardening occured only after irradiation at 420{degrees}C, and there was much less difference in the properties of the steels after irradiation. At the 420{degrees}C irradiation temperature, most of the manganese-stabilized steels maintained more ductility than the 316 SS. After irradiation at 420{degrees}C, the temperature of maximum hardening, the steel to which all five of the elements were added had the best uniform elongation.

  20. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaraj, P.; Kanagarajan, D.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features....

  1. Analysis on dynamic tensile extrusion behavior of UFG OFHC Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Park, Leeju; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Seok Bong; Lee, Chong Soo

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE) tests with the strain rate order of ~105 s-1 were conducted on coarse grained (CG) Cu and ultrafine grained (UFG) Cu. ECAP of 16 passes with route Bc was employed to fabricate UFG Cu. DTE tests were carried out by launching the sphere samples to the conical extrusion die at a speed of ~475 m/sec in a vacuumed gas gun system. UFG Cu was fragmented into 3 pieces and showed a DTE elongation of ~340%. CG Cu exhibited a larger DTE elongation of ~490% with fragmentation of 4 pieces. During DTE tests, dynamic recrystallization occurred in UFG Cu, but not in CG Cu. In order to examine the DTE behavior of CG Cu and UFG Cu under very high strain rates, a numerical analysis was undertaken by using a commercial finite element code (LS-DYNA 2D axis-symmetric model) with the Johnson - Cook model. The numerical analysis correctly predicted fragmentation and DTE elongation of CG Cu. But, the experimental DTE elongation of UFG Cu was much smaller than that predicted by the numerical analysis. This difference is discussed in terms of microstructural evolution of UFG Cu during DTE tests.

  2. Porosity Defect Remodeling and Tensile Analysis of Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tensile properties on ASTM A216 WCB cast steel with centerline porosity defect were studied with radiographic mapping and finite element remodeling technique. Non-linear elastic and plastic behaviors dependent on porosity were mathematically described by relevant equation sets. According to the ASTM E8 tensile test standard, matrix and defect specimens were machined into two categories by two types of height. After applying radiographic inspection, defect morphologies were mapped to the mid-sections of the finite element models and the porosity fraction fields had been generated with interpolation method. ABAQUS input parameters were confirmed by trial simulations to the matrix specimen and comparison with experimental outcomes. Fine agreements of the result curves between simulations and experiments could be observed, and predicted positions of the tensile fracture were found to be in accordance with the tests. Chord modulus was used to obtain the equivalent elastic stiffness because of the non-linear features. The results showed that elongation was the most influenced term to the defect cast steel, compared with elastic stiffness and yield stress. Additional visual explanations on the tensile fracture caused by void propagation were also given by the result contours at different mechanical stages, including distributions of Mises stress and plastic strain.

  3. Low temperature tensile properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance in the super duplex stainless steels weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeung Woo; Sung, Jang Hyun; Lee, Sung Keun

    1998-01-01

    Low temperature tensile properties and SCC resistances of super duplex stainless steels and their weldments are investigated. Tensile strengths increase remarkably with decreasing test temperature, while elongations decrease steeply at -196 .deg. C after showing peak or constant value down to -100 .deg. C. Owing to the low tensile deformation of weld region, elongations of welded specimen decrease in comparison to those of unwelded specimen. The welded tensile specimen is fractured through weld region at -196 .deg. C due to the fact that the finely dispersed ferrite phase in the austenite matrix increases an opportunity to supply the crack propagation path through the brittle ferrite phase at low temperature. The stress corrosion cracking initiates preferentially at the surface ferrite phase of base metal region and propagates through ferrite phase. When the corrosion crack meets with the fibrously aligned austenite phase to the tensile direction, the ferrite phase around austenite continues to corrode. Eventually, fracture of the austenite phase begins without enduring the tensile load. The addition of Cu+W to the super duplex stainless steel deteriorates the SCC resistance in boiling MgCl 2 solution, possibly due to the increment of pits in the ferrite phase and reduction of N content in the austenite phase

  4. Microstructure-Tensile Properties Correlation for the Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaohui; Zeng, Weidong; Sun, Yu; Han, Yuanfei; Zhao, Yongqing; Guo, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Finding the quantitative microstructure-tensile properties correlations is the key to achieve performance optimization for various materials. However, it is extremely difficult due to their non-linear and highly interactive interrelations. In the present investigation, the lamellar microstructure features-tensile properties correlations of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy are studied using an error back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN-BP) model. Forty-eight thermomechanical treatments were conducted to prepare the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different lamellar microstructure features. In the proposed model, the input variables are microstructure features including the α platelet thickness, colony size, and β grain size, which were extracted using Image Pro Plus software. The output variables are the tensile properties, including ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area. Fourteen hidden-layer neurons which can make ANN-BP model present the most excellent performance were applied. The training results show that all the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values are within 6%, which means that the trained ANN-BP model is capable of providing precise prediction of the tensile properties for Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Based on the corresponding relations between the tensile properties predicted by ANN-BP model and the lamellar microstructure features, it can be found that the yield strength decreases with increasing α platelet thickness continuously. However, the α platelet thickness exerts influence on the elongation in a more complicated way. In addition, for a given α platelet thickness, the yield strength and the elongation both increase with decreasing β grain size and colony size. In general, the β grain size and colony size play a more important role in affecting the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the α platelet thickness.

  5. Towards an understanding of structure-function relationships of elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1994-01-01

    In light of the recently determined structure of elongation factor Tu, and taking into account chemical studies mapping functional sites, a number of residues have been selected for site-directed mutagenesis studies. Gly94, Gly126, His66, His118, Lys89 and Asp90 have each been point-mutated. Prel......In light of the recently determined structure of elongation factor Tu, and taking into account chemical studies mapping functional sites, a number of residues have been selected for site-directed mutagenesis studies. Gly94, Gly126, His66, His118, Lys89 and Asp90 have each been point...

  6. Tensile and high cycle fatigue behaviors of high-Mn steels at 298 and 110 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Wongyu; Jeong, Daeho; Sung, Hyokyung; Kim, Sangshik, E-mail: sang@gnu.ac.kr

    2017-02-15

    Tensile and high cycle fatigue behaviors of high-Mn austenitic steels, including 25Mn, 25Mn0.2Al, 25Mn0.5Cu, 24Mn4Cr, 22Mn3Cr and 16Mn2Al specimens, were investigated at 298 and 110 K. Depending on the alloying elements, tensile ductility of high-Mn steels either increased or decreased with decreasing temperature from 298 to 110 K. Reasonable correlation between the tendency for martensitic tranformation, the critical twinning stress and the percent change in tensile elongation suggested that tensile deformation of high-Mn steels was strongly influenced by SFE determining TRIP and TWIP effects. Tensile strength was the most important parameter in determining the resistance to high cycle fatigue of high-Mn steels with an exceptional work hardening capability at room and cryogenic temperatures. The fatigue crack nucleation mechanism in high-Mn steels did not vary with decreasing tempertature, except Cr-added specimens with grain boundary cracking at 298 K and slip band cracking at 110 K. The EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) analyses suggested that the deformation mechanism under fatigue loading was significantly different from tensile deformation which could be affected by TRIP and TWIP effects. - Highlights: •The resistances to HCF of various high-Mn steels were measured. •The variables affecting tensile and HCF behaviors of high-Mn steels were assessed. •The relationship between tensile and the HCF behaviors of high-Mn steels was established.

  7. Stability of tokamaks with elongated cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Bateman, G.

    1978-08-01

    Fixed boundary n = 1 MHD instabilities are studied computationally as a function of diamagnetism (β/sub pol/) and current profile in elongated toroidal equilibria (1 2) or a diamagnetic plasma (β/sub pol/ > 1) with only a mildly elongated cross section

  8. Tensile strength and impact resistance properties of materials used in prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschutz, Maria J; Haynes, Michael L; Nixon, Derek M; Colvin, James M

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic sockets serve as the interface between people with amputations and their prostheses. Although most materials used to make prosthetic sockets have been used for many years, knowledge of these materials' properties is limited, especially after they are subjected to fabrication processes. This study evaluated tensile and impact properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used to fabricate prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets. Thermolyn Rigid and Orfitrans Stiff check socket materials produced significantly lower tensile strength and impact resistance than polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG). Copolymer socket materials exhibited greater resistance to impact forces than the check socket materials but lower tensile strengths than PETG. The heated molding processes, for the check socket and copolymer materials, reduced both tensile strength and elongation at break. Definitive laminated sockets were sorted according to fabrication techniques. Nyglass material had significantly higher elongation, indicating a more ductile material than carbon-based laminations. Carbon sockets with pigmented resin had higher tensile strength and modulus at break than nonpigmented carbon sockets. Elongation at yield and elongation at break were similar for both types of carbon-based laminations. The material properties determined in this study provide a foundation for understanding and improving the quality of prosthetic sockets using current fabrication materials and a basis for evaluating future technologies.

  9. Translational Control of Cell Division by Elongator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelie Bauer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Elongator is required for the synthesis of the mcm5s2 modification found on tRNAs recognizing AA-ending codons. In order to obtain a global picture of the role of Elongator in translation, we used reverse protein arrays to screen the fission yeast proteome for translation defects. Unexpectedly, this revealed that Elongator inactivation mainly affected three specific functional groups including proteins implicated in cell division. The absence of Elongator results in a delay in mitosis onset and cytokinesis defects. We demonstrate that the kinase Cdr2, which is a central regulator of mitosis and cytokinesis, is under translational control by Elongator due to the Lysine codon usage bias of the cdr2 coding sequence. These findings uncover a mechanism by which the codon usage, coupled to tRNA modifications, fundamentally contributes to gene expression and cellular functions.

  10. Tensile Property of ANSI 304 Stainless Steel Weldments Subjected to Cavitation Erosion Based on Treatment of Laser Shock Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yue-Hua; Luo, Kai-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhao, Yong; Huang, Jian-Yun; Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhou, Chuang

    2018-05-16

    Tensile property was one important index of mechanical properties of ANSI 304 stainless steel laser weldments subjected to cavitation erosion (CE). Laser shock processing (LSP) was utilized to strengthen the CE resistance, and the tensile property and fracture morphology were analyzed through three replicated experiment times. Results showed tensile process of treated weldments was composed of elastic deformation, plastic deformation, and fracture. The elastic limit, elastic modulus, elongation, area reduction, and ultimate tensile strength of tensile sample after CE were higher in view of LSP. In the fracture surface, the fiber zone, radiation zone and shear lip zone were generated, and those were more obvious through LSP. The number and size of pores in the fracture surface were smaller, and the fracture surface was smoother and more uniform. The dimples were elongated along the unified direction due to effects of LSP, and the elongated direction was in agreement with the crack propagation direction. Their distribution and shape were uniform with deeper depth. It could be reflected that the tensile property was improved by LSP and the CE resistance was also enhanced.

  11. High strain rate tensile properties of annealed 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Oakes, R.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The high strain rate tensile properties of annealed 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel were determined and the tensile behavior from 25 to 566 0 C and strain rates of 2.67 x 10 -6 to 144/s were described. Above 0.1/s at 25 0 C, both the yield stress and the ultimate tensile strength increased rapidly with increasing strain rate. As the temperature was increased, a dynamic strain aging peak appeared in the ultimate tensile strength-temperature curves. The peak height was a maximum at about 350 0 C and 2.67 x 10 -6 /s. With increasing strain rate, a peak of decreased height occurred at progressively higher temperatures. The major effect of strain rate on ductility occurred at elevated temperatures, where a decrease in strain rate caused an increase in total elongation and reduction in area

  12. Size Effect Studies on Tensile Tests for Hot Stamping Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodu; Li, Yuanyuan; Han, Xianhong; Zhang, Junbo

    2018-02-01

    Tensile tests have been widely used to determine basic mechanical properties of materials. However, the properties measured may be related to geometrical factors of the tested samples especially for high-strength steels; this makes the properties' definitions and comparisons difficult. In this study, a series of tensile tests of ultra-high-strength hot-stamped steel were performed; the geometric shapes and sizes as well as the cutting direction were modified. The results demonstrate that the hot-stamped parts were isotropic and the cutting direction had no effect; the measured strengths were practically unrelated to the specimen geometries, including both size and shape. The elongations were slightly related to sample sizes within the studied range but highly depended on the sample shape, represented by the coefficient K. Such phenomena were analyzed and discussed based on microstructural observations and fracture morphologies. Moreover, two widely used elongation conversion equations, the Oliver formula and Barba's law, were introduced to verify their applicability, and a new interpolating function was developed and compared.

  13. Effect of grain size on tensile stress and ductility in Al99.99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs-Csetenyi, E.; Horvath, M.; Chinh, N.Q.; Kovacs, I.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of recrystallized grain size on the tensile stress and ductility of 99.99% purity aluminium was investigated at room temperature. It was proved that the grain size dependence of flow stress follows a modified Hall-Petch equation with coefficients depending linearly on ε 1/2 up to the stability limit. The uniform strain can also be described by a linear dependence on d -1/2 according to which the uniform elongation increases with increasing grain size. The post-uniform elongation changes inversely to that of the uniform one accompanied by the decrease of the strain rate sensitivity. (orig.)

  14. High temperature tensile testing of modified 9Cr-1Mo after irradiation with high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Hamilton, M.L.; Maloy, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effect of tensile test temperatures ranging from 50 to 600 deg. C on the tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel after high energy proton irradiation at about 35-67 deg. C to doses from 1 to 3 dpa and 9 dpa. For the specimens irradiated to doses between 1 and 3 dpa, it was observed that the yield strength and ultimate strength decreased monotonically as a function of tensile test temperature, whereas the uniform elongation (UE) remained at approximately 1% for tensile test temperatures up to 250 deg. C and then increased for tensile test temperatures up to and including 500 deg. C. At 600 deg. C, the UE was observed to be less than the values at 400 and 500 deg. C. UE of the irradiated material tensile tested at 400-600 deg. C was observed to be greater than the values for the unirradiated material at the same temperatures. Tensile tests on the 9 dpa specimens followed similar trends

  15. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....

  16. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  17. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  18. Mechanical Tensile Testing of Titanium 15-3-3-3 and Kevlar 49 at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan L.; Martinez, Raul M.; Shirron, Peter; Tuttle, Jim; Galassi, Nicholas M.; Mcguinness, Daniel S.; Puckett, David; Francis, John J.; Flom, Yury

    2011-01-01

    Titanium 15-3-3-3 and Kevlar 49 are highly desired materials for structural components in cryogenic applications due to their low thennal conductivity at low temperatures. Previous tests have indicated that titanium 15-3-3-3 becomes increasingly brittle as the temperature decreases. Furthermore, little is known regarding the mechanical properties of Kevlar 49 at low temperatures, most specifically its Young's modulus. This testing investigates the mechanical properties of both materials at cryogenic temperatures through cryogenic mechanical tensile testing to failure. The elongation, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and break strength of both materials are provided and analyzed here.

  19. Evolution and Allometry of Calcaneal Elongation in Living and Extinct Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Gladman, Justin T.; Bloch, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal

  20. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly...

  1. Influence of processing parameters on microstructure and tensile properties of TG6 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Guo Hongzhen; Wang Yanwei; Yao Zekun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper highlights the relationships among processing parameters, microstructure and tensile properties of TG6 high temperature titanium alloy. → The microstructural evolutions under different processing parameters were studied by the quantitative metallography, and the effects of microstructure on room and high temperature tensile properties of TG6 alloy were analysed by SEM and TEM. → Linear relationships of elongation vs. volume fraction of primary α phase and ultimate tensile strength vs. thickness of lamellar α phase were determined. - Abstract: Near-isothermal forging of the TG6 titanium alloy was conducted on microprocessor-controlled 630 ton hydraulic press at the deformation temperatures ranging from 850 deg. C to 1045 deg. C, the strain rates of 0.0008 s -1 , 0.003 s -1 and 0.008 s -1 and the deformation degree from 10% to 70%, and then different double heat treatments were applied to the forged specimens. The microstructural evolutions were researched by optical microscope and the microstructural features, i.e. volume fraction of primary α phase and thickness of lamellar α phase, were measured by means of the image analysis software. The room and high temperature tensile properties were obtained for all the specimens. Effects of microstructure on the properties were analysed by scanning electronic microscope. It was found that tenslie properties depended on microstructural features strongly. The plots of ultimate tensile strength vs. thickness of α lamellae and elongation vs. volume fraction of primary α phase produced straight lines. The liner equations were determined by fitting the experimental date, respectively. Compared to other parameters, heat treatment had more influence on the tensile strength and the tensile plasticity was more sensitive to the forging temperature.

  2. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The tensile for all irradiated vanadium alloy samples and several unirradiated vanadium alloys tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and revised, as necessary. The review and revision are based on re-analyzing the original load-displacement strip-chart recording using a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. No significant difference has been found between the newly-revised and previously-reported values of yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). However, by correctly subtracting the non-gauge-length displacement and linear gauge-length displacement from the total cross-head displacement, the uniform elongation (UE) of the gauge length decreases by 4-9% strain and the total elongation (TE) of the gauge length decreases by 1-7% strain. These differences are more significant for lower-ductility irradiated alloys than for higher-ductility alloys

  3. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The tensile for all irradiated vanadium alloy samples and several unirradiated vanadium alloys tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and revised, as necessary. The review and revision are based on re-analyzing the original load-displacement strip-chart recording using a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. No significant difference has been found between the newly-revised and previously-reported values of yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). However, by correctly subtracting the non-gauge-length displacement and linear gauge-length displacement from the total cross-head displacement, the uniform elongation (UE) of the gauge length decreases by 4-9% strain and the total elongation (TE) of the gauge length decreases by 1-7% strain. These differences are more significant for lower-ductility irradiated alloys than for higher-ductility alloys.

  4. Diffraction Plane Dependence of Micro Residual Stresses in Uniaxially Extended Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanabusa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stress measurement using X-ray or neutron diffraction, an elastic anisotropy as well as a plastic anisotropy of crystal must be carefully considered. In the X-ray and neutron diffraction stress measurement for polycrystalline materials, a particular {hkl} plane is used in measuring lattice strains. The dependence of an X-ray elastic constant on a diffraction plane is a typical example caused by an elastic anisotropy of the crystal. The yield strength and the work hardening rate of a single crystal depend on a crystallographic direction of the crystal. The difference in the yield strength and the work hardening rate relating to the crystallographic direction develops different residual stresses measured on each {hkl} diffraction after plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material. The present paper describes the result of the neutron stress measurement on uniaxially extended low and middle carbon steels. A tri-axial residual stress state developed in the extended specimens was measured on different kind of {hkl} diffraction plane. The measurement on the {110}, {200} and {211} diffraction showed that residual stresses increased with increasing the plastic elongation and the residual stresses on {110} were compressive, {200} were tensile and those on {211} were the middle of the former two planes.

  5. Elevated-temperature tensile properties of three heats of commercially heat-treated Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, M.K.; Booker, B.L.P.

    1980-03-01

    Three heats of commercially heat-treated alloy 718 were tensile tested over the temperature range from room temperature to 816 degree C and at nominal strain rates from 6.7 x 10 -6 to 6.7 x 10 -3 /s. We examined data for yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, total elongation, and reduction in area and also inspected tensile stress-strain behavior. Yield and ultimate tensile strengths for commercially heat-treated alloy 718 decrease very gradually with temperature from room temperature up to about 600 degree C for a strain rate of 6.7 x 10 -5 /s or to about 700 degree C for a strain rate of 6.7 x 10 -4 /s. Above these temperatures the strength drops off fairly rapidly. Reduction in area and total elongation data show minimum around 700 degree C, with each ductility measure falling to 10% or less at the minimum. This minimum is more pranced and occurs at lower temperatures as strain rate decreases. Up to about 600 degree C the ductility is typically around 30%. As the temperature reaches 816 degree C the ductility again increases to perhaps 60%. The uniform elongation (plastic strain at peak load) decreases only slightly with temperature to about 500 degree C then drops off rapidly and monotonically with temperature, reaching values less than 1% at 816 degree C. At the highest test temperatures the load maximum may result, not from necking of the specimen, but from overaging of the precipitation-hardened microstructure. Stress-strain curves showed serrated deformations in the temperature range from 316 to 649 degree C, although they occur only for the faster strain rates at the supper end of this temperature range. The serrations can be quite large, involving load drops of perhaps 40 to 80 MPa. The serrations typically begin within the first 2% of deformation and continue until fracture, although exceptions were noted. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Strain rate dependent tensile behavior of advanced high strength steels: Experiment and constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Daeyong; Han, Heung Nam; Barlat, F.; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    High strain rate tensile tests were conducted for three advanced high strength steels: DP780, DP980 and TRIP780. A high strain rate tensile test machine was used for applying the strain rate ranging from 0.1/s to 500/s. Details of the measured stress–strain responses were comparatively analyzed for the DP780 and TRIP780 steels which show similar microstructural feature and ultimate tensile strength, but different strengthening mechanisms. The experimental observations included: usual strain rate dependent plastic flow stress behavior in terms of the yield stress (YS), the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the uniform elongation (UE) and the total elongation (TE) which were observed for the three materials. But, higher strain hardening rate at early plastic strain under quasi-static condition than that of some increased strain rates was featured for TRIP780 steel, which might result from more active transformation during deformation with lower velocity. The uniform elongation that explains the onset of instability and the total elongation were larger in case of TRIP steel than the DP steel for the whole strain rate range, but interestingly the fracture strain measured by the reduction of area (RA) method showed that the TRIP steel has lower values than DP steel. The fractographs using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at the fractured surfaces were analyzed to relate measured fracture strain and the microstructural difference of the two materials during the process of fracture under various strain rates. Finally, constitutive modeling for the plastic flow stresses under various strain rates was provided in this study. The proposed constitutive law could represent both Hollomon-like and Voce-like hardening laws and the ratio between the two hardening types was efficiently controlled as a function of strain rate. The new strength model was validated successfully under various strain rates for several grades of steels such as mild steels, DP780, TRIP780, DP980 steels.

  7. SOLID BURNT BRICKS’ TENSILE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Maroušková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental testing of solid burnt bricks and mortar in pure (axial tension. The obtained working diagrams will be further use for a detailed numerical analysis of whole brick masonry column under concentric compressive load. Failure mechanism of compressed brick masonry column is characterized by the appearance and development of vertical tensile cracks in masonry units (bricks passing in the direction of principal stresses and is accompanied by progressive growth of horizontal deformations. These cracks are caused by contraction and interaction between two materials with different mechanical characteristics (brick and mortar. The aim of this paper is more precisely describe the response of quasi-brittle materials to uniaxial loading in tension (for now only the results from three point bending test are available. For these reasons, bricks and mortar tensile behavior is experimentally tested and the obtained results are discussed.

  8. Damage-induced tensile instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents a unified description of ductile and brittle rupture phenomena in structural components under tensile loading with particular emphasis on creep rupture. Two structural elements are analyzed in detail: 1) the uniform tensile bar subject to a Heaviside history of tensile force and superimposed such loadings, i.e. staircase histories, and 2) the thinwalled spherical pressure vessel subject to a Heaviside history of internal pressure. For both these structures the conditions for instantaneous as well as delayed rupture are analysed. It is shown that a state of mechanical instability will be reached at a certain load or after a certain time. The cases of purely ductile rupture and purely brittle fracture are identified as two limiting cases of this general instability phenomenon. The Kachanov-Rabotnov damage law implies that a structural component will fail in tension only when it has reached a state of complete damage, i.e. zero load carrying capacity. The extended law predicts failure at an earlier stage of the deterioration process and is therefore more compatible with experimental observation. Further experimental support is offered by predictions for staircase loading histories, both step-up and step-down type. The presented damage theory here predicts strain histories which are in closer agreement with test data than predictions based on other phenomenological theories

  9. Tensile-Creep Test Specimen Preparation Practices of Surface Support Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Ground support has always been considered as a challenging issue in all underground operations. Many forms of support systems and supporting techniques are available in the mining/tunnelling industry. In the last two decades, a new polymer based material, Thin Spray-on Liner (TSL), has attained a place in the market as an alternative to the current areal ground support systems. Although TSL provides numerous merits and has different application purposes, the knowledge on mechanical properties and performance of this material is still limited. In laboratory studies, since tensile rupture is the most commonly observed failure mechanism in field applications, researchers have generally studied the tensile testing of TSLs with modification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-638 standards. For tensile creep testing, specimen preparation process also follows the ASTM standards. Two different specimen dimension types (Type I, Type IV) are widely preferred in TSL tensile testing that conform to the related standards. Moreover, molding and die cutting are commonly used specimen preparation techniques. In literature, there is a great variability of test results due to the difference in specimen preparation techniques and practices. In this study, a ductile TSL product was tested in order to investigate the effect of both specimen preparation techniques and specimen dimensions under 7-day curing time. As a result, ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break values were obtained for 4 different test series. It is concluded that Type IV specimens have higher strength values compared to Type I specimens and moulded specimens have lower results than that of prepared by using die cutter. Moreover, specimens prepared by molding techniques have scattered test results. Type IV specimens prepared by die cutter technique are suggested for preparation of tensile test and Type I specimens prepared by die cutter technique

  10. High Temperature Tensile Properties of Unirradiated and Neutron Irradiated 20 Cr-35 Ni Austenitic Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R B; Solly, B

    1966-12-15

    The tensile properties of an unirradiated and neutron irradiated (at 40 deg C) 20 % Cr, 35 % Ni austenitic steel have been studied at 650 deg C, 750 deg C and 820 deg C. The tensile elongation and mode of fracture (transgranular) of unirradiated specimens tested at room temperature and 650 deg C are almost identical. At 750 deg C and 820 deg C the elongation decreases considerably and a large part of the total elongation is non-uniform. Furthermore, the mode of fracture at these temperatures is intergranular and microscopic evidence suggests that fracture is caused by formation and linkup of grain boundary cavities. YS and UTS decrease monotonically with temperature. Irradiated specimens show a further decrease in ductility and an increase in the tendency to grain boundary cracking. Irradiation has no significant effect on the YS, but the UTS are reduced. The embrittlement of the irradiated specimens is attributed to the presence of He and Li atoms produced during irradiation and the possible mechanisms are discussed. Prolonged annealing of irradiated and unirradiated specimens at 650 deg C appears to have no significant effect on tensile properties.

  11. Influences of hot-isostatic-pressing temperature on microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of Inconel 718 powder compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Litao; Sun, Wenru; Cui, Yuyou; Yang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Inconel 718 powders have been hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) at representative temperatures to investigate the variations in microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of the powder compact. Microstructure of the powder compacts were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and so on. The results showed that the interdendritic precipitates inherited from the powders were partially retained in the powder compacts when the powders were HIPed at or below 1210 °C but were eliminated when HIPed at and above 1260 °C. The grain size uniformity of the powder compacts first increases and then decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Prior particle boundaries (PPBs) were observed in the powder compacts HIPed at and below 1260 °C but was eliminated when HIPed at 1275 °C. The PPBs were decorated with carbide particles, the amount of the carbide particles at the PPBs decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Most of the PPBs were pinned by the carbide particles in the compacts HIPed at 1140 °C. When the HIPing temperature was increased to 1210 °C and 1260 °C, a large number of PPBs de-pinned and moved beyond the pinning carbide particles, leading to grain growth and leaving carbide particles at the site of the original PPBs within the new grains. With increasing HIPing temperature, the 0.2% yield strength of the powder compacts at 650 °C decreases, the tensile elongation increases, and the tensile fracture mode changed from inter-particle dominant fracture to fully dimple ductile fracture

  12. Influences of hot-isostatic-pressing temperature on microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of Inconel 718 powder compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Litao [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Sun, Wenru; Cui, Yuyou [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Yang, Rui, E-mail: ryang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2014-04-01

    Inconel 718 powders have been hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) at representative temperatures to investigate the variations in microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of the powder compact. Microstructure of the powder compacts were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and so on. The results showed that the interdendritic precipitates inherited from the powders were partially retained in the powder compacts when the powders were HIPed at or below 1210 °C but were eliminated when HIPed at and above 1260 °C. The grain size uniformity of the powder compacts first increases and then decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Prior particle boundaries (PPBs) were observed in the powder compacts HIPed at and below 1260 °C but was eliminated when HIPed at 1275 °C. The PPBs were decorated with carbide particles, the amount of the carbide particles at the PPBs decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Most of the PPBs were pinned by the carbide particles in the compacts HIPed at 1140 °C. When the HIPing temperature was increased to 1210 °C and 1260 °C, a large number of PPBs de-pinned and moved beyond the pinning carbide particles, leading to grain growth and leaving carbide particles at the site of the original PPBs within the new grains. With increasing HIPing temperature, the 0.2% yield strength of the powder compacts at 650 °C decreases, the tensile elongation increases, and the tensile fracture mode changed from inter-particle dominant fracture to fully dimple ductile fracture.

  13. The tensile deformation behavior of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite posterior to hydrostatic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, S.; Eto, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of prehydrostatic loading on microstructural changes and tensile deformation behavior of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite have been examined. Scanning electron micrographs show that formation of microcracks associated with delamination between basal planes occurs under hydrostatic loading. Hydrostatic loading on specimens results in the decrease in tensile strength and increase in residual strain generated by the applied tensile stress at various levels, indicating that the graphite material is weakened by hydrostatic loading. A relationship between residual strain and applied tensile stress for graphite hydrostatically-loaded at several pressure levels can be approximately expressed as element of= (AP + B) sigmasup(n) over a wide range hydrostatic pressure, where element of, P and sigma denote residual strain, hydrostatic pressure and applied tensile stress, respectively; A, B and n are constant. The effects of prehydrostatic loading on the tensile stress-strain behavior of the graphite were examined in more detail. The ratio of stress after hydrostatic loading to that before hydrostatic loading on the stress-strain relationship remains almost unchanged irrespective of strain. (orig.)

  14. Scatter factor corrections for elongated fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; Sohn, W.H.; Sibata, C.H.; McCarthy, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements have been made to determine scatter factor corrections for elongated fields of Cobalt-60 and for nominal linear accelerator energies of 6 MV (Siemens Mevatron 67) and 18 MV (AECL Therac 20). It was found that for every energy the collimator scatter factor varies by 2% or more as the field length-to-width ratio increases beyond 3:1. The phantom scatter factor is independent of which collimator pair is elongated at these energies. For 18 MV photons it was found that the collimator scatter factor is complicated by field-size-dependent backscatter into the beam monitor

  15. Cavitation contributes substantially to tensile creep in silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, W.E.; Wiederhorn, S.M.; Hockey, B.J.; Krause, R.F. Jr.; Long, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    During tensile creep of a hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitride, the volume fraction of cavities increases linearly with strain; these cavities produce nearly all of the measured strain. In contrast, compressive creep in the same stress and temperature range produces very little cavitation. A stress exponent that increases with stress (var-epsilon ∝ σ n , 2 < n < 7) characterizes the tensile creep response, while the compressive creep response exhibits a stress dependence of unity. Furthermore, under the same stress and temperature, the material creeps nearly 100 times faster in tension than in compression. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the cavities formed during tensile creep occur in pockets of residual crystalline silicate phase located at silicon nitride multigrain junctions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from crept material quantifies the size distribution of cavities observed in TEM and demonstrates that cavity addition, rather than cavity growth, dominates the cavitation process. These observations are in accord with a model for creep based on the deformation of granular materials in which the microstructure must dilate for individual grains t slide past one another. During tensile creep the silicon nitride grains remain rigid; cavitation in the multigrain junctions allows the silicate to flow from cavities to surrounding silicate pockets, allowing the dilation of the microstructure and deformation of the material. Silicon nitride grain boundary sliding accommodates this expansion and leads to extension of the specimen. In compression, where cavitation is suppressed, deformation occurs by solution-reprecipitation of silicon nitride

  16. The correlation between elongation at break and thermal decomposition of aged EPDM cable polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarac, T.; Devaux, J.; Quiévy, N.; Gusarov, A.; Konstantinović, M. J.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of simultaneous thermal and gamma irradiation ageing on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of industrial EPDM was investigated. Accelerated ageing, covering a wide range of dose rates, doses and temperatures, was preformed in stagnant air on EPDM polymer samples extracted from the cables in use in the Belgian nuclear power plants. The mechanical properties, ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break, are found to exhibit the strong dependence on the dose, ageing temperature and dose rate. The thermal decomposition of aged polymer is observed to be the dose dependent when thermogravimetry test is performed under air atmosphere. No dose dependence is observed when thermal decomposition is performed under nitrogen atmosphere. The thermal decomposition rates are found to fully mimic the reduction of elongation at break for all dose rates and ageing temperatures. This effect is argued to be the result of thermal and radiation mediated oxidation degradation process.

  17. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  18. Effects of niobium addition on microstructure and tensile behavior of as-cast ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangru, E-mail: cxr16@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xu, Jie, E-mail: shuxujie@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Hu, Henry, E-mail: huh@uwindsor.ca [Department of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4 (Canada); Mohrbacher, Hardy, E-mail: hm@niobelcon.net [NiobelCon bvba, Swaenebeecklaan, 2970 Schilde (Belgium); Kang, Ming, E-mail: kangming@dfcv.com.cn [Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430056 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangwei3@citic.com [CITIC Metal Co., Ltd., Beijing 100004 (China); Guo, Aimin, E-mail: guoam@citic.com [CITIC Metal Co., Ltd., Beijing 100004 (China); Zhai, Qijie, E-mail: qjzhai@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2017-03-14

    The effects of niobium addition up to 0.11 wt% on the microstructure and tensile properties of as-cast ductile iron (ACDI) were investigated. Metallographic analyses by both optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that niobium (Nb) promoted the formation of pearlite, reduced pearlite lamellar spacing and decreased the extent of graphitization taking place in the Nb-alloyed ACDI. The nodularity and nodule counts of graphite changed insignificantly when the Nb content was less than 0.08 wt% in the ACDI. The analysis of precipitates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that nano and micro sized (Nb, Ti)C carbides acted as nucleation site for graphites, and promoted the formation of large graphite nodules with low roundnesses as Nb content rose above 0.08 wt%. The results of tensile testing showed that the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the ACDI with 0.08 wt% Nb increased by 12.1%, 11.2% and 14.3% over those of the Nb-free ACDI, respectively. The optimum values of the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the Nb-alloyed ACDI were found to be 418 MPa, 746.0 MPa and 8.0%, respectively, at the Nb content of 0.08 wt%. The high strain hardening rates of the Nb-containing ACDIs implied that they were capable of spontaneously strengthening itself increasingly to a large extent, in response to a slight plastic deformation after yielding.

  19. Tensile tests and metallography of brazed AISI 316L specimens after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.; Franconi, E.

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel type 316L tensile specimens were vacuum brazed with three kinds of alloys: BNi-5, BNi-6, and BNi-7. The specimens were irradiated up to 0.7 dpa at 353 K in the High Flux Reactor at JRC Petten, the Netherlands. Tensile tests were performed at a constant displacement rate of 10 -3 s -1 at room temperature in the ECN hot cell facility. BNi-5 brazed specimens showed ductile behaviour. Necking and fractures were localized in the plate material. BNi-6 and BNi-7 brazed specimens failed brittle in the brazed zone. This was preceded by uniform deformation of the plate material. Tensile test results of irradiated specimens showed higher stresses due to radiation hardening and a reduction of the elongation of the plate material compared to the reference. SEM examination of the irradiated BNi-6 and BNi-7 fracture surfaces showed nonmetallic phases. These phases were not found in the reference specimens. ((orig.))

  20. Tensile mechanical properties of U3Si2-Al fuel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yong; Hu Huawei; Zhuang Hongquan; Wang Xishu

    2003-01-01

    The fuel plate made of fuel meat, with the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel center, and 6061 Al alloy cladding, is a new kind of fuel used in research reactors. The mechanical property data of the fuel meat is the basic data in the design of fuel group, but the mechanical property of this fuel meat has not been studied all over the world till now. In this paper, the mechanical properties of U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel meats of different sizes used in research reactors are investigated and analyzed, and at the same time the carrying capacity of tensile in different directions are also compared. In order to get more knowledge about the mechanical properties of the fuel meat, the tensile experiment has been carried out repeatedly. Considering the lower ratio of elongation and the brittleness, the microscope has been used to examine the zone of fracture after tensile test. (authors)

  1. Tensile Deformation Temperature Impact on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AISI 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yi; He, Tiantian; Lu, Yan; Ren, Fengzhang; Volinsky, Alex A.; Cao, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on AISI 316LN austenitic stainless steel from - 40 to 300 °C at a rate of 0.5 mm/min. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the deformed steel were investigated by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, x-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and microhardness increase with the decrease in the test temperature. The tensile fracture morphology has the dimple rupture feature after low-temperature deformations and turns to a mixture of transgranular fracture and dimple fracture after high-temperature ones. The dominating deformation microstructure evolves from dislocation tangle/slip bands to large deformation twins/slip bands with temperature decrease. The deformation-induced martensite transformation can only be realized at low temperature, and its quantity increases with the decrease in the temperature.

  2. Loss of elongation factor P disrupts bacterial outer membrane integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S Betty; Hersch, Steven J; Roy, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    background ameliorates the detergent, antibiotic, and osmosensitivity phenotypes and restores wild-type permeability to NPN. Our data support a role for EF-P in the translational regulation of a limited number of proteins that, when perturbed, renders the cell susceptible to stress by the adventitious......Elongation factor P (EF-P) is posttranslationally modified at a conserved lysyl residue by the coordinated action of two enzymes, PoxA and YjeK. We have previously established the importance of this modification in Salmonella stress resistance. Here we report that, like poxA and yjeK mutants......, Salmonella strains lacking EF-P display increased susceptibility to hypoosmotic conditions, antibiotics, and detergents and enhanced resistance to the compound S-nitrosoglutathione. The susceptibility phenotypes are largely explained by the enhanced membrane permeability of the efp mutant, which exhibits...

  3. Segmentation of elongated structures in medical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Jozef Johannes

    2004-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the automatic detection, recognition and segmentation of elongated structures in medical images. For this purpose techniques have been developed to detect subdimensional pointsets (e.g. ridges, edges) in images of arbitrary dimension. These

  4. Rhizome elongation and seagrass clonal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Duarte, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    A compilation of published and original data on rhizome morphometry, horizontal and vertical elongation rates and branching patterns for 27 seagrass species developing in 192 seagrass stands allowed an examination of the variability of seagrass rhizome and clonal growth programmes across and within

  5. Interplay between DNA supercoiling and transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling has been shown to be an important regulator of transcription that is broadly present in the cell. Here we review experimental work which shows that RNA polymerase is a powerful torsional motor that can alter DNA topology and structure, and DNA supercoiling in turn directly affects transcription elongation.

  6. Reversible temper brittleness on tensile tests at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, N.F. de; Cabral, U.Q.

    1976-01-01

    Tensile tests were carried out on unnotched test pieces at room temperature and three strain rates: 2,5x10 -4 , 2,5x10 -3 and 1,0x10 -2 s -1 in a low alloy No-Cr-Mo steel to observe the variation in its mechanical properties with the occurrence of reversible temper brittleness. The brittle samples showed a sensitivity of 50 0 C in a 48 hour heat treatment at 500 0 C. The tests showed that at the strain rate of 2,5x10 -4 s -1 there are statistically significant differences between the elongations of the material in the brittle and the nonbrittle and regenerated states. A short review of reversible temper brittleness is given and a theory suggested for the mechanism [pt

  7. Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, J.W.; Looney, L.D.; Peterson, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications

  8. The role of Glu259 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in ternary complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup Pedersen, Gitte; Rattenborg, Thomas; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the crystal structure of the ternary complex formed between elongation factor Tu:GTP and aminoacylated tRNA revealed three regions of interaction between elongation factor Tu and tRNA. The structure indicates that the conserved glutamic acid at position 271 in Thermus aquaticus EF-Tu...... could be involved in the binding of the 3' CCA-Phe end of the aminoacylated tRNA. Therefore, the corresponding residue, Glu259, of Escherichia coli EF-Tu was mutated into alanine, aspartic acid, glutamine and tyrosine, in order to substantiate the crystallographic structural evidence and to obtain...... of interaction with tRNA, while mutation to tyrosine abolished completely the interaction with tRNA. Finally, mutation to glutamine resulted in an elongation factor Tu variant behaving like the wild type. In conclusion, the environment around the site binding the CCA-Phe end of the tRNA is very restricted...

  9. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance

  10. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K. [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  11. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  12. Positive grid corrosion elongation analysis using CAE with corrosion deformation transformed into thermal phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaitani, Ichiroh; Hayashi, Koji; Shimoura, Ichiro; Takemasa, Arihiko; Takahashi, Isamu; Tsubakino, Harushige

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries have been commercially available for more than 20 years and have been enthusiastically embraced by users of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) because of the anticipated reduction in installation and operating costs, smaller footprint and fewer environmental concerns. In Japan, communication networks are demanding reduced costs and longer life from their batteries. Among the factors limiting the life of VRLA batteries, the corrosion of positive grid material has been proven to cause elongation of the plates, loss of electrical contact and shorter lifetime. The content of Sn is also a key factor and addition of Sn in the grid alloy results in better performance in creep resistance, tensile strength and corrosion resistance [R. David Prenagaman, The Battery Man, vol. 39, September 1997, p. 16. I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. A key point is what the ratio of Sn to Ca should be, since too much Sn may lead to even worse elongation of the plates [I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. We have determined that microstructure control with a composition of lead-calcium-tin (Pb-Ca-Sn) alloy is optimal for better performance of the plates [I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. We developed a "simulation of current collector corrosion elongation" which is a technique of estimating corrosion elongation from the current collector design [I. Mukaitani, K. Hayashi, I. Shimoura, H. Takabayashi, M. Terada, A. Takemasa, I. Takahashi, K. Okamoto, Proceedings of the 44th Battery Symposium in Japan, 2003, p. 652]. Corrosion elongation occurs as the corrosion material layer grows out of the current collector metal. We resolved this problem using generally CAD

  13. Interpretation of quasi-static and dynamic tensile behavior by digital image correlation technique in TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and low-carbon steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Minju; Park, Jaeyeong; Sohn, Seok Su; Kim, Hyoung Seop [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nack J. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak, E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-02

    In this study, dynamic tensile tests were conducted on TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and low-carbon (LC) steel sheets at a strain rate of 1500–2000/s by using a split Hopkinson tensile bar, and deformation mechanisms related with improvement of dynamic tensile properties were investigated by a digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The dynamic tensile strength was higher than the quasi-static tensile strength in both TWIP and LC sheets, while the dynamic elongation was same to the quasi-static elongation in the TWIP sheet and was much lower than the quasi-static elongation in the LC sheet. According to the DIC results of the dynamically tensioned TWIP sheet, the homogeneous deformation occurred before the necking at the strain of 47.4%. This indicated that the dynamic deformation processes were almost similar to the quasi-static ones as the TWIP sheet was homogeneously deformed in the initial and intermediate deformation stages. This could be explained by deformation mechanisms including twinning, in consideration of favorable effect of increased twinning on tensile properties under the dynamic loading. On the other hand, the dynamically tensioned LC sheet was rapidly deformed and fractured as the necking was intensified in a narrow strain-concentrated region. The present DIC technique is an outstanding method for detailed dynamic deformation analyses, and provides an important idea for practical safety analyses of automotive steel sheets.

  14. Tensile behavior change depending on the microstructure of a Fe-Cu alloy produced from rapidly solidified powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakisawa, Hideki; Minagawa, Kazumi; Halada, Kohmei

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between consolidating temperature and the tensile behavior of iron alloy produced from Fe-Cu rapidly solidified powder is investigated. Fe-Cu powder fabricated by high-pressure water atomization was consolidated by heavy rolling at 873-1273 K. Microstructural changes were observed and tensile behavior was examined. Tensile behavior varies as the consolidating temperature changes, and these temperature-dependent differences depend on the morphology of the microstructure on the order of micrometers. The sample consolidated at 873 K shows a good strength/elongation balance because the powder microstructure and primary powder boundaries are maintained. The samples consolidated at the higher temperatures have a microstructure of recrystallized grains, and these recrystallized samples show the conventional relationship between tensile behavior and grain size in ordinal bulk materials

  15. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in helium and low-partial-pressure oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-01-01

    A test program is in progress to evaluate the effect of oxygen at low pO 2 on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)wt% Cr-(4-5)wt% Ti alloys. Some of the tensile specimens were precharged with oxygen at low pO 2 at 500 degrees C and reannealed in vacuum at 500 degrees C in environments with various pO 2 levels and subsequently tensile tested at room temperature. The preliminary results indicate that both approaches are appropriate for evaluating the effect of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the alloys. The data showed that in the relatively short-time tests conducted thus far, the maximum engineering stress slightly increased after oxygen exposure but the uniform and total elongation values exhibited significant decrease after exposure in oxygen-containing environments. The data for a specimen exposed to a helium environment were similar to those obtained in low pO 2 environments

  16. Tensile strength of Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes: A statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Priti Kotak, E-mail: pritik@barc.gov.in [Senior Scientist, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Dubey, J.S.; Datta, D.; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Rath, B.N.; Singh, R.N. [Senior Scientist, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Anantharaman, S. [Head, Post Irradiation Examination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Director, Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Tensile properties in axial and transverse direction for a number of Indian Zr-2.5 Nb PHWR pressure tubes. • Distribution of tensile properties of double-melted and quadruple-melted pressure tubes. • Tensile properties at front-end and back-end of the quadruple melted pressure tubes at room temperature and at 300 °C. - Abstract: In order to get an idea of the statistical variation in the tensile properties of the double-melted as well as quadruple melted Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes (PTs) and also the variation in tensile properties between the two ends of the pressure tubes, tension tests were carried out on around 50 pressure tube off-cuts. Longitudinal and transverse tensile specimens were prepared from these off-cuts of pressure tubes of double-melted and quadruple melted types. For quadruple melted pressure tubes the specimens were tested from both front-end and back-end off-cuts. Miniature flat tensile specimens having 1.8 mm width and 1.5 mm thickness and 7.6 mm gauge length were prepared from the pressure tube off-cuts without any flattening treatment. Tension tests were carried out in a screw-driven machine at room temperature and 300 °C for both front-end and back-end off-cuts of each of 16 pressure tubes. In general the transverse specimens showed higher yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) compared to the longitudinal specimens. Transverse specimens showed less strain hardening compared to the longitudinal specimens. The axial specimens showed higher uniform (UE) and total elongation (TE) compared to the transverse specimens. Double-melted pressure tubes showed relatively higher strength and lower elongation and larger standard deviation compared to the quadruple melted pressure tubes. Mean values of tensile properties showed that back-end off-cuts were relatively stronger and less ductile compared to the front-end off-cuts.

  17. High temperature tensile properties and fracture characteristics of bimodal 12Cr-ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Ankur; Litvinov, Dimitri; Aktaa, Jarir

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the tensile properties and fracture characteristics of a 12Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with unique elongated bimodal grain size distribution. The tensile tests were carried out at four different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 700 °C, at a nominal strain rate of 10"−"3 s"−"1. At room temperature the material exhibits a high tensile strength of 1294 MPa and high yield strength of 1200 MPa. At 700 °C, the material still exhibits relatively high tensile strength of 300 MPa. The total elongation-to-failure exceeds 18% over the whole temperature range and has a maximum value of 29% at 600 °C. This superior ductility is attributed to the material's bimodal grain size distribution. In comparison to other commercial, as well as experimental, ODS steels, the material shows an excellent compromise between strength and ductility. The fracture surface studies reveal a change in fracture behavior from a mixed mode fracture at room temperature to fully ductile fracture at 600 °C. At 700 °C, the fracture path changes from intragranular to intergranular fracture, which is associated with a reduced ductility. - Highlights: • The steel has a unique elongated bimodal grain size distribution. • The steel shows an excellent compromise between strength and ductility. • Superior ductility in comparison to other commercial and experimental ODS steels. • Fracture behavior changes from mixed mode fracture at room temperature to fully ductile fracture at 600 °C. • Fracture path changes from intragranular to intergranular fracture at 700 °C.

  18. Effect of Incorporation of Antifungal Agents on the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Temporary Soft Denture Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana; Lima, Jozely Francisca Mello; Hotta, Juliana; Galitesi, Lucas Lulo; Almeida, Ana Lucia Pompéia Fraga; Urban, Vanessa Migliorini

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ultimate tensile strength of temporary soft denture liners modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm (SC5314) determined in previous microbiological research. Dumbbell-shaped specimens (n = 7) with a central cross-sectional area of 6 × 3 × 33 mm were produced by Softone and Trusoft, without (control) or with incorporation of drugs in powder form at MICs for C. albicans biofilm (per g of material powder): nystatin (0.032 g), chlorhexidine diacetate (0.064 g), ketoconazole (0.128 g), miconazole (0.256 g), and itraconazole (0.256 g). After plasticization, specimens were immersed in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, 7 or 14 days, and then tested in tension in a universal testing machine at 40 mm/min. Data of tensile strength (MPa) and elongation percentage (%) were submitted to 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). At the end of 14 days, the tensile strength for both materials was significantly lower in the groups modified by miconazole and itraconazole compared to the other groups (p 0.05). After 7 and 14 days in water, miconazole and itraconazole added into both materials resulted in significantly lower elongation percentages compared to the other antifungal agents and control (p 0.05). The addition of the nystatin, chlorhexidine, and ketoconazole at MICs for C. albicans biofilm resulted in no harmful effects on the tensile strength and elongation percentage of the temporary soft denture liner materials up to 14 days. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Sound propagation in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.; Federici, F.; Tosi, M. P.

    2006-01-01

    We use hydrodynamic equations to study sound propagation in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature inside a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap, with main attention to the transition from the BCS to the unitary regime. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of a cylindrical geometry and then evaluate numerically the effect of the axial confinement in a configuration in which a hole is present in the gas density at the center of the trap. We find that in a strongly elongated trap the speed of sound in both the BCS and the unitary regime differs by a factor √(3/5) from that in a homogeneous three-dimensional superfluid. The predictions of the theory could be tested by measurements of sound-wave propagation in a setup such as that exploited by Andrews et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997)] for an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate

  20. Discontinuation of orthokeratology on eyeball elongation (DOEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, P; Cheung, S W

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare changes in axial elongation, over a 14-month period, in subjects who discontinued and then resumed ortho-k lens wear with those who continued to wear their lenses or spectacles following a 2-year myopia control study. This single masked, prospective study recruited subjects who had just completed a 2-year myopia control study. Ortho-k subjects were classified as Group OKc, in which subjects continued ortho-k lens wear for the duration of the study; or Group OKd in which subjects discontinued lens wear for seven months and wore single-vision spectacles (Phase I) and then resumed ortho-k lens wear for another seven months (Phase II). Spectacle-wearing control subjects from the initial myopia control study continued wearing spectacles as control subjects. Axial lengths were measured at scheduled visits using the IOLMaster. Thirteen, 16, and 15 Control, OKc, and OKd subjects, aged 8-14 years, respectively completed the study. Significant increase in axial elongation was found in OKd subjects only in Phase I but not in Phase II. On resuming lens wear, in Phase II, the rate of axial elongation was no longer significantly different from those of the Control or OKc subjects. Stopping ortho-k lens wear at or before the age of 14 years led to a more rapid increase in axial length; comparable to those wearing spectacles during the initial 2-year myopia control study, but greater than the Control and OKc group in this study. Axial elongation slowed again with resumed lens wear after six months. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-05-01

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  2. The correlation between elongation at break and thermal decomposition of aged EPDM cable polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šarac, T.; Devaux, J.; Quiévy, N.; Gusarov, A.; Konstantinović, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous thermal and gamma irradiation ageing on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of industrial EPDM was investigated. Accelerated ageing, covering a wide range of dose rates, doses and temperatures, was preformed in stagnant air on EPDM polymer samples extracted from the cables in use in the Belgian nuclear power plants. The mechanical properties, ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break, are found to exhibit the strong dependence on the dose, ageing temperature and dose rate. The thermal decomposition of aged polymer is observed to be the dose dependent when thermogravimetry test is performed under air atmosphere. No dose dependence is observed when thermal decomposition is performed under nitrogen atmosphere. The thermal decomposition rates are found to fully mimic the reduction of elongation at break for all dose rates and ageing temperatures. This effect is argued to be the result of thermal and radiation mediated oxidation degradation process. - Highlights: • EPDM is aged in a wide range of dose rates and temperatures. • Tensile and thermogravimetry test were performed. • Mechanical parameters are strongly affected by irradiation dose and temperature. • Direct link between the mechanical and physicochemical properties is provided. • Thermal and radiation mediated oxidation degradation is considered to be important.

  3. Tensile properties of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrari, F; Jalaly, T; Zebarjad, M

    2010-01-01

    Tensile properties of elastomeric ligatures become important when efficiency of orthodontic appliances is considered. The aim of this study was to compare tensile strength, extension to tensile strength, toughness and modulus of elasticity of elastomeric ligatures in both the as--received condition and after 28 days of immersion in the simulated oral environment. Furthermore, the changes that occurred in tensile properties of each brand of ligatures after 28 days were evaluated. Experimental-laboratory based. Elastomeric ligatures were obtained from different companies and their tensile properties were measured using Zwick testing machine in both the as-received condition and after 28 days of immersion in the simulated oral environment. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-tests, analysis of variance and Tukey tests. After 28 days, all the ligatures experienced a significant decrease in tensile strength, extension to tensile strength and toughness ( P tensile properties of different brands of ligatures in both conditions ( P tensile properties of different brands of ligatures, which should be considered during selection of these products.

  4. The study on the threshold strain of microvoid formation in TRIP steels during tensile deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wurong; Guo Bimeng; Ji Yurong; He Changwei; Wei Xicheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The tensile mechanical behaviors of TRIP steels were studied under high rate deformation conditions. ► The threshold strain of microvoid formation was examined quantitatively. ► The effects of retained austenite of TRIP on suppressing microvoid formed during tensile process have been discussed. - Abstract: Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels exhibit a better combination of strength and ductility properties than conventional high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, and therefore receive considerable attention in the automotive industry. In this work, the tensile mechanical behaviors of TRIP-aided steels were studied under the condition of the quasi-static and high deformed rates. The deformed specimens were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) along the tensile axis. The threshold strain of microvoid formation was examined quantitatively according to the evolution of deformation. The results showed that: the yield and tensile strengths of TRIP steels increase with the strain rate, whereas their elongations decrease. However, the threshold strain for TRIP steels at high strain rate is larger than that at low strain rate. Comparing with the deformed microstructure and microvoids formed in the necking zone of dual phase (DP) steel, the progressive deformation-induced transformation of retained austenite in TRIP steels remarkably increases the threshold strain of microvoid formation and furthermore postpones its growth and coalescence.

  5. In situ tensile testing of individual Co nanowires inside a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongfeng; Breguet, Jean-Marc; Clavel, Reymond; Phillippe, Laetitia; Utke, Ivo; Michler, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Uniaxial quasi-static tensile testing on individual nanocrystalline Co nanowires (NWs), synthesized by electrochemical deposition process (EDP) in porous templates, was performed inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using a microfabricated tensile stage consisting of a comb drive actuator and a clamped-clamped beam force sensor. A 'three-beam structure' was fabricated by focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID) on the stage, from which the specimen elongation and the tensile force could be measured simultaneously from SEM images at high magnification. A novel strategy of modifying device topography, e.g. in the form of trenches and pillars, was proposed to facilitate in situ SEM pick-and-place nanomanipulation, which could achieve a high yield of about 80% and reduce the difficulties in specimen preparation for tensile testing at the nanoscale. The measured apparent Young's modulus (75.3 ± 14.6) GPa and tensile strength (1.6 ± 0.4) GPa are significantly lower than the bulk modulus and the theoretical strength of monocrystalline samples, respectively. This result is important for designing Co NW-based devices. The origins of these distinctions are discussed in terms of the stiffnesses of the soldering portions, specimen misalignment, microstructure of the NWs and the experimental measurement uncertainty.

  6. LPTR irradiation of LLL vanadium tensile specimens and LLL Nb--1Zr tensile specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.; Rowe, C.L.

    1977-01-01

    The LPTR irradiation of 14 LLL vanadium tensile specimens and 14 LLL Nb-1Zr tensile specimens is described. Sample packaging, the irradiation schedule and neutron fluences for three energy ranges are given

  7. Aphidicolin-induced nuclear elongation in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Hiroki; Kitamoto, Kazuki

    2014-05-01

    Plant nuclei are known to differentiate into various shapes within a single plant. However, little is known about the mechanisms of nuclear morphogenesis. We found that nuclei of tobacco BY-2 cells were highly elongated on long-term treatment with 5 mg l⁻¹ aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase α. In aphidicolin-treated cells, the nuclear length was correlated with the cell length. During culture in the presence of aphidicolin, the nuclei were elongated in parallel with cell elongation. Nuclear elongation was inhibited by the inhibition of cell elongation with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. However, cell elongation induced in the auxin-depleted medium in the absence of aphidicolin did not cause nuclear elongation, indicating that cell elongation alone is not sufficient for nuclear elongation. Treatment with either latrunculin B or propyzamide inhibited the aphidicolin-induced nuclear elongation, indicating that both actin filaments and microtubules (MTs) are required for nuclear elongation. Observations using BY-YTHCLR2 cells, in which actin filaments, MTs and nuclei were simultaneously visualized, revealed that the longitudinally arranged MT bundles associated with the nucleus play an important role in nuclear elongation, and that actin filaments affect the formation of these MT bundles. In aphidicolin-treated cells, the nuclear DNA contents of the elongated nuclei exceeded 4C, and the nuclear length was highly correlated with the nuclear DNA content. In cells treated with 50 mg l⁻¹ aphidicolin, cells were elongated and nucleus-associated longitudinal MT bundles were formed, but the nuclear DNA contents did not exceed 4C and the nuclei did not elongate. These results indicate that an increase in the nuclear DNA content above 4C is also required for nuclear elongation.

  8. Consolidation effects on tensile properties of an elemental Al matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, F. [Building 4515, MS 6064, Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)]. E-mail: tangf@ornl.gov; Meeks, H. [Ceracon Inc., 5150 Fairoaks Blvd. 01-330, Carmichael, CA 95628 (United States); Spowart, J.E. [UES Incorporated, AFRL/MLLM Building 655, 2230 Tenth St. Suite 1, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Gnaeupel-Herold, T. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8562, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8562 (United States); Prask, H. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8562, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8562 (United States); Anderson, I.E. [Materials and Engineering Physics Program, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2004-11-25

    In a simplified composite design, an unalloyed Al matrix was reinforced by spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy particles (30 vol.%), using either commercial purity (99.7%) or high purity (99.99%) fine powders (diameter < 10 {mu}m). This composite material was consolidated by either vacuum hot pressing (VHP) or quasi-isostatic forging. The spatial distribution of reinforcement particles in both VHP and forged samples was shown to be almost the same by quantitative characterization with a multi-scale area fraction analysis technique. The tensile properties of all composite samples were tested and the forged materials showed significantly higher strength, while the elastic modulus values of all composite materials were close to the upper bound of theoretical predictions. Neutron diffraction measurements showed that there were high compressive residual stresses in the Al matrix of the forged samples and relatively low Al matrix residual stresses (predominantly compressive) in the VHP samples. By tensile tests and neutron diffraction measurements of the forged samples after annealing, it was shown that the high compressive residual stresses in the Al matrix were relieved and that tensile strength was also reduced to almost the same level as that of the VHP samples. Therefore, it was deduced that increased compressive residual stresses and enhanced dislocation densities in the forged composites raised the tensile strength to higher values than those of the VHP composites.

  9. Nanostructured pure copper fabricated by simple shear extrusion (SSE): A correlation between microstructure and tensile properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherpour, E., E-mail: e.bagherpour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Qods, F., E-mail: qods@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R., E-mail: ebrahimy@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miyamoto, H., E-mail: hmiyamot@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

    2017-01-02

    In the present paper the variation of microstructural parameters and tensile properties of ultrafine-grained copper processed by simple shear extrusion (SSE) via namely route C in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 passes is described. TEM analysis showed that the microstructure evolves from lamellar boundaries and elongated cells towards a more equiaxed homogeneous microstructure. After 12 passes, the grain fragmentation occurred in all the directions without any significant elongation in the grains. The minimum cell size is achieved after eight passes. Evaluation of dislocation density using scanning transmission electron microscopy observations shows a gradual increase of dislocation from one to eight passes following a reduction afterward. Yield stress and ultimate tensile stress reach a maximum after eight passes. The uniform elongation attains its minimum after eight passes. Reduction in dislocation density, grain growth, formation of Moiré fringes and twinning after twelve passes of SSE are some of the evidences for the softening. The critical grain size for the formation of nano twins (the onset of grain growth) is predicted. Prosperous prediction of yield stress using a strength–structure relationship helps in the understanding of the effect of dislocation density and microstructural observations.

  10. Evolution of tensile design stresses for lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Galligan; C. C. Gerhards; R. L. Ethington

    1979-01-01

    Until approximately 1965, allowable design stresses for lumber in tension were taken as equal to those assigned for bending. As interest in tensile properties increased, testing machines were designed specifically to stress lumber in tension. Research results that accumulated on tensile tests of full-size lumber suggested lower design stresses for tension than for...

  11. Dilatometer for use in tensile tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, W.J.; Heikens, D.

    1980-01-01

    An accurate dilatometer is described which permits simultaneous and automatic recording of sample vol. change during tensile tests on a com. tester. Liq. displacements in the dilatometer capillary, which correspond to vol. changes of the sample, are detected by a cond. meter. Tensile load is

  12. Tensile properties of four types of austenitic stainless steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balladon, P.

    1990-01-01

    In the field of an LMFBR research programme on austenitic stainless steel welds in a Shared Cost Action Safety, Research Area 8, coordinated by JRC-Ispra, four cooperating laboratories (ECN, IKE/MPA, the Welding Institute and UNIREC) have been involved in the fabrication and extensive characterization of welded joints made from one plate of ICL 167 stainless steel. The materials included parent metal, four vacuum electron beam welds, one non vacuum electron beam weld, one submerged arc weld, one gas metal arc weld and one manual metal arc weld. This report summarizes the 106 tensile tests performed at room temperature and 550 0 C, including the influence of strain rate, specimen orientation and welding procedure. Main results are that electron beam welds have tensile properties close to those of parent metal with higher values of yield strength in longitudinal orientation and lower values of total elongation in transverse orientation but with a similar reduction of area, that filler metal welds own the highest values of yield strength and lowest values of ductility. Most of the welds properties are higher than the minimum specified for parent metal, except for some values of total elongation, mainly in transverse orientation. In view of using electron beam welding for production of components used in LMFBR, results obtained show that tensile properties of electron beam welds compare well to those of classical welds. (author)

  13. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongational...

  14. Two new tensile devices for X-ray diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freri, N.; Tintori, A.; Depero, L.E.; Sangaletti, L.; Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S.

    1995-12-01

    Two tensile devices were designed to be used with parallel beam and parafocusing-geometry diffractometers. In the first case the device was designed to be attached to a strainflex diffractometer by Rigaku Inc., dedicated to stress analysis and commonly used in metallurgical industry. Since the sample does not move during the measurement, the tensile device can be kept fixed on the experimental table. The device design takes into account the steric hindrance by moving parts of diffractometer. The maximun load that can be applied to the sample is 60.000 N. An attachement to a Siemens D5000 diffractometer with Eulerian cradle has also benn designed for applying a load up tp 6000 N to a sample in the parafocusing-geometry. The installation does not require a re-alignment of the diffractometer. In both cases strain gages were applied to both sides of the specimen for the simultaneous determination of the macroscopic strains. Experiments based on the use of these devices are planned to determine the crystallographic elastic constants and study the influence of the microstructure on the mechanical behaviour of residual stresses in the zone of almost static stresses as well as the influence of residual stresses on uniaxially loaded samples. In addition, by using these devices, it is possible to measure the unstressed d-0 spacings providing useful information in the neutron diffraction study fo stress fields in steel samples

  15. Two new tensile devices for X-ray diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freri, N.; Tintori, A.; Depero, L.E.; Sangaletti, L. [Brescia Univ. (Italy); Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Two tensile devices were designed to be used with parallel beam and parafocusing-geometry diffractometers. In thefirst case the device was designed to be attached to a strainflex diffractometer by Rigaku Inc., dedicated to stress analysis and commonly used in metallurgical industry. Since the sample does not move during the measurement, the tensile device can be kept fixed on the experimental table. The device design takes into account the steric hindrance by moving parts of diffractometer. The maximun load that can be applied to the sample is 60.000 N. An attachement to a Siemens D5000 diffractometer with Eulerian cradle has also benn designed for applying a load up tp 6000 N to a sample in the parafocusing-geometry. The installation does not require a re-alignment of the diffractometer. In both cases strain gages were applied to both sides of the specimen for the simultaneous determination of the macroscopic strains. Experiments based on the use of these devices are planned to determine the crystallographic elastic constants and study the influence of the microstructure on the mechanical behaviour of residual stresses in the zone of almost static stresses as well as the influence of residual stresses on uniaxially loaded samples. In addition, by using these devices, it is possible to measure the unstressed d-0 spacings providing useful information in the neutron diffraction study fo stress fields in steel samples.

  16. Processing, Structural Characterization and Comparative Studies on Uniaxial Tensile Properties of a New Type of Porous Twisted Wire Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A self-developed rotary multi-cutter device cuts stainless steel wire ropes into segments to fabricate twisted wires. Stainless steel porous twisted wire materials (PTWMs with a spatial composite intertexture structure are produced by the compaction and subsequent vacuum solid-phase sintering of twisted wires. The stainless steel PTWMs show two types of typical uniaxial tensile failure modes, i.e., a 45° angle fracture mode and an auxetic failure mode (the PTWMs expand along the direction perpendicular to the tension. The effects of the sintering parameters, porosities, wire diameters, and sampling direction on the tensile properties of the PTWMs are carefully investigated. By increasing the sintering temperature from 1130 °C to 1330 °C, the tensile strength of the PTWMs with 70% target porosity increased from 7.7 MPa to 28.6 MPa and the total failure goes down to 50%. When increasing the sintering time from 90 min to 150 min, the tensile strength increases from 12.4 MPa to 19.1 MPa and the total failure elongation drops to 78.6%. The tensile strength of the PTWMs increases from 28.9 MPa to 112.7 MPa with decreasing porosity from 69.5% to 46.0%, and the total failure elongation also increases from 14.8% to 40.7%. The tensile strength and the failure strain of the PTWMs with fine wires are higher than those of the PTWMs with coarse wires under the same porosity. Sampling direction has a small influence on the tensile properties of the PTWMs.

  17. Systematic Review of Uit Parameters on Residual Stresses of Sensitized AA5456 and Field Based Residual Stress Measurements for Predicting and Mitigating Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    University Press, 2009, pp. 820–824. [30] S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy , 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2003. [31] M. N.James et al...around welds in aluminum ship structures both in the laboratory and in the field. Tensile residual stresses are often generated during welding and, in...mitigate and even reverse these tensile residual stresses. This research uses x-ray diffraction to measure residual stresses around welds in AA5456 before

  18. Static tensile deformation behavior of a lean duplex stainless steel studied by in situ neutron diffraction and synchrotron radiation white x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Noriyuki; Kawahata, Taiji; Ishimaru, Eiichiro; Takahashi, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shobu, Takahisa

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the tensile deformation behavior of a lean duplex stainless steel (S32101) from the viewpoints of plastic deformability among phases or grains, we performed static tensile tests, in situ neutron diffraction, and white x-ray diffraction experiments at room temperature. In the static tensile tests, the S32101 steel displayed a larger uniform elongation and a better tensile strength-uniform elongation balance than a commercial SUS329J4L duplex stainless steel. A larger uniform elongation of S32101 is associated with the macroscopic work hardening behavior that a work hardening rate higher than the flow stress can maintain up until high true strains. From the experimental results of synchrotron radiation white x-ray diffraction experiments, the hard phase of S32101 was changed from the ferrite (α) phase to austenite (γ) one during tensile deformation. This led to a larger stress partitioning between the phases at the latter stage of deformation. From the experimental results of in situ neutron diffraction, it was found that the stress partitioning of the γ phase in the S32101 was the largest among the present results. Therefore, the larger work hardening rate of S32101 can be explained by the large stress partitioning of the γ phase, that between γ and α phases and γ volume fraction. (author)

  19. Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2006-01-01

    -Pom was estimated to have 2.5 arms on average, while the estimate is 3.3 for the asymmetric star. The molar mass of each arm is about 27 kg/mol. The melts were characterized in the linear viscoelastic regime and in non-linear elongational rheometry. The transient elongational viscosity for the Pom-Pom molecule...... it corresponds well with an estimate of the maximum stretchability of the backbone. Time-strain separability was not observed for the 'Asymmetric star' molecule at the elongation rates investigated. The transient elongational viscosity for the 'Pom-Pom' molecule went through a reproducible maximum...... in the viscosity at the highest elongational rate....

  20. Trade studies of plasma elongation for next-step tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of elongation on minimum-cost devices is investigated for elongations ranging from 2 to 3. The analysis, carried out with the TETRA tokamak systems code, includes the effects of elongation on both physics (plasma beta limit) and engineering (poloidal field coil currents) issues. When ignition is required, the minimum cost occurs for elongations from 2.3 to 2.9, depending on the plasma energy confinement scaling used. Scalings that include favorable plasma current dependence and/or degradation with fusion power tend to have minimum cost at higher elongation (2.5-2.9); scalings that depend primarily on size result in lower elongation (/approximately/2.3) for minimum cost. For design concepts that include steady-state current-driven operation, minimum cost occurs at an elongation of 2.3. 12 refs., 13 figs

  1. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in hydrogen-containing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study has been initiated at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the performance of several V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure to environments containing hydrogen at various partial pressures. The goal is to correlate the chemistry of the exposure environment with hydrogen uptake in the samples and its influence on the microstructure and tensile properties of the alloys. At present, the principal effort has focused on the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy of heat identified as BL-71; however other alloys (V-5Cr-5Ti alloy of heats BL-63, and T87, plus V-4Cr-4Ti alloy from General Atomics [GA]) are also being evaluated. Other variables of interest are the effect of initial grain size on the tensile behavior of the alloys. Experiments conducted on specimens of various V-Cr-Ti alloys exposed to pH 2 levels of 0.01 and 3 x 10 -6 torr showed negligible effect of H 2 on either maximum engineering stress or uniform and total elongation. However, uniform and total elongation decreased substantially when the alloys were exposed to 1.0 torr H 2 pressure. Preliminary data from sequential exposures of the materials to low-pO 2 and several low-pH 2 environments did not reveal an adverse effect on the maximum engineering stress or on uniform and total elongation. Further, tests in H 2 environments on specimens annealed at different temperatures showed that grain-size variation by a factor of ∼2 had little or no effect on tensile properties

  2. Tensile and electrical properties of unirradiated and irradiated Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of two different heats of Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe (HT Temper) have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500{degrees}C for longitudinal and long transverse orientations. The room temperature electrical conductivity has also been measured for both heats. Both heats exhibited a very good combination of strength and conductivity at room temperature. The strength remained relatively high at all test temperatures, with a yield strength of 420-520 MPa at 500{degrees}C. However, low levels of ductility (<5% uniform elongation) were observed at test temperatures above 200-250{degrees}C, due to flow localization adjacent to grain boundaries. Fission neutron irradiation to a dose of {approximately}0.7 dpa at temperatures between 100 and 240{degrees}C produced a slight increase in strength and a significant decrease in ductility. The measured tensile elongation increased with increasing irradiation temperature, with a uniform elongation of {approximately}3.3% observed at 240{degrees}C. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly following irradiation, due to the presence of defect clusters and Ni, Zn, Co transmutation products. The data indicate that CuNiBe alloys have irradiated tensile and electrical properties comparable or superior to CuCrZr and oxide dispersion strengthened copper at temperatures <250{degrees}C, and may be suitable for certain fusion energy structural applications.

  3. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and tensile properties of a cast Al-Cu-Si-Mn alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhixue

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solution and aging treatments are important approaches to improve mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum-base alloys. In this research, a new type high strength Al-Cu-Si-Mn cast alloy was prepared. The effect of different solution and aging treatment temperatures on microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al-Cu-Si-Mn cast alloy were studied by means of microstructure observation and mechanical properties testing. Results showed that after solution treated at different temperatures for 12 h and aged at 175 ℃ for 12 h, with the increase of the solution temperature, both the tensile strength and the elongation of the alloy firstly increase and then decrease, and reach their peak values at 530 ℃. When the solution temperature is below 530 ℃, the microstructure of the alloy consists of α phase, undissolved θ phase and T phase; while when it exceeds 530 ℃, the microstructure only consists of α phase and T phase. After solution treated at 530 ℃ for 12 h and aged at different temperatures for 12 h, both the tensile strength and the elongation of the alloy firstly increase and then decrease with the increasing of temperature, and reach their peak values at 175 ℃. Therefore, the optimal heat treatment process for the alloy in this study is 12 h solution at 530 ℃ and 12 h aging at 175 ℃, and the corresponding tensile strength is 417 MPa, elongation is 4.0%.

  4. Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of A380 aluminum alloy with and without Li additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamouz, Mostafa; Azarbarmas, Mortaza; Emamy, Masoud; Alipour, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the effects of lithium (Li) on the microstructure, hardness and mechanical properties of A380 aluminum alloy have been investigated. The alloy was produced by conventional casting. Microstructures of the samples were investigated using the optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that with increase of Li content up to 0.1%, the morphology of β-Al 5 FeSi and eutectic Si phases changed from intersected and branched coarse platelets into fine and independent ones. Li decreased hardness values of the alloy. Also, it was revealed from tensile tests that with addition of 0.6% Li, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation values increased from 274 to 300 MPa and 3.8% to 6%, respectively. Fractographic examination of the fracture surfaces indicated that the alloys with Li addition had more ductile dimple and fewer brittle cleavage surfaces

  5. Research on hardness and tensile properties of A390 alloy with tin addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yi

    2018-03-01

    The effect of tin content on hardness and tensile properties of A390 alloys has been discussed. The microstructure of the A390 alloy with tin addition has been surveyed by OM and investigated by SEM. Research showed that β-Sn in the alloy precipitation forms were mainly small blocks and thin strips, particles within the Al2Cu network or large blocks consisting of β-Sn and Al2Cu on Al/Si interfaces or α-Al grain boundaries. Spheroidization of the primary and eutectic silicon was improved due to Sn accretion. With the augment of element tin, hardness of casting alloy is much higher than that of alloy after heat treatment. The elongation and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were increased in Sn addition from 0 to 1%, which is attributed to the multiple action of Sn.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on microstructures and tensile properties of Ni-base superalloy M963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, L.Z.; Zheng, Q.; Sun, X.F.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q.; Tieu, A.K.; Lu, C.; Zhu, H.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of solution treatment (ST) on tensile properties of M963 Ni-base superalloy tested at 800 deg. C has been investigated. The detailed microstructures, fracture surfaces and dislocation structures are examined through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing solution treated temperature, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increase, however, the elongation decreases. Microstructural observations show that the morphologies of carbide, primary γ' and re-precipitated γ' change significantly with increasing solution treated temperature. The main deformation mode is γ' by-pass when solution treated temperature is lower than 1220 deg. C, and changes to γ' shearing at 1230 deg. C. The interface of carbide with matrix is the main site of crack initiation and propagation under all testing conditions

  7. Empirical relations for tensile properties of austenitic stainless steels irradiated in mixed-spectrum reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossbeck, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment has been made of available tensile property data relevant to the design of fusion reactors, especially near term devices expected to operate at lower temperatures than power reactors. Empirical relations have been developed for the tensile properties as a functions of irradiation temperature for neutron exposures of 10-15, 20, 30, and 50 dpa. It was found that yield strength depends little on the particular austenitic alloy and little on the helium concentration. Strength depends upon initial condition of the alloy only for exposures of less than 30 dpa. Uniform elongation was found to be more sensitive to alloy and condition. It was also more sensitive than strength to helium level. However, below 500deg C, helium only appeared to have an efect at 10-15 dpa. At higher temperatures, helium embrittlement was apparent, and its threshold temperature decreased with increasing neutron exposure level. (orig.)

  8. Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of A380 aluminum alloy with and without Li additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamouz, Mostafa [Research Center of Materials engineering, University of Kerman Industrial Graduate, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center of Materials engineering, University of Kerman Industrial Graduate, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azarbarmas, Mortaza, E-mail: mazarbarmas@ut.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamy, Masoud [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alipour, Mohammad [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-10

    In this work, the effects of lithium (Li) on the microstructure, hardness and mechanical properties of A380 aluminum alloy have been investigated. The alloy was produced by conventional casting. Microstructures of the samples were investigated using the optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that with increase of Li content up to 0.1%, the morphology of β-Al{sub 5}FeSi and eutectic Si phases changed from intersected and branched coarse platelets into fine and independent ones. Li decreased hardness values of the alloy. Also, it was revealed from tensile tests that with addition of 0.6% Li, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation values increased from 274 to 300 MPa and 3.8% to 6%, respectively. Fractographic examination of the fracture surfaces indicated that the alloys with Li addition had more ductile dimple and fewer brittle cleavage surfaces.

  9. STUDY OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INCONEL 718 SUPERALLOY AFTER HOT TENSILE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcila Sugahara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated some important mechanical properties of Inconel 718 superalloy using hot tensile tests like conventional yield strength to 0.2% strain (σe , ultimate strength (σr , and specific elongation (εu . Samples were strained to failure at temperatures of 600°C, 650°C, 700°C, 750°C, 800°C and 850°C and strain rate of 0.5 mm/min (2 × 10–4 s–1 according to ASTM E-8. The results showed higher values σe of yield strength at 700°C, this anomalous behavior can be attributed to the presence of hardening precipitates as observed in the TTT diagram of superalloy Inconel 718. Examination of the sample’s surfaces tensile fracture showed that with increasing temperature test the actuating mechanism changes from intergranular fracture to coalescence of the microcavities.

  10. Evaluation of tensile properties and water absortion of cassava starch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walster, R. Justin; Rozyanty, A. R.; Kahar, A. W. M.; Musa, L.; Shahnaz, S. B. S.

    2017-09-01

    Casava Starch film was prepared by casting method with different percentage of glycerol (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5%) as plasticizer. The effect of glycerol content in starch film on mechanical and water absorption properties was studied. Results shows that the increase of glycerol content in cassava starch film had decrease the tensile strength, tensile modulus and increase the elongation of break properties. The result of water absorbency tended to increase for starch film with higher percentage of glycerol content. The incorporation of glycerol in cassava starch film had increase the water absorption ability due to increase of hydroxyl content contributed by glycerol.

  11. Squeeze casting of aluminum alloy A380: Microstructure and tensile behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A380 alloy with a relatively thick cross-section of 25 mm was squeeze cast using a hydraulic press with an applied pressure of 90 MPa. Microstructure and tensile properties of the squeeze cast A380 were characterized and evaluated in comparison with the die cast counterpart. Results show that the squeeze cast A380 possesses a porosity level much lower than the die cast alloy, which is disclosed by both optical microscopy and the density measurement technique. The results of tensile testing indicate the improved tensile properties, specifically ultimate tensile strength (UTS: 215.9 MPa and elongation (Ef: 5.4%, for the squeeze cast samples over those of the conventional high-pressure die cast part (UTS: 173.7 MPa, Ef: 1.0%. The analysis of tensile behavior shows that the squeeze cast A380 exhibits a high tensile toughness (8.5 MJ·m-3 and resilience (179.3 kJ·m-3 compared with the die cast alloy (toughness: 1.4 MJ·m-3, resilience: 140.6 kJ·m-3, despite that, during the onset of plastic deformation, the strain-hardening rate of the die cast specimen is higher than that of the squeeze cast specimens. The microstructure analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM shows that both the squeeze and die cast specimens contain the primary α-Al, Al2Cu, Al5FeSi phase and the eutectic Si phase. But, the Al2Cu phase present in the squeeze cast alloy is relatively large in size and quantity. The SEM fractography evidently reveals the ductile fracture features of the squeeze cast A380 alloy.

  12. Relationship between micro-porosity and tensile properties of 6063 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiehua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro-porosity is usually present in the as-cast microstructure, which decreases the tensile strength and ductility and therefore limit the application of cast aluminum parts. Although much work has been done to investigate the effects of various casting parameters on the formation of porosity in various aluminum alloys, up to now, little information has been available for the relationship between micro-porosity and tensile properties of 6063 alloy. In this study, the influences of size and area fraction of micro-porosity on the tensile properties and fracture behavior of 6063 aluminum alloy were investigated by means of tensile testing, optical microscopy (OM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The tensile tests were conducted in air at 100 ℃, 200 ℃ and 300 ℃, respectively. Results show that the large micro-porosity with sizes between 100 μm and 800 μm located at the center and top of the ingot, while the small micro-porosity with size between 2 μm and 60 μm distributed at the edge and bottom of the ingot. The area fraction of micro-porosity at the center of the ingot is much bigger than that at the edge of the ingot. When tested at 100 ℃, with the decrease in the area fraction of micro-porosity from the top of the ingot to the bottom of the ingot, the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and the elongation are increased from 82 to 99 MPa, 32 to 66 MPa and 7% to 11%, respectively. When the temperature is no more than 200 ℃, the strain hardening exponent decreases with an increase in the area fraction of micro-porosity; while the deviation disappears when the temperature reaches 300 ℃. The fracture mode of the alloy is greatly influenced by the size and area fraction of the micro-porosity.

  13. Tensile properties of strip casting 6.5 wt% Si steel at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao-Ze, E-mail: lhzqq83@163.com; Liu, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Tensile behaviors of strip casting 6.5 wt% Si steel are tested at elevated temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 800 °C. A detailed study of the morphology of the fracture surface and the ordered phase at each deforming temperature is carried out by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The results show that the deforming temperature rather than the ordered degree determines the tensile properties. As the deforming temperature increases, the stress level in the whole deforming stage continually decreases, whereas the elongation gradually increases. The ductile–brittle transition occurs around 350 °C. The elongation of 2% at 300 °C rapidly increases up to 16.4% at 350 °C and the corresponding fracture mode transforms from the complete cleavage fracture to the mixture of the very limited cleavage fracture, intergranular dimple fracture and the dimple fracture. Serrated flow is observed at 350 °C and 400 °C probably due to the occurrence of dynamic strain aging. Due to the gradually weakened grain boundary cohesion with the deforming temperature increasing, intergranular dimple pattern dominates the fracture surface at 600 °C and the elongation slowly increases from 16.4% at 350 °C to 22.8% at 600 °C. At 700 °C and 800 °C, the much more enhanced dynamic recovery, the substantially decreased stress levels which contribute to the inhibition of the intergranular dimple fracture, the much lower content of the B2 ordered phase at 700 °C, and the completely disordered state at 800 °C give rise to the dramatically improved elongations of 88.8% and 130.8%, respectively.

  14. Tensile properties of commercially pure vanadium from room temperature to 1200 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.; Torres, S.G.

    1993-12-01

    The tensile properties of vanadium are sensitive to interstitial impurity content, on grain size and strain rate. Thus, it is problematic to use published tensile data for materials potentially varying in these quantities. This investigation was undertaken to fully characterize the tensile properties of the commercially pure vanadium used at Lawrence Livermore. Both sheet and rod stock were tested in vacuum from ambient temperature to 1200C at strain rates 6.67 x 10 -5 to 6.67 x 10 -2 s -1 . The results of these experiments show that vanadium behaves in a manner typical of many bcc metals containing interstitial impurities. Local peaks in yield stress and ultimate tensile stress vs temperature curves are observed at intermediate temperatures. Serrated yielding also is observed in some temperature ranges. Changes in strain rate within the quasi-static regime have a relatively small, predictable effect. The rod and sheet stock have similar properties, except that the lower yield stress of the rod is less than that of the sheet over most of the temperature range studied. No plateau in yield strength vs temperature curve was observed for the rod. In both forms, and for all temperatures, vanadium is ductile. The elongation to failure reaches a minimum of approximately 35% at a temperature of 500C and a maximum of approximately 140% at 1200C

  15. Water absorption and its effect on the tensile properties of tapioca starch/polyvinyl alcohol bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judawisastra, H.; Sitohang, R. D. R.; Marta, L.; Mardiyati

    2017-07-01

    Tapioca is one of the largest sources of starch and makes it suitable to be used for bioplastic material. Addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been shown to successfully reduce the brittleness of starch bioplastic. This study aims to investigate the influence of PVA addition to water absorption behavior and its effect on the tensile properties of tapioca starch/PVA bioplastics, which are still not yet fully understood until now. The bioplastics were prepared by solution casting method at gelatinization temperature, with PVA addition from 0 to 29 wt%. Examinations were carried out by means of water absorption test, tensile test and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Increasing content of PVA, up to 29 wt%, was found to decrease the water absorption of the bioplastics, with the lowest water saturation point of 251%. This is due to the interaction between starch and PVA which reduces the free OH groups in the resulting bioplastics. Consequently, this led to a decrease in water absorption-related deterioration, i.e. tensile properties degradation of the bioplastics. The addition of 29 wt% resulted into the lowest degradation in tensile strength (6%) and stiffness (30%), while accompanied with the highest elongation increase (39%) after water immersion.

  16. Correlation of hot-microhardness with elevated-temperature tensile properties of low activation ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu Chenyih

    1986-01-01

    Hot microhardness and elevated temperature tensile tests have been performed on 9Cr-2.5W-0.3V-0.15C(GA3X) low activation ferritic steel at temperatures from 20 0 C to 650 0 C. The uniform elongation of the tensile test correlated well with the ductility parameter of the microhardness test. The hot-microhardness test showed a sensitive response to the softening and changes in ductility of the GA3X steel. The ultimate tensile strength and 0.2% yield strength of this steel correlated well with hot microhardness data at test temperatures up to 400 0 C using Cahoon's expressions σ uts = (H/2.9)(n/0.217) n and σ ys = (H/3)(0.1) n , respectively, where H is the diamond pyramid hardness and n is the strain hardening exponent. A 20-30% underestimate of tensile strengths were obtained using Cahoon's expressions at temperatures above 400 0 C, which is probably attributed to creep deformation and may be improved by selecting a proper loading condition during the hardness test. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of Deformation and Failure Behaviors of TIG Welded Dissimilar Metal Joints Using Miniature Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji-Hwan; Jahanzeb, Nabeel; Kim, Min-Seong; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Shi-Hoon [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The deformation and failure behaviors of dissimilar metal joints between SS400 steel and STS316L steel were investigated. The dissimilar metal joints were fabricated using the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with STS309 steel as a filler metal. The microstructures of the dissimilar metal joints were investigated using an optical microscope and EBSD technique. The mechanical properties of the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM) were measured using a micro-hardness and micro-tension tester combined with the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The HAZ of the STS316L steel exhibited the highest micro-hardness value, and yield/tensile strengths, while the BM of the SS440 steel exhibited the lowest micro-hardness value and yield /tensile strengths. The grain size refinement in the HAZ of SS400 steel induced an enhancement of micro-hardness value and yield/tensile strengths compared to the BM of the SS400 steel. The WM, which consists of primary δ-ferrite and a matrix of austenite phase, exhibited relatively a high micro-hardness value, yield /tensile strengths and elongation compared to the BM and HAZ of the SS400 steel.

  18. Tensile Flow Behavior of Tungsten Heavy Alloys Produced by CIPing and Gelcasting Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Ashutosh; Ravi Kiran, U.; Nandy, T. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    Present work describes the flow behavior of tungsten heavy alloys with nominal compositions 90W-7Ni-3Fe, 93W-4.9Ni-2.1Fe, and 95W-3.5Ni-1.5Fe (wt pct) produced by CIPing and gelcasting routes. The overall microstructural features of gelcasting are finer than those of CIPing alloys. Both the grain size of W and corresponding contiguity values increase with increase in W content in the present alloys. The volume fraction of matrix phase decreases with increase in W content in both the alloys. The lattice parameter values of the matrix phase also increase with increase in W content. The yield strength ( σ YS) continuously increases with increase in W content in both the alloys. The σ YS values of CIPing alloys are marginally higher than those of gelcasting at constant W. The ultimate tensile strength ( σ UTS) and elongation values are maximum at intermediate W content. Present alloys exhibit two slopes in true stress-true plastic strain curves in low and high strain regimes and follow a characteristic Ludwigson relation. The two slopes are associated with two deformation mechanisms that are occurring during tensile deformation. The overall nature of differential curves of all the alloys is different and these curves contain three distinctive stages of work hardening (I, II, and III). This suggests varying deformation mechanisms during tensile testing due to different volume fractions of constituent phases. The slip is the predominant deformation mechanism of the present alloys during tensile testing.

  19. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  20. Behaviour of eggshell membranes at tensile loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnková, M.J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Kumbár, V.

    46 B, December (2014), s. 44-48 ISSN 0324-1130 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tensile loading * loading rate * stress * strain strength Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.201, year: 2014

  1. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamasaki, T.; Kawai, M.

    2015-01-01

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below M_d (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90–270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20–50 nm in grain interior and 70–110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6–21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at −196 °C. - Highlights: • Nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC exhibiting sufficient tensile ductility and strength is developed. • The development requires an advanced powder metallurgical route. • The route includes MA, HIP, GSMM and thermo-mechanical treatments for phase transformation. • The austenite grain sizes are 90–270 nm and TiC precipitates 20–50 nm in grain interior. • The tensile strength are 1100–1920 MPa and uniform elongation 0.6–21%.

  2. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, T., E-mail: sakamoto.tatsuaki.mm@ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, IMR, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M. [Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K. [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Terasawa, M. [Laboratory of Advanced Science & Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Yamasaki, T. [Department of Materials Science & Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2201 (Japan); Kawai, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below M{sub d} (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90–270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20–50 nm in grain interior and 70–110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6–21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at −196 °C. - Highlights: • Nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC exhibiting sufficient tensile ductility and strength is developed. • The development requires an advanced powder metallurgical route. • The route includes MA, HIP, GSMM and thermo-mechanical treatments for phase transformation. • The austenite grain sizes are 90–270 nm and TiC precipitates 20–50 nm in grain interior. • The tensile strength are 1100–1920 MPa and uniform elongation 0.6–21%.

  3. Tensile Properties of Open Cell Ceramic Foams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Řehořek, Lukáš; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 409, - (2009), s. 168-175 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fractography of Advanced Ceramics /3./. Stará Lesná, 07.09.2008-10.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0724; GA ČR GD106/05/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : tensile test * ceramics foam * open porosity * tensile strength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  4. Tensile Behaviour of Open Cell Ceramic Foams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehořek, Lukáš; Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 237-241 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1821; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Tensile test * Ceramics foam * Open porosity * Tensile strength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2009

  5. Tensile properties of unirradiated path A PCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braski, D.N.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The tensile properties of PCA in the Al (solution annealed), A3 (25%-cold worked), and B2 (aged, cold worked, and reaged) conditions were determined from room temperature to 600 0 C. The tensile behavior of PCA-A1 and -A3 was generally similar to that of titanium-modified type 316 stainless steel with similar microstructures. The PCA-B2 was weaker than PCA-A3, especially above 500 0 C, but demonstrated slightly better ducility

  6. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  7. Plant cell wall polysaccharide analysis during cell elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoyuan

    Plant cell walls are complex structures whose composition and architecture are important to various cellular activities. Plant cell elongation requires a high level of rearrangement of the cell wall polymers to enable cell expansion. However, the cell wall polysaccharides dynamics during plant cell...... elongation is poorly understood. This PhD project aims to elucidate the cell wall compositional and structural change during cell elongation by using Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP), microscopic techniques and molecular modifications of cell wall polysaccharide. Developing cotton fibre......, pea and Arabidopsis thaliana were selected as research models to investigate different types of cell elongation, developmental elongation and tropism elongation. A set of comprehensive analysis covering 4 cotton species and 11 time points suggests that non-cellulosic polysaccharides contribute...

  8. Using dynamic input allocation for elongation control at FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Varano, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the dynamic allocation scheme for input redundant control systems proposed in to achieve elongation control on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The scheme first serves as a means for regulating the current in the F coils. Then, due to the quasi-static relationship between the plasma elongation and the F coils current, elongation control is achieved by suitably generalizing the allocation scheme. Both simulation and experimental results are reported.

  9. Ubiquitylation and degradation of elongating RNA polymerase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Marcus D; Harreman, Michelle; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

    2013-01-01

    During its journey across a gene, RNA polymerase II has to contend with a number of obstacles to its progression, including nucleosomes, DNA-binding proteins, DNA damage, and sequences that are intrinsically difficult to transcribe. Not surprisingly, a large number of elongation factors have....... In this review, we describe the mechanisms and factors responsible for the last resort mechanism of transcriptional elongation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA polymerase II Transcript Elongation....

  10. Abscisic Acid Stimulates Elongation of Excised Pea Root Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Douglas H.; Lutz, Donald H.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1975-01-01

    Excised Pisum sativum L. root tips were incubated in a pH 5.2 sucrose medium containing abscisic acid. Elongation growth was inhibited by 100 μm abscisic acid. However, decreasing the abscisic acid concentration caused stimulation of elongation, the maximum response (25% to 30%) occurring at 1 μm abscisic acid. Prior to two hours, stimulation of elongation by 1 μm abscisic acid was not detectable. Increased elongation did not occur in abscisic acid-treated root tips of Lens culinaris L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., or Zea mays L. PMID:16659198

  11. Bilateral elongated styloid process: Its anatomical, embryological and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bagoji Ishwar B, Hadimani Gavishiddappa A, Patil Balasaheb G, Bannur Balappa M,Ambadasu B

    2013-01-01

    The styloid process is a slender, elongated, cylindrical bony projection from temporal bone. It normally varies in length from 2 cm to 3 cm. During a routine demonstration of skull for MBBS students we found the bilateral elongated styloid process in dry human skull. The length of elongation measured on the right and left side was 6.0 & 5.9 cms respectively. Such abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression on a number of vital vessels and nerves related to it, producing i...

  12. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  13. Dynamic strain aging of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel in tensile testing and deep drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.G.; Hong, S.; Anjabin, N.; Park, B.H.; Kim, S.K.; Chin, K.-G.; Lee, S.; Kim, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic strain aging (DSA) of metallic materials due to solute atom diffusion to mobile dislocations induce deformation instability with load fluctuations and deformation localizations, hence reducing their sheet formability. In this paper, DSA behaviors of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with and without Al during tensile testing and deep drawing are investigated in terms of strain localization and the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) band. A theoretical DSA model with internal variables of dislocation density and twin volume fraction is presented for an estimation of strain localization and strain hardening behavior of TWIP steels. The simulation results of the load history and PLC bands during tensile testing and deep drawing are in good agreement with the experimental values. A serration behavior is observed in high-Mn TWIP steels and its tensile residual stress is higher than that in the Al-added TWIP steels, which results in a deformation crack or delayed fracture of deep drawn specimens

  14. Tensile and superelastic fatigue characterization of NiTi shape memory cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Muhammad M.; Ozbulut, Osman E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the tensile response and functional fatigue characteristics of a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) cable with an outer diameter of 5.5 mm. The cable composed of multiple strands arranged as one inner core and two outer layers. The results of the tensile tests revealed that the SMA cable exhibits good superelastic behavior up to 10% strain. Fatigue characteristics were investigated under strain amplitudes ranging from 3% to 7% and a minimum of 2500 loading cycles. The evolutions of maximum tensile stress, residual strains, energy dissipation, and equivalent viscous damping under a number of loading cycles were analyzed. The fracture surface of a specimen subjected to 5000 loading cycles and 7% strain was discussed. Functional fatigue test results indicated a very high superelastic fatigue life cycle for the tested NiTi SMA cable.

  15. Elongated Styloid Process and Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Unlu MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dysphagia, is a significant sign of many different lesions in upper digestive system especially in proximal esophagus. Tumors, gastroesophageal reflux, achalasia and extrinsic compressions are the most common causes that may lead to dysphagia in geriatric population. Cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia, is one of the uncommon reasons of dysphagia, therefore other causes of dysphagia must be excluded to establish the exact diagnosis. Eagle syndrome is one of the considerable reason which may lead to misdiagnosis in patients with cervical osteophytes. In this case report, we represent four patients who had dysphagia due to anteriorly located cervical osteophytes and evaluate the patients with special reference to Eagle syndrome. Material and methods After a detailed anamnesis and ENT examination, cervical plain radiographs in four projections and Towne radiographs were obtained for every patient. After that, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of cervical spine and barium swallowing studies were performed to evaluate the presence of esophageal compression. Results Eagle syndrome was excluded due to absence of other symptoms and physical signs, eventhough unilateral or bilateral elongation of styloid processes was found in all of the patients. Conclusion Cervical osteophytes induced dysphagia is a rare clinical entity, diagnosis should be done by a careful examination, intensive radiologic evaluation. Moreover, all the other causes like Eagle syndrome should be excluded during the diagnosis of cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia.

  16. Mass composition analysis using elongation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochilo, Livingstone; Risse, Markus; Yushkov, Alexey [University of Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum has been observed to flatten at around 5.2 x 10{sup 18} eV where the spectral index changes from γ = 3.2 to γ = 2.6, a feature called the ''ankle'' of the spectrum. Cosmic rays with energy around the ankle and beyond, known as ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), have a very low flux and reconstruction of their properties from extensive air shower measurements is subject to uncertainties for instance from hadronic interaction models. Since the year 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has recorded a considerable number of UHECR events beyond the ankle. With the greatly improved statistics, the mass composition of the extreme end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum is now being investigated with improved accuracy. The measured composition of UHECR is an important parameter in validating the models used to explain their sources and acceleration mechanisms. In this study, we perform a mass composition analysis using elongation rate (the rate of change of the depth of shower maximum with energy), measured by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The advantage of this approach is a weak dependence of the results on the choice of the hadronic interaction models.

  17. The effect of a single tensile overload on stress corrosion cracking growth of stainless steel in a light water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue He; Li Zhijun; Lu Zhanpeng; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The affect of a single tensile overload on SCC growth rate is investigated. → A single tensile overload would produce a residual plastic strain in the SCC tip. → The residual plastic strain would decrease the plastic strain rate in the SCC tip. → A single tensile overload would cause crack growth rate retardation in the SCC tip. → SCC growth rate in the quasi-stationary crack tip is relatively lower. - Abstract: It has been found that a single tensile overload applied during constant load amplitude might cause crack growth rate retardation in various crack propagating experiments which include fatigue test and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test. To understand the affecting mechanism of a single tensile overload on SCC growth rate of stainless steel or nickel base alloy in light water reactor environment, based on elastic-plastic finite element method (EPFEM), the residual plastic strain in both tips of stationary and growing crack of contoured double cantilever beam (CDCB) specimen was simulated and analyzed in this study. The results of this investigation demonstrate that a residual plastic strain in the region immediately ahead of the crack tips will be produced when a single tensile overload is applied, and the residual plastic strain will decrease the plastic strain rate level in the growing crack tip, which will causes crack growth rate retardation in the tip of SCC.

  18. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  19. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  20. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sivaraj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features. The scanning electron microscope is used to characterie the fracture surfaces. The solution treatment followed by ageing heat treatment cycle is found to be marginally beneficial in improving the tensile properties of friction stir welds of AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy.

  1. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haihong; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, H p (y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The H p (y), its slope coefficient K S and maximum gradient K max changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of H p (y) and its slope coefficient K S increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, H p (y) and K S reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of H p (y) instead of changing the signal curve′s profile; and the magnitude of H p (y), K S , K max and the change rate of K S increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials. - Highlights: • We investigated how applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact H p (y) signals. • Magnitude of H p (y), K S and K max increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. • Both applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact material magnetic permeability. • Applied magnetic field can help to evaluate the stress distribution of components.

  2. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haihong, E-mail: huanghaihong@hfut.edu.cn; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-10-15

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, H{sub p}(y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The H{sub p}(y), its slope coefficient K{sub S} and maximum gradient K{sub max} changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of H{sub p}(y) and its slope coefficient K{sub S} increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, H{sub p}(y) and K{sub S} reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of H{sub p}(y) instead of changing the signal curve′s profile; and the magnitude of H{sub p}(y), K{sub S}, K{sub max} and the change rate of K{sub S} increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials. - Highlights: • We investigated how applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact H{sub p}(y) signals. • Magnitude of H{sub p}(y), K{sub S} and K{sub max} increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. • Both applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact material magnetic permeability. • Applied magnetic field can help to evaluate the stress distribution of components.

  3. Increase the elongation at break of poly (lactic acid) composites for use in food packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadi, Ahmed M.

    2017-05-01

    Poly (3-hydroxy butyrate) (PHB), cellulose nano crystal (CNC) and a plasticizer (TBC) are mixed together with PLLA with the aim to increase the elongation at break for use in the food packing sector. Spherical (CNC) and fibril nano crystal (CNF) were prepared by hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in distilled water, and then stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 15 days and ultrasonic treatment without using any acids as green method. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties were studied using POM, DSC, WAXD, SEM and tensile testing, respectively. DSC demonstrated that the addition of PHB, CNC and TBC to PLLA matrix lead to reduce Tg, TCC and Tm than pure PLLA. FT-IR verified that the carbonyl group C=O appeared broad and some peaks in the PLLA composites 5, 6 and 7 shifted from 3.98 × 108 to 4.07 × 108 Hz, at 3.54 × 108 to 3.44 × 108 Hz, at 3.19 × 108 to 3.13 × 108 Hz. Mechanical testing shows that pure PLLA is brittle, and the elongation at break of PLLA composites reaches up to 205%, making it suitable to use in food packaging.

  4. In-situ tensile test of high strength nanocrystalline bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Mike, E-mail: mike.haddad@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Ivanisenko, Yulia; Courtois-Manara, Eglantine [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fecht, Hans-Jörg [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany)

    2015-01-03

    Because of its great importance in modern engineering and technology applications, steel continues to be highly relevant in the modern research field of nanocrystalline materials. Innovative processing methods and procedures are required for the production of such materials, which possess superior properties compared to their conventional counter parts. In this research, the original microstructure of a commercial C45 steel (Fe, 0.42–0.5 wt% C, 0.5–0.8 wt% Mn) was modified from ferritic–pearlitic to bainitic. Warm high pressure torsion for 5 rotations at 6 GPa and 350 °C was used to process the bainitic sample leading to an ultrafine/nano-scale grain size. A unique nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of equiaxed and elongated ferrite grains with a mean size smaller than 150 nm appeared in images taken by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Results of in-situ tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope showed very high tensile strength, on the order of 2100 MPa with a total elongation of 4.5% in comparison with 800 MPa and around 16% in the original state. Fracture occurred abruptly, without any sign of necking, and was typically caused by the stress concentration at a surface flaw. Also, stress concentrations near all surface defects were observed on the sample, visualized by the formation of shear bands. The fracture surface was covered with dimples, indicating ductile fracture. These properties are fully comparable with high strength, high alloyed steels.

  5. Evaluation of impacts of stress triaxiality on plastic deformability of RAFM steel using various types of tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Taichiro, E-mail: kato.taichiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166, Obuchi-omotedate, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ohata, Mitsuru [Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei [Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166, Obuchi-omotedate, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The fracture ductility is lower as the stress triaxiality is higher. • Voids of the interrupted RB1 specimen were observed along grain boundaries and expanded parallel to the tensile axis. • Voids of interrupted R0.2 specimen were rounded shape than those of RB1. • The fracture surface of specimens were observed the elongated and the equiaxed dimples. • The decrease of plastic deformability of the notched specimen was caused by the process of voids formation and crack growth due to the effect of plastic constraint of the notch. - Abstract: A case study on a fusion blanket design such as DEMO indicated that there could be some sections with high stress triaxiality, a parameter to evaluate the magnitude of plastic constraint, in the case of plasma disruption or coolant loss accident. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately understand the ductility loss limit of structural material in order to conduct the structural design assessment of the irradiated and embrittled fusion reactor blanket. Tensile tests were conducted by using three kinds of tensile specimen shapes to investigate of the plastic deformability of F82H. From the results, the fracture ductility is lower as the stress triaxiality is higher. Voids of the interrupted RB1 specimen were observed along grain boundaries and expanded parallel to the tensile axis. That of interrupted R0.2 specimen was rounded shape compared with those of RB1. The fracture surface of RB1 and R0.2 specimens were observed the elongated dimples and the equiaxed dimples without so much elongation, respectively. It is considered that the decrease of plastic deformability for the notched specimen was caused by the process of voids formation and crack growth due to the effect of plastic constraint of the notch.

  6. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  7. Microstructure evolution of titanium after tensile test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, S.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Jędrychowski, M.; Tarasiuk, J; Wronski, M.; Baczmanski, A.; Bacroix, B.

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative behavior of titanium T40 during tensile loading with a special emphasis on the presence of deformation twins in the observed microstructures is described. The samples for tensile tests were cut out from the rolled titanium sheet along the rolling and transverse directions. Several microstructure maps were determined using Electron Backscatter Diffraction technique (EBSD). These data were used to obtain crystallographic textures, misorientation distributions, grain size, twin boundary length, grain orientation spread, low and high angle boundary fractions and Schmid and Taylor factors. The deformation mechanisms and microstructure characteristics are different in the samples stretched along rolling and transverse directions. A strong appearance of tensile twins was observed in the samples deformed along transverse direction. On the other hand, more frequent subgrain formation and higher orientation spread was observed in the sample deformed along rolling direction, which caused’‘orientation blurring’ leading to an increase of grain size with deformation, as determined from OIM analysis.

  8. In Situ Radiography During Tensile Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory system for testing specimens of metal-, ceramic-, and intermetallic-matrix composite materials incorporates both electromechanical tensile-testing subsystem and either of two imaging subsystems that take x-ray photographs of specimens before, during, and after tensile tests. Used to test specimens of reaction-bonded silicon nitride reinforced with silicon carbide fibers (SiC/RBSN) considered for high-temperature service in advanced aircraft turbine engines. Provides data on effects of preexisting flaws (e.g., high-density impurities and local variations of density) on fracture behavior. Accumulated internal damage monitored during loading. X-ray source illuminates specimen in load frame while specimen is pulled. X-ray images on film correlated with stress-vs.-strain data from tensile test.

  9. Effects of Elevated Temperature Treatment on Compositions and Tensile Properties of Several Kinds of Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Five kinds of domestic basalt fibers were studied for the changes of chemical compositions, physical properties and tensile properties of these fibers before and after 200-800℃ treatment in air atmosphere and in nitrogen atmosphere. These works were done mainly by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and fiber monofilament tensile testing methods in order to understand the elevated temperature resistance of basalt fiber. The experimental results show that the surface of basalt fibers becomes smoother with slightly smaller in diameter and mass reduction at the same time, due to the removal of fiber surface treatment agent after elevated temperature treatment in air atmosphere. Mass fractions of SiO2 and Al2O3 decrease while mass fractions of FeO+Fe2O3, CaO and MgO increase, among which the mass fraction of FeO+Fe2O3 increase the most with the maximum increase of 21%. The monofilament tensile strength of basalt fiber is reduced after 200℃ treatment and the maximum strength retention percentage is 98.3%. The monofilament tensile strength reduces evidently after 400℃ treatment and the maximum strength retention percentage is 64.6%. Moreover, the strength retention percentages of five kinds of basalt fibers are all less than 20% after 800℃ treatment. In addition, the fiber elongation at break decreases with the increase of treating temperature and the elastic modulus increases. Compared with that in air atmosphere, strength retention rate of basalt fiber is higher and tensile properties are more stable in nitrogen atmosphere.

  10. Glycan elongation beyond the mucin associated Tn antigen protects tumor cells from immune-mediated killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Lavrsen, Kirstine; Steentoft, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    are recognized as cancer associated truncated glycans, and are expressed in many adenocarcinomas, e.g. breast- and pancreatic cancer cells. To investigate the role of the cancer associated glycan truncations in immune-mediated killing we created glyco-engineered breast- and pancreatic cancer cells expressing...... only the shortest possible mucin-like glycans (Tn and STn). Glyco-engineering was performed by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) knockout (KO) of the Core 1 enzyme chaperone COSMC, thereby preventing glycan elongation beyond the initial GalNAc residue in O-linked glycans. We find that COSMC KO in the breast...

  11. Effects of shot peening on the residual stress of welded SS400 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Man; Kim, Tae Hyung; Cheong, Seong Kyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of structures is usually determined by welding zone. The tensile residual stress, which is induced by welding, reduces the fatigue life and fatigue strength of welded structures. If we remove the tensile residual stress or induce the compressive residual stress, the fatigue life of welded structures will be improved. The change of hardness and compressive residual stress of welded zone after shot peening was investigated in this paper. The results show that the hardness was increased by shot peening. The residual stress was reduced by shot peening

  12. Reduction method for residual stress of welded joint using random vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tadashi; Hiroi, Tetsumaro

    2005-01-01

    Welded joints are used for construction of many structures. Residual stress is induced near the bead caused by locally given heat. Tensile residual stress on the surface may reduce fatigue strength. In this paper, a new method for reduction of residual stress using vibration during welding is proposed. As vibrational load, random vibration, white noise and filtered white noise are used. Two thin plates are butt-welded. Residual stress is measured with a paralleled beam X-ray diffractometer with scintillation counter after removing quenched scale chemically. It is concluded that tensile residual stress near the bead is reduced by using random vibration during welding

  13. High n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Bateman, G.

    1980-02-01

    An analytic study of stability against high n ballooning modes in highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that the local shear plays an important role on the stability of elongated and shifted plasma, and that high elongation deteriorates the stability by decreasing the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation and shift for strongly ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). The computational study of high n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for β/sub p/ less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for β/sub p/ larger than unity

  14. Nuclear starburst activity induced by elongated bulges in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunbin; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Lee, Gwang-Ho; de Grijs, Richard; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2018-06-01

    We study the effects of bulge elongation on the star formation activity in the centres of spiral galaxies using the data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We construct a volume-limited sample of face-on spiral galaxies with Mr nuclear starbursts using the fibre specific star formation rates derived from the SDSS spectra. We find a statistically significant correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts in the sense that the fraction of nuclear starbursts increases with bulge elongation. This correlation is more prominent for fainter and redder galaxies, which exhibit higher ratios of elongated bulges. We find no significant environmental dependence of the correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts. These results suggest that non-axisymmetric bulges can efficiently feed the gas into the centre of galaxies to trigger nuclear starburst activity.

  15. Developing of tensile property database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Jeon, J.; Ryu, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    The data base construction using the data produced from tensile experiment can increase the application of test results. Also, we can get the basic data ease from database when we prepare the new experiment and can produce high quality result by compare the previous data. The development part must be analysis and design more specific to construct the database and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. In this thesis, the tensile database system was developed by internet method using JSP(Java Server pages) tool

  16. Microstructure, Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Al-5 wt.%Mg Alloy Manufactured by Twin Roll Strip Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Joon-Young; Baek, Min-Seok; Euh, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the microstructure, tensile and fatigue properties of Al-5 wt.%Mg alloy manufactured by twin roll strip casting. Strips cast as a fabricated (F) specimen and a specimen heat treated (O) at 400 °C/5 h were produced and compared. In the F specimen, microstructural observation discovered clustered precipitates in the center area, while in the O specimen precipitates were relatively more evenly distributed. Al, Al6(Mn, Fe), Mg2Al3 and Mg2Si phases were observed. However, most of the Mg2Al3 phase in the heat-treated O specimen was dissolved. A room temperature tensile test measured yield strength of 177.7 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 286.1 MPa and elongation of 11.1% in the F specimen and 167.7 MPa (YS), 301.5 MPa (UTS) and 24.6% (EL) in the O specimen. A high cycle fatigue test measured a fatigue limit of 145 MPa in the F specimen and 165 MPa in the O specimen, and the O specimen achieved greater fatigue properties in all fatigue stress conditions. The tensile and fatigue fracture surfaces of the above-mentioned specimens were observed, and this study attempted to investigate the tensile and fatigue deformation behavior of strip cast Al-5 wt.%Mg based on the findings.

  17. Effect of Oil Application, Age, Diet, and Pigmentation on the Tensile Strength and Breaking Point of Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Natarajan, Karthika; Thilagavathi, G; Srinivas, C R

    2016-01-01

    Hair strength depends on various factors such as nutrition, environmental factors, sunlight, oiling, aging, conditioner, etc. To compare the tensile strength and breaking point of the hair shaft between (1) vegetarian and nonvegetarian. (2) Those who regularly apply and those who do not apply oil. (3) Pigmented and nonpigmented hair, (4) childhood and elderly. Hair fibers were mounted in tensile strength testing machine Zwick/Roell Z010 and gradual force was administered. The elongation of hair fiber in mm and the maximum force required to break the hair strand were recorded for each fiber. Elasticity of the children's hair was more than the elasticity of adult ( P = 0.05) although tensile strength in children hair was not statistically significant (>0.05). Similarly, the tensile strength was more among those who regularly consumed nonvegetarian food but the difference was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in other groups ( P > 0.05). Elasticity in children hair is statistically more than elderly hair although there is no significant change in tensile strength.

  18. Selective Laser Melting Produced Ti-6Al-4V: Post-Process Heat Treatments to Achieve Superior Tensile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit M. Ter Haar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current post-process heat treatments applied to selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V do not achieve the same microstructure and therefore superior tensile behaviour of thermomechanical processed wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Due to the growing demand for selective laser melting produced parts in industry, research and development towards improved mechanical properties is ongoing. This study is aimed at developing post-process annealing strategies to improve tensile behaviour of selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V parts. Optical and electron microscopy was used to study α grain morphology as a function of annealing temperature, hold time and cooling rate. Quasi-static uniaxial tensile tests were used to measure tensile behaviour of different annealed parts. It was found that elongated α’/α grains can be fragmented into equiaxial grains through applying a high temperature annealing strategy. It is shown that bi-modal microstructures achieve a superior tensile ductility to current heat treated selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V samples.

  19. Selective Laser Melting Produced Ti-6Al-4V: Post-Process Heat Treatments to Achieve Superior Tensile Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, Gerrit M; Becker, Thorsten H

    2018-01-17

    Current post-process heat treatments applied to selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V do not achieve the same microstructure and therefore superior tensile behaviour of thermomechanical processed wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Due to the growing demand for selective laser melting produced parts in industry, research and development towards improved mechanical properties is ongoing. This study is aimed at developing post-process annealing strategies to improve tensile behaviour of selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V parts. Optical and electron microscopy was used to study α grain morphology as a function of annealing temperature, hold time and cooling rate. Quasi-static uniaxial tensile tests were used to measure tensile behaviour of different annealed parts. It was found that elongated α'/α grains can be fragmented into equiaxial grains through applying a high temperature annealing strategy. It is shown that bi-modal microstructures achieve a superior tensile ductility to current heat treated selective laser melting produced Ti-6Al-4V samples.

  20. Inhibition of eukaryotic translation elongation by the antitumor natural product Mycalamide B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yongjun; Schneider-Poetsch, Tilman; Eyler, Daniel E; Jewett, John C; Bhat, Shridhar; Rawal, Viresh H; Green, Rachel; Liu, Jun O

    2011-08-01

    Mycalamide B (MycB) is a marine sponge-derived natural product with potent antitumor activity. Although it has been shown to inhibit protein synthesis, the molecular mechanism of action by MycB remains incompletely understood. We verified the inhibition of translation elongation by in vitro HCV IRES dual luciferase assays, ribosome assembly, and in vivo [(35)S]methinione labeling experiments. Similar to cycloheximide (CHX), MycB inhibits translation elongation through blockade of eEF2-mediated translocation without affecting the eEF1A-mediated loading of tRNA onto the ribosome, AUG recognition, or dipeptide synthesis. Using chemical footprinting, we identified the MycB binding site proximal to the C3993 28S rRNA residue on the large ribosomal subunit. However, there are also subtle, but significant differences in the detailed mechanisms of action of MycB and CHX. First, MycB arrests the ribosome on the mRNA one codon ahead of CHX. Second, MycB specifically blocked tRNA binding to the E-site of the large ribosomal subunit. Moreover, they display different polysome profiles in vivo. Together, these observations shed new light on the mechanism of inhibition of translation elongation by MycB.

  1. A neutron diffraction study of residual stress and plastic strain in welded beryllium rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.; Varma, R.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Holden, T.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ely, T.; Spooner, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-07-01

    We present a study of residual stresses associated with the welding of beryllium rings. Using novel analysis techniques, information about residual stresses and plastic deformation of the base metal were obtained. In the post-welded state, the rings have a strong tensile circumferential residual stress and show evidence of significant plastic deformation. (orig.)

  2. The elevated temperature tensile properties of S-200E commercially pure beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.; Torres, S.G.; Hanafee, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The tensile properties of commercially pure beryllium are sensitive to temperature, impurity content, texture, grain size, and prior processing. Therefore, tensile tests have been conducted using the commercially pure S-200E Be commonly employed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1100 degrees C in the longitudinal and transverse orientations at the quasi-static strain rate of 5.5 x 10 -4 s -1 . The results of these experiments reveal that the stress-strain curve is smooth, ie. without yield points or serrations, over the entire temperature range studied. The yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decrease monotonically with increasing temperature. Similar strengths were measured for both the longitudinal and transverse orientations, with the latter exhibiting slightly lower YS and UTS values. The measured failure elongation (e f ) vs. temperature curve is complex due to the competing effects of increasing basal-plane fracture stress with increasing temperature combined with the presence of hot shortness at intermediate temperatures. The latter is believed to be caused, at least partially, by the presence of free aluminum impurities at the grain boundaries. This hypothesis is supported by the measured increase in e f at 700 degrees C following a 100-hr anneal at 750 degrees C, which would remove free Al from the grain boundaries. Texture also was found to influence e f . The favorable orientation of the basal planes for initiation and propagation of cleavage cracks in longitudinal specimens results in a significantly decreased failure elongation compared with the transverse orientation. The effects of testing temperature and specimen orientation on the reduction in area were found to be similar to those described for e f

  3. Prediction of hole expansion ratio for various steel sheets based on uniaxial tensile properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Kwon, Young Jin; Lee, Taekyung; Lee, Kee-Ahn; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Chong Soo

    2018-01-01

    Stretch-flangeability is one of important formability parameters of thin steel sheets used in the automotive industry. There have been many attempts to predict hole expansion ratio (HER), a typical term to evaluate stretch-flangeability, using uniaxial tensile properties for convenience. This paper suggests a new approach that uses total elongation and average normal anisotropy to predict HER of thin steel sheets. The method provides a good linear relationship between HER of the machined hole and the predictive variables in a variety of materials with different microstructures obtained using different processing methods. The HER of the punched hole was also well predicted using the similar approach, which reflected only the portion of post uniform elongation. The physical meaning drawn by our approach successfully explained the poor HER of austenitic steels despite their considerable elongation. The proposed method to predict HER is simple and cost-effective, so it will be useful in industry. In addition, the model provides a physical explanation of HER, so it will be useful in academia.

  4. Tensile and shear strength of adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibolt, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.

  5. 7 CFR 29.3061 - Strength (tensile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.3061 Section 29.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official...

  6. 7 CFR 29.6040 - Strength (tensile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.6040 Section 29.6040 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions §...

  7. Tensile Strength of the Eggshell Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnková, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2016), s. 159-164 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tesile test * loading rate * tensile strength * fracture strain Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  8. Thermal properties of graphene under tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Carlos P.; Ramírez, Rafael

    2018-05-01

    Thermal properties of graphene display peculiar characteristics associated to the two-dimensional nature of this crystalline membrane. These properties can be changed and tuned in the presence of applied stresses, both tensile and compressive. Here, we study graphene monolayers under tensile stress by using path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations, which allows one to take into account quantization of vibrational modes and analyze the effect of anharmonicity on physical observables. The influence of the elastic energy due to strain in the crystalline membrane is studied for increasing tensile stress and for rising temperature (thermal expansion). We analyze the internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heat of graphene, and compare the results obtained from PIMD simulations with those given by a harmonic approximation for the vibrational modes. This approximation turns out to be precise at low temperatures, and deteriorates as temperature and pressure are increased. At low temperature, the specific heat changes as cp˜T for stress-free graphene, and evolves to a dependence cp˜T2 as the tensile stress is increased. Structural and thermodynamic properties display non-negligible quantum effects, even at temperatures higher than 300 K. Moreover, differences in the behavior of the in-plane and real areas of graphene are discussed, along with their associated properties. These differences show up clearly in the corresponding compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient.

  9. ATFL elongation after Brostrom procedure: a biomechanical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kevin L; Campbell, John T; Guyton, Gregory P; Parks, Brent G; Schon, Lew C

    2008-11-01

    Elongation of ligaments during early mobilization after reconstruction may be associated with decreased stability. We evaluated elongation of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) before and after lateral ligament reconstruction within a physiologic range of motion with protected and unprotected, isolated dorsiflexion/plantarflexion range of motion. Six fresh frozen cadaver legs were used with the ATFL meticulously dissected. A differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) was spaced to span the course of the ATFL using consistent placement points based on previous reports. Elongation was measured in a load frame with protected motion of 30 degrees plantarflexion and 10 degrees dorsiflexion for the intact and sectioned ATFL and for the repaired specimen with and without protected motion. The proximal DVRT anchor point was detached for sectioning and repair of the ATFL and replaced at the same position. Testing was 1000 cycles at 1 Hz for the repaired protected specimen and 10 cycles at 1 Hz for all other stages. Initial elongation in the unprotected, repaired group was significantly higher than initial elongation in the intact (p ankle after lateral ankle ligament reconstruction was not associated with elongation of the ATFL. The ATFL elongated significantly by comparison without protected dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The study provides biomechanical support for the safety of early protected dorsiflexion/plantarflexion range of motion after Broström reconstruction.

  10. Section thickness-dependent tensile properties of squeeze cast magnesium alloy AM60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative casting processes is essential for the high demand of light weight magnesium components to be used in the automotive industry, which often contain different section thicknesses. Squeeze casting with its inherent advantages has been approved for the capability of minimizing the gas porosity in magnesium alloys. For advanced engineering design of light magnesium automotive applications, it is critical to understand the effect of section thickness on mechanical properties of squeeze cast magnesium alloys. In this study, magnesium alloy AM60 with different section thicknesses of 6, 10 and 20 mm squeeze cast under an applied pressure of 30 MPa was investigated. The prepared squeeze cast AM60 specimens were tensile tested at room termperature. The results indicate that the mechanical properties including yield strength (YS, ultimate tensile strength (UTS and elongation (A decrease with an increase in section thickness of squeeze cast AM60. The microstructure analysis shows that the improvement in the tensile behavior of squeeze cast AM60 is primarily attributed to the low-gas porosity level and fine grain strucuture which result from the variation of cooling rate of different section thickness. The numerical simulation (Magmasoft? was employed to determine the solidification rates of each step, and the simulated results show that the solidification rate of the alloy decreases with an increase in the section thickness. The computed solidification rates support the experimental observation on grain structural development.

  11. Effect of strain rate on the tensile properties of α- and delta-stabilized plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, S.S.; Morgan, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The tensile properties of unalloyed α-Pu and 3.4 at. percent Ga-stabilized delta-Pu were determined at strain rates from 10 -5 to 100/s. Tests at strain rates less than 10 -2 /s were conducted on an Instron Testing Machine; those at strain rates between 10 -2 and 3/s on a closed-loop electrohydraulic MTS system; and those at strain rates greater than 3/s on a specially modified Charpy Impact Tester. Three lots of delta-Pu, one rolled and annealed and the other two cast and homogenized, were tested. The 0.2 percent yield strengths and ultimate tensile strengths increased by an average of 5.2 and 6.0 MPa per factor of 10 increase in strain rate. This increase was achieved without penalty in tensile ductility as measured by total elongation to fracture and by reduction in area. The isostatically pressed α-Pu specimens also showed a large increase in fracture stress with strain rate (34.3 MPa per factor to 10 increase in strain rate). The fracture was macroscopically brittle (plastic strains less than 0.3 percent) although we observed extensive evidence of microscopic flow in the ductile dimple-type appearance of the fracture surfaces. The strain to fracture appeared to exhibit a minimum at a strain rate of 10 -2 /s. (U.S.)

  12. Microstructure and Tensile/Corrosion Properties Relationships of Directionally Solidified Al-Cu-Ni Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Adilson V.; Lima, Thiago S.; Vida, Talita A.; Brito, Crystopher; Garcia, Amauri; Cheung, Noé

    2018-03-01

    Al-Cu-Ni alloys are of scientific and technological interest due to high strength/high temperature applications, based on the reinforcement originated from the interaction between the Al-rich phase and intermetallic composites. The nature, morphology, size, volume fraction and dispersion of IMCs particles throughout the Al-rich matrix are important factors determining the resulting mechanical and chemical properties. The present work aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of 1wt%Ni into Al-5wt%Cu and Al-15wt%Cu alloys on the solidification rate, macrosegregation, microstructure features and the interrelations of such characteristics on tensile and corrosion properties. A directional solidification technique is used permitting a wide range of microstructural scales to be examined. Experimental growth laws relating the primary and secondary dendritic spacings to growth rate and solidification cooling rate are proposed, and Hall-Petch type equations are derived relating the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to the primary dendritic spacing. Considering a compromise between ultimate tensile strength and corrosion resistance of the examined alloys samples from both alloys castings it is shown that the samples having more refined microstructures are associated with the highest values of such properties.

  13. Microstructure, process, and tensile property relationships in an investment cast near-γTiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.E.; Porter, W.J. III.; Keller, M.M.; Eylon, D.

    1992-01-01

    The brittle nature of near-γ TiAl alloys makes fabrication difficult. This paper reports on developing near-net shape technologies, such as investment casting, for these alloys which is one of the essential approached to their commercial introduction. The near-γ TiAl alloy Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (a%) is investment cast with two cooling rates. The effect of casting cooling rate on the fill and surface integrity was studied for complex shape thin walled components. Block and bar castings are hot isostatically pressed (HIP'd) and heat treated to produce duplex (lamellar + equiaxed) microstructures for mechanical property evaluation. The relationships between the casting conditions, microstructures, and tensile properties are studied. The strength and elongation below the ductile to brittle transition temperature are dependent on the casting cooling rate and section size. The tensile properties improved with faster cooling during the casting process as a result of microstructural refinement. Faster cooled castings are more fully transformed to a duplex structure during post-casting heat treatments. Above the ductile to brittle transition temperature the effect of casting cooling rate on tensile properties is less pronounced

  14. Effect of Recycled Rubber Particles and Silica on Tensile and Tear Properties of Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu CHANDRAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of scrap rubber and worn out tires in natural rubber compounds has been studied. The scrap rubber can, however, be recycled and compounded with natural rubber and thus can be generated as a rubber composite. In this work, recycled rubber particles (RRP were prepared using pulverization process. Then, RRP was blended with natural rubber and silica compounds, and it was synthesized by two- roll mill and hydraulic press at specified operating conditions. The samples ranging from 0 to 40 phr of RRP loaded with silica were used as constant filler. The mechanical properties and morphological analysis were carried out. The results showed that tensile strength and elongation at break gradually decreased with increasing RRP loading in natural rubber and silica compounds. Tensile modulus went down at 10 phr of RRP and then showed an increasing trend. Hardness increased up to 30 phr of RRP and tear strength increased up to 20 phr of RRP. A comparative study was also carried out with virgin natural rubber vulcanizates. The incorporation of RRP and silica up to 20 phr in natural rubber did not lower the performance of rubber articles. Morphological studies revealed that better filler dispersion, interfacial adhesion, and cross link density could increase the tensile and tear strengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7330

  15. Tensile properties of a titanium modified austenitic stainless steel and the weld joints after neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, K.; Ioka, I.; Jitsukawa, S.; Hamada, A.; Hishinuma, A. [and others

    1996-10-01

    Tensile specimens of a titanium modified austenitic stainless steel and its weldments fabricated with Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and Electron Beam (EB) welding techniques were irradiated to a peak dose of 19 dpa and a peak helium level of 250 appm in the temperature range between 200 and 400{degrees}C in spectrally tailored capsules in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The He/dpa ratio of about 13 appm/dpa is similar to the typical helium/dpa ratio of a fusion reactor environment. The tensile tests were carried out at the irradiation temperature in vacuum. The irradiation caused an increase in yield stress to levels between 670 and 800 MPa depending on the irradiation temperature. Total elongation was reduced to less than 10%, however the specimens failed in a ductile manner. The results were compared with those of the specimens irradiated using irradiation capsules producing larger amount of He. Although the He/dpa ratio affected the microstructural change, the impact on the post irradiation tensile behavior was rather small for not only base metal specimens but also for the weld joint and the weld metal specimens.

  16. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Differential expression of α-L-arabinofuranosidases during maize (Zea mays L.) root elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, Liudmila V; Gorshkov, Oleg V; Mokshina, Natalia E; Gorshkova, Tatyana A

    2015-05-01

    Specific α- l -arabinofuranosidases are involved in the realisation of elongation growth process in cells with type II cell walls. Elongation growth in a plant cell is largely based on modification of the cell wall. In type II cell walls, the Ara/Xyl ratio is known to decrease during elongation due to the partial removal of Ara residues from glucuronoarabinoxylan. We searched within the maize genome for the genes of all predicted α-L-arabinofuranosidases that may be responsible for such a process and related their expression to the activity of the enzyme and the amount of free arabinose measured in six zones of a growing maize root. Eight genes of the GH51 family (ZmaABFs) and one gene of the GH3 family (ZmaARA-I) were identified. The abundance of ZmaABF1 and 3-6 transcripts was highly correlated with the measured enzymatic activity and free arabinose content that significantly increased during elongation. The transcript abundances also coincided with the pattern of changes in the Ara/Xyl ratio of the xylanase-extractable glucuronoarabinoxylan described in previous studies. The expression of ZmaABF3, 5 and 6 was especially up-regulated during elongation although corresponding proteins are devoid of the catalytic glutamate at the proper position. ZmaABF2 transcripts were specifically enriched in the root cap and meristem. A single ZmaARA-I gene was not expressed as a whole gene but instead as splice variants that encode the C-terminal end of the protein. Changes in the ZmaARA-I transcript level were rather moderate and had no significant correlation with free arabinose content. Thus, elongation growth of cells with type II cell walls is accompanied by the up-regulation of specific and predicted α-L-arabinofuranosidase genes, and the corresponding activity is indeed pronounced and is important for the modification of glucuronoarabinoxylan, which plays a key role in the modification of the cell wall supramolecular organisation.

  18. Strain localization during tensile Hopkinson bar testing of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moćko Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the analysis was to determine the strain localization for various specimen shapes (type A and type B according to PN-EN ISO 26203-1 standard and different loading conditions, i.e. quasi- static and dynamic. Commercially pure titanium (Grade 2 and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Grade 5 were selected for the tests. Tensile loadings were applied out using servo-hydraulic testing machine and tensile Hopkinson bar with pre-tension. The results were recorded using ARAMIS system cameras and fast camera Phantom V1210, respectively at quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Further, specimens outline was determined on the basis of video data using TEMA MOTION software. The strain distribution on the specimen surface was estimated using digital image correlation method. The larger radius present in the specimen of type B in comparison to specimen of type A, results in slight increase of the elongation for commercially pure titanium at both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. However this effect disappears for Ti6Al4V alloy. The increase of the elongation corresponds to the stronger necking effect. Material softening due to increase of temperature induced by plastic work was observed at dynamic loading conditions. Moreover lower elongation at fracture point was found at high strain rates for both materials.

  19. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  20. Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of a Powder-Thixoformed 2024Al/SiCp Composite at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pubo Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the tensile properties and fracture behavior of a 2024Al composite reinforced with 10 vol % SiCp and fabricated via powder thixoforming (PT were studied at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 300 °C with a strain rate of 0.05 s−1, as well as the PT 2024 alloy. The results indicated that the tensile strengths of both the PT materials were all decreased with increasing the temperature, but the decrease rate of the composite was smaller than that of the 2024 alloy, and the composite exhibited higher tensile strength than that of the 2024 alloy at all of the employed testing temperatures due to the strengthening role of SiCp. Increasing temperature was beneficial for enhancing the ductility of materials, and the maximum elongation was reached at 250 °C. The elongation decrease over 250 °C was attributed to the cavity formation due to the debonding of the SiCp/Al interface and the fracturing of the matrix between SiCp. The fracture of the composite at room temperature initiated from the fracture of SiCp and the debonding of the SiCp/Al interface, but that at high temperatures was dominated by void nucleation and growth in the matrix besides the interface debonding.

  1. Microstructure and tensile properties of selectively laser-melted and of HIPed laser-melted Ti–6Al–4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Chunlei; Adkins, Nicholas J.E.; Attallah, Moataz M.

    2013-01-01

    Ti–6Al–4V samples have been prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) with varied processing conditions. Some of the samples were stress-relieved or hot isostatically pressed (HIPed). The microstructures of all samples were characterised using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the tensile properties measured before and after HIPing. It was found that the porosity level generally decreased with increase of laser power and laser scanning speed. Horizontally built samples were found to have a higher level of porosity than vertically built samples. The as-fabricated microstructure was dominated by columnar grains and martensites. HIPing closed the majority of the pores and also fully transformed the martensite into α and β phases. The as-fabricated microstructure exhibits very high tensile strengths but poor ductility with elongation generally smaller than 10%. The horizontally built samples show even lower elongation than vertically built samples. HIPing considerably improved ductility but led to a reduction in strength. With HIPing, the SLMed samples were found to show tensile properties comparable with those thermomechanically processed and annealed samples

  2. Effect of Local Post Weld Heat Treatment on Tensile Properties in Friction Stir Welded 2219-O Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guannan; Sun, Lei; Lin, Caiyuan; Lin, Yanli

    2017-11-01

    To improve the formability of the aluminum alloy welds and overcome the size limitation of the bulk post weld heat treatment (BPWHT) on large size friction stir welded joints, a local post weld heat treatment method (LPWHT) was proposed. In this method, the resistance heating as the moving heat source is adopted to only heat the weld seam. The temperature field of LPWHT and its influence on the mechanical properties and formability of FSW 2219-O Al alloy joints was investigated. The evaluation of the tensile properties of FSW samples was also examined by mapping the global and local strain distribution using the digital image correlation methodology. The results indicated that the formability was improved greatly after LPWHT, while the hardness distribution of the FSW joint was homogenized. The maximum elongation can reach 1.4 times that of as-welded joints with increase the strength and the strain of the nugget zone increased from 3 to 8% when annealing at 300 °C. The heterogeneity on the tensile deformation of the as-welded joints was improved by the nugget zone showing large local strain value and the reason was given according to the dimple fracture characteristics at different annealing temperatures. The tensile strength and elongation of LPWHT can reach 93.3 and 96.1% of the BPWHT, respectively. Thus, the LPWHT can be advantageous compared to the BPWHT for large size welds.

  3. Scattering phaseshift formulas for mesons and baryons in elongated boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank X.; Alexandru, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    We derive Lüscher phaseshift formulas for two-particle states in boxes elongated in one of the dimensions. Such boxes offer a cost-effective way of varying the relative momentum of the particles. Boosted states in the elongated direction, which allow wider access to energies, are also considered. The formulas for the various scenarios (moving and zero-momentum states in cubic and elongated boxes) are compared and relations between them are clarified. The results are applicable to a wide set of meson-meson and meson-baryon elastic scattering processes, with the two-particle system having equal or unequal masses.

  4. Residual stress measurement of the jacket material for ITER coil by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Nickel-Iron based super alloy INCOLOY 908 is used for the jacket of a central solenoid coil (CS coil) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). INCOLOY 908, however, has a possibility of fracture due to Stress Accelerated Grain Boundary Oxidation (SAGBO) under a tensile residual stress beyond 200MPa. Therefore it is necessary to measure the residual stress of the jacket to avoid SAGBO. We performed residual stress measurement of the jacket by neutron diffraction using the neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis (RESA) installed at JRR-3M in JAERI. A sample depth dependence of internal strain was obtained from the (111) plane spacing. A residual stress distribution was calculated from the strain using Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio that were evaluated by a tensile test with neutron diffraction. The result shows that the tensile residual stress exceeds 200MPa of the SAGBO condition in some regions inside the jacket. (author)

  5. Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichiro Yoshida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea.

  6. Optimization of tensile method and specimen geometry in modified ring tensile test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Koji; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    Several techniques in ring tensile test are proposed in order to evaluate mechanical properties of cladding under hoop loading condition caused by pellet/cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). In the modified techniques, variety of tensile methods and specimen geometry are being proposed in order to limit deformation within the gauge section. However, the tensile method and the specimen geometry were not determined in the modified techniques. In the present study, we have investigated the tensile method and the specimen geometry through finite element method (FEM) analysis of specimen deformation and tensile test on specimens with various gauge section geometries. In using two-piece tensile tooling, the mechanical properties under hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated when deformation part (gauge section) is put on the top of a half-mandrel, and friction between the specimen and the half-mandrel is reduced with Teflon tape. In addition, we have shown the optimum specimen geometry for PWR 17 by 17 type cladding. (author)

  7. Venus Elongation Measurements for the Transit of Venus, using the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 11. Venus Elongation Measurements for the Transit of Venus, using the Historical Jantar Mantar Observatory. N Rathnasree. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 11 November 2004 pp 46-55 ...

  8. Determinants of Elongation of the Labia Minora in Tete Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    women may not report current vaginal ill health, it is possible that prospective cohort ... Keywords: Labia minora elongation; vaginal practices; Mozambique; survey; cross-sectional studies. ..... had ever had vaginal discharge, which was most.

  9. Investigation of functional aspects of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli using a protein engineering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, M; Mansilla, Francisco; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1998-01-01

    The function of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu is still unexplained. Until recently, it has not been visible in electron density maps from x-ray crystallography studies, but the presence of several well conserved basic residues suggest that this part of the molecule is of structural...

  10. Residual stress measurement in socket welded joints by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Minakawa, Noriaki; Funahashi, Satoru.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements of lattice spacings provide the spatial map of residual stress near welds in ferritic steel socket joints. The high tensile stress greater than 200 MPa was found in the fusion and heat-affected zones in the hoop direction. However, the highest tensile stress in the axial direction at the weld root was about 110 MPa relatively lower than the expected value from the fatigue test results. The balancing compressive stress was found near the surface of the socket weld fusion zone. Heat treatment at 625degC for 2 hours was sufficient for the relief of residual stress in socket welds. (author)

  11. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, N.F. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 400 0 C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. High-Tensile Strength Tape Versus High-Tensile Strength Suture: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnandt, Ryan J; Smith, Jennifer L; Nguyen-Ta, Kim; McDonald, Lucas; LeClere, Lance E

    2016-02-01

    To determine which suture design, high-tensile strength tape or high-tensile strength suture, performed better at securing human tissue across 4 selected suture techniques commonly used in tendinous repair, by comparing the total load at failure measured during a fixed-rate longitudinal single load to failure using a biomechanical testing machine. Matched sets of tendon specimens with bony attachments were dissected from 15 human cadaveric lower extremities in a manner allowing for direct comparison testing. With the use of selected techniques (simple Mason-Allen in the patellar tendon specimens, whip stitch in the quadriceps tendon specimens, and Krackow stitch in the Achilles tendon specimens), 1 sample of each set was sutured with a 2-mm braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength tape and the other with a No. 2 braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength suture. A total of 120 specimens were tested. Each model was loaded to failure at a fixed longitudinal traction rate of 100 mm/min. The maximum load and failure method were recorded. In the whip stitch and the Krackow-stitch models, the high-tensile strength tape had a significantly greater mean load at failure with a difference of 181 N (P = .001) and 94 N (P = .015) respectively. No significant difference was found in the Mason-Allen and simple stitch models. Pull-through remained the most common method of failure at an overall rate of 56.7% (suture = 55%; tape = 58.3%). In biomechanical testing during a single load to failure, high-tensile strength tape performs more favorably than high-tensile strength suture, with a greater mean load to failure, in both the whip- and Krackow-stitch models. Although suture pull-through remains the most common method of failure, high-tensile strength tape requires a significantly greater load to pull-through in a whip-stitch and Krakow-stitch model. The biomechanical data obtained in the current study indicates that high-tensile strength tape may provide better repair

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of HDPE filled with seaweed residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catano, L.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Dominguez, N.; Sanchez, Y.; Gonzalez, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present work shows the results obtained during the investigation of the influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with seaweed residues (SR). The SR used was located on Venezuelan coastlines and they are composed mainly by CaCO 3 in aragonite phase. The HDPE was extruded along with the filler at different compositions (20, 30 and 40 wt.%). The composites were exposed to a 60 Co source irradiated at 25 and 100 kGy. From the obtained results, it was noticed that Young modulus remained constant with filler content. Moreover, the influence of filler content was found to be more prominent on properties like tensile stress and elongation at break. On the other hand, thermal analysis showed that filler content had no significant influence on thermal stability. Still, it is necessary to point out that low radiation doses improved thermal stability of the composites. From rheological studies it was observed a decreasing of melt flow index (MFI) by increasing the SR amount and radiation. Therefore, was determinate that high filler content composites are the best choice to be considered for biomedical and industrial applications

  14. Tensile creep of beta phase zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, B.; Reynolds, G.L.; Barnes, J.P.

    1977-08-01

    The tensile creep and creep rupture properties of beta-phase zircaloy-2 are studied under vacuum in the temperature and stress range 1300-1550 K and 0.5-2 MN/m 2 . The new results are compared with previously reported uniaxial and biaxial data. A small but systematic difference is noted between the uniaxial and biaxial creep data and reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (author)

  15. Environmental behaviour of tensile membrane structures

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Chilton, John; Wilson, Robin

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the environmental properties of spaces enclosed by tensile membrane structures (TMS). Limitations in the understanding of the environmental and thermal performance of TMS have to some extent hindered their acceptance by building clients and the building industry. A review of the early attempts to model the thermal environment of spaces enclosed by TMS is given and their environmental and thermal properties are discussed. The lack of appropriate tools for the investigation...

  16. MISSE 6 Polymer Film Tensile Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.; Sechkar, Edward; Kline, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The Polymer Film Tensile Experiment (PFTE) was flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6). The purpose of the experiment was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. The polymers selected are those commonly used for spacecraft thermal control and those under consideration for use in spacecraft applications such as sunshields, solar sails, and inflatable and deployable structures. The dog-bone shaped samples of polymers that were flown were exposed on both the side of the MISSE 6 Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that was facing into the ram direction (receiving atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ionizing radiation, and thermal cycling) and the wake facing side (which was supposed to have experienced predominantly the same environmental effects except for atomic oxygen which was present due to reorientation of the International Space Station). A few of the tensile samples were coated with vapor deposited aluminum on the back and wired to determine the point in the flight when the tensile sample broke as recorded by a change in voltage that was stored on battery powered data loggers for post flight retrieval and analysis. The data returned on the data loggers was not usable. However, post retrieval observation and analysis of the samples was performed. This paper describes the preliminary analysis and observations of the polymers exposed on the MISSE 6 PFTE.

  17. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  18. Tensile Properties of Single Jersey and 1×1 Rib Knitted Fabrics Made from 100% Cotton and Cotton/Lycra Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Berihun Sitotaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile properties such as tensile strength which is measured as breaking force in Newton (N and elongation percent (% at break of single jersey and 1×1 rib (knitted with full needles knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra yarns (5% Lycra yarn content in 95% combed cotton yarn are investigated in this research. The sample fabrics are conditioned for 24 hours at 20±1°C temperature and 65±2% relative humidity before testing. Ten specimens (five for lengthwise and five for widthwise have been taken from each of the two knitted structures, those made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra (at 95/5 percent ratio blend yarns. According to the discussion and as found from the investigations, the tensile properties of single jersey and 1×1 rib knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra yarns are significantly different from each other and both of the knitted fabrics have high elongation percent at break with cotton/Lycra blend yarns as compared to 100% cotton yarn. Knitted fabrics made from cotton/Lycra blended yarn have low breaking force and high elongation percent at break relative to knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton yarns.

  19. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...... of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate...

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Red Sandstone under Incremental Uniaxial Cyclical Compressive and Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial experiments were carried out on red sandstone specimens to investigate their short-term and creep mechanical behavior under incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading. First, based on the results of short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading experiments, deformation characteristics and energy dissipation were analyzed. The results show that the stress-strain curve of red sandstone has an obvious memory effect in the compressive and tensile loading stages. The strains at peak stresses and residual strains increase with the cycle number. Energy dissipation, defined as the area of the hysteresis loop in the stress-strain curves, increases nearly in a power function with the cycle number. Creep test of the red sandstone was also conducted. Results show that the creep curve under each compressive or tensile stress level can be divided into decay and steady stages, which cannot be described by the conventional Burgers model. Therefore, an improved Burgers creep model of rock material is constructed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can describe the creep behavior of red sandstone better than the Burgers creep model.

  1. Heat treatment effects on tensile properties of V-(4-5) wt.% Cr-(4-5) wt.% Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Effects of thermomechanical treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties are of interest for long term application of V-Cr-Ti alloys in fusion reactor systems. Influence of thermal annealing at 1050{degrees}C on stress/strain behavior, maximum engineering strength, and uniform and total elongation were evaluated. The results show that multiple annealing has minimal effect on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys tested at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C.

  2. Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moat, R.J.; Pinkerton, A.J.; Li, L.; Withers, P.J.; Preuss, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Neutron diffraction and the contour method show good agreement. → Tensile stresses found parallel to the surfaces. → Compressive stresses within the bulk of the structures. → Residual stress weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters. → Maximum tensile residual stress unaffected across range of pulse parameters used. - Abstract: This paper reports a study into the effect of laser pulse length and duty cycle on the residual stress distributions in multi-track laser direct metal deposits of Waspaloy onto an Inconel 718 substrate. The residual stresses have been evaluated using neutron diffraction and the contour method, while electron microscopy and micro hardness indentation have been used to map the concomitant microstructural variation. In all cases, near the tops of the deposited walls, the longitudinal stresses are tensile towards the mid-length of the wall, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are negligible. By contrast near the base of the walls, the stresses along the direction of deposition are small, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are compressive at the centre and tensile towards the ends. Consistent with previous observations, the stresses parallel to free surfaces are tensile, balanced by compressive stresses in the interior (an inverse quench stress profile). These profiles have been found to be weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters, most notably an increase in tensile stress gradient with increasing duty cycle, but the maximum residual stresses are largely unaffected. Furthermore, microstructural analysis has shown that the effect of laser pulse parameters on grain morphology in multi-track thick walls is less marked than previously reported for single-track wall structures.

  3. Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moat, R.J., E-mail: richard.moat@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Pinkerton, A.J.; Li, L. [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J.; Preuss, M. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Neutron diffraction and the contour method show good agreement. {yields} Tensile stresses found parallel to the surfaces. {yields} Compressive stresses within the bulk of the structures. {yields} Residual stress weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters. {yields} Maximum tensile residual stress unaffected across range of pulse parameters used. - Abstract: This paper reports a study into the effect of laser pulse length and duty cycle on the residual stress distributions in multi-track laser direct metal deposits of Waspaloy onto an Inconel 718 substrate. The residual stresses have been evaluated using neutron diffraction and the contour method, while electron microscopy and micro hardness indentation have been used to map the concomitant microstructural variation. In all cases, near the tops of the deposited walls, the longitudinal stresses are tensile towards the mid-length of the wall, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are negligible. By contrast near the base of the walls, the stresses along the direction of deposition are small, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are compressive at the centre and tensile towards the ends. Consistent with previous observations, the stresses parallel to free surfaces are tensile, balanced by compressive stresses in the interior (an inverse quench stress profile). These profiles have been found to be weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters, most notably an increase in tensile stress gradient with increasing duty cycle, but the maximum residual stresses are largely unaffected. Furthermore, microstructural analysis has shown that the effect of laser pulse parameters on grain morphology in multi-track thick walls is less marked than previously reported for single-track wall structures.

  4. Effect of cocoa pod husk filler loading on tensile properties of cocoa pod husk/polylactic acid green biocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M. L.; Sapuan, S. M.; Haron, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the years, cocoa-pod husk (CPH) generation significantly increased due to the growing global demand of chocolate products, since cocoa bean is the main ingredient for chocolate production. Proper utilization of CPH as natural filler for reinforcement of polymer composites provides economic advantages as well as environmental solutions for CPH waste disposal problems. In this study, CPH filled PLA composite films were developed using solution casting method. The effect of CPH loading on the tensile properties of CPH/PLA composite films were investigated. The obtained results manifested that increasing CPH loading from 0% to 10 % significantly increased tensile strength of CPH/PLA composite. However, further addition of CPH loading up to 15 % decreased the tensile strength of film samples. As CPH loading increased from 0% to 15%, tensile modulus of CPH/PLA composite films also increased from 1.5MPa to 10.4MPa, whereas their elongation at break reduced from 190% to 90%. These findings points out CPH as a potential natural filler for reinforcing thermoplastic polymer composites.

  5. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in helium and low-partial-pressure oxygen environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A test program is in progress to evaluate the effect of oxygen at low pO{sub 2} on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)wt% Cr-(4-5)wt% Ti alloys. Some of the tensile specimens were precharged with oxygen at low pO{sub 2} at 500{degrees}C and reannealed in vacuum at 500{degrees}C in environments with various pO{sub 2} levels and subsequently tensile tested at room temperature. The preliminary results indicate that both approaches are appropriate for evaluating the effect of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the alloys. The data showed that in the relatively short-time tests conducted thus far, the maximum engineering stress slightly increased after oxygen exposure but the uniform and total elongation values exhibited significant decrease after exposure in oxygen-containing environments. The data for a specimen exposed to a helium environment were similar to those obtained in low pO{sub 2} environments.

  6. Magnetism and Raman Spectroscopy of Pristine and Hydrogenated TaSe2 Monolayer tuned by Tensile and Pure Shear Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sugata; Simpson, Jeffrey; Einstein, T. L.; Walker, Angela R. Hight

    2D-materials with controllable optical, electronic and magnetic properties are desirable for novel nanodevices. Here we studied these properties for both pristine and hydrogenated TaSe2 (TaSe2-H) monolayer (ML) in the framework of DFT using the PAW method. We considered uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain, as well as shear strain along the basal planes in the range between 1% and 16%. Previous theoretical works (e.g.) considered only symmetrical biaxial tensile. Pristine ML is ferromagnetic for uniaxial tensile strain along ◯ or ŷ. For tensile strain in ŷ, the calculated magnetic moments of the Ta atoms are twice those for the same strain in ◯. Under pure shear strain (expansion along ŷ and compression along ◯), a pristine ML is ferromagnetic, but becomes non-magnetic when the strain directions are interchanged. Due to carrier-mediated double-exchange, the pristine ML is ferromagnetic when the Se-Ta-Se bond angle is < 82° and the ML thickness is < 3.25Å. We find that all Raman-active phonon modes show obvious red-shifting due to bond elongation and the E2 modes degeneracy is lifted as strain increases. For a TaSe2-H ML, the same trends were observed. Results show the ability to tune the properties of 2D-materials.

  7. Effect of tensile pre-strain at different orientation on martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, F.; Zulfi, F. R.; Korda, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensite was studied in 316L stainless steel through tensile pre-strain deformation in the rolling direction (RD) and perpendicular to the rolling direction (LT) at various %pre-strain. The experiment was carried out at various given %pre-strain, which were 0%, 4.6%, 12%, 17.4%, and 25.2% for the RD, whereas for LT were 0%, 4.6%, 12%, 18%, and 26% for LT. Changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties were observed using optical microscope, tensile testing, hardness testing, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The experimental results showed that the volume fraction of martensite was increased as the %pre-strain increased. In the same level of deformation by tensile pre-strain, the volume of martensite for RD was higher than that with LT direction. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and hardness of the steel were increased proportionally with the increases in %pre-strain, while the value of elongation and toughness were decreased with the increases in %pre-strain.

  8. Influence of HIP pressure on tensile properties of a 14Cr ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksiuta, Z., E-mail: z.oksiuta@pb.edu.pl [Bialystok Technical University, Mechanical Department, Wiejska 45c, 15-351 Bialystok (Poland); Ozieblo, A.; Perkowski, K.; Osuchowski, M. [Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Postępu 9, 02-676 Warsaw (Poland); Lewandowska, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-504 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The HIPping parameters of the 14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS steel powder were investigated. • The density and microstructure of the tested specimens after HIPping were studied. • The mechanical properties, high temperature tensile tests, were performed. • Residual porosity was observed in all tested specimens. • HIPping pressure has negligible influence on the strength of the ODS steel however improves material ductility. - Abstract: An oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with a nominal composition of Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in wt.%) was consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1150 °C under various pressures in the range of 185–300 MPa for 3 h. The microstructure, microhardness and high temperature tensile properties of the steel were investigated. With increasing compaction pressure the density of specimens also increased, however OM and SEM observations revealed residual porosity in all tested specimens and similar ferritic microstructure with bimodal-like grains and numerous of large oxide particles, located at the grain boundaries. Mechanical testing revealed that compaction pressure has negligible influence on the hardness and tensile strength of the ODS steel, however improves the material ductility.

  9. Strain transfer through film-substrate interface and surface curvature evolution during a tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Han, Meidong; Goudeau, Philippe; Bourhis, Eric Le; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Wang, Shibin; Li, Lin-an

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests on polyimide-supported thin metal films are performed to respectively study the macroscopic strain transfer through an interface and the surface curvature evolution. With a dual digital image correlation (DIC) system, the strains of the film and the substrate can be simultaneously measured in situ during the tensile test. For the true strains below 2% (far beyond the films' elastic limit), a complete longitudinal strain transfer is present irrespective of the film thickness, residual stresses and microstructure. By means of an optical surface profiler, the three-dimensional (3D) topography of film surface can be obtained during straining. As expected, the profile of the specimen center remains almost flat in the tensile direction. Nevertheless, a relatively significant curvature evolution (of the same order with the initial curvature induced by residual stresses) is observed along the transverse direction as a result of a Poisson's ratio mismatch between the film and the substrate. Furthermore, finite element method (FEM) has been performed to simulate the curvature evolution considering the geometric nonlinearity and the perfect strain transfer at the interface, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  10. Influence of HIP pressure on tensile properties of a 14Cr ODS ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Ozieblo, A.; Perkowski, K.; Osuchowski, M.; Lewandowska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The HIPping parameters of the 14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 ODS steel powder were investigated. • The density and microstructure of the tested specimens after HIPping were studied. • The mechanical properties, high temperature tensile tests, were performed. • Residual porosity was observed in all tested specimens. • HIPping pressure has negligible influence on the strength of the ODS steel however improves material ductility. - Abstract: An oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with a nominal composition of Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 (in wt.%) was consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1150 °C under various pressures in the range of 185–300 MPa for 3 h. The microstructure, microhardness and high temperature tensile properties of the steel were investigated. With increasing compaction pressure the density of specimens also increased, however OM and SEM observations revealed residual porosity in all tested specimens and similar ferritic microstructure with bimodal-like grains and numerous of large oxide particles, located at the grain boundaries. Mechanical testing revealed that compaction pressure has negligible influence on the hardness and tensile strength of the ODS steel, however improves the material ductility

  11. Study on the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded steel pipes under bending load using diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Nico; Nitschke-Pagel, Thomas; Dilger, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This research is dedicated to the experimental investigation of the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded pipes due to quasi-static bending loads. Ferritic-pearlitic steel pipes are welded with two passes, resulting in a characteristic residual stress state with high tensile residual stresses at the weld root. Also, four-point bending is applied to generate axial load stress causing changes in the residual stress state. These are determined both on the outer and inner surfaces of the pipes, as well as in the pipe wall, using X-ray and neutron diffraction. Focusing on the effect of tensile load stress, it is revealed that not only the tensile residual stresses are reduced due to exceeding the yield stress, but also the compressive residual stresses for equilibrium reasons. Furthermore, residual stress relaxation occurs both parallel and perpendicular to the applied load stress.

  12. Enhanced Hot Tensile Ductility of Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy Thin-Walled Tubes Processed Via a Combined Severe Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fata, A.; Eftekhari, M.; Faraji, G.; Mosavi Mashhadi, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, combined parallel tubular channel angular pressing (PTCAP) and tube backward extrusion (TBE), as a recently developed severe plastic deformation (SPD) method, were applied at 300 °C on a commercial Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy tubes to achieve an ultrafine grained structure. Then, the microstructure, hardness, tensile properties, and fractography evaluations were done at room temperature on the SPD-processed samples. Also, to study the hot tensile ductility of the SPD-processed samples, tensile testing was performed at an elevated temperature of 400 °C, and then, the fractured surface of the tensile samples was studied. It was observed that a bimodal microstructure, with large gains surrounded by many tiny ones, was created in the sample processed by PTCAP followed by TBE. This microstructure led to reach higher hardness and higher strength at room temperature and also led to reach very high elongation to failure ( 181%) at 400 °C. Also, the value of elongation to failure for this sample was 14.1% at room temperature. The fractographic SEM images showed the occurrence of predominately ductile fracture in the samples pulled at 400 °C. This was mostly due to the nucleation of microvoids and their subsequent growth and coalescence with each other.

  13. Effect of Si, Mn, Sn on Tensile and Corrosion Properties of Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca Alloys for Biodegradable Implant Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dae Hyun; Nam, Ji Hoon; Lee, Byeong Woo; Park, Ji Yong; Shin, Hyun Jung; Park, Ik Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Effect of elements Si, Mn, Sn on tensile and corrosion properties of Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca alloys were investigated. The results of tensile properties show that the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation of Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca alloy increased significantly with the addition of 0.6 wt% Mn. This is considered the grain refinement effect due to addition of Mn. However addition of 0.6 wt% Si decreased yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation. The bio-corrosion behavior of Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca-X alloys were investigated using immersion tests and potentiodynamic polarization test in Hank's solution. Immersion test showed that corrosion rate of Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca-0.6Mn alloy was the lowest rate and addition of 1.0 wt% Sn accelerated corrosion rate due to micro-galvanic effect in α-Mg/CaMgSn phases interface. And corrosion potential (E{sub c}orr) of Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca-0.6Mn alloy was the most noble among Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca-X alloys.

  14. Tensile Strength of Water Exposed to Pressure Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Mørch, Knud Aage

    2012-01-01

    at an extended water-solid interface by imposing a tensile stress pulse which easily causes cavitation. Next, a compressive pulse of duration ~1 ms and a peak intensity of a few bar is imposed prior to the tensile stress pulse. A dramatic increase of the tensile strength is observed immediately after......It is well known that pressurization for an extended period of time increases the tensile strength of water, but little information is available on the effect of pressure pulses of short duration. This is addressed in the present paper where we first measure the tensile strength of water...

  15. Effect of long-term aging at 8150C on the tensile properties and microstructural stability of four cobalt- and nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.P.

    1976-08-01

    Two heats of Haynes alloy 25 and one heat each of Haynes alloy 188, Hastelloy N, and Inconel 625 were tensile tested after aging for 11,000 h at 816 0 C. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were determined 24, 316, 760, and 982 0 C and compared with typical properties for these materials in the solution annealed condition. Toughness values were determined for these materials from their engineering stress-strain curves. The long-term aging treatment degraded ductility and toughness at room temperature but, contrary to behavior expected for overaging, enhanced them over those for the solution annealed condition in tests at 760 0 C. The tensile properties of the aged superalloys were correlated with mode of fracture and the amounts, identity, and morphology of the precipitates. Aging substantially depleted the hardener tungsten from the matrix in the cobalt-base alloys

  16. Structure and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles derived from controlled crystallization of Nb-rich clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lei [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Guo, Qianying [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Liu, Yongchang, E-mail: licmtju@163.com [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Yu, Liming; Li, Huijun [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China)

    2016-09-30

    This article describes the microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles. According to the results obtained from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, the bcc ultrafine grains and the disordered phase of Nb-rich nano-clusters were observed in the milled powders. The hot pressing (HP) resulted in a nearly equiaxed ferritic grains and dispersed nano-scale NbC (~8 nm) particles. The microstructure studies reveal that the formation of NbC nanoparticles is composed of nucleation and growth of the Nb-rich nano-clusters involving diffusion of their component. At room temperature the material exhibits an ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, yield strength of 650 MPa, and total elongation of 11.7 pct. The fracture surface studies reveal that a typical ductile fracture mode has occurred during tensile test.

  17. Film dosimetry of small elongated electron beams for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, and 18 Mev electron beams for small elongated fields of dimensions L x W (where L=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 cm; and W=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 cm) have been studied. Film dosimetry and parallel-plate ion chamber measurements have been used to obtain various dose parameters. Selective results of a series of systematic measurements for central axis depth dose data, uniformity index, field flatness, and relative output factors of small elongated electron beams are reported. The square-root method is employed to predict the beam data of small elongated electron fields from corresponding small square electron fields using film dosimetry. The single parameter area/perimeter radio A/P is used to characterize the relative output factors of elongated electron beams. It is our conclusion that for clinical treatment planning square-root method may be applied with caution in determining the beam characteristics of small elongated electron fields from film dosimetry. The calculated and estimated relative output factors from square-root method and A/P ratio are in good agreement and show agreement to within 1% with the measured film values

  18. Stochastic model of template-directed elongation processes in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilstra, Maria J; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L

    2010-10-01

    We present a novel modular, stochastic model for biological template-based linear chain elongation processes. In this model, elongation complexes (ECs; DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, or ribosomes associated with nascent chains) that span a finite number of template units step along the template, one after another, with semaphore constructs preventing overtaking. The central elongation module is readily extended with modules that represent initiation and termination processes. The model was used to explore the effect of EC span on motor velocity and dispersion, and the effect of initiation activator and repressor binding kinetics on the overall elongation dynamics. The results demonstrate that (1) motors that move smoothly are able to travel at a greater velocity and closer together than motors that move more erratically, and (2) the rate at which completed chains are released is proportional to the occupancy or vacancy of activator or repressor binding sites only when initiation or activator/repressor dissociation is slow in comparison with elongation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amphiregulin Antibody and Reduction of Axial Elongation in Experimental Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2–3 weeks which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1 or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2 received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15 μg three times in intervals of 9 days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 ng, respectively. In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1 ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.

  20. A proposed residual stress model for oblique turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhabeery, M. M.

    2001-01-01

    A proposed mathematical model is presented for predicting the residual stresses caused by turning. Effects of change in tool free length, cutting speed, feed rate, and the tensile strength of work piece material on the maximum residual stress are investigated. The residual stress distribution in the surface region due to turning under unlubricated condition is determined using a deflection etching technique. To reduce the number of experiments required and build the mathematical model for these variables, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used. In addition, variance analysis and an experimental check are conducted to determine the prominent parameters and the adequacy of the model. The results show that the tensile stress of the work piece material, cutting speed, and feed rate have significant effects on the maximum residual stresses. The proposed model, that offering good correlation between the experimental and predicted results, is useful in selecting suitable cutting parameters for the machining of different materials. (author)

  1. Tensile properties of a dual-axial forged Ti–Fe–Cu alloy containing boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu., E-mail: zadorozhnyyvlad@gmail.com [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect, 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shchetinin, I.V.; Chirikov, N.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect, 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    In the present work we introduce a micro/nano-structured α+β Ti-based low-alloy produced by the tilt-casting method and subjected to subsequent thermo-mechanical treatment. After hot dual-axial forging at 900 °C, subsequent heating at 700 °C and water quenching a Ti{sub 94}Fe{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}+1000 ppm of boron alloy, containing inexpensive alloying elements, showed an ultimate tensile strength value of about 950 MPa and percentage elongation of about 5.2%. It is shown that the intensive forging treatment and subsequent heat treatment are leading to significantly improved mechanical properties of such an alloy compared to the as-cast state.

  2. The tensile behavior of Ti36Ni49Hf15 high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Q.; Zheng, Y.F.; Cai, W.; Zhao, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, ternary Ti-Ni-Hf alloys have attracted great interest in the field of high temperature shape memory materials research and development. Extensive studies have been made on its manufacture process, constitutional phases, phase transformation behavior, the structure, substructure and interface structure of martensite and the precipitation behavior during ageing. Yet up to date there is no report about the fundamental mechanical properties of Ti-Ni-Hf alloys, such as the stress-strain data, the variation laws of the yield strength and elongation with the temperature. In the present study, tensile tests at various temperatures are employed to investigate the mechanical behavior of Ti-Ni-Hf alloy with different matrix structures, from full martensite to full parent phase structure, with the corresponding deformation mechanism discussed

  3. Tensile behavior of borated stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J. Jr.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Borated stainless steel tensile testing is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The goal of the test program is to provide data to support a code case inquiry to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The adoption by ASME facilitates a material's qualification for structural use in transport cask applications. For transport cask basket applications, the potential advantage to using borated stainless steel arises from the fact that the structural and criticality control functions can be combined into one material. This can result in a decrease in net section thickness of the basket web (increased payload capacity) and eliminates the fabrication process and cost of attaching a discrete boron poison material to the basket web. In addition, adding borate stainless steel to the inventory of acceptable structural material provides the Department of Energy (DOE) and its cask contractors an alternative to current proposed materials which have not been qualified for structural service. The test program at SNL involves procuring material, machining test specimens, and conducting the tensile tests. From test measurements obtained so far, general trends indicate that tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate strength) increase with boron content and are in all cases superior to the minimum required properties established in A-240, Type 304, a typical grade of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, in a designed basket, web thicknesses using borated stainless steel would be comparable to or thinner tan an equivalent basket manufactured from a typical stainless steel without boron additions. General trends from test results indicate that ductilities decrease with increasing boron content

  4. Revised ANL-reported tensile data for unirradiated and irradiated (FFTF, HFIR) V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The tensile data for all unirradiated and irradiated vanadium alloys samples tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been critically reviewed and, when necessary, revised. The review and revision are based on reanalyzing the original load-displacement strip chart recordings by a methodology consistent with current ASTM standards. For unirradiated alloys (162 samples), the revised values differ from the previous values as follows: -11±19 MPa (-4±6%) for yield strength (YS), -3±15 MPa (-1±3%) for ultimate tensile strength (UTS), -5±2% strain for uniform elongation (UE), and -4±2% strain for total elongation (TE). Of these changes, the decrease in -1±6 MPa (0±1%) for UTS, -5±2% for UE, and -4±2% for TE. Of these changes, the decrease in UE values for alloys irradiated and tested at 400--435 C is the most significant. This decrease results from the proper subtraction of nongauge-length deformation from measured crosshead deformation. In previous analysis of the tensile curves, the nongauge-length deformation was not correctly determined and subtracted from the crosshead displacement. The previously reported and revised tensile values for unirradiated alloys (20--700 C) are tabulated in Appendix A. The revised tensile values for the FFTF-irradiated (400--600 C) and HFIR-irradiated (400 C) alloys are tabulated in Appendix B, along with the neutron damage and helium levels. Appendix C compares the revised values to the previously reported values for irradiated alloys. Appendix D contains previous and revised values for the tensile properties of unirradiated V-5Cr-5Ti (BL-63) alloy exposed to oxygen

  5. Discrete analysis of clay layer tensile strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T.N.H.; Ple, O.; Villard, P.; Gourc, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Discrete Element Method is used to investigate the tensile behaviour and cracks mechanisms of a clay material submitted to bending loading. It is the case of compacted clay liners in landfill cap cover application. Such as the soil tested in this study is plastic clay, the distinct elements model was calibrated with previous data results by taking into account cohesive properties. Various contact and cohesion laws are tested to show that the numerical model is able to reproduce the failure mechanism. Numerical results are extending to simulate a landfill cap cover and comparing to experimental large scale field bending tests achieved in a real site of storage. (authors)

  6. Welding wires for high-tensile steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state

  7. Stability of germanene under tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-09-01

    The stability of germanene under biaxial tensile strain and the accompanying modifications of the electronic properties are studied by density functional theory. The phonon spectrum shows that up to 16% strain the germanene lattice is stable, where the Dirac cone shifts towards higher energy and hole-doped Dirac states are achieved. The latter is due to weakening of the Ge-Ge bonds and reduction of the s-p hybridization. Our calculated Grüneisen parameter shows a similar dependence on the strain as reported for silicene (which is different from that of graphene). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability of germanene under tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The stability of germanene under biaxial tensile strain and the accompanying modifications of the electronic properties are studied by density functional theory. The phonon spectrum shows that up to 16% strain the germanene lattice is stable, where the Dirac cone shifts towards higher energy and hole-doped Dirac states are achieved. The latter is due to weakening of the Ge-Ge bonds and reduction of the s-p hybridization. Our calculated Grüneisen parameter shows a similar dependence on the strain as reported for silicene (which is different from that of graphene). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microscopic observation and statics consideration of tensile fracture of TiC coating on stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Akira; Hasiguti, Ryukiti

    1986-01-01

    We have measured the tensile fracture properties of the TiC coated SUS316L stainless steel, applying a stress perpendicular to the plane of interface between the coating and the substrate. The fracture of the as grown or non-annealed specimens occurred partially within the TiC layer. A tensile fracture of the TiC coated specimens after vacuum annealing at about 1373 K (1100 deg C) presented arc-shape curved fracture surfaces which can be understood by statics consideration taking into account the maximum stress plane theory and the residual thermal stress. The strengths of non-annealed and annealed specimens are 34.4 MPa (350 kgf/cm 2 ) and 30.2 MPa (308 kgf/cm 2 ), respectively, expressed in terms of Weibull's 50 % fracture stresses. (author)

  10. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  11. Residual stresses determination in an 8 mm Incoloy 800H weld via neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xizhang; Zhang, Shu Yan; Wang, Jingjun; Kelleher, Joe F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stress through thickness at 5 mm from weld centerline indicates a “U” distribution. • Declining of tensile stress through thickness occurred at weld centerline. • Residual stress between layers is the lowest. - Abstract: To investigate the distribution of residual stresses, the 8 mm 800H alloy was joined by multi-layer butt TIG process. Residual stresses in the longitudinal, transverse and normal directions were measured via neutron diffraction. These residual stress measurements were taken at a series of points 2 mm below the top surface, covering the fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal. In addition, two lines of longitudinal residual stress values at the weld centerline and 5 mm from weld centerline through thickness were measured. Results show that both the longitudinal and transverse stresses from the weld centerline to base metal are mainly tensile stresses. The longitudinal residual stress is the largest, with a maximum value of 330 MPa. As for the normal residual stress, the weld zone shows tensile stress, while the HAZ shows compressive stress. The middle of the thickness shows compressive residual stress along the thickness direction. The longitudinal stress at weld centerline through thickness reveals the interlayer heat treat effects leads to a declining of tensile stress. While the stress at 5 mm from weld centerline indicates a “U” distribution due to the mixed microstructure close to fusion line. With the increasing distance from weld seam, the residual stress decreases gradually

  12. Elastin governs the mechanical response of medial collateral ligament under shear and transverse tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Heath B; Valdez, William R; Scott, Sara A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Elastin is a highly extensible structural protein network that provides near-elastic resistance to deformation in biological tissues. In ligament, elastin is localized between and along the collagen fibers and fascicles. When ligament is stretched along the primary collagen axis, elastin supports a relatively high percentage of load. We hypothesized that elastin may also provide significant load support under elongation transverse to the primary collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis. Quasi-static transverse tensile and shear material tests were performed to quantify the mechanical contributions of elastin during deformation of porcine medial collateral ligament. Dose response studies were conducted to determine the level of elastase enzymatic degradation required to produce a maximal change in the mechanical response. Maximal changes in peak stress occurred after 3h of treatment with 2U/ml porcine pancreatic elastase. Elastin degradation resulted in a 60-70% reduction in peak stress and a 2-3× reduction in modulus for both test protocols. These results demonstrate that elastin provides significant resistance to elongation transverse to the collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis while only constituting 4% of the tissue dry weight. The magnitudes of the elastin contribution to peak transverse and shear stress were approximately 0.03 MPa, as compared to 2 MPa for axial tensile tests, suggesting that elastin provides a highly anisotropic contribution to the mechanical response of ligament and is the dominant structural protein resisting transverse and shear deformation of the tissue. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Status of the tube elongation problem as of June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    It was discovered in May of 1971 that the N Reactor process tubes had apparently increased in length by as much as one inch. Preliminary observations and measurements led to the tentative conclusion that this observed elongation was linear with accumulated tube exposure and also that it was related in some manner to the tube fabrication process. It appeared that the observed elongation was approximately proportional to the degree of cold work retained in the finished tubes. This latter conclusion was based on the observation that those tubes with approximately 17-18 percent cold work had elongated only about half as much as the standard 30-percent-cold-worked tubes. It was immediately recognized that if such elongation was to continue unchecked it could pose a limit to reactor life since total possible tube expansion, from all causes, is limited to 1.75 inches by nozzle design considerations as shown in Figure 1. Thermal and hydraulic expansion were calculated to total approximately 0.75 inches which left only one inch available to accommodate tube growth or creep. Since discovery of this phenomenon, an extensive measurements program has been carried out to evaluate the extent and rate of tube elongation. Two corrective approaches have been developed and a small number of tubes were modified by each method during the 1976 summer outage. During the 1974, 1975 and 1976 Summer Outages, measurements were made on all tubes to determine the clearance remaining between the nozzle keys and the gas packing ring. These readings not only give an overall picture of the extent of elongation, but also provide immediate data indicating which tubes are about out of clearance. The report presents an evaluation of the measurements taken to date

  14. Tensile and fracture behavior of polymer foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Md. E.; Saha, M.C.; Jeelani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Tensile and mode-I fracture behavior of cross-linked polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and rigid polyurethane (PUR) foams are examined. Tension tests are performed using prismatic bar specimens and mode-I fracture tests are performed using single edge notched bend (SENB) specimens under three-point bending. Test specimens are prepared from PVC foams with three densities and two different levels of cross-linking, and PUR foam with one density. Tension and quasi-static fracture tests are performed using a Zwick/Rowell test machine. Dynamic fracture tests are performed using a DYNATUP model 8210 instrumented drop-tower test set up at three different impact energy levels. Various parameters such as specimen size, loading rate, foam density, cross-linking, crack length, cell orientation (flow and rise-direction) and solid polymer material are studied. It is found that foam density and solid polymer material have a significant effect on tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness of polymer foams. Level of polymer cross-linking is also found to have a significant effect on fracture toughness. The presence of cracks in the rise- and flow direction as well as loading rate has minimal effect. Dynamic fracture behavior is found to be different as compared to quasi-static fracture behavior. Dynamic fracture toughness (K d ) increases with impact energy. Examination of fracture surfaces reveals that the fracture occurs in fairly brittle manner for all foam materials

  15. Viscosity overshoot in the start-up of uniaxial elongation of low density polyethylene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Bach, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The transient uniaxial elongational viscosity of BASF Lupolen 1840D and 3020D melts has been measured on a filament stretch rheometer up to Hencky strains of 6-7. The elongational viscosity of both melts was measured at 130 degrees C within a broad range of elongational rates. At high elongation ...

  16. Nucleotide Selectivity at a Preinsertion Checkpoint of T7 RNA Polymerase Transcription Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Chao; Duan, Baogen; Yu, Jin

    2017-04-20

    Nucleotide selection is crucial for transcription fidelity control, in particular, for viral T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP) lack of proofreading activity. It has been recognized that multiple kinetic checkpoints exist prior to full nucleotide incorporation. In this work, we implemented intensive atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to quantify how strong the nucleotide selection is at the initial checkpoint of an elongation cycle of T7 RNAP. The incoming nucleotides bind into a preinsertion site where a critical tyrosine residue locates nearby to assist the nucleotide selection. We calculated the relative binding free energy between a noncognate nucleotide and a cognate one at a preinsertion configuration via alchemical simulations, showing that a small selection free energy or the binding free energy difference (∼3 k B T) exists between the two nucleotides. Indeed, another preinsertion configuration favored by the noncognate nucleotides was identified, which appears to be off path for further nucleotide insertion and additionally assists the nucleotide selection. By chemical master equation (CME) approach, we show that the small selection free energy at the preinsertion site along with the off-path noncognate nucleotide filtering can help substantially to reduce the error rate and to maintain the elongation rate high in the T7 RNAP transcription.

  17. Degradation in tensile properties of aromatic polymers by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, T.; Hayakawa, N.; Yoshida, K.; Hagiwara, M.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation effects of ten kinds of polymers containing various aromatic rings linked by functional groups in the main chain (aromatic polymer) were studied with reference to change in tensile properties. The polymers studied were polyimides 'Kapton H', and 'UPILEX', polyetherimide 'ULTEM', polyamides 'A-Film' and 'APH-50 (nomex type paper)', poly-ether-ether-ketone 'PEEK', polyarylate 'U-Polymer', polysulphones 'Udel-Polysulphone' and 'PES', and modified poly(phenylene oxide) 'NORYL'. Irradiation was carried out by use of electron beam at a dose rate of 5 x 10 3 Gy s -1 at room temperature. The elongation at break was the most severely influenced by the irradiation and it decreased with increasing dose. The order of radiation resistivity which was evaluated from the dose required for the elongation to become 50% and 20% of the initial value was as follows: Polyimide > PEEK > polyamide > polyetherimide > polyarylate > polysulphone, poly(phenylene oxide). Based on the above experimental results, an order is proposed for the radiation stability of the aromatic repeating units composing the main chain. (author)

  18. Anisotropy in tensile and ductile-brittle transition behavior of ODS ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasada, R., E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Lee, S.G.; Isselin, J.; Lee, J.H.; Omura, T.; Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Okuda, T. [KOBELCO Research Institute, 1-5-5, Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271 (Japan); Inoue, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, S.; Ohnuki, S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, N14 W8, Kita ku, Sapporo 060-8626 (Japan); Fujisawa, T. [Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Abe, F. [National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba, (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Anisotropic fracture behavior of SOC-1 oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel has been investigated for a hot-extruded bar by tensile tests and Charpy impact tests. These mechanical properties are better in the longitudinal direction than in the transverse directions against extrusion direction (ED). Fracture surface observations by scanning electron microscopy and auger electron spectroscopy indicated bundle-like morphology with existence of segregation/precipitation/inclusions along ED. Pole figures of the hot-extruded bar characterized using electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) technique and X-ray diffraction exhibited <1 1 0> fiber texture formation along ED. The EBSD orientation map showed a complex bundle-like grain morphology which consists of elongated grains having a specific orientation <1 1 0>// ED and relatively isotropic and small grains having other orientation. The results conclude that the combined effects of observed elongated grain morphology and these small grains with segregation/precipitation/inclusions along ED can explain the anisotropic fracture behavior of the hot-extruded ODS ferritic steel.

  19. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia hlg mutants have a mutation in a PHYB-type phytochrome gene: they have elongated hypocotyls in red light, but are not elongated as adult plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M; Robson, P R; Kraepiel, Y; Caboche, M; Smith, H

    1997-11-01

    Two new allelic mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been isolated which display a hypocotyl which is long (hlg) when seedlings are grown in continuous white light (W). This can be accounted for by the decreased response to red light (R) of the hypocotyl elongation rate in these mutants. Responses to other wavelengths are unaffected in the mutants. When grown in white light, mature hlg mutants are not elongated with respect to the wild-type; they also bolt and flower later. The shade-avoidance responses to red/far red ratio (R:FR) are intact in these mutants. Both mutants are deficient in phyB-like polypeptide that is immunodetectable in the wild-type; both have wild-type levels of a phyA-like polypeptide. These alleles are inherited in a partially dominant manner, and correspond to single-base missense mutations in a gene highly homologous to N. tabacum PHYB, which codes for a phytochrome B-type photoreceptor. One allele, hlg-1, has an introduced amino acid substitution; this may define a residue essential for phytochrome protein stability. The other allele, hlg-2, has a stop codon introduced C-terminal to the chromophore binding domain. As these phyB mutants are unaffected in shade-avoidance responses, but deficient in perception of R, it is concluded that the phyB absent in these mutants is responsible for R perception in the N. plumbaginifolia seedling, but is not a R:FR sensor in light-grown plants.

  20. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Flow Behavior and Anisotropy of a Medium-Manganese TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturk, Rakan; Hector, Louis G.; Matthew Enloe, C.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-06-01

    The dependence of the plastic anisotropy on the nominal strain rate for a medium-manganese (10 wt.% Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with initial austenite volume fraction of 66% (balance ferrite) has been investigated. The material exhibited yield point elongation, propagative instabilities during hardening, and austenite transformation to α'-martensite either directly or through ɛ-martensite. Uniaxial strain rates within the range of 0.005-500 s-1 along the 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations were selected based upon their relevance to automotive applications. The plastic anisotropy ( r) and normal anisotropy ( r n) indices corresponding to each direction and strain rate were determined using strain fields obtained from stereo digital image correlation systems that enabled both quasistatic and dynamic measurements. The results provide evidence of significant, orientation-dependent strain rate effects on both the flow stress and the evolution of r and r n with strain. This has implications not only for material performance during forming but also for the development of future strain-rate-dependent anisotropic yield criteria. Since tensile data alone for the subject medium-manganese TRIP steel do not satisfactorily determine the microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic-scale behavior observed on tensile testing, additional tests that must supplement the mechanical test results presented herein are discussed.

  1. Effects of Sn addition on the microstructure and tensile properties of AX55 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, K. Q.; Huang, P.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructures and tensile properties at both room and elevated temperatures for both the as-cast and as-aged Mg-5Al-5Ca (AX55) alloy with 0–2 wt% Sn addition were studied. The results indicate that the α-Mg dendrite is gradually refined and the interdendritic Al2Ca and Mg2Ca intermetallics become more connected with Sn addition. The as-cast AX55-1Sn alloy shows optimal ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at testing temperature from 25 to 225 °C. After T61 and T62 heat treatment, the eutectic-lamellar microstructure of the as-cast alloys tends to be spheroidized and distributed uniformly along the grain boundaries. While the alloys with higher Sn content show higher density of granulated and needle-shaped Al2Ca phases precipitated into α-Mg matrix, which results in the increase of UTS, yield strength (YS), elongation and microhardness with Sn addition. The morphology of CaMgSn phase can be improved by T62 treatment, which makes as-aged AX55-2.0Sn alloy exhibit a smaller decrease rate of the UTS at temperature up to 225 °C. The heat resistance of different heat-resistant magnesium alloys were compared and discussed by using the decrease rate of the UTS.

  2. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamasaki, T.; Kawai, M.

    2015-11-01

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below Md (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90-270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20-50 nm in grain interior and 70-110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6-21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at -196 °C.

  3. Swelling and tensile properties of starch glycerol system with various crosslinking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Mohd, N.; Nurazzi, N.; Siti Aisyah, M. I.; Fauzi, F. Mohd

    2017-07-01

    Brittle properties of starch had been overcome by the modification process. In this work, sago starch is being modified with variable amount of plasticiser, namely glycerol at 20 and 40% and crosslinking agent had been added to the system. The film of the modification and characterizations of the starch glycerol system with various crosslinking systems were produced by casting method. The film properties of the starch glycerol system were then characterized by tensile strength (mechanical properties) and swelling (physical properties). The modification of the starch glycerol had improved that system by increasing the tensile strength, modulus however lowering its elongation. The increasing in percentage of the water absorption and also swelling are due to the intrinsic hydroxyl groups presence from the starch and glycerol itself that can attract more water to the system. Upon crosslinking, films casted with chemicals namely, glyoxal, malonic acid, borax, PEG were characterised. It was found that, all the film of sago starch crosslinked and undergoing easy film formation. From this modification, borax and malonic acid crosslinking agent had been determined as the best crosslinking agent to the starch glycerol system.

  4. In-situ tensile testing of notched poly- and oligocrystalline 316L wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitevski, Bojan [Materials Science and Engineering (ITM), Duisburg (Germany); Weiss, Sabine [Brandenburg Technical Univ., Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany). Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science.; Fischer, Alfons [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Materials Science and Engineering; Rush Univ. Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics

    2017-03-01

    In-situ testing inside a scanning electron microscope is a helpful tool for detailed analyses of small sized specimens with respect to their mechanical properties and the correlated microstructural alterations. Thus, this test method is used to analyze the tensional properties of thin 316L (1.4441) wires used for microscale components, e.g., like coronary artery stents. Tensile tests were conducted on unnotched and circularly notched 316L wires (oe 0.95 mm) with a special focus on the number of grains within the cross section as well as the notch geometry. Four combinations of notch width (2 and 4 mm) and notch depth (diameter at notch root: 0.5 and 0.75 mm) were chosen. Notch depth and notch shape were adjusted by means of electrochemical polishing. Previous investigations showed, that oligocrystalline structures exhibit a different mechanical behavior compared to polycrystalline ones or single crystals. There are only a few data available on mechanical testing of oligocrystalline structures with respect to varying notch geometries. Depending on the notch geometry, grain size and, therefore, the number of grains within the notch cross section widely scattering yield- and tensile strength as well as failure elongation values were measured. However, the transition criterion between poly- and oligocrystalline behavior could be quantified to be 6 to 7 grains within the cross section.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of radiation-generated changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.R. Jr.; Long, S.A.T.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of electron radiation on Ultem, a polyetherimide were studied for doses from 2 x 10 to the 9th power to 6 x 10 to the 9th power rad. Specimens were studied for tensile property testing and for electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopic measurements of molecular structure. A Faraday cup design and a method for remote temperature measurement were developed. The spectroscopic data show that radiation caused dehydrogenation of methyl groups, rupture of main-chain ether linkage, and opening of imide rings, all to form radicals and indicate that the so-formed atomic hydrogen attached to phenyl radicals, but not to phenoxyl radicals, which would have formed hydroxyls. The observed decays of the radiation-generated phenoxyl, gem-dimethyl, and carbonyl radicals were interpreted as a combining of the radicals to form crosslinking. This crosslinking is the probable cause of the major reduction in the elongation of the tensile specimens after irradiation. Subsequent classical solubility tests indicate that the irradiation caused massive crosslinking

  6. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Flow Behavior and Anisotropy of a Medium-Manganese TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturk, Rakan; Hector, Louis G.; Matthew Enloe, C.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-04-01

    The dependence of the plastic anisotropy on the nominal strain rate for a medium-manganese (10 wt.% Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with initial austenite volume fraction of 66% (balance ferrite) has been investigated. The material exhibited yield point elongation, propagative instabilities during hardening, and austenite transformation to α'-martensite either directly or through ɛ-martensite. Uniaxial strain rates within the range of 0.005-500 s-1 along the 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations were selected based upon their relevance to automotive applications. The plastic anisotropy (r) and normal anisotropy (r n) indices corresponding to each direction and strain rate were determined using strain fields obtained from stereo digital image correlation systems that enabled both quasistatic and dynamic measurements. The results provide evidence of significant, orientation-dependent strain rate effects on both the flow stress and the evolution of r and r n with strain. This has implications not only for material performance during forming but also for the development of future strain-rate-dependent anisotropic yield criteria. Since tensile data alone for the subject medium-manganese TRIP steel do not satisfactorily determine the microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic-scale behavior observed on tensile testing, additional tests that must supplement the mechanical test results presented herein are discussed.

  7. Development of an Effective Chain Elongation Process From Acidified Food Waste and Ethanol Into n-Caproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Roghair

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs, such as n-caproate, are potential valuable platform chemicals. MCFAs can be produced from low-grade organic residues by anaerobic reactor microbiomes through two subsequent biological processes: hydrolysis combined with acidogenesis and chain elongation. Continuous chain elongation with organic residues becomes effective when the targeted MCFA(s are produced at high concentrations and rates, while excessive ethanol oxidation and base consumption are limited. The objective of this study was to develop an effective continuous chain elongation process with hydrolyzed and acidified food waste and additional ethanol.Results: We fed acidified food waste (AFW and ethanol to an anaerobic reactor while operating the reactor at long (4 d and at short (1 d hydraulic retention time (HRT. At long HRT, n-caproate was continuously produced (5.5 g/L/d at an average concentration of 23.4 g/L. The highest n-caproate concentration was 25.7 g/L which is the highest reported n-caproate concentration in a chain elongation process to date. Compared to short HRT (7.1 g/L n-caproate at 5.6 g/L/d, long HRT resulted in 6.2 times less excessive ethanol oxidation. This led to a two times lower ethanol consumption and a two times lower base consumption per produced MCFA at long HRT compared to short HRT.Conclusions: Chain elongation from AFW and ethanol is more effective at long HRT than at short HRT not only because it results in a higher concentration of MCFAs but also because it leads to a more efficient use of ethanol and base. The HRT did not influence the n-caproate production rate. The obtained n-caproate concentration is more than twice as high as the maximum solubility of n-caproic acid in water which is beneficial for its separation from the fermentation broth. This study does not only set the record on the highest n-caproate concentration observed in a chain elongation process to date, it notably demonstrates that

  8. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  9. Tandem Oligonucleotide Probe Annealing and Elongation To Discriminate Viral Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Maria; Uhd, Jesper; Miotke, Laura

    2017-01-01

    opportunities in transcriptome analysis, virology, and other fields. Herein, we report for the first time a "click" chemistry approach to oligonucleotide probe elongation as a novel approach to specifically detect a viral sequence. We hybridized a library of short, terminally labeled probes to Ebola virus RNA...

  10. Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100-400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microsco...

  11. FtsZ-Dependent Elongation of a Coccoid Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic understanding of the determination and maintenance of the simplest bacterial cell shape, a sphere, remains elusive compared with that of more complex shapes. Cocci seem to lack a dedicated elongation machinery, and a spherical shape has been considered an evolutionary dead-end morphology, as a transition from a spherical to a rod-like shape has never been observed in bacteria. Here we show that a Staphylococcus aureus mutant (M5 expressing the ftsZG193D allele exhibits elongated cells. Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro studies indicate that FtsZG193D filaments are more twisted and shorter than wild-type filaments. In vivo, M5 cell wall deposition is initiated asymmetrically, only on one side of the cell, and progresses into a helical pattern rather than into a constricting ring as in wild-type cells. This helical pattern of wall insertion leads to elongation, as in rod-shaped cells. Thus, structural flexibility of FtsZ filaments can result in an FtsZ-dependent mechanism for generating elongated cells from cocci.

  12. Visualization of elongation measurements using an SER universal testing platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/2342 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : elongational viscosity * Universal Testing Platform (SER) * polymer melts * LDPE Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.241, year: 2015

  13. Bilateral elongated styloid process: Its anatomical, embryological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagoji Ishwar B, Hadimani Gavishiddappa A, Patil Balasaheb G, Bannur Balappa M,Ambadasu B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The styloid process is a slender, elongated, cylindrical bony projection from temporal bone. It normally varies in length from 2 cm to 3 cm. During a routine demonstration of skull for MBBS students we found the bilateral elongated styloid process in dry human skull. The length of elongation measured on the right and left side was 6.0 & 5.9 cms respectively. Such abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression on a number of vital vessels and nerves related to it, producing inflammatory changes that include continuous chronic pain in the pharyngeal region. Mechanical stresses stretching the second brachial arch during fetal development probably induce variable involvement of Reichert’s cartilage in morphogenesis of the styloid process. It is important that clinicians especially dentists and otolaryngologists are aware of the natural variations of the styloid process and do not consider the styloid process with a length of 30 mm as an abnormality or as an anomaly.

  14. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  15. Effect of cryogenic treatment on the tensile behaviour of En 52 and 21-4N valve steels at room and elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaswin, M. Arockia; Lal, D. Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Tensile behaviour of cryo-treated valve steels are investigated at elevated temperature. → En 52 and 21-4N valve steel materials are treated at - 196 o C . → Tensile strength of cryo-treated En 52 and 21-4N valve steel has improved by 8 % and 12 % respectively. → Precipitation of fine carbides through cryogenic treatment is the reason for the improved strength. -- Abstract: This experimental study investigates the effects of cryogenic treatment on the tensile behaviour of En 52 and 21-4N valve steels at room and elevated temperatures. The materials are subjected to shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) at 193 K and deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) at 85 K and the tensile behaviour is compared with that of the conventional heat treatment (CHT). The high temperature tensile test is conducted at 673 K (400 o C) and 923 K (650 o C) for the En 52 and 21-4N valve steels respectively. The ultimate tensile strength of the En 52 and 21-4N DCT samples show an enhancement of 7.87% and 6.76% respectively, over the CHT samples tested at the elevated temperature. The average yield strength of the En 52 DCT samples has an improvement 11% than that of the CHT samples when tested at room and elevated temperatures. The deep cryogenic treatment conducted at the optimized condition shows 7.84% improvement in the tensile strength for the En 52 valve steel and 11.87% improvement for the 21-4N valve steel when compared to the strength of the samples without the cryogenic treatment. A scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fracture surface indicates the presence of dimples and microvoid coalescence on the grain facets and interfaces of the cryo-treated specimens. The fracture surface of the deep cryo-treated 21-4N valve steel specimen shows a complete intergranular fracture with deep secondary cracks between the grains. On comparing the results of the percentage elongation, the cryo-treated samples show a smaller reduction in the elongation than that of the

  16. Influence of temperature and grain size on the tensile ductility of AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, S.L.; Samuel, K.G.; Rodriguez, P.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of tmeperature and grain size on the tensile ductility of AISI 316 stainless steel has been examined in the temperature range 300-1223 K for specimens with grain sizes varying from 0.025 to 0.650 mm at a nominal strain rate of 3 X 10 -4 s -1 . The percentage total elongation and reduction in area at fracture show minimum ductility at an intermediate temperature, and the temperature corresponding to this ductility minimum has been found to increase with increase in grain size. The total elongation is found to decrease with increase in grain size at high temperatures where failures are essentially intergranular in nature. At 300 K, both uniform and total elongation increase with increase in grain size and then show a small decrease for a very coarse grain size. The high ductility observed at low temperatures (300 K) is consistent with the observation of characteristic dimples associated with transgranular ductile fracture. The ductility minimum with respect to temperature is associated with the occurrence of intergranular fracture, as evidenced by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The present results support the suggestion that the ductility minimum coincides with the maximum amount of grain boundary sliding; at temperatures beyond the ductility minimum, grain boundary separation by cavitation is retarded by the occurrence of grain boundary migration, as evidenced by the grain boundary cusps. In tests conducted at various strain rates in the range 10 -3 -10 -6 s -1 at 873 K the ductility was found to decrease with decreasing strain rate, emphasizing the increased importance of grain boundary sliding at lower strain rates. (Auth.)

  17. Effect of tungsten content on the microstructure and tensile properties of Ni–xW–6Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shulin [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ye, Xiang-Xi, E-mail: yexiangxi@sinap.ac.cn [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Jiang, Li [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cui, Chuanyong [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Zhijun, E-mail: lizhijun@sinap.ac.cn [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Huang, Hefei; Leng, Bin [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, Xingtai, E-mail: zhouxingtai@sinap.ac.cn [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-02-08

    Ni–xW–6Cr alloys have been considered as one of the potential structural materials for molten salt techniques, whereas their microstructure and mechanical performance have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, the microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of Ni–(10–35 wt%)W–6Cr alloys have been systematically investigated. The phase diagram calculations indicated that the solubility limit of W is 34 wt% in Ni–xW–6Cr alloy. α-W phase is formed in the matrix while the W content exceeds such limit. The fracture of the Ni–(10–35 wt%)W–6Cr alloys at room temperature is in the transgranular ductile fracture mode. The tensile properties of alloys, except for the elongation of Ni–35 wt%W–6Cr alloy, are improved with the increase of W content, which can be explained by the larger lattice distortion, the lower stack fault energy and the higher length fraction of twin boundaries (Σ3 and Σ9 type) in the Ni–(10–35 wt%)W–6Cr alloys caused by the addition of more W. The reduced elongation of the Ni–35 wt%W–6Cr alloy is ascribed to the particles in α-W phase which act as the main nucleation sites for cracking.

  18. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components

  19. Accurate anisotropic material modelling using only tensile tests for hot and cold forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abspoel, M.; Scholting, M. E.; Lansbergen, M.; Neelis, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate material data for simulations require a lot of effort. Advanced yield loci require many different kinds of tests and a Forming Limit Curve (FLC) needs a large amount of samples. Many people use simple material models to reduce the effort of testing, however some models are either not accurate enough (i.e. Hill’48), or do not describe new types of materials (i.e. Keeler). Advanced yield loci describe the anisotropic materials behaviour accurately, but are not widely adopted because of the specialized tests, and data post-processing is a hurdle for many. To overcome these issues, correlations between the advanced yield locus points (biaxial, plane strain and shear) and mechanical properties have been investigated. This resulted in accurate prediction of the advanced stress points using only Rm, Ag and r-values in three directions from which a Vegter yield locus can be constructed with low effort. FLC’s can be predicted with the equations of Abspoel & Scholting depending on total elongation A80, r-value and thickness. Both predictive methods are initially developed for steel, aluminium and stainless steel (BCC and FCC materials). The validity of the predicted Vegter yield locus is investigated with simulation and measurements on both hot and cold formed parts and compared with Hill’48. An adapted specimen geometry, to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution in the Gleeble hot tensile test, was used to measure the mechanical properties needed to predict a hot Vegter yield locus. Since for hot material, testing of stress states other than uniaxial is really challenging, the prediction for the yield locus adds a lot of value. For the hot FLC an A80 sample with a homogeneous temperature distribution is needed which is due to size limitations not possible in the Gleeble tensile tester. Heating the sample in an industrial type furnace and tensile testing it in a dedicated device is a good alternative to determine the necessary parameters for the FLC

  20. Dynamic Strain Aging Phenomena and Tensile Response of Medium-Mn TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Daniel M.; Van Aken, David C.

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic strain aging (DSA) and rapid work hardening are typical behaviors observed in medium-Mn transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. Three alloys with manganese ranging from 10.2 to 13.8 wt pct with calculated room temperature stacking fault energies varying from - 2.1 to 0.7 mJ/m2 were investigated. Significant serrations were observed in the stress-strain behavior for two of the steels and the addition of 4.6 wt pct chromium was effective in significantly reducing the occurrence of DSA. Addition of chromium to the alloy reduced DSA by precipitation of M23(C,N)6 during batch annealing at 873 K (600 °C) for 20 hours. Three distinct DSA mechanisms were identified: one related to manganese ordering in stacking faults associated with ɛ-martensite and austenite interface, with activation energies for the onset and termination of DSA being 145 and 277 kJ/mol. A second mechanism was associated with carbon diffusion in γ-austenite where Mn-C bonding added to the total binding energy, and activation energies of 88 and 155 kJ/mol were measured for the onset and termination of DSA. A third mechanism was attributed to dislocation pinning and unpinning by nitrogen in α-ferrite with activation energies of 64 and 123 kJ/mol being identified. Tensile behaviors of the three medium manganese steels were studied in both the hot band and batch annealed after cold working conditions. Ultimate tensile strengths ranged from 1310 to 1404 MPa with total elongation of 24.1 to 34.1 pct. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the transformation response of the steels using interrupted tensile tests at room temperature. All three of the processed steels showed evidence of two-stage TRIP where γ-austenite first transformed to ɛ-martensite, and subsequently transformed to α-martensite.

  1. Investigation of surface residual stress profile on martensitic stainless steel weldment with X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of residual stresses during fabrication is inevitable and often neglected with dire consequences during the service life of the fabricated components. In this work, the surface residual stress profile following the martensitic stainless steel (MSS pipe welding was investigated with X-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed the presence of residual stresses equilibrated across the weldment zones. Tensile residual stress observed in weld metal was balanced by compressive residual stresses in the parent material on the opposing sides of weld metal. Keywords: Residual stress, Weld, Stainless steel, X-ray, HAZ

  2. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  3. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Rattner, Jerome B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Hoorn, Frans A. van der, E-mail: fvdhoorn@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  4. Reduction method for residual stress of welded joint using harmonic vibrational load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tadashi; Hiroi, Tetsumaro; Hirai, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Welding is widely used for construction of many structures. Since welding is a process using locally given heat, residual stress is generated near the bead. Tensile residual stress degrades fatigue strength. Some reduction methods of residual stress have been presented and, for example, heat treatment and shot peening are practically used. However, those methods need special tools and are time consuming. In this paper, a new method for reduction of residual stress using harmonic vibrational load during welding is proposed. The proposed method is examined experimentally for some conditions. Two thin plates are supported on the supporting device and butt-welded using an automatic CO 2 gas shielded arc welding machine. Residual stress in the direction of the bead is measured by using a paralleled beam X-ray diffractometer with scintillation counter after removing quenched scale chemically. First, the welding of rolled steel for general structure for some excitation frequencies is examined. Specimens are welded along the groove on both sides. For all frequencies, tensile residual stress near the bead is significantly reduced. Second, welding of the specimen made of high tensile strength steel is examined. In this case, tensile residual stress near the bead is also reduced. Finally, the proposed method is examined by an analytical method. An analytical model which consists of mass and preloaded springs with elasto-plastic characteristic is used. Reduction of residual stress is demonstrated using this model

  5. Miniature tensile test specimens for fusion reactor irradiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three miniature sheet-type tensile specimens and a miniature rod-type specimen are being used to determine irradiated tensile properties for alloy development for fusion reactors. The tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel were determined with these different specimens, and the results were compared. Reasonably good agreement was observed. However, there were differences that led to recommendations on which specimens are preferred. 4 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  6. Microstructural evolution during tensile deformation of polypropylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Tensile deformation processes occurring at varying strain rates in high and low crystallinity polypropylenes and ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This is examined for both long and short chain polymeric materials. The deformation processes in different polymeric materials show striking dissimilarities in spite of the common propylene matrix. Additionally, the deformation behavior of long and their respective short chain polymers was different. Deformation mechanisms include crazing/tearing, wedging, ductile ploughing, fibrillation, and brittle fracture. The different modes of deformation are depicted in the form of strain rate-strain diagrams. At a constant strain rate, the strain to fracture follows the sequence: high crystallinity polypropylenes< low crystallinity polypropylenes< ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers, indicative of the trend in resistance to plastic deformation

  7. A user's manual for managing database system of tensile property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seok; Park, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Jun, I.

    2003-06-01

    This manual is written for the management and maintenance of the tensile database system for managing the tensile property test data. The data base constructed the data produced from tensile property test can increase the application of test results. Also, we can get easily the basic data from database when we prepare the new experiment and can produce better result by compare the previous data. To develop the database we must analyze and design carefully application and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. The tensile database system was developed by internet method using Java, PL/SQL, JSP(Java Server Pages) tool

  8. Tensile properties and water absorption assessment of linear low-Density Polyethylene/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)/Kenaf composites: effect of eco-friendly coupling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, A. L.; Ismail, H.; Abu Bakar, A.

    2018-02-01

    Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) filled with untreated kenaf (UT-KNF) and eco-friendly coupling agent (ECA)-treated kenaf (ECAT-KNF) were prepared using ThermoHaake internal mixer, respectively. Filler loadings of UT-KNF and ECAT-KNF used in this study are 10 and 40 parts per hundred parts of resin (phr). The effect of ECA on tensile properties and water absorption of LLDPE/PVOH/KNF composites were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis was applied to visualize filler-matrix adhesion. The results indicate LLDPE/PVOH/ECAT-KNF composites possess higher tensile strength and tensile modulus, but lower elongation at break compared to LLDPE/PVOH/UT-KNF composites. The morphological studies of tensile fractured surfaces using FESEM support the increment in tensile properties of LLDPE/PVOH/ECAT-KNF composites. Nevertheless, LLDPE/PVOH/UT-KNF composites reveal higher water absorption compared to LLDPE/PVOH/ECAT-KNF composites.

  9. Influence of scan strategy and molten pool configuration on microstructures and tensile properties of selective laser melting additive manufactured aluminum based parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Donghua; Gu, Dongdong; Zhang, Han; Xiong, Jiapeng; Ma, Chenglong; Hong, Chen; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2018-02-01

    Selective laser melting additive manufacturing of the AlSi12 material parts through the re-melting of the previously solidified layer using the continuous two layers 90° rotate scan strategy was conducted. The influence of the re-melting behavior and scan strategy on the formation of the ;track-track; and ;layer-layer; molten pool boundaries (MPBs), dimensional accuracy, microstructure feature, tensile properties, microscopic sliding behavior and the fracture mechanism as loaded a tensile force has been studied. It showed that the defects, such as the part distortion, delamination and cracks, were significantly eliminated with the deformation rate less than 1%. The microstructure of a homogeneous distribution of the Si phase, no apparent grain orientation on both sides of the MPBs, was produced in the as-fabricated part, promoting the efficient transition of the load stress. Cracks preferentially initiate at the ;track-track; MPBs when the tensile stress increases to a certain value, resulting in the formation of the cleavage steps along the tensile loading direction. The cracks propagate along the ;layer-layer; MPBs, generating the fine dimples. The mechanical behavior of the SLM-processed AlSi12 parts can be significantly enhanced with the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of 476.3 MPa, 315.5 MPa and 6.7%, respectively.

  10. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  11. Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in search of a role for the N-terminal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansilla, Francisco; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Laurberg, M

    1998-01-01

    We have mutated lysine 2 and arginine 7 in elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli separately either to alanine or glutamic acid. The aim of the work was to reveal the possible interactions between the conserved N-terminal part of the molecule, which is rich in basic residues and aminoacyl...... this activity. Furthermore, arginine 7 seems to play a role in regulating the binding of GTP. The three-dimensional structure of the ternary complex, EF-Tu:GTP:Phe-tRNAPhe, involving Thermus aquaticus EF-Tu and yeast Phe-tRNA(Phe), shows that Arg7 is in a position which permits salt bridge formation with Asp284...

  12. In situ room temperature tensile deformation of a 1% CrMoV bainitic steel using synchrotron and neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisser, M.A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Materials (IMX), CH-1012 Lausanne (Switzerland); Evans, A.D.; Van Petegem, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Holdsworth, S.R. [EMPA Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Van Swygenhoven, H., E-mail: helena.vs@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Materials (IMX), CH-1012 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction spectra have been acquired during room temperature tensile deformation of a creep-resistant bainitic 1% CrMoV steel, in order to study the evolution of internal microstresses and load-sharing mechanisms between the ferrite matrix and the various carbides. Cementite takes load from the plastifying matrix at the onset of macroscopic plasticity resulting in residual interphase stresses. Single peak fitting indicates an elastic anisotropic behaviour of cementite.

  13. Role of modification and melt thermal treatment processes on the microstructure and tensile properties of Al–Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Garza-Elizondo, G.H.; Doty, H.W.; Samuel, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High tensile strength applying the melt thermal treatment process. • Enhanced ductility by changing the Si particle morphology. • Control of the dissolution and precipitation of Mg 2 Si phase. • Establishment of the fracture mechanisms of Al–Si–Mg alloys. - Abstract: The present study was performed on an Al–7%Si–0.35%Mg alloy (A356 alloy) with the primary objective of improving the alloy performance through modification of the microstructure. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) can be improved by the addition of strontium (Sr), superheating or Sr modified melt thermal treatment. The melt thermal treatment process alone has no apparent influence on the UTS. Both Sr-modified and Sr-modified melt thermal treatment can help to improve the percentage elongation of A356 alloy castings. A higher percentage elongation can be reached at a higher cooling rate. The effect of solution heat treatment on the tensile properties of various A356.2 alloy castings can be summed up as follows: (i) the yield strength of the A356.2 castings is significantly improved after 8 h solution heat treatment due to the precipitation of Mg 2 Si, (ii) the yield strength remains more or less the same with further increase in solution treatment time to 80 h, and (iii) the UTS is greatly improved within the first 8 h of solution heat treatment and continues up to 80 h, where this improvement is attributed to Mg 2 Si precipitation, dissolution of silicon within the Al-matrix and change in the Si particle morphology (spheroidization). The ductility of the A356.2 alloys can also be considerably enhanced with solution heat treatment (e.g. from ∼6% in the non-modified casting in the as-cast condition to ∼10% after 80 h solution treatment)

  14. Transition zone cells reach G2 phase before initiating elongation in maize root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Alarcón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called the transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but on the basal side of the meristem cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. Throughout this journey cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but exit when they enter the elongation zone. In addition, the percentage of cells in G2 phase (4C strongly increased from the meristem to the elongation zone. However, we did not observe remarkable changes in the percentage of cells in cell cycle phases along the entire elongation zone. These results suggest that meristematic cells in maize root apex stop the cell cycle in G2 phase after leaving the meristem.

  15. Tensile strength of AK7 alloy after treatment by exothermic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of treatment by chemical compounds giving exothermic effect on the tensile strength of AK7 alloy. The research was carried out on 1100 g of the alloy in classical mould. The chemical mixture was composed of Na 2 B 4 O 7 , NaNO 3 and Cr 2 O 3 + AlNi. The studies were conducted following a mathematical experiment plan. The action of Borax was free from interference whereas the two residual constituents were mass-dependence. Excess NaNO 3 was caused by the reduction of the value of the tensile strength. Cr 2 O 3 + AlNi strengthened the influence of NaNO 3 . It was found that the blending of Na 2 B 4 O 7 and NaNO 3 on weight ratio 1,5 to 1 and of NaNO 3 and Cr 2 O 3 + AlNi on weight ratio 1 to 3 improved the tensile strength of the AK7 alloy after treatment. (author)

  16. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the tensile behaviour of uranium - 2sup(w)/o molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, J.; Boyd, G.A.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the uniaxial tensile behaviour of uranium 2 w/o molybdenum alloy over a wide range of temperature and strain rate. Specimen blanks taken from co-reduced and extruded U2 w/o Mo rods were given one of two heat treatments. Longitudinal tensile test pieces, taken from these blanks at near surface locations were tested in the temperature range -150 deg C to +100 deg C at strain rates from quasistatic (10 -4 s -1 ) to 10 3 s -1 . To achieve this range of testing rates three machines were required: an Instron screw driven machine for rates up to 0.1 s -1 , a second specially constructed hydraulic machine for the range 0.1 s -1 to 50 s -1 and a drop weight machine for the highest strain rates. The ways in which the mechanical properties - elongation to fracture, flow stresses and ultimate tensile stress - vary with both temperature and strain rate are presented and discussed for material in both heat treatment conditions. (author)

  17. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the tensile behaviour of uranium 2 w/o molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, J.; Boyd, G.A.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the uniaxial tensile behaviour of uranium 2 w/o molybdenum alloy over a wide range of temperature and strain rate. Specimen blanks taken from co-reduced and extruded U 2 w/o Mo rods were given one of two heat treatments. Longitudinal tensile test pieces, taken from these blanks at near surface locations were tested in the temperature range -150 deg C to +100 deg C at strain rates from quasistatic (10 -4 s -1 ) to 10 3 s -1 . To achieve this range of testing rates three machines were required: an Instron screw driven machine for rates up to 0.1 s -1 , a second specially constructed hydraulic machine for the range 0.1 s -1 to 50 s -1 and a drop weight machine for the highest strain rates. The ways in which the mechanical properties - elongation to fracture, flow stresses and ultimate tensile stress - vary with both temperature and strain rate are presented and discussed for material in both heat treatment conditions. (author)

  18. Effect of Cooling Rate and Chemical Modification on the Tensile Properties of Mg-5wt% Si Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Farshid; Meratian, Mahmood; Zahrani, Mohsen Mohammadi; Zahrani, Ehsan Mohammadi

    Hypereutectic Mg-Si alloys are a new class of light materials usable for aerospace and other advanced engineering applications. In this study, the effects of both cooling rate and bismuth modification on the micro structure and tensile properties of hypereutectic Mg-5wt% Si alloy were investigated. It was found that the addition of 0.5% Bi, altered the morphology of primary Mg2Si particles from bulky to polygonal shape and reduced their mean size from more than 70 μm to about 30 (am. Also, the tensile strength and elongation of the modified alloy increased about 10% and 20%, respectively, which should be ascribed to the modification of Mg2Si morphology and more uniform distribution of the primary particles. Moreover, an increase in tensile strength value with increase in cooling rate were observed which is attributed to finer micro structure of alloy in higher cooling rates. It was observed that Bi addition is significantly more effective in refining the morphology of primary Mg2Si particles than applying faster cooling rates.

  19. The tensile properties of alloys 800H and 617 in the range 20 to 950deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Azim, M.E.; Ennis, P.J.; Schuster, H.; Nickel, H.

    1990-01-01

    The tensile properties of Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 in the solution treated condition and after ageing or carburization have been determined for the temperature range 20 to 950deg C. It was found that ageing at 900deg C prior to testing led to an increase in strength and a decrease in ductility at test temperatures up to 700deg C. Above 700deg C, there was no significant difference between the tensile properties of solution treated and aged material. Carburization caused a severe loss of ductility in both alloys at temperatures of 20 to around 800deg C, but the ductility increased sharply at test temperatures above 800deg C, accompanied by a change in the fracture mode from fracture of the carbide particles themselves to void formation and separation at the carbide/matrix interface. The correlation between tensile properties and creep data was investigated in tests carried out at different strain rates. Reasonable agreement was found at 800 to 950deg C for Alloy 617 and at 800 to 900deg C for Alloy 800H. Strain ageing effects were observed in both alloys at some temperatures and strain rates; these effects were serrated flow, negative strain rate sensitivity, peaks in the normalized UTS-temperature curves and plateaus in the elongation-temperature curves. The experimental results were interpreted in the light of two current models for strain ageing, the dislocation-dislocation interaction model and the dislocation-solute interaction model. (orig.) [de

  20. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: reyesm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Alonso, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC 27109 (United States); Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam.

  1. IHH and FGF8 coregulate elongation of digit primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Meng, Junwei; Guo, Shengzhen; Gao, Bo; Ma, Gang; Zhu, Xuming; Hu, Jianxin; Xiao, Yue; Lin, Chuwen; Wang, Hongsheng; Ding, Lusheng; Feng, Guoyin; Guo, Xizhi; He, Lin

    2007-11-23

    In the developing limb bud, digit pattern arises from anterior-posterior (A-P) positional information which is provided by the concentration gradient of SHH. However, the mechanisms of translating early asymmetry into morphological form are still unclear. Here, we examined the ability of IHH and FGF8 signaling to regulate digital chondrogenesis, by implanting protein-loaded beads in the interdigital space singly and in combination. We found that IHH protein induced an elongated digit and that FGF8 protein blocked the terminal phalange formation. Molecular marker analysis showed that IHH expanded Sox9 expression in mesenchymal cells possibly through up-regulated FGF8 expression. Application of both IHH and FGF8 protein induced a large terminal phalange. These results suggest that both enhanced IHH and FGF8 signaling are required for the development of additional cartilage element in limbs. IHH and FGF8 maybe play different roles and act synergistically to promote chondrogenesis during digit primordia elongation.

  2. Cladding axial elongation models for FRAP-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Carlson, E.R.; Berna, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the cladding axial elongation models developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for use by the FRAP-T6 computer code in analyzing the response of fuel rods during reactor transients in light water reactors (LWR). The FRAP-T6 code contains models (FRACAS-II subcode) that analyze the structural response of a fuel rod including pellet-cladding-mechanical-interaction (PCMI). Recently, four models were incorporated into FRACAS-II to calculate cladding axial deformation: (a) axial PCMI, (b) trapped fuel stack, (c) fuel relocation, and (d) effective fuel thermal expansion. Comparisons of cladding axial elongation measurements from two experiments with the corresponding FRAP-T6 calculations are presented

  3. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Reyes, M.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Garibay-Alonso, R.; Carroll, D.L.; Lastras-Martinez, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam

  4. Tensile properties of carbon black-filled natural rubber latex films using two different approaches of film preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarkasi, Siti Aisyah; Samsuri, Azemi; Hashim, M. Y. Amir; Kamarun, Dzaraini

    2017-09-01

    A study was structured to investigate the effects of two different approaches of black-filled NRL films preparation on tensile strengths and tensile stress at 100% strain (M100). In the "First Approach", carbon black dispersion was added into the NRL and mixed using mechanical stirrer. Then the black-filled NRL was coagulated with acetic acid and dried to form NR black-filled masterbatch. This black-filled NR masterbatch was then masticated and mixed with other compounding ingredients on the 2-roll mill. In the "Second Approach", carbon black dispersion was mixed with NRL plus all other compounding ingredients using a mechanical stirrer at high mechanical stirring speed (200 rpm) for 3 hrs. Tensile test-pieces from these two rubber specimens were tested according to ISO37. It was observed that the tensile strengths are affected by both methods. In the case of masticated latex masterbatch, the black-filled NRL films gave higher tensile strength (25-27 MPa) as compared to un-masticated black-filled NRL films (11-17 MPa). The optimum amount of filler loading for highest tensile strength in both approaches was 20 phr of carbon black. However these different approaches did not give significant effect to the elongation at break, EB and M100. SEM images of samples prepared from both approaches suggested that the dispersion of filler in the rubber matrix was better in the masticated samples compared to the un-masticated samples. The reason for the difference in the tensile strength between the two black-filled rubbers might be associated with the degree of dispersions and the uniformity of the dispersions within the rubber matrix. The first mixing approach involved high mechanical shearing action during mastication and mixing process on the 2-roll mill. The high shearing actions were able to breakdown filler aggregates efficiently and distributed the dispersed filler uniformly within the rubber matrix. In the second approach, the breakdown of filler aggregates relied on

  5. Polymer film strain gauges for measuring large elongations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, A. P.; Zueva, A. M.; Varakin, R. S.; Taranec, I. P.; Savenkova, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper shows the possibility to print polymer strain gages, microstrip lines, coplanar waveguides, and other prints for avionics using printing technology and equipment. The methods of screen and inkjet printing have been complemented by three new operations of preparing print films for application of an electrically conductive ink layer. Such additional operations make it possible to enhance the conductive ink layer adhesion to the film and to manufacture strain gages for measuring large elongations.

  6. Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1983-06-01

    The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas.

  7. Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas

  8. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT: This project focuses on the important but under-studied role of the P-TEFb- dependent transcription elongation machinery in human breast...molecule CDK9 inhibitors can be used to halt breast cancer metastasis. 8 experimental groups to test various drug dosage and frequency regimes will...tumor cells, which are said to be ’ addicted ’ to this protein. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 has demonstrated great promise in

  9. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-11

    eukaryotes, such as MAELO (40% identity with yeast Elo2p) that elongates C16-C18 saturated and monounsaturated FAs in the filamentous fungus ...and n-6 FAs have been reported in patients suffering from hypertension [145]. Thus, several PUFA rich oil-producing organisms, including the fungus ...membrane proteome (30), a topological reporter cassette (Suc2p/His4C) was fused at the C-terminus of many membrane proteins, including Tsc13p. The

  10. Fracture behavior of nuclear graphites under tensile impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugachi, Hirokazu; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Eto, Motokuni

    1994-01-01

    Impact tensile strength test was performed with two kinds of HTTR graphites, fine grained isotropic graphite, IG-11 and coarse grained near isotropic graphite, PGX and deformation and fracture behavior under the strain rate of over 100s -1 was measured and the following results were derived: (1) Tensile strength for IG-11 graphite does not depend on the strain rate less than 1 s -1 , but over 1 s -1 , tensile strength for IG-11 graphite increase larger than that measured under 1 s -1 . At the strain rate more than 100 s -1 , remarkable decrease of tensile strength for IG-11 graphite was found. Tensile strength of PGX graphite does not depend on the strain rate less than 1 s -1 , but beyond this value, the sharp tensile strength decrease occurs. (2) Under 100 s -1 , fracture strain for both graphites increase with increase of strain rate and over 100 s -1 , drastic increase of fracture strain for IG-11 graphite was found. (3) At the part of gage length, volume of specimen increase with increase of tensile loading level and strain rate. (4) Poisson's ratio for both graphites decrease with increase of tensile loading level and strain rate. (5) Remarkable change of stress-strain curve for both graphites under 100 s -1 was not found, but over 100 s -1 , the slope of these curve for IG-11 graphite decrease drastically. (author)

  11. Vacuum fused deposition modelling system to improve tensile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the printing process, the interlayer bonding is made too quick thus the layers are not fully fused together causing the reduced tensile strength. This paper presents a possible solution to this problem by incorporating vacuum technology in FDM system to improve tensile strength of 3D printed specimens. In this study, a ...

  12. Texture development during tensile deformation in Al-Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, S.; Inagaki, H. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Tensile tests were made on commercial A1050 pure Al, A5182 Al-4.4% Mg alloy and A2017 Al-4% Cu alloy by varying the test temperature and the strain rate. Textures developed at various stages of the tensile deformation were investigated with the orientation distribution function analysis. It was found that, during the tensile test of the 1050 pure Al with the strain rate of 3 x 10{sup -4}S{sup -1} at 20 C, tensile axis readily rotated toward left angle 111 right angle stable end orientation. However, such rotation occurred only at the latest stage of the tensile deformation near the ultimate tensile stress, where stress strain curve was almost flattened and work hardening was almost saturated. It was strongly suggested that, since fine and complex dislocation cell structures were developed in such a work-hardened state, smooth and long range dislocation glide such as assumed in the classical Taylor theory would not be possible. To explain the observed texture development, cooperative movement of the dislocations in the cell walls might be necessary. In fact, addition of Mg and Cu, which suppressed strongly the development of well defined cell structures due to P-L effect or dynamic strain ageing, significantly retarded the rotation of tensile axes toward left angle 111 right angle. Interesting enough, textures developed in all these materials investigated were not affected by the strain rate and the temperature of the tensile test. (orig.)

  13. Laser-induced generation of pure tensile stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemz, M.H.; Lin, C.P.; Pitsillides, C.; Cui, J.; Doukas, A.G.; Deutsch, T.F.

    1997-01-01

    While short compressive stresses can readily be produced by laser ablation, the generation of pure tensile stresses is more difficult. We demonstrate that a 90 degree prism made of polyethylene can serve to produce short and pure tensile stresses. A compressive wave is generated by ablating a thin layer of strongly absorbing ink on one surface of the prism with a Q-switched frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The compressive wave driven into the prism is reflected as a tensile wave by the polyethylene-air interface at its long surface. The low acoustic impedance of polyethylene makes it ideal for coupling tensile stresses into liquids. In water, tensile stresses up to -200bars with a rise time of the order of 20 ns and a duration of 100 ns are achieved. The tensile strength of water is determined for pure tensile stresses lasting for 100 ns only. The technique has potential application in studying the initiation of cavitation in liquids and in comparing the effect of compressive and tensile stress transients on biological media. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. New Scanning Electron Microscope Used for Cryogenic Tensile Testing

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    At CERN engineering department's installation for cryogenic tensile testing, the new scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows for detailed optical observations to be carried out. Using the SEM, surface coatings and tensile properties of materials can investigated in order to better understand how they behave under different conditions.

  15. Use of run statistics to validate tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    In tensile testing of irradiated graphites, it is difficult to assure alignment of sample and train for tensile measurements. By recording location of fractures, run (sequential) statistics can readily detect lack of randomness. The technique is based on partitioning binomial distributions

  16. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  17. Influence of relative humidity on tensile and compressive creep of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of ambient relative humidity on tensile creep of plain concrete amended with Ground Granulated Blast - furnace Slag and compares it with its influence on compressive creep. Tensile and compressive creep tests were carried out on concrete specimens of 34.49 ...

  18. The influence of Ti on the microstructure and tensile properties of cast Al–4.5Cu–0.3Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamali, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamy, M., E-mail: emamy@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razaghian, A. [Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-10

    Current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different amounts of titanium (0.001–0.5 wt%) on the microstructure, tensile properties and quality index of a high strength aluminum alloy (Al–4.5 Cu–0.3Mg). It was found that this alloy is susceptible to hot tearing and at least 0.05 wt% Ti is necessary to remove such a defect. The microstructural studies of the alloy revealed that Ti addition reduces the grain size from 190 μm to 48 μm, but adding higher Ti content (>0.05 wt% Ti) does not change the grain size considerably. Further investigations on tensile tests revealed that the addition of Ti increases ultimate tensile strength (UTS) but reduces elongation values. T6 heat treatment improved UTS, elongation and quality index values of the casting. Fracture surfaces via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed ductile fracture mode in both as-cast and heat-treated conditions. At higher Ti contents, the presence of Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallic on grain boundaries was found to be the favored path for crack growth.

  19. Effector region of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu.GTP complex stabilizes an orthoester acid intermediate structure of aminoacyl-tRNA in a ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, C; Limmer, S; Zeidler, W; Sprinzl, M

    1994-01-01

    tRNA(Val) from Escherichia coli was aminoacylated with [1-13C]valine and its complex with Thermus thermophilus elongation factor EF-Tu.GTP was analyzed by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the aminoacyl residue of the valyl-tRNA in ternary complex with bacterial EF-Tu and GTP is not attached to tRNA by a regular ester bond to either a 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl group; instead, an intermediate orthoester acid structure with covalent linkage to both vicinal hydroxyls of the terminal adenosine-76 is formed. Mutation of arginine-59 located in the effector region of EF-Tu, a conserved residue in protein elongation factors and the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins), abolishes the stabilization of the orthoester acid structure of aminoacyl-tRNA. PMID:8183898

  20. Brassinosteroid regulates cell elongation by modulating gibberellin metabolism in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-11-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Significant enhancement by biochar of caproate production via chain elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biochar was introduced into a chain elongation system to enhance the bioproduction of caproate and caprylate. The concentration of caproate increased to 21.1 g/L upon the addition of biochar, which is the highest level of caproate reported for such a system to date when ethanol was used as electron donor. The addition of biochar created a tougher system with more stable microorganism community structure for chain elongation, in which no obvious inhibition by products or substrates was observed, moreover, the lag phase was reduced 2.3-fold compared to the system without biochar. These reinforcement effect of biochar are attributed to the enhanced conductivity due to the significant enrichment of functional microorganisms via the microbial network surrounding smaller biochar particles, and via the adsorption on the rough surfaces or pores of larger particles, which facilitated electron transfer. Higher amounts of extracellular polymer substances and higher conductivity induced by biochar could contribute to the reinforcement effect in chain elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photo-oxidation of LDPE: Effects on elongational viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2013-04-01

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, time-deformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  3. Tensile behavior and tension stiffening of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2001-03-01

    For the ultimate behavior analysis of containment buildings under severe accident conditions, a clear understanding of tensile behaviors of plain and reinforced concrete is necessary. Nonlinear models for tensile behaviors of concrete are also needed. This report describe following items: tensile behaviors of plain concrete, test results of reinforced concrete panels in uniaxial and biaxial tension, tension stiffening. The tensile behaviors of reinforced concrete are significantly influenced by the properties of concrete and reinforcing steel. Thus, for a more reliable evaluation of tensile behavior and ultimate pressure capacity of a reinforced or prestressed concrete containment building, an advanced concrete model which can be considered rebar-concrete interaction effects should be developed. In additions, a crack behavior analysis method and tension stiffening models, which are based on fracture mechanics, should be developed. The model should be based on the various test data from specimens considering material and sectional properties of the containment building

  4. Experimental research on the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concretes after fire

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.C.; Rodrigues, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental research to assess the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concrete after fire. It was studied the influence of the cooling process, the maximum temperature that the concrete was subjected to and the loading level on the residual mechanical properties of calcareous and granite aggregate concretes. The properties studied were the residual compressive, tensile, splitting and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticit...

  5. Analysis and modeling of simulated residual stress of mold injected plastic parts by using robust correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Carlos; Sierra, Juan; Posada, Juan; Botero-Cadavid, Juan F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The injection molding process is the most widely used processing technique for polymers. The analysis of residual stresses generated during this process is crucial for the part quality assessment. The present study evaluates the residual stresses in a tensile strength specimen using the simulation software Moldex3D for two polymers, polypropylene and polycarbonate. The residual stresses obtained under a simulated design of experiment were modeled using a robust multivariable regressi...

  6. Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Matthew T; Leach, Austin M; Gall, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit stiffening or softening under tension and bending as size decreases. Bending simulations typically result in a greater variation of Young's modulus values with nanowire size compared with tensile deformation, which indicates a loading-method-dependent size effect on elastic properties at sub-5 nm wire diameters. Since the axial stress is maximized at the lateral surfaces in bending, the loading-method-dependent size effect is postulated to be primarily a result of differences in nanowire surface and core elastic modulus. The divergence of Young's modulus from the bulk modulus in these simulations occurs at sizes below the range in which experiments have demonstrated a size scale effect on elastic properties of metallic nanowires. This difference indicates that other factors beyond native metallic surface properties play a role in experimentally observed nanowire elastic modulus size effects

  7. Tensile properties of irradiated TZM and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.M.

    1975-04-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the elevated temperature tensile properties of TZM and tungsten has been experimentally determined. Specimens were irradiated at a temperature of approximately 720 0 F to fluences of 0.4 and 0.9 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E greater than 0.1 MeV). Test parameters for both control and irradiated specimens included strain rates from 3 x 10 -4 to 1 s -1 and temperatures from 72 to 1700 0 F. The results of these tests were correlated with a rate-temperature parameter (T ln A/epsilon) to provide a concise description of material behavior over the range of deformation conditions of this study. The yield strength of the subject materials was significantly increased by decreasing temperature, increasing strain rate, and increasing fluence. Ductility was significantly reduced at any temperature or strain rate by increasing fluence. Cleavage fractures occurred in both unirradiated and irradiated specimens when the yield strength was elevated to the effective cleavage stress by temperature and/or strain rate. Neutron irradiation for the conditions of this study increased the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of tungsten by approximately 300 0 F and TZM by approximately 420 0 F. (U.S.)

  8. Fracture Testing with Surface Crack Specimens. [especially the residual tensile strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Recommendations are given for the design, preparation, and static fracture testing of surface crack specimens. The recommendations are preceded by background information including discussions of stress intensity factors, crack opening displacements, and fracture toughness values associated with surface crack specimens. Cyclic load and sustained load tests are discussed briefly.

  9. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Sábio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic, a polyether (Impregum, a condensation silicone (Xantopren and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil ,3; when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength

  10. A study on fatigue crack growth behavior subjected to a single tensile overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Liaw, P.K.; Choo, H.; Rogge, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and electric potential experiments were carried out to investigate the growth behavior of a fatigue crack subjected to a single tensile overload. The specific objectives were to (i) probe the crack tip deformation and fracture behaviors under applied loads; (ii) examine the overload-induced transient crack growth micromechanism; (iii) validate the effective stress intensity factor range based on the crack closure approach as the fatigue crack tip driving force; and (iv) establish a quantitative relationship between the crack tip driving force and crack growth behavior. Immediately after a single tensile overload was introduced and then unloaded, the crack tip became blunt and enlarged compressive residual stresses in both magnitude and zone size were observed around the crack tip. The results show that the combined contributions of the overload-induced enlarged compressive residual stresses and crack tip blunting with secondary cracks are responsible for the observed changes in the crack opening load and the resultant post-overload transient crack growth behavior.

  11. Characteristics of elongated and ruptured anterior cruciate ligament grafts: An analysis of 21 consecutive revision cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Iio

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The location of the original femoral tunnel was more proximal in patients with elongated grafts than in those with ruptured grafts. Different bone tunnel position from native ACL might lead to graft elongation.

  12. QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to gibberellin in deepwater rice

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yuma; Kitaoka, Takuya; Noda, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone that has important roles in numerous plant developmental phases. Rice plants known as deepwater rice respond to flooding by elongating their internodes to avoid anoxia. Previous studies reported that GA is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified QTLs regulating internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions. However, the interaction between internode elongation and regulators of GA s...

  13. Methanol as an alternative electron donor in chain elongation for butyrate and caproate formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W.S.; Ye, Y.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Chain elongation is an emerging mixed culture biotechnology converting acetate into valuable biochemicals by using ethanol as an external electron donor. In this study we proposed to test another potential electron donor, methanol, in chain elongation. Methanol can be produced through the thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biowaste. Use of methanol in chain elongation integrates the lignocellulosic feedstocks and the thermochemical platform technologies into chain elongation. After ...

  14. Ultrasound transmission measurements for tensile strength evaluation of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Takala, T Aleksi; Kuosmanen, Marko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2011-05-16

    Ultrasound transmission measurements were performed to evaluate the tensile strength of tablets. Tablets consisting of one ingredient were compressed from dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate, two grades of microcrystalline cellulose and two grades of lactose monohydrate powders. From each powder, tablets with five different tensile strengths were directly compressed. Ultrasound transmission measurements were conducted on every tablet at frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz and the speed of sound was calculated from the acquired waveforms. The tensile strength of the tablets was determined using a diametrical mechanical testing machine and compared to the calculated speed of sound values. It was found that the speed of sound increased with the tensile strength for the tested excipients. There was a good correlation between the speed of sound and tensile strength. Moreover, based on the statistical tests, the groups with different tensile strengths can be differentiated from each other by measuring the speed of sound. Thus, the ultrasound transmission measurement technique is a potentially useful method for non-destructive and fast evaluation of the tensile strength of tablets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of tensile stress on cavitation damage formation in mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoe, Takashi, E-mail: naoe.takashi@jaea.go.j [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kogawa, Hiroyuki [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoshihito [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Futakawa, Masatoshi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Cavitation erosion or so called pitting damage was investigated under tensile stress conditions in mercury. In MW-class liquid metal spallation targets, pitting damage is a critical issue to satisfy required power and/or lifetime of the target vessel. Cavitation occurs by negative pressure which is induced through pressure wave propagation due to proton beam injection. Pitting damage is formed by microjet and/or shock wave during cavitation bubble collapse. A mercury target vessel suffers tensile stress due to thermal stress or welding. In order to investigate the effect of tensile stress on pitting damage formation, cavitation erosion tests were performed using stress imposed specimens in mercury. An ultrasonic vibratory horn and electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) were used to vary the cavitation intensity. In the incubation period of pitting damage, damaged area was slightly increased with increasing imposed tensile stress. In the steady state period, a mean depth of erosion was increased by the tensile stress. Additionally, in order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of tensile stress, an indentation test with Vickers indenter was carried out to quasi-statically simulate the impact load. From the measurement of the diagonal length of the indent aspect ratio and hardness, it is recognized that the threshold of the deformation, i.e. pitting damage formation, was decreased by the tensile stress.

  16. Effect of heat treatments on the tensile and electrical properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of CuCrZr produced by two different vendors have been measured following different heat treatments. Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements were also performed in order to estimate the thermal conductivity of these specimens. The thermomechanical conditions studied included solution quenched, solution quenched and aged (ITER reference heat treatment), simulated slow HIP thermal cycle (∼1 degrees C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature) and simulated fast HIP thermal cycle (∼100 degrees C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature). Specimens from the last two heat treatments were tested in both the solution-cooled condition and after subsequent precipitate aging at 475 degrees C for 2 h. Both of the simulated HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decreases in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decrease in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycle specimens, whereas the strength and conductivity following aging in the fast HIP thermal cycle improved to ∼65% of the solution quenched and aged CuCrZr values. Limited tensile and electrical resistivity measurements were also made on two new heats of Hycon 3HP CuNiBe. High strength but poor uniform and total elongations were observed at 500 degrees C on one of these new heats of CuNiBe, similar to that observed in other heats

  17. Effect of heat treatments on the tensile and electrical properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of CuCrZr produced by two different vendors have been measured following different heat treatments. Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements were also performed in order to estimate the thermal conductivity of these specimens. The thermomechanical conditions studied included solution quenched, solution quenched and aged (ITER reference heat treatment), simulated slow HIP thermal cycle ({approximately}1{degrees}C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature) and simulated fast HIP thermal cycle ({approximately}100{degrees}C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature). Specimens from the last two heat treatments were tested in both the solution-cooled condition and after subsequent precipitate aging at 475{degrees}C for 2 h. Both of the simulated HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decreases in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decrease in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycle specimens, whereas the strength and conductivity following aging in the fast HIP thermal cycle improved to {approximately}65% of the solution quenched and aged CuCrZr values. Limited tensile and electrical resistivity measurements were also made on two new heats of Hycon 3HP CuNiBe. High strength but poor uniform and total elongations were observed at 500{degrees}C on one of these new heats of CuNiBe, similar to that observed in other heats.

  18. Tensile strength decreases and perfusion pressure of 3-holed polyamide epidural catheters increases in long-term epidural infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pascal; Meyer, Urs; Schüpfer, Guido; Rukwied, Roman; Konrad, Christoph; Gerber, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an established method for pain management. The failure rate is 8% to 12% due to technical difficulties (catheter dislocation and/or disconnection; partial or total catheter occlusion) and management. The mechanical properties of the catheters, like tensile strength and flow rate, may also be affected by the analgesic solution and/or the tissue environment. We investigated the tensile strength and perfusion pressure of new (n=20), perioperatively (n=30), and postoperatively (n=73) used epidural catheters (20-gauge, polyamide, closed tip, 3 side holes; Perifix [B. Braun]). To prevent dislocation, epidural catheters were taped (n=5) or fixed by suture (n=68) to the skin. After removal, mechanical properties were assessed by a tensile-testing machine (INSTRON 4500), and perfusion pressure was measured at flow rates of 10, 20, and 40 mL/h. All catheters demonstrated a 2-step force transmission. Initially, a minimal increase of length could be observed at 15 N followed by an elongation of several cm at additional forces (7 N). Breakage occurred in the control group at 23.5±1.5 N compared with 22.4±1.6 N in perioperative and 22.4±1.7 N in postoperative catheters (Ptensile strength, whereas perfusion pressure at clinically used flow rates (10 mL/h) increased significantly from 19±1.3 to 44±72 mm Hg during long-term (≥7 days) epidural analgesia (Ptensile strength or perfusion pressure. Epidural catheter use significantly increases the perfusion pressure and decreases the tensile strength. Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

  19. Glycan elongation beyond the mucin associated Tn antigen protects tumor cells from immune-mediated killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Membrane bound mucins are up-regulated and aberrantly glycosylated during malignant transformation in many cancer cells. This results in a negatively charged glycoprotein coat which may protect cancer cells from immune surveillance. However, only limited data have so far demonstrated the critical steps in glycan elongation that make aberrantly glycosylated mucins affect the interaction between cancer cells and cytotoxic effector cells of the immune system. Tn (GalNAc-Ser/Thr, STn (NeuAcα2-6GalNAc-Ser/Thr, T (Galβ1-3GalNAc-Ser/Thr, and ST (NeuAcα2-6Galβ1-3GalNAc-Ser/Thr antigens are recognized as cancer associated truncated glycans, and are expressed in many adenocarcinomas, e.g. breast- and pancreatic cancer cells. To investigate the role of the cancer associated glycan truncations in immune-mediated killing we created glyco-engineered breast- and pancreatic cancer cells expressing only the shortest possible mucin-like glycans (Tn and STn. Glyco-engineering was performed by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN knockout (KO of the Core 1 enzyme chaperone COSMC, thereby preventing glycan elongation beyond the initial GalNAc residue in O-linked glycans. We find that COSMC KO in the breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines T47D and Capan-1 increases sensitivity to both NK cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated killing. In addition, we investigated the association between total cell surface expression of MUC1/MUC16 and NK or CTL mediated killing, and observed an inverse correlation between MUC16/MUC1 expression and the sensitivity to ADCC and CTL-mediated killing. Together, these data suggest that up-regulation of membrane bound mucins protects cells from immune mediated killing, and that particular glycosylation steps, as demonstrated for glycan elongation beyond Tn and STn, can be important for fine tuning of the immune escape mechanisms in cancer cells.

  20. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  1. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachtiar, D; Sapuan, S M; Zainudin, E S; Khalina, A; Dahlan, K Z M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  2. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  3. Fruiting branch K+ level affects cotton fibre elongation through osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashuo eYang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fibre length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fibre elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fibre length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1 on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibres were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax is the parameter that best reflects the change in fibre elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analysed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fibre length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibres, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fibre length in late season bolls.

  4. Mechanical properties of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material manufactured employing forging routes for PHWR700 - Part 1: tensile behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bind, A.K.; Singh, R.N.; Sunil, Saurav; Chakravartty, J.K.; Ghosh, Agnish; Dhandharia, Priyesh; More, Nitin S.; Vijayakumar, S.; Chhatre, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Tensile properties of Zr-2.5Nb alloy tubes produced employing forging to break the cast structure were evaluated by carrying out uni-axial tension test at temperatures between 25 and 325 degC and under strain-rate of 1.075 x 10 -4 /s for both longitudinal and transverse specimens. Both strength and elongation values were comparable for the samples obtained from front and back end of the tube. Transverse samples showed higher strength and lower uniform elongation values as compared to longitudinal samples. The yield strength of double forged material at 25 degC is higher than the PHWR700 specification of a maximum value of 586 MPa. (author)

  5. Experiments at high elongations in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Turnbull, A.D.; Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Helton, F.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leuer, J.A.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1990-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the limitation to elongation observed in D-shaped plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. We find that as the triangularity is increased and ell i is decreased that the n = 0 mode takes on an increasingly non-rigid character. Our analysis shows two aspects of the behavior; first, an increasing variation of the m/n = 1/0 component across flux surfaces and second, an increase in the relative amplitude of a m/n = 3/0 component which couples to the m/n = 1/0 component and further destabilizes the mode

  6. Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....

  7. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  8. In-situ electron microscopy studies on the tensile deformation mechanisms in aluminium 5083 alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motsi, G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study tensile deformation mechanisms of aluminium alloy 5083 were investigated under observations made from SEM equipped with a tensile stage. Observations during tensile testing revealed a sequence of surface deformation events...

  9. White cast iron with a nano-eutectic microstructure and high tensile strength and considerable ductility prepared by an aluminothermic reaction casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Peiqing; Wei, Fuan; Hu, Sulei; Li, Cuiling; Wei, Yupeng

    2013-01-01

    A white cast iron with nano-eutectic microstructure was prepared by an aluminothermic reaction casting. Microstructures of the cast iron were investigated by optical microscope (OM), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical properties of the cast iron were tested. The results showed that the cast iron consisted of pearlite and cementite phases. Lamellar spacing of the pearlite phase was in a range of 110–275 nm and much smaller than that of the Ni-Hard 2 cast iron. Hardness of the cast iron was 552 Hv, tensile strength was 383 MPa, total elongation was 3% and compressive strength was 2224 MPa. Tensile strength and hardness of the cast iron was same to Ni-Hard 2 cast iron, besides the ductility was much better than that of the Ni-Hard 2 cast iron which is much expensive than the cast iron.

  10. Influence of Aging Products on Tensile Deformation Behavior of Al-0.62 mass%Mg-0.32 mass%Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Hata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    mechanism, by estimating the Orowan stress and considering crystal structure of beta '' precipitates. In contrast, the aged alloys with Mg-Si clusters showed excellent performance of uniform elongation due to large work hardening compared to those of the alloy with beta '' precipitates. Dislocations......Tensile tests and microstructural observations were carried out to investigate the influence of aging products on tensile deformation behavior of Al-0.62 mass. Mg-0.32 mass-Si alloy. Solution-treated alloys were aged to form needle-like beta ''. precipitates or Mg-Si clusters. The aged alloy...... with beta '' precipitates showed higher yield stress than that with Mg-Si clusters. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the beta '' precipitates pinned dislocations. It was suggested that the strengthening types of the alloy with beta '' precipitates were both Orowan and cutting...

  11. Strain rate dependent deformation and failure behavior of laser welded DP780 steel joint under dynamic tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Wang, Lei; Chu, Xi; Wang, Pengfei; Jin, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s −1 ). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains occurs

  12. Strain rate dependent deformation and failure behavior of laser welded DP780 steel joint under dynamic tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: wanglei@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chu, Xi, E-mail: chuxi.ok@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: wpf1963871400@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jin, Mengmeng, E-mail: 24401878@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-03-11

    Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s{sup −1}). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains

  13. Tensile Properties and Integrity of Clean Room and Low-Modulus Disposable Nitrile Gloves: A Comparison of Two Dissimilar Glove Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng kee

    2012-01-01

    Background: The selection of disposable nitrile exam gloves is complicated by (i) the availability of several types or formulations, (ii) product variability, and (iii) an inability of common quality control tests to detect small holes in the fingers. Differences in polymer formulation (e.g. filler and plasticizer/oil content) and tensile properties are expected to account for much of the observed variability in performance. Objectives: This study evaluated the tensile properties and integrity (leak failure rates) of two glove choices assumed to contain different amounts of plasticizers/oils. The primary aims were to determine if the tensile properties and integrity differed and if associations existed among these factors. Additional physical and chemical properties were evaluated. Methods: Six clean room and five low-modulus products were evaluated using the American Society for Testing and Materials Method D412 and a modified water-leak test to detect holes capable of passing a virus or chemical agent. Results: Significant differences in the leak failure rates and tensile properties existed between the two glove types (P ≤ 0.05). The clean room gloves were about three times more likely to have leak failures (chi-square; P = 0.001). No correlation was observed between leak failures and tensile properties. Solvent extract, an indication of added plasticizer/oil, was not associated with leak failures. However, gloves with a maximum modulus gloves were a better choice for protection against aqueous chemical or biological penetration. The observed variability between glove products indicated that glove selection cannot rely solely on glove type or manufacturer labeling. Measures of modulus and AD may aid in the selection process, in contrast with common measures of tensile strength and elongation at break. PMID:22201179

  14. Measurements of three dimensional residual stress distribution on laser irradiated spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hirotomo; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi; Sano, Yuji; Naito, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Three dimensional residual stress distributions on laser irradiated spots were measured using synchrotron radiation to study the basic mechanism of laser peening. A water-immersed sample of high tensile strength steel was irradiated with Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The residual stress depth profile of the sample was obtained by alternately repeating the measurement and surface layer removal by electrolytic polishing. Tensile residual stresses were observed on the surface of all irradiated spots, whereas residual stress changed to compressive just beneath the surface. The depth of compressive residual stress imparted by laser irradiation and plastic deformation zone increased with increasing the number of laser pulses irradiated on the same spot. (author)

  15. Study of interaction of fatigue damage and ratcheting. Effect of a tensile primary load on torsion fatigue resistance of stainless steel 304 L at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakem, N.S.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of ratcheting on fatigue resistance of a stainless steel 304 L, used for reactor vessels, is studied experimentally. Lifetime of samples is reduced if a static constant tensile load (primary loading) is superimposed to cyclic torsion deformations (secondary loading). An equivalent deformation concept is developed to express a criterion of fatigue rupture under primary loading. No effect is noted on the curve of cyclic strain hardening. This fatigue analysis gives no information on cumulated axial deformation. Progressive elongation, observed during testing, is dependent of primary and secondary loading. Rupture is produced by fatigue because cumulated axial deformation is limited ( 4 cycles at rupture cumulated deformation is [fr

  16. Effect of Fe content, cooling rate and porosity on the tensile properties of cast 319 and 356 aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Samuel, A.M.; Samuel, F.H.; Doty, H.W.; Valtierra, S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Fe content, cooling rate and porosity on the tensile properties of cast 319 and 356 alloys. Both experimental and industrial 319 alloys (containing 0.1 and 0.4 wt% Mg) and industrial 356 alloys were used, with 200-300 ppm strontium additions to study the modification effect. The Fe content was varied from 0.2 to 0.8 wt% in the 319 alloys, and from 0.1 to 0.6 wt% in the 356 alloy in keeping with Fe levels observed in industry. An end-chilled mold was employed to obtain directionally solidified castings, where the cooling rate varied with the height of the casting. Tensile and microstructural samples were sectioned at heights corresponding to dendrite arm spacings of ∼23 to ∼83 μm. The microstructures were examined using optical- and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of Fe content and cooling rate was investigated through measurements of the β-Al 5 FeSi platelets, using image analysis. Porosity measurements were also made. Phase identification was done using EPMA, EDX and XRD. The results show that the β-Al 5 FeSi platelet size has a significant effect on ductility and tensile strength up to sizes of ∼100 μm in the 319 alloys and ∼70 μm in the 356 alloy, but has no significant effect on the yield strength. While tensile properties are interpreted by means of UTS vs. log Elongation plots (after the Quality index concept of Drouzy et al. (5)), in the present study, the properties for all sample conditions were best interpreted by means of log UTS vs. log Elongation plots, where the properties increased linearly within low cooling rate-high Fe and high cooling rate-low Fe condition extremities. The results are explained in terms of the β-Al 5 FeSi platelet size and porosity values obtained. (author)

  17. Effect of holes on the room temperature tensile behaviors of thin wall specimens with (210) side surface of Ni-base single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.J.; Liu, T.; Pu, S. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xu, H. [Materials Fatigue and Fracture Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, L., E-mail: wangli@imr.ac.cn [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Lou, L.H. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-10-25

    Tensile properties of Ni-base single crystal superalloy plate specimens with and without a hole at room temperature were studied in the present paper. During the testing process, an ARAMIS system based on the digital image correlation technique and in-situ scanning electron microscopy were employed to in-situ observe the strain distribution and slip traces development on the sample surfaces. It was demonstrated that the yield stress was decreased with the appearance of a hole due to the stress concentration. The results were analyzed based on the stress and strain states of specimens and the slip traces development observed on specimen surfaces. - Graphical abstract: The strain distribution for samples without and with a hole, respectively. - Highlights: • Tensile tests of plate specimens without and with a hole were performed. • Surface strain fields were in-situ observed by ARAMIS system. • Slip traces development on sample surfaces was in-situ observed by SEM. • The hole deteriorated both the tensile strength and elongation of the samples. • Tensile strength of specimens without and with a hole was discussed respectively.

  18. Microstructure and Strain Rate-Dependent Tensile Deformation Behavior of Fiber Laser-Welded Butt Joints of Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Han, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhibin; Wang, Lu; Dong, Qingwei

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of the fiber laser-welded similar and dissimilar dual-phase (DP) steel joints over a wide range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103 s-1 were investigated for the further applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. The high strain rate dynamic tensile deformation process and full-field strain distribution of the base metals and welded joints were examined using the digital image correlation method and high-speed photography. The strain rate effects on the stress-strain responses, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture behavior of the investigated materials were analyzed. The yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the dissimilar DP780/DP980 welded joints were lying in-between those of the DP780 and DP980 base metals, and all materials exhibited positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS. Owing to the microstructure heterogeneity, the welded joints showed relatively lower ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) than those of the corresponding base metals. The strain localization started before the maximum load was reached, and the strain localization occurred earlier during the whole deformation process with increasing strain rate. As for the dissimilar welded joint, the strain localization tended to occur in the vicinity of the lowest hardness value across the welded joint, which was in the subcritical HAZ at the DP780 side. As the strain rate increased, the typical ductile failure characteristic of the investigated materials did not change.

  19. Effect of multiple alcohol-based hand rub applications on the tensile properties of thirteen brands of medical exam nitrile and latex gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Horvatin, Matthew; Niezgoda, George; Weible, Robyn; Shaffer, Ronald

    2016-12-01

    Current CDC guidance for the disinfection of gloved hands during the doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) following the care of a patient with Ebola recommends for multiple applications of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) on medical exam gloves. To evaluate possible effects of ABHR applications on glove integrity, thirteen brands of nitrile and latex medical exam gloves from five manufacturers and two different ABHRs were included in this study. A pair of gloves were worn by a test operator and the outside surfaces of the gloves were separately treated with an ABHR for 1-6 applications. Tensile strength and ultimate elongation of the gloves without any ABHR treatments (control gloves) and gloves after 1-6 ABHR applications were measured based on the ASTM D412 standard method. In general, tensile strength decreased with each ABHR application. ABHRs had more effect on the tensile strength of the tested nitrile than latex gloves, while ethanol-based ABHR (EBHR) resulted in lesser changes in tensile strength compared to isopropanol-based ABHR (IBHR). The results show that multiple EBHR applications on the latex gloves and some of the nitrile gloves tested should be safe for Ebola PPE doffing based on the CDC guidance. Appropriate hospital staff practice using ABHR treatment and doffing gloves is recommended to become more familiar with changes in glove properties.

  20. Selective Electron Beam Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Strips: Effect of Build Orientation, Columnar Grain Orientation, and Hot Isostatic Pressing on Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Tang, H. P.; Yang, K.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2018-03-01

    Many novel designs for additive manufacturing (AM) contain thin-walled (≤ 3 mm) sections in different orientations. Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is particularly suited to AM of such thin-walled titanium components because of its high preheating temperature and high vacuum. However, experimental data on SEBM of Ti-6Al-4V thin sections remains scarce because of the difficulty and high cost of producing long, thin and smooth strip tensile specimens (see Fig. 1). In this study, 80 SEBM Ti-6Al-4V strips (180 mm long, 42 mm wide, 3 mm thick) were built both vertically (V-strips) and horizontally (H-strips). Their density, microstructure and tensile properties were investigated. The V-strips showed clearly higher tensile strengths but lower elongation than the H-strips. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) produced the same lamellar α-β microstructures in terms of the average α-lath thickness in both types of strips. The retained prior-β columnar grain boundaries after HIP showed no measurable influence on the tensile properties, irrespective of their length and orientation, because of the formation of randomly distributed fine α-laths.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Microstructure and Strain Rate-Dependent Tensile Deformation Behavior of Fiber Laser-Welded Butt Joints of Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Han, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhibin; Wang, Lu; Dong, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of the fiber laser-welded similar and dissimilar dual-phase (DP) steel joints over a wide range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103 s-1 were investigated for the further applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. The high strain rate dynamic tensile deformation process and full-field strain distribution of the base metals and welded joints were examined using the digital image correlation method and high-speed photography. The strain rate effects on the stress-strain responses, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture behavior of the investigated materials were analyzed. The yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the dissimilar DP780/DP980 welded joints were lying in-between those of the DP780 and DP980 base metals, and all materials exhibited positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS. Owing to the microstructure heterogeneity, the welded joints showed relatively lower ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) than those of the corresponding base metals. The strain localization started before the maximum load was reached, and the strain localization occurred earlier during the whole deformation process with increasing strain rate. As for the dissimilar welded joint, the strain localization tended to occur in the vicinity of the lowest hardness value across the welded joint, which was in the subcritical HAZ at the DP780 side. As the strain rate increased, the typical ductile failure characteristic of the investigated materials did not change.

  2. Effects of Cutting Edge Microgeometry on Residual Stress in Orthogonal Cutting of Inconel 718 by FEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Zhanqiang; Hua, Yang; Zhao, Jinfu; Lv, Woyun; Mohsan, Aziz Ul Hassan

    2018-06-14

    Service performance of components such as fatigue life are dramatically influenced by the machined surface and subsurface residual stresses. This paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the influence of cutting edge microgeometry on machined surface residual stresses during orthogonal dry cutting of Inconel 718. Numerical and experimental investigations have been conducted in this research. The cutting edge microgeometry factors of average cutting edge radius S¯, form-factor K , and chamfer were investigated. An increasing trend for the magnitudes of both tensile and compressive residual stresses was observed by using larger S¯ or introducing a chamfer on the cutting edges. The ploughing depth has been predicted based on the stagnation zone. The increase of ploughing depth means that more material was ironed on the workpiece subsurface, which resulted in an increase in the compressive residual stress. The thermal loads were leading factors that affected the surface tensile residual stress. For the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 2, the friction between tool and workpiece and tensile residual stress tended to be high, while for the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 0.5, the high ploughing depth led to a higher compressive residual stress. This paper provides guidance for regulating machine-induced residual stress by edge preparation.

  3. Using hardness to model yield and tensile strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2005-02-01

    The current direction in hardness research is towards smaller and smaller loads as nano-scale materials are developed. There remains, however, a need to investigate the mechanical behavior of complex alloys for severe environment service. In many instances this entails casting large ingots and making numerous tensile samples as the bounds of the operating environment are explored. It is possible to gain an understanding of the tensile strength of these alloys using room and elevated temperature hardness in conjunction with selected tensile tests. The approach outlined here has its roots in the work done by Tabor for metals and low alloy and carbon steels. This research seeks to extend the work to elevated temperatures for multi-phase, complex alloys. A review of the approach will be given after which the experimental data will be examined. In particular, the yield stress and tensile strength will be compared to their corresponding hardness based values.

  4. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  5. swelling characteristics and tensile properties of natural fiber rei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The swelling behavior and tensile strength of natural fiber-reinforced plastic in premium motor spirit (PMS), dual ... with fibers usually of glass fiber, Kevlar and carbon have gained ... NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27 NO.2 ...

  6. Tensile ductility of an AlCoCrFeNi multi-phase high-entropy alloy through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhi, E-mail: Zhi.Tang@alcoa.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Senkov, Oleg N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan [CompuTherm LLC, 437 S. Yellowstone Dr., Suite 217, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Santodonato, Louis J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zhao, Guangfeng; Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Liaw, Peter K., E-mail: pliaw@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The microstructure and phase composition of an AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) were studied in as-cast (AlCoCrFeNi-AC, AC represents as-cast) and homogenized (AlCoCrFeNi-HP, HP signifies hot isostatic pressed and homogenized) conditions. The AlCoCrFeNi-AC ally has a dendritric structure in the consisting primarily of a nano-lamellar mixture of A2 (disordered body-centered-cubic (BCC)) and B2 (ordered BCC) phases, formed by an eutectic reaction. The homogenization heat treatment, consisting of hot isostatic pressed for 1 h at 1100 °C, 207 MPa and annealing at 1150 °C for 50 h, resulted in an increase in the volume fraction of the A1 phase and formation of a Sigma (σ) phase. Tensile properties in as-cast and homogenized conditions are reported at 700 °C. The ultimate tensile strength was virtually unaffected by heat treatment, and was 396±4 MPa at 700 °C. However, homogenization produced a noticeable increase in ductility. The AlCoCrFeNi-AC alloy showed a tensile elongation of only 1.0%, while after the heat-treatment, the elongation of AlCoCrFeNi-HP was 11.7%. Thermodynamic modeling of non-equilibrium and equilibrium phase diagrams for the AlCoCrFeNi HEA gave good agreement with the experimental observations of the phase contents in the AlCoCrFeNi-AC and AlCoCrFeNi-HP. The reasons for the improvement of ductility after the heat treatment and the crack initiation subjected to tensile loading were discussed.

  7. The influence of Ni addition and hot-extrusion on the microstructure and tensile properties of Al–15%Mg2Si composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamy, M.; Khodadadi, M.; Honarbakhsh Raouf, A.; Nasiri, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ni content on the microstructure and tensile properties of Al–Mg 2 Si composite. ► Ni changed the size of primary Mg 2 Si from 42 μm to 17 μm. ► Higher UTS and elongation values obtained by addition of 5 wt% Ni. ► Fracture behavior changed from brittle to ductile by Ni addition and extrusion. - Abstract: The effects of nickel addition and hot-extrusion on the microstructure and tensile properties of in situ Al–15%Mg 2 Si composite specimens have been investigated. Al–15%Mg 2 Si composite ingots were prepared by an in situ process and different amounts of nickel (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt% Ni) were added to the remelted composite. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that Ni addition changes the morphology of both primary and eutectic Mg 2 Si phases and decreases the size of primary Mg 2 Si particles from 42 μm to 17 μm. Hot-extrusion was found to be powerful in breaking the eutectic network and changing the size and morphology of pseudo-eutectic Mg 2 Si phase. The results obtained from tensile testing revealed that both Ni addition and hot-extrusion process improve ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation values. Fracture surface examinations revealed a transition from brittle fracture mode in as-cast composite to ductile fracture in hot-extruded composite after Ni addition. This can be attributed to the changes in size and morphology of primary and eutectic Mg 2 Si phases and also the formation of more and finer α-Al phase

  8. Developing relationships between environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, B.M.; Willits, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to model the relationships between the environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum with the end-goal of producing a model appropriate for use in the dynamic control of a greenhouse environment. The plants used were Dendranthema grandiflora cv. 'Spice'. The model developed uses Richards' growth equation (Richards, 1969) as its base. Adaptations were made to Richards' growth equation to explicitly include the effects of day and night temperature, daily PPF (photosynthetic photon flux), end-of-day red to far-red ratio, and position of the internode on the stem on internode elongation. The model fit the observed final length data reasonably well (R2 = 0.89). Sensitivity analyses indicated that increasing day temperature had a positive effect on internode length while increasing night temperature had a negative effect, with night temperature having a considerably larger effect than the effect of day temperature. The analyses suggests that both high and low end-of-day red to far-red ratios will produce increased lengths and that increasing daily PPF will produce decreased lengths. The analyses also suggests that internodes which develop later on the plant will generally have larger lengths as reflected by the measured data

  9. Enhanced photoanisotropic response in azopolymer doped with elongated goethite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelchev, L; Nazarova, D; Berberova, N; Mateev, G; Kostadinova, D; Mariño-Fernández, R; Salgueiriño, V; Schmool, D

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the photoinduced birefringence in nanocomposite films of an azopolymer (PAZO) doped with goethite (a-FeOOH, a characteristic antiferromagnetic material) nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs had an elongated shape with a size 15×150 nm, i.e., a ratio of 1:10. Samples were prepared with different concentrations of the NPs in the azopolymer varying from 0% (undoped azopolymer film) to 15 wt %. An unusual dependence of the birefringence on the concentration was observed - two peaks of enhancement at 1 % and at 10 % concentration. Our previous studies on ZnO and SiO 2 NP have indicated only one peak of increase at low concentrations - 0.5 wt % and 2 wt %, respectively. This effect could be related to the elongated shape of the nanoparticles and the presence of two characteristic NPs sizes - 15 and 150 nm. Moreover, the birefringence increase for the samples with 10 wt % NPs concentration (compared with the non-doped samples) was rather significant - nearly 70%. (paper)

  10. Doc toxin is a kinase that inactivates elongation factor Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W; Rothenbacher, Francesca P; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S; Dunham, Christine M; Woychik, Nancy A

    2014-03-14

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site.

  11. Doc Toxin Is a Kinase That Inactivates Elongation Factor Tu*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W.; Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S.; Dunham, Christine M.; Woychik, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site. PMID:24448800

  12. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole (PS52K) and 103 kg/mole (PS103K), and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The bidisperse melts consist of PS103K or PS52K and a monodisperse...... (closed loop proportional regulator) using the laser in such a way that the stretch rate at the neck is kept constant. The rheometer has been described in more detail in (A. Bach, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology, 47 (2003) 429). PS390K show a decrease in the steady viscosity as a power......-law function of the elongational rate (A. Bach, K. Almdal, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Macromolecules 36 (2003) 5174). PS52K and PS103K show that the steady viscosity has a maximum that is respectively 100% and 50% above 3 times the zero-shear-rate viscosity. The bidisperse melts show a significant...

  13. Swimming of a Sea Butterfly with an Elongated Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ferhat; Maas, Amy E.; Murphy, David W.

    2017-11-01

    Sea butterflies (pteropods) are small, zooplanktonic marine snails which swim by flapping highly flexible parapodia. Previous studies show that the swimming hydrodynamics of Limacina helicina, a polar pteropod with a spiraled shell, is similar to tiny insect flight aerodynamics and that forward-backward pitching is key for lift generation. However, swimming by diverse pteropod species with different shell shapes has not been examined. We present measurements of the swimming of Cuvierina columnella, a warm water species with an elongated non-spiraled shell collected off the coast of Bermuda. With a body length of 9 mm, wing beat frequency of 4-6 Hz and swimming speed of 35 mm/s, these organisms swim at a Reynolds number of approximately 300, larger than that of L. helicina. High speed 3D kinematics acquired via two orthogonal cameras reveals that the elongated shell correlates with reduced body pitching and that the wings bend approximately 180 degrees in each direction, overlapping at the end of each half-stroke. Time resolved 2D flow measurements collected with a micro-PIV system reveal leading edge vortices present in both power and recovery strokes. Interactions between the overlapping wings and the shell also likely play a role in lift generation.

  14. Transcription elongation factor GreA has functional chaperone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Tianyi; Yu, Bo; Wang, Limin; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial GreA is an indispensable factor in the RNA polymerase elongation complex. It plays multiple roles in transcriptional elongation, and may be implicated in resistance to various stresses. In this study, we show that Escherichia coli GreA inhibits aggregation of several substrate proteins under heat shock condition. GreA can also effectively promote the refolding of denatured proteins. These facts reveal that GreA has chaperone activity. Distinct from many molecular chaperones, GreA does not form stable complexes with unfolded substrates. GreA overexpression confers the host cells with enhanced resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, GreA expression in the greA/greB double mutant could suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and dramatically alleviate the in vivo protein aggregation. The results suggest that bacterial GreA may act as chaperone in vivo. These results suggest that GreA, in addition to its function as a transcription factor, is involved in protection of cellular proteins against aggregation.

  15. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  16. Ply Tensile Properties of Banana Stem and Banana Bunch Fibres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural rubber composite lamina reinforced with BSF which were treated with a mixture of NaOH and Na2SO3 had a superior tensile strength of 4.0 MPa and Young's modulus of 147.34MPa over the untreated BSF with tensile strength and Young's Modulus of 3.7MPa and 84.30MPa respectively. Both the treated and ...

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tensile Behavior of Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath, G.; Srinivasan, V. S.; Choudhary, B. K.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations on tensile deformation of initially defect free single crystal copper nanowire oriented in {100} has been carried out at 10 K under adiabatic and isothermal loading conditions. The tensile behaviour was characterized by sharp rise in stress in elastic regime followed by sudden drop at the point of dislocation nucleation. The important finding is that the variation in dislocation density is correlated with the observed stress-strain response. Several interesting ...

  18. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Ismail; M.A. Che Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that...

  19. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Measurement and analysis of pressure tube elongation in the Douglas Point reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, A.R.; MacEwan, S.R.; Jamieson, H.C.; Mitchell, A.B.

    1980-02-01

    Elongations of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors, which occur as a result of neutron-irradiation-induced creep and growth, have been measured over the past 6 years, and the consequences of thses elongations have recently been analysed. Elongation rates, previously deduced from extensive measurements of elongations of cold-worked Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes in the Pickering reactors, have been modified to apply to the pressure tubes in the Douglas Point (DP) reactor by taking into account measured diffences in texture and dislocation density. Using these elongation rates, and structural data unique to the DP reactor, the analysis predicts elongation behaviour which is in good agreement with pressure tube elongations measured during the ten years of reactor operation. (Auth)

  1. Residual Stress Distribution In Heat Affected Zone Of Welded Steel By Means Of Neutron Diffraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajar, Andika; Prasuad; Gunawan; Muslich, M. Rifai

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional residual stress distribution in the heat affected zone of 10 mm thick welded steel by means of neutron diffraction technique has been measured. The results showed that the residual stress was distributed near the welded metal, namely within about 46,25 mm. The major tensile stresses occurred in the X-direction, and they attained a level greater than 2000 MPa through the position far away fram the weld. The tensile stresses in the Y and Z- directions lied between 500 and 1500 MPa, The results also suggest that the stress in the surface was greater than that in the middle of the sample

  2. Fracture toughness evaluation using circumferential notched tensile specimens by the tensile test and ANSYS software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meydanlik, N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Trakya University, Edirne (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    Fracture toughness (K{sub Ic} ) is the most important parameter that defines mechanical behaviour of the materials using machine design. Since, fracture tests are both difficult and time consuming, the researchers have been investigating for the easier evaluation of K{sub Ic} for many years. In this work; K{sub Ic} values have been obtained by using ANSYS software based on the experimental values evaluated in the previous studies. It was shown that there is no significant difference between the experimental ones and the ones obtained by ANSYS. This procedure can provide an important advantage on obtaining of the K{sub IC} values. Key words: Fracture toughness (K{sub Ic} ), circumferential notched tensile specimens, ANSYS.

  3. Relationship between local deformation behavior and crystallographic features of as-quenched lath martensite during uniaxial tensile deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michiuchi, M.; Nambu, S.; Ishimoto, Y.; Inoue, J.; Koseki, T.

    2009-01-01

    Electron backscattering diffraction patterns were used to investigate the relationship between local deformation behavior and the crystallographic features of as-quenched lath martensite of low-carbon steel during uniform elongation in tensile tests. The slip system operating during the deformation up to a strain of 20% was estimated by comparing the crystal rotation of each martensite block after deformation of 20% strain with predictions by the Taylor and Sachs models. The results indicate that the in-lath-plane slip system was preferentially activated compared to the out-of-lath-plane system up to this strain level. Further detailed analysis of crystal rotation at intervals of approximately 5% strain confirmed that the constraint on the operative slip system by the lath structure begins at a strain of 8% and that the local strain hardening of the primary slip systems occurred at approximately 15% strain.

  4. Microstructure and tensile properties of neutron-irradiated (FE061Ni039)3V ordered alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braski, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    Small tensile specimens of the (Fe 0 61 Ni 0 39 ) 3 V long-range-ordered alloy were irradiated in the ORR to 4 dpa at 523, 623, and 823 K and subsequently tested at the same respective temperatueres. The alloy remained ordered after irradiation at all three temperatures. Irradiation at 523 and 623 K increased the yield strength of the material by producing Frank loops in the microstructure and reduced the total elongation. The low strain hardening observed was attributed to planar slip and the absence of cross slip. Irradiation at 823 K embrittled the alloy. Premature failure was apparently initiated by helium bubbles on sigma phase boundaries which grew rapidly during the test to form microcracks. Fracture occurred after a microcrack propagated across grain boundaries that were weakened by helium and possible sulfur. New LRO alloys without sigma phase should perform better under neutron irradiation

  5. Residual stresses in weld-clad reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, W.

    1975-01-01

    Cladding of low alloy nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel with austenitic stainless steel introduces in heavy section components high residual stresses which may cause microcrack formation in stress relief heat treatment. In this investigation an attempt is made to contribute to the solution of the stress relief cracking problem by determining quantitatively the magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses after cladding and after subsequent stress relief heat treatment. The distribution of residual stresses was determined on the basis of a combined experimental-mathematical procedure. Heavy section plate specimens of low alloy steel as base material were given an austenitic monolayer-cladding using the techniques of strip electrode and plasma hot wire cladding, respectively. A number of plates was stress relief heat treated. Starting from the cladded surface the thickness of the plates was reduced by subsequent removal of layers of material. The elastic strain reaction to the removal of each layer was measured by strain gauges. From the data obtained the biaxial residual stress distribution was computed as a function of thickness using relations which are derived for this particular case. In summary, lower residual stresses are caused by reduced thickness of the components. As the heat input, is decreased at identical base material thickness, the residual stresses are lowered also. The height of the tensile residual stress peak, however, remains approximataly constant. In stress relief annealed condition the residual stresses in the cladding are in tension; in the base material the residual stresses are negligibly small

  6. Prediction of residual stress distributions due to surface machining and welding and crack growth simulation under residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Katsuyama, JInya; Onizawa, Kunio; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Residual stress distributions due to welding and machining are evaluated by XRD and FEM. → Residual stress due to machining shows higher tensile stress than welding near the surface. → Crack growth analysis is performed using calculated residual stress. → Crack growth result is affected machining rather than welding. → Machining is an important factor for crack growth. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near the weld zone of the core shroud and primary loop recirculation (PLR) pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel Type 316L. The joining process of pipes usually includes surface machining and welding. Both processes induce residual stresses, and residual stresses are thus important factors in the occurrence and propagation of SCC. In this study, the finite element method (FEM) was used to estimate residual stress distributions generated by butt welding and surface machining. The thermoelastic-plastic analysis was performed for the welding simulation, and the thermo-mechanical coupled analysis based on the Johnson-Cook material model was performed for the surface machining simulation. In addition, a crack growth analysis based on the stress intensity factor (SIF) calculation was performed using the calculated residual stress distributions that are generated by welding and surface machining. The surface machining analysis showed that tensile residual stress due to surface machining only exists approximately 0.2 mm from the machined surface, and the surface residual stress increases with cutting speed. The crack growth analysis showed that the crack depth is affected by both surface machining and welding, and the crack length is more affected by surface machining than by welding.

  7. An analytical model to predict and minimize the residual stress of laser cladding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanna, N.; Crouch, R.; Kabir, I. R.; Naher, S.

    2018-02-01

    Laser cladding is one of the advanced thermal techniques used to repair or modify the surface properties of high-value components such as tools, military and aerospace parts. Unfortunately, tensile residual stresses generate in the thermally treated area of this process. This work focuses on to investigate the key factors for the formation of tensile residual stress and how to minimize it in the clad when using dissimilar substrate and clad materials. To predict the tensile residual stress, a one-dimensional analytical model has been adopted. Four cladding materials (Al2O3, TiC, TiO2, ZrO2) on the H13 tool steel substrate and a range of preheating temperatures of the substrate, from 300 to 1200 K, have been investigated. Thermal strain and Young's modulus are found to be the key factors of formation of tensile residual stresses. Additionally, it is found that using a preheating temperature of the substrate immediately before laser cladding showed the reduction of residual stress.

  8. Controlling BWR pipe cracking by residual stress modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, J.D.; Giannuzzi, A.J.; Childs, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking may occur in the weld heat-affected zone of susceptible stainless steel materials which have been used in some boiling water reactor piping systems. One of the prerequisite conditions for stress corrosion attack is a high tensile stress in the exposed, locally sensitized material near the weld root. Several processes have been developed which can deter stress corrosion attack by altering the residual stress distributions near the welds to ensure that low stresses prevail in critical locations. These residual stress modification remedies and their qualification testing are described in this paper. (author)

  9. Motion of Knots in DNA Stretched by Elongational Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander R.; Soh, Beatrice W.; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2018-05-01

    Knots in DNA occur in biological systems, serve as a model system for polymer entanglement, and affect the efficacy of modern genomics technologies. We study the motion of complex knots in DNA by stretching molecules with a divergent electric field that provides an elongational force. We demonstrate that the motion of knots is nonisotropic and driven towards the closest end of the molecule. We show for the first time experimentally that knots can go from a mobile to a jammed state by varying an applied strain rate, and that this jamming is reversible. We measure the mobility of knots as a function of strain rate, demonstrating the conditions under which knots can be driven towards the ends of the molecule and untied.

  10. Sigmoid Colon Elongation Evaluation by Volume Rendering Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla SENAYLI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sigmoid colons have various measurements, shapes, and configurations for individuals. In this subject there are rare clinical trials to answer the question of sigmoidal colon maldevelopment predicting a risk for volvulus. Therefore, sigmoid colon measurement may be beneficial to decide for volvulus. In a study, sigmoid colon diameters were evaluated during abdominal surgeries and it was found that median length was 47 cm and median vertical mesocolon length was 13 cm. We report a 14-year-old female patient who has a sigmoidal colon measured as nearly 54 cm. We used tomographic equipments for this evaluation. We know that MRI technique was used for this purpose but, there has not been data for MRI predicting the sigmoidal volvulus. We hope that our findings by this evaluation can contribute to insufficient literature of sigmoidal elongation. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 71-73

  11. Mathematical model to compare the relative tensile strength of the cornea after PRK, LASIK, and small incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Randleman, J Bradley

    2013-07-01

    To develop a mathematical model to estimate the relative differences in postoperative stromal tensile strength following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), LASIK, and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Using previously published data where in vitro corneal stromal tensile strength was determined as a function of depth, a mathematical model was built to calculate the relative remaining tensile strength by fitting the data with a fourth order polynomial function yielding a high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.930). Calculating the area under this function provided a measure of total stromal tensile strength (TTS), based only on the residual stromal layer for PRK or LASIK and the residual stromal layers above and below the lenticule interface for SMILE. Postoperative TTS was greatest after SMILE, followed by PRK, then LASIK; for example, in a 550-μm cornea after 100-μm tissue removal, postoperative TTS was 75% for SMILE (130-μm cap), 68% for PRK, and 54% for LASIK (110-μm flap). The postoperative TTS decreased for thinner corneal pachymetry for all treatment types. In LASIK, the postoperative TTS decreased with increasing flap thickness by 0.22%/μm, but increased by 0.08%/μm for greater cap thickness in SMILE. The model predicted that SMILE lenticule thickness could be approximately 100 μm greater than the LASIK ablation depth and still have equivalent corneal strength (equivalent to approximately 7.75 diopters). This mathematical model predicts that the postoperative TTS is considerably higher after SMILE than both PRK and LASIK, as expected given that the strongest anterior lamellae remain intact. Consequently, SMILE should be able to correct higher levels of myopia. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H., E-mail: victor.h.rolongarrido@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. [Chair of Polymer Engineering/Polymer Physics, Berlin Institute of Technology (TU Berlin), Fasanenstrasse 90, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks.

  13. Dendrosomatic Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Hippocampal Neurons Regulates Axon Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Ott, Carolyn; Wang, Ya-Xian; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling components in the neurons of the hippocampus raises a question about what role the Shh signaling pathway may play in these neurons. We show here that activation of the Shh signaling pathway stimulates axon elongation in rat hippocampal neurons. This Shh-induced effect depends on the pathway transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli1. The axon itself does not respond directly to Shh; instead, the Shh signal transduction originates from the somatodendritic region of the neurons and occurs in neurons with and without detectable primary cilia. Upon Shh stimulation, Smo localization to dendrites increases significantly. Shh pathway activation results in increased levels of profilin1 (Pfn1), an actin-binding protein. Mutations in Pfn1's actin-binding sites or reduction of Pfn1 eliminate the Shh-induced axon elongation. These findings indicate that Shh can regulate axon growth, which may be critical for development of hippocampal neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although numerous signaling mechanisms have been identified that act directly on axons to regulate their outgrowth, it is not known whether signals transduced in dendrites may also affect axon outgrowth. We describe here a transcellular signaling pathway in embryonic hippocampal neurons in which activation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptors in dendrites stimulates axon growth. The pathway involves the dendritic-membrane-associated Shh signal transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli, which induces the expression of the gene encoding the actin-binding protein profilin 1. Our findings suggest scenarios in which stimulation of Shh in dendrites results in accelerated outgrowth of the axon, which therefore reaches its presumptive postsynaptic target cell more quickly. By this mechanism, Shh may play critical roles in the development of hippocampal neuronal circuits. PMID:26658865

  14. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  15. Tensile properties of vanadium alloys irradiated at <430{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Recent attention to vanadium alloys has focused on significant susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability in irradiation experiments at <430{degrees}C. An evaluation of this phenomenon was conducted on V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti, and V-Ti-Si alloys irradiated in several conventional and helium-charging irradiation experiments in the FFTF-MOTA, HFIR, and EBR-II. Work hardening capability and uniform tensile elongation appear to vary strongly from alloy and heat to heat. A strong heat-to-heat variation has been observed in V-4Cr-4Ti alloys tested, i.e., a 500-kg heat (No. 832665), a 100-kg heat (VX-8), and a 30-kg heat (BL-47). The significant differences in susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability from one heat to another are estimated to correspond to a difference of {approx}100{degrees}C or more in minimum allowable operating temperature (e.g., 450 versus 350{degrees}C).

  16. In-vitro tensile testing machine for vibration study of fresh rabbit Achilles tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Gian M.; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo; Pianosi, Antonella

    2001-10-01

    A lot of people, overall athletic one suffer from tendinitis or complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. This structure becomes inflamed and damaged mainly from a variety of mechanical forces and sometimes due to metabolic problems, such as diabetes or arthritis. Over the past three decades extensive studies have been performed on the structural and mechanical properties of Achilles tendon trying to explain the constitutive equations to describe and foresee tendon behavior. Among the various mechanical parameters, the vibrational behavior is also of interest. Several investigations are performed in order to study how the Achilles tendon vibrations influence the response of the muscle proprioception and human posture. The present article describes how in vitro tensile experiments can be performed, taking into account the need to simulate physiological condition of Achilles tendon and thus approaching some opened problems in the design of the experimental set-up. A new system for evaluating tendon vibrations by non contact techniques is proposed. Preliminary simple elongation tests are made extracting the main mechanical parameters: stress and strain at different fixed stretches, in order to characterize the tissue. Finally, a vibration study is made at each pretensioned tendon level evaluating the oscillating curves caused by a small hammer.

  17. Tensile deformation and fracture properties of a 14YWT nanostructured ferritic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.E., E-mail: alam@engineering.ucsb.edu [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Pal, S.; Fields, K. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Maloy, S.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hoelzer, D.T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Odette, G.R. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    A new larger heat of a 14YWT nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA), FCRD NFA-1, was synthesized by ball milling FeO and argon atomized Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti-0.2Y (wt%) powders, followed by hot extrusion, annealing and cross rolling to produce an ≈10 mm-thick plate. NFA-1 contains a bimodal size distribution of pancake-shaped, mostly very fine scale, grains. The as-processed plate also contains a large population of microcracks running parallel to its broad surfaces. The small grains and large concentration of Y–Ti–O nano-oxides (NOs) result in high strength up to 800 °C. The uniform and total elongations range from ≈1–8%, and ≈10–24%, respectively. The strength decreases more rapidly above ≈400 °C and deformation transitions to largely viscoplastic creep by ≈600 °C. While the local fracture mechanism is generally ductile-dimple microvoid nucleation, growth and coalescence, perhaps the most notable feature of tensile deformation behavior of NFA-1 is the occurrence of periodic delamination, manifested as fissures on the fracture surfaces.

  18. Axial and transverse tensile properties Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube off-cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Priti K.; Dubey, J.S.; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Balakrishnan, K.S.; Anantharaman, S.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Zr-2.5Nb alloys in cold worked and stress relieved (CWSR) condition serves as pressure boundary for hot coolant in Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR). Due to both microstructural and crystallographic anisotropy, the mechanical properties in general and fracture behavior in particular are anisotropic for this material. To understand the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes of IPHWRs, tension tests were carried out on the RAPS-2 and KAPS-2 pressure tube off-cuts. Off-cuts are the small pieces cut from the two ends of a pressure tube before installing it into the PHWR. Miniature flat tensile specimens (without applying any flattening treatment to the pressure tube) of both longitudinal (or axial) and transverse orientation were fabricated from the off-cuts. Tension tests were carried out both at room temperature and 300 deg C. The transverse specimens showed higher strength and lower elongation than that of the axial ones. The back-end off-cuts showed higher strength compared to front-end off-cuts along axial direction whereas the same is not true for transverse direction specimens. One typical plot obtained in the testing of one of the off-cut is shown. The paper will discuss about the importance of the work carried out, test specimens, test method and results obtained in detail

  19. Minimization of Residual Stress in an Al-Cu Alloy Forged Plate by Different Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ya-Bo; Shao, Wen-Zhu; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Zhang, Bao-You; Zhen, Liang

    2015-06-01

    In order to improve the balance of mechanical properties and residual stress, various quenching and aging treatments were applied to Al-Cu alloy forged plate. Residual stresses determined by the x-ray diffraction method and slitting method were compared. The surface residual stress measured by x-ray diffraction method was consistent with that measured by slitting method. The residual stress distribution of samples quenched in water with different temperatures (20, 60, 80, and 100 °C) was measured, and the results showed that the boiling water quenching results in a 91.4% reduction in residual stress magnitudes compared with cold water quenching (20 °C), but the tensile properties of samples quenched in boiling water were unacceptably low. Quenching in 80 °C water results in 75% reduction of residual stress, and the reduction of yield strength is 12.7%. The residual stress and yield strength level are considerable for the dimensional stability of aluminum alloy. Quenching samples into 30% polyalkylene glycol quenchants produced 52.2% reduction in the maximum compressive residual stress, and the reduction in yield strength is 19.7%. Moreover, the effects of uphill quenching and thermal-cold cycling on the residual stress were also investigated. Uphill quenching and thermal-cold cycling produced approximately 25-40% reduction in residual stress, while the effect on tensile properties is quite slight.

  20. Residual stress improvement in multi-layer welded plates using water-shower cooling during welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Nobuyoshi; Koide, Hiroo

    2006-01-01

    To reduce tensile residual stress in a welded region, we developed a new welding method that applies a water-shower behind the welding torch. When this method is applied to welding of austenitic stainless steel plates, cooling conditions mainly determine how much the residual stress can be reduced. To determine the conditions, we first used FEM to evaluate the effects of interpass temperature on the residual stress. And we found effective conditions for reducing tensile residual stress. To verify the validity of the conditions, specimens welded with or without water shower cooling were manufactured. Residual stresses of the specimens were experimentally measured. It was found that tensile residual stresses were generated on the surface of the welds and those were reduced in the case that the water-shower was applied. These measurement results agree well with the FEM analyses. It can therefore be concluded that the water-shower cooling during welding is appropriate for reducing tensile residual stress in austenitic stainless steel welding. (author)

  1. Device Design and Test of Fatigue Behaviour of Expansion Anchor Subjected to Tensile Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study on the fatigue behaviour of expansion anchor (M16, grade 8.8 for overhead contact system in electrification railways, a set of safe, practical loading device is designed and a fatigue test campaign was carried out at structural laboratory of China Academy of Building Research on expansion anchor embedded in concrete block. The mobile frame of the loading device was designed well by finite-element simulation. According to some fatigue performance test of expansion anchor with different size and form, the device have been assessed experimentally its dependability. The results were found that no fatigue damage phenomenon occurred in all specimens after 2×106 cycles tensile fatigue test in this specific series. It shows that in the condition of medium level or slightly lower maximum stress limit and nominal stress range, expansion bolt has good fatigue resistance. The biggest relative displacement and the residual relative displacement after test (Δδ = δ2-δ1 was also strongly lower than the symbol of the fatigue test failure index of this specific series (0.5mm in the high cycle fatigue regime. The ultimate tension failures mode after fatigue tests in all tested samples take place in the concrete anchorage zone. The reduction range of the ultimate tensile strength properties of the anchorage system was not obvious, and the concrete was seen to be the weakest link of the system.

  2. Effect of elastic and plastic tensile mechanical loading on the magnetic properties of NGO electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuning, N., E-mail: nora.leuning@iem.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Steentjes, S. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Schulte, M.; Bleck, W. [Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented (NGO) electrical steels are highly susceptible to mechanical stresses, i.e., residual, external or thermal ones. For rotating electrical machines, mechanical stresses are inevitable and originate from different sources, e.g., material processing, machine manufacturing and operating conditions. The efficiency and specific losses are largely altered by different mechanical stress states. In this paper the effect of tensile stresses and plastic deformations on the magnetic properties of a 2.9 wt% Si electrical steel are studied. Particular attention is paid to the effect of magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the influence of the direction of applied mechanical stress with respect to the rolling direction. Due to mechanical stress, the induced anisotropy has to be evaluated as it is related to the stress-dependent magnetostriction constant and the grain alignment. - Highlights: • A detailed look at magnetic anisotropy of FeSi NGO electrical steel. • Study of magnetic behavior under elastic as well as plastic tensile stresses. • Correlation of magnetic behavior with microscopic deformation mechanisms. • Discussion of detrimental and beneficial effects of external stresses. • Loss separation at different polarizations and frequencies under increasing stress.

  3. Tensile properties of a boron/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube–graphene hybrid structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Doping is an effective approach that allows for the intrinsic modification of the electrical and chemical properties of nanomaterials. Recently, a graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid structure (GNHS has been reported, which extends the excellent properties of carbon-based materials to three dimensions. In this paper, we carried out a first-time investigation on the tensile properties of the hybrid structures with different dopants. It is found that with the presence of dopants, the hybrid structures usually exhibit lower yield strength, Young’s modulus, and earlier yielding compared to that of a pristine hybrid structure. For dopant concentrations below 2.5% no significant reduction of Young’s modulus or yield strength could be observed. For all considered samples, the failure is found to initiate at the region where the nanotubes and graphene sheets are connected. After failure, monatomic chains are normally observed around the failure region. Dangling graphene layers without the separation of a residual CNT wall are found to adhere to each other after failure with a distance of about 3.4 Å. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the tensile properties of the doped graphene–nanotube hybrid structures, which will benefit the design and also the applications of graphene-based hybrid materials.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Tensile Behaviour of UACS/Al Fibre Metal Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Wang, Wen-Xue; Zhang, Jia-Zhen; Wu, Su-Jun; Li, Hang

    2015-10-01

    A new fibre metal laminate fabricated with aluminium sheets and unidirectionally arrayed chopped strand (UACS) plies is proposed. The UACS ply is made by cutting parallel slits into a unidirectional carbon fibre prepreg. The UACS/Al laminate may be viewed as aluminium laminate reinforced by highly aligned, discontinuous carbon fibres. The tensile behaviour of UACS/Al laminate, including thermal residual stress and failure progression, is investigated through experiments and numerical simulation. Finite element analysis was used to simulate the onset and propagation of intra-laminar fractures occurring within slits of the UACS plies and delamination along the interfaces. The finite element models feature intra-laminar cohesive elements inserted into the slits and inter-laminar cohesive elements inserted at the interfaces. Good agreement are obtained between experimental results and finite element analysis, and certain limitations of the finite element models are observed and discussed. The combined experimental and numerical studies provide a detailed understanding of the tensile behaviour of UACS/Al laminates.

  5. Effect of elastic and plastic tensile mechanical loading on the magnetic properties of NGO electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuning, N.; Steentjes, S.; Schulte, M.; Bleck, W.; Hameyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented (NGO) electrical steels are highly susceptible to mechanical stresses, i.e., residual, external or thermal ones. For rotating electrical machines, mechanical stresses are inevitable and originate from different sources, e.g., material processing, machine manufacturing and operating conditions. The efficiency and specific losses are largely altered by different mechanical stress states. In this paper the effect of tensile stresses and plastic deformations on the magnetic properties of a 2.9 wt% Si electrical steel are studied. Particular attention is paid to the effect of magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the influence of the direction of applied mechanical stress with respect to the rolling direction. Due to mechanical stress, the induced anisotropy has to be evaluated as it is related to the stress-dependent magnetostriction constant and the grain alignment. - Highlights: • A detailed look at magnetic anisotropy of FeSi NGO electrical steel. • Study of magnetic behavior under elastic as well as plastic tensile stresses. • Correlation of magnetic behavior with microscopic deformation mechanisms. • Discussion of detrimental and beneficial effects of external stresses. • Loss separation at different polarizations and frequencies under increasing stress.

  6. Effect of test temperature and strain rate on the tensile properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of wrought GlidCop AL25 (ITER grade zero, IGO) solutionized and aged CuCrZr, and cold-worked and aged and solutionized and aged Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500{degrees}C at strain rates between 4 x 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} and 0.06 s{sup {minus}1}. The measured room temperature electrical conductivity ranged from 64 to 90% IACS for the different alloys. All of the alloys were relatively insensitive to strain rate at room temperature, but the strain rate sensitivity of GlidCop Al25 increased significantly with increasing temperature. The CuNiBe alloys exhibited the best combination of high strength and high conductivity at room temperature. The strength of CuNiBe decreased slowly with increasing temperature. However, the ductility of CuNiBe decreased rapidly with increasing temperature due to localized deformation near grain boundaries, making these alloy heats unsuitable for typical structural applications above 300{degrees}C. The strength and uniform elongation of GlidCop Al25 decreased significantly with increasing temperature at a strain rate of 1 x 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}, whereas the total elongation was independent of test temperature. The strength and ductility of CuCrZr decreased slowly with increasing temperature.

  7. Simulation of tensile stress-strain properties of irradiated type 316 SS by heavily cold-worked material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Yasushi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1995-07-01

    Type 316 stainless steel is one of the most promising candidate materials to be used for the structural parts of plasma facing components in the nuclear fusion reactor. The neutron irradiation make the material brittle and reduces its uniform elongation to almost zero at heavy doses. In order to apply such a material of reduced ductility to structural components, the structural integrity should be examined and assured by the fracture mechanics. The procedure requires a formulated stress-strain relationship. However, the available irradiated tensile test data are very limited at present, so that the cold-worked material was used as a simulated material in this study. Property changes of 316 SS, that is, a reduction of uniform elongation and an enhancement of yield stress are seemingly very similar for both the irradiated 316 SS and the cold-worked one. The specimens made of annealed 316 SS, 20% (or 15%) cold worked one and 40% cold worked one were prepared. After the formulation of stress strain behavior, the equation for the cold-worked 316 SS was fitted to the data on irradiated material under the assumption that the yield stress is the same for both materials. In addition, the upper limit for the plastic strain was introduced using the data on the irradiated material. (author)

  8. Aluminum-thin-film packaged fiber Bragg grating probes for monitoring the maximum tensile strain of composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jooeun; Kim, Mihyun; Choi, Ki-Sun; Hwang, Tae-Kyung; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2014-06-10

    In this paper, new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor probes are designed to intermittently detect the maximum tensile strain of composite materials, so as to evaluate the structural health status. This probe is fabricated by two thin Al films bonded to an FBG optical fiber and two supporting brackets, which are fixed on the surface of composite materials. The residual strain of the Al packaged FBG sensor probe is induced by the strain of composite materials. This residual strain can indicate the maximum strain of composite materials. Two types of sensor probes are prepared-one is an FBG with 18 μm thick Al films, and the other is an FBG with 36 μm thick Al films-to compare the thickness effect on the detection sensitivity. These sensor probes are bonded on the surfaces of carbon fiber reinforced plastics composite specimens. In order to determine the strain sensitivity between the residual strain of the FBG sensor probe and the maximum strain of the composite specimen, tensile tests are performed by universal testing machine, under the loading-unloading test condition. The strain sensitivities of the probes, which have the Al thicknesses of 18 and 36 μm, are determined as 0.13 and 0.23, respectively.

  9. Precipitation behaviors, texture and tensile properties of an extruded Mg-7Y-1Nd-0.5Zr (wt%) alloy bar with large cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Guoliang, E-mail: shigl@grinm.com; Zhang, Kui; Li, Xinggang; Li, Yongjun; Ma, Minglong; Yuan, Jiawei

    2017-02-08

    Precipitation behaviors, texture and tensile properties of an extruded Mg-7Y-1Nd-0.5Zr (wt%) (WE71) alloy bar with large cross-section of 230 mm×140 mm were investigated by hardness test, tensile test, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) macro-texture measurement. The bar was manufactured industrially through a procedure of “multi-direction forging (MDF)+extrusion+on-line quenching+T5 aging”. Totally different age-hardening behaviors are shown during T5 aging at 200 and 235 °C. In the first 100 h, T5 aging at 235 °C brings about 13% increases in hardness, while T5 aging at 200 °C results in 47% increase. During T5 aging at 200 °C, β′ precipitates homogeneously nucleate within the matrix with high number density; however, during T5 aging at 235 °C, β′ precipitates heterogeneously nucleate on discrete and sparse dislocations, resulting in chain-like arrangement of β′ precipitates with broad precipitate free zones in matrix. XRD macro-texture measurement illustrates that basal texture intensity of WE71 bar is much weaker than Mg-8Al-0.5Zn-0.15Mn (wt%) (AZ80) bar; the maximum basal texture intensities in the outer (O) and center (C) of WE71 bar are all about 3, while those of AZ80 bar are 17 and 14, respectively. EBSD micro-texture measurement demonstrates that the maximum texture intensities of C and O are 5.3 and 3.5, respectively. O has higher tensile properties than C because there are more un-dynamic-recrystallization (un-DRX) grains and thus larger average grain size in C. While stretching at room temperature (RT), extrusion direction (ED) in O has the best tensile properties, i.e. ultimate tensile strength (R{sub m})=368 MPa, elongation (A)=5%, and normal direction (ND) in C has the lowest tensile properties, i.e. R{sub m}=255 MPa, A=2%. While stretching at 200 °C, strength does not degrade much; ED in O still has

  10. In vitro tensile strength of luting cements on metallic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Iara A; Varoli, Fernando K; Pieroni, Carlos H P; Ferreira, Marly C C G; Borie, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the tensile strength of crowns cemented on metallic substrate with four different types of luting agents. Twenty human maxillary molars with similar diameters were selected and prepared to receive metallic core castings (Cu-Al). After cementation and preparation the cores were measured and the area of crown's portion was calculated. The teeth were divided into four groups based on the luting agent used to cement the crowns: zinc phosphate cement; glass ionomer cement; resin cement Rely X; and resin cement Panavia F. The teeth with the crowns cemented were subjected to thermocycling and later to the tensile strength test using universal testing machine with a load cell of 200 kgf and a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The load required to dislodge the crowns was recorded and converted to MPa/mm(2). Data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis analysis with a significance level of 1%. Panavia F showed significantly higher retention in core casts (3.067 MPa/mm(2)), when compared with the other cements. Rely X showed a mean retention value of 1.877 MPa/mm(2) and the zinc phosphate cement with 1.155 MPa/mm(2). Glass ionomer cement (0.884 MPa/mm(2)) exhibited the lowest tensile strength value. Crowns cemented with Panavia F on cast metallic posts and cores presented higher tensile strength. The glass ionomer cement showed the lowest tensile strength among all the cements studied.

  11. Tensile strength of two soldered alloys (Minalux and Verabond2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Rezaee S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently. Minalux alloy, a base metal free from Be, has been presented on the market while no special soldering has been recommended for it. On the other hand, based on the manufacturer's claim, this alloy is similar to Verabond2. The aim of this study was to investigate the tensile strength of Minalux and Verabond2, soldered by Verasolder. Twelve standard dambble shape samples, with the length of 18 mm and the diameter of 3mm, were prepared from each alloy. Six samples of each alloy were divided into two pieces with carboradom disk. Soldering gap distance was 0.3mm, measured by a special jig and they were soldered by Verasolder alloy. Six other samples, of both Iranian and foreign unsoldered alloys were considered as control group. Then samples were examined under tensile force and their tensile strength was recorded. Two- way variance analysis showed that the tensile strength of Minalux alloy and Verabond2 were not statistically significant (Verasoler 686, Minalux 723, but after soldering, such difference became significant (Minalux 308, Verabond2 432. Verabond2 showed higher tensile strength after soldering.

  12. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of tempering on microstructure and tensile properties of niobium modified martensitic 9Cr heat resistant steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, A., E-mail: anupmetal@gmail.com; Bandyopadhay, T.K.

    2015-01-03

    The effect of tempering on the microstructure of niobium modified 8.8 wt% chromium steel has been evaluated. Steel has been prepared using the conventional melting and casting route. Homogenization and forging is done at 1100 °C. Dilatometric study shows that the Ac{sub 1}, Ac{sub 3} and M{sub s} temperatures are 800, 855, and 131 °C, respectively. Initial cast and forged microstructures consist of martensite/ferrite. The samples are subsequently tempered at 500–800 °C for various intervals of time (1–5 h). The microstructure of the tempered sample is analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) is used to identify the precipitate. Nanometer-sized precipitates (50–200 nm) are observed after tempering at 700 °C for 1 h. Niobium rich MC type carbide precipitates and chromium rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type precipitates are observed after tempering at 700 °C. Tensile strength decreases with increasing tempering temperature. Maximum tensile strength of 920 MPa is observed after tempering at 700 °C and maximum elongation of ∼11% is observed after tempering at 750 °C.

  14. Effect of Spark-Plasma-Sintering Conditions on Tensile Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Imai, H.; Umeda, J.; Takahashi, M.; Kondoh, K.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, aluminum (Al) matrix composites containing 2 wt.% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated by powder metallurgy using high-energy ball milling (HEBM), spark plasma sintering (SPS), and subsequent hot extrusion. The effect of SPS conditions on the tensile properties of CNT/Al composites was investigated. The results showed that composites with well-dispersed CNTs and nearly full-density CNT/Al can be obtained. During HEBM, CNTs were shortened, inserted into welded Al powder particles, bonded to Al, and still stable without CNT-Al reaction. After consolidation, Al4C3 phases formed in composites under different sintering conditions. With the increase of sintering temperature and holding time, the strength decreased. Conversely, the ductility and toughness noticeably increased. As a result, a good balance between strength (367 MPa in ultimate tensile strength) and ductility (13% in elongation) was achieved in the as-extruded CNT/Al composite sintered at 630°C with a holding time of 300 min.

  15. The Tensile Strenght Properties Effect Of Rice-Husk Ash As On The Composite Of Plastic Drinking Bottle Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice-husk ash has a potential to be filler in composite. The study on rice-husk ash utilitation as afiller in polyethylene terephthalate PET matrix of plastic drinking bottle waste was conducted in order to find the ratio of rice-husk ask and PET matrix that would result the best tensile strength which was characterized by using scenning electron microscopy SEM. In this study the PET of plastic drinking bottle waste firstly was cut into smaller pieces and was extruded with the temperature of 265 o C. Then it was mixed with rice-husk ash on ratio of PET plastic drinking bottle waste and rice-husk ash of 955 9010 and 8515. After that it was extruded at temperature of 265 o C before it was pressed by hot press at temperature of 265 o C for five minutes. The highest tensile strength was achieved at 3462 MPa with elongation at break a round 14375 and youngs modulus of 34882 MPa for the ratio of 8515.

  16. Effect of helium and DPA's on tensile properties of V-5Ti and V-3Ti-1Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzenburg, W. van; Vries, E. de.

    1991-02-01

    Specimens of the alloys V-5Ti and V-3Ti-1Si were irradiated in a mixed-spectrum fission reactor in reactor grade liquid sodium to a fast neutron fluence of 3.8 x 10 25 m -2 (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to 6.2 dpa. Irradiation temperatures were 500, 600 and 700 deg C. Some of the specimens were pre-injected with helium to 100 appm at approx 50 deg C by means of a cyclotron. In addition, part of the specimens were doped with boron-10 to concentrations of 100 and 600 appm. Tensile testing, at temperatures equal to the irradiation temperatures and at a strain rate of 10 -4 s -1 , showed an increase in strength and reduced elongation at 500 deg C and to a lesser extent at 600 deg C. These changes are caused by displacement damage. Helium, pre-injected as well as produced by transmutation of boron-10, did not have a significant influence on the tensile properties. Cavities seen in the irradiated materials at low concentrations, were not preferentially located on grain boundaries. There was no apparent deleterious effect of lithium, which is also a transmutation product of boron-10. (author). 12 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Microstructure and tensile properties of Fe-40 at. pct Al alloys with C, Zr, Hf, and B additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Draper, S. L.; Nathal, M. V.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of small additions of C, Zr, and Hf, alone or in combination with B, on the microstructure and tensile behavior of substoichiometric FeAl was investigated. Tensile properties were determined from 300 to 1100 K on powder which was consolidated by hot extrusion. All materials possessed some ductility at room temperature, although ternary additions generally reduced ductility compared to the binary alloy. Adding B to the C- and Zr-containing alloys changed the fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular and restored the ductility to approximately 5 percent elongation. Additions of Zr and Hf increased strength up to about 900 K. Fe6Al6Zr and Fe6Al6Hf precipitates, both with identical body-centered tetragonal structures, were identified as the principal second phase in these alloys. Strength decreased steadily as temperature increased above 700 K, as diffusion-assisted mechanisms became operative. Although all alloys had similar strengths at 1100 K, Hf additions significantly improved high-temperature ductility by suppressing cavitation.

  18. Tensile deformation behavior and deformation twinning of an equimolar CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, S.-H.; Kato, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Jang, M.J.; Moon, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Tsai, C.W.; Yeh, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Kim, H.S., E-mail: hskim@postech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Center for High Entropy Alloys, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-24

    The tensile deformation and strain hardening behaviors of an equimolar CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) were investigated and compared with low and medium entropy equiatomic alloys (LEA and MEA). The HEA had a lower yield strength than the MEA because the addition of Mn weakens solid solution hardening in the HEA. However, deformation twinning induced the multiple stage strain hardening behavior of the HEA and enhanced strength and elongation. Using tensile-interrupted electron backscatter diffraction analysis, geometrically necessary dislocations were observed as plume-shaped features in grain interior, and a considerable texture was characterized, which is typical of face centered cubic metals. Moreover, the relationship between favorably oriented grains and twinning in the HEA bore a clear resemblance to the same tendency in TWIP steels. The thickness of the twin bundles was less than 100 nm. A high density of stacking defects was found in the nanotwins. Nano twinning and stacking faults were found to contribute to the remarkable mechanical properties. Deformation induced twinning not only demonstrated the dynamic Hall-Petch effect but also changed dislocation cell substructures into microband structures.

  19. Effects of the strain rate on the tensile properties of a TRIP-aided duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeom Yong [Stainless Steel Product Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaeeun; Lee, Keunho; Koh, Ji-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RIAM, Seoul National University, Seoul 151–744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Hyung [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heung Nam, E-mail: hnhan@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RIAM, Seoul National University, Seoul 151–744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung-Tae, E-mail: ktpark@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    Factors influencing the strain-rate dependence of the tensile properties of TRIP-aided lean duplex stainless steel were investigated by employing several characterization techniques of EBSD, TEM, and nanoindentation. The steel exhibited excellent tensile strength over 800 MPa and elongation, which exceeded 70% at a strain rate of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} due to strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT), but both values decreased considerably with an increase in the strain rate. The hardness and the maximum shear stress for dislocation nucleation of the austenite were found to be higher than those of the ferrite by sub-grain scale nanoindentation tests. As a result, strain partitioning to the ferrite rather than the austenite was more significant from an early stage of deformation, suppressing the SIMT in the austenite. An EBSD strain analysis on the intra- and inter-grain scale revealed that this strain partitioning became more pronounced as the strain rate increased. Adiabatic heating, which induces austenite stabilization, also became more significant as the strain rate increased. Therefore, the present results indicate that the diminishing TRIP effects at high strain rates can be attributed to preferential strain partitioning to the soft ferrite phase from an early stage of deformation, as well as adiabatic heating.

  20. Supercritical CO2 foaming of radiation crosslinked polypropylene/high-density polyethylene blend: Cell structure and tensile property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenguang; Xing, Zhe; Zhang, Mingxing; Zhao, Quan; Wang, Mouhua; Wu, Guozhong

    2017-12-01

    A blend of isotactic polypropylene (PP) with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in different PP/HDPE ratios was irradiated by γ-ray to induce cross-linking and then foamed using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a blowing agent. Radiation effect on the melting point and crystallinity were analyzed in detail. The average cell diameter and cell density were compared for PP/HDPE foams prepared under different conditions. The optimum absorbed dose for the scCO2 foaming of PP/HDPE in terms of foaming ability and cell structure was 20 kGy. Tensile measurements showed that the elongation at break and tensile strength at break of the crosslinked PP/HDPE foams were higher than the non-crosslinked ones. Of particular interest was the increase in the foaming temperature window from 4 ℃ for pristine PP to 8-12 ℃ for the radiation crosslinked PP/HDPE blends. This implies much easier handling of scCO2 foaming of crosslinked PP with the addition of HDPE.

  1. In-Plane Anisotropy in Mechanical Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Commercially Pure Titanium in Tensile and Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Subhasis; Gurao, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Tensile and cyclic deformation behavior of three samples oriented at 0, 45, and 90 deg to the rolling direction in the rolling direction-transverse direction (RD-TD) plane of cold-rolled and annealed plate of commercially pure titanium is studied in the present investigation. The sample along the RD (R0) shows the highest strength but lowest ductility in monotonic tension. Although ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of samples along 45 and 90 deg to the RD (R45 and R90, respectively) are similar, the former has significantly higher yield strength than the latter, indicating different strain-hardening behavior. It is found that the R90 sample exhibits the highest monotonic ductility as well as fatigue life. This is attributed to a higher propensity for twinning in this sample with the presence of multiple variants and twin intersections. Cyclic life is also influenced by the high tendency for detwinning of contraction twins in this orientation. Elastoplastic self-consistent (EPSC) simulations of one-cycle tension-compression load reversal indicate that the activity of pyramidal 〈 c + a〉 slip and extension twinning oscillates during cyclic loading that builds up damage in a cumulative manner, leading to failure in fatigue.

  2. Comparative study on the high-temperature tensile and creep properties of Alloy 617 base and weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan; Kim, Seon Jin; Park, Jae Young; Ekaputra, I. M. W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative investigation on the high-temperature tensile and creep properties of Alloy 617 base metal (BM) and weld metal (WM) fabricated by a gas tungsten arc weld process. The WM had higher yield strength and lower ultimate tensile strength than the BM does; however, its elongation was significantly lower than that of the BM. The creep curve of the BM and WM was somewhat different from that of typical heat-resistance steel, and did not show a textbook creep. The WM exhibited a longer creep rupture life, lower creep rate, and lower rupture ductility than the BM. However, as the creep rupture time reached approximately 36,800 h, the creep life of the WM was expected to be almost similar to that of the BM; and after 36,800 h, its creep life was expected to be worse than the BM. Loner creep tests is needed to investigate the long-term creep life of the WM. The creep failure mode of the BM and WM was obviously an intergranular cracking of the cavity formation and growth mechanisms, although it was more evident in the WM. The BM had a more ductile fracture surface than the WM

  3. Utilization of Agrowaste Polymers in PVC/NBR Alloys: Tensile, Thermal, and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl chloride/nitrile butadiene rubber (PVC/NBR alloys were melt-mixed using a Brabender Plasticorder at 180∘C and 50 rpm rotor speed. Alloys obtained by melt mixing from PVC and NBR were formulated with wood-flour- (WF- based olive residue, a natural byproduct from olive oil extraction industry. WF was progressively increased from 0 to 30 phr. The effects of WF loadings on the tensile properties of the fabricated samples were inspected. The torque rheometry, which is an indirect indication of the melt strength, is reported. The pattern of water uptake for the composites was checked as a function WF loading. The fracture mode and the quality of bonding of the alloy with and without filler are studied using electron scanning microscope (SEM.

  4. Cyclic testing of thin Ni films on a pre-tensile compliant substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, He [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 135 Yaguan Rd, Jinnan, 300350 Tianjin (China); Département Physique et Mécanique d es Matériaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS–Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope, 86962 (France); Renault, Pierre-Olivier, E-mail: pierre.olivier.renault@univ-poitiers.fr [Département Physique et Mécanique d es Matériaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS–Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope, 86962 (France); Bourhis, Eric Le [Département Physique et Mécanique d es Matériaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS–Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope, 86962 (France); Wang, Shibin [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 135 Yaguan Rd, Jinnan, 300350 Tianjin (China); Goudeau, Philippe [Département Physique et Mécanique d es Matériaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS–Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope, 86962 (France)

    2017-05-17

    A novel experimental approach to study the cyclic plastic deformation of thin metallic films is presented. 300 nm thick Ni films are deposited on both sides of a pre-tensile soft substrate which allows to deform the films alternately in tension and compression (approximately from +2.7 GPa down to −2 GPa) relative to the as-deposited residual stress state. Nanocrystalline thin films' intrinsic elastic strains (or stresses) and true strains have been measured step by step during two loading/unloading cycles thanks to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and digital image correlation (DIC) techniques respectively. From the first cyclic deformation, a significant Bauschinger effect is evidenced in the films, however, little or no cyclic hardening is observed during the two cyclic tests.

  5. Effect of constraint condition and internal medium on residual stress under overlay welding for dissimilar metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jin Weon

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, residual stress of dissimilar metal weld propagates cracks in the weld metal which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Overlay welding is a process widely used to mitigate residual stress replacing inside tensile stress by compression stress. However, according to the result of this study the effect of overlay welding on residual stress depends on both internal medium and constraint condition. The purpose of this study is to maximize the positive effect of overlay welding by finite element analyses

  6. Light quality and elongation growth. 1: Effect of duration and time of far red irradiation on stem elongation of Argyranthemum frutescens cv. Silver Leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatzkowski, M.; Zimmer, K.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of stem elongation by far red irradiation was shown with Argyranthemum frutescens 'Silver Leaf'. Stem elongation was promoted by incandescent lighting (mainly far red) during the day and night period. More intense reactions were observed with the isolated application during the nighttime. Reaction was strongly modified by the point of time the application took place. No effect could be shown by lighting with incandescent lamps for two hours during the daytime given within the first six hours of the main light period. During the nighttime two hours of lighting (incandescent lamps) promoted stem elongation atany point of time, especially in the middle of the dark period

  7. The Nucleosome Acidic Patch Regulates the H2B K123 Monoubiquitylation Cascade and Transcription Elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Cucinotta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes regulate gene expression and other nuclear processes through the posttranslational modification of histones. In S. cerevisiae, the mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B on lysine 123 (H2B K123ub affects nucleosome stability, broadly influences gene expression and other DNA-templated processes, and is a prerequisite for additional conserved histone modifications that are associated with active transcription, namely the methylation of lysine residues in H3. While the enzymes that promote these chromatin marks are known, regions of the nucleosome required for the recruitment of these enzymes are undefined. To identify histone residues required for H2B K123ub, we exploited a functional interaction between the ubiquitin-protein ligase, Rkr1/Ltn1, and H2B K123ub in S. cerevisiae. Specifically, we performed a synthetic lethal screen with cells lacking RKR1 and a comprehensive library of H2A and H2B residue substitutions, and identified H2A residues that are required for H2B K123ub. Many of these residues map to the nucleosome acidic patch. The substitutions in the acidic patch confer varying histone modification defects downstream of H2B K123ub, indicating that this region contributes differentially to multiple histone modifications. Interestingly, substitutions in the acidic patch result in decreased recruitment of H2B K123ub machinery to active genes and defects in transcription elongation and termination. Together, our findings reveal a role for the nucleosome acidic patch in recruitment of histone modification machinery and maintenance of transcriptional integrity.

  8. Tensile and low cycle fatigue properties of EUROFER97-steel after 16.3 dpa neutron irradiation at 523, 623 and 723 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materna-Morris, E., E-mail: edeltraud.materna-morris@kit.edu; Möslang, A., E-mail: anton.moeslang@kit.edu; Schneider, H.-C., E-mail: hans-christian.schneider@kit.edu

    2013-11-15

    Neutron-irradiated specimens of the reduced-activation tempered martensitic steel EUROFER97 were tested by tensile and low cycle conditions to detect the impact of irradiation on strength and lifetime. The irradiation temperature ranged from 523 to 723 K with an accumulated dose of up to 16.3 dpa. Tensile tests revealed a significant irradiation-induced hardening below 673 K with a peak of ∼430 MPa at 573 K but none was seen at 723 K, as expected. Despite the significant irradiation-induced reduction of uniform elongation, the total elongation is only reduced by about 50% below 673 K. Post-irradiation strain-controlled fatigue tests have been carried out at T{sub irrad} = T{sub test} = 523, 623 and 723 K. Pronounced cyclic softening was observed in all specimens. At 623 and 723 K, neutron irradiation had no effect on fatigue life within the data scatter. A significant lifetime increase has been observed at T{sub irrad} = T{sub test} = 523 K that advances with decreasing stress amplitude Δε (1% → 0.5%) up to a factor of ten. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed ductile fracture and fatigue striations on the fracture surfaces. After push–pull fatigue testing, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations showed the typical sub-cell formation, even at T{sub irrad} = T{sub test} = 523 K.

  9. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Microstructure, Tensile Properties, and Fracture Behavior of Cold-Rolled High-Mn Light-Weight Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Kyung Mox [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Joonoh; Kang, Jun-Yun; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of the annealing temperature on the microstructure and tensile properties of cold-rolled light-weight steels are investigated using two Fe-30Mn-xAl-0.9C alloys that contain different Al content. The initial alloy microstructure is composed of a single austenite or a mixture of austenite and ferrite depending on the nominal aluminum content. For the alloy with 9 wt%Al content, the recrystallization and grain growth of austenite occurrs depending on the annealing temperature. However, for the alloy with 11 wt%Al content, the β-Mn phase is observed after annealing for 10 min at 550~800 ℃. The β-Mn transformation kinetics is the fastest at 700 ℃. The formation of the β-Mn phase has a detrimental effect on the ductility, and this leads to significant decreases in the total elongation. The same alloy also forms κ-carbide and DO3 ordering at 550~900 ℃. The investigated alloys exhibit a fully recrystallized microstructure after annealing at 900 ℃ for 10 min, which results in a high total elongation of 25~55%with a high tensile strength of 900~1170 MPa.

  10. Effect of Plasticizer Type on Tensile Property and In Vitro Indomethacin Release of Thin Films Based on Low-Methoxyl Pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensak Jantrawut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed the interests of low-methoxyl pectin (LMP together with plasticizers for the preparation of elastic thin films. The effect of different plasticizer types (glycerol: Gly; sorbitol: Sor; propylene glycol: PG; and polyethylene glycol 300: PEG 300 and concentrations (20–40% w/w on mechanical and thermal properties of LMP films as well as on in vitro release of indomethacin were evaluated. Without any plasticizer, a brittle LMP film with low tensile strength and % elongation at break was obtained. Addition of plasticizers from 20% to 40% caused reduction in the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values, whereas percent elongation was increased. Forty percent Gly-plasticized and PG-plasticized films were selected to deliver indomethacin in comparison with non-plasticized film. No significant difference in indomethacin release profiles was displayed between the films. The analysis of indomethacin release model indicated that more than one drug release mechanism from the film formulation was involved and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. Even though indomethacin incorporated in non-plasticized film showed similar release profile, Gly or PG should be added to enhanced film flexibility and decrease film brittleness.

  11. Compressive residual stresses as a preventive measure against stress corrosion cracking on turbine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Ewald, J.; Fischer, K.; Gruendler, O.; Potthast, E.; Stuecker, E.; Winzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    Disk type low pressure turbine rotors have been designed for a large variety of power plant applications. Developing disk type rotors required a concerted effort to design a shaft/disk shrink fit with a minimum of tensile stress concentrations in order to aim for the lowest possible susceptibility to corrosive attack, i.e. stress corrosion cracking. As a result of stresses, the regions of greatest concern are the shrink fit boundaries and the keyways of turbine disks. These stresses are caused by service loading, i.e. centrifugal and shrinkage stresses and by manufacturing procedure, i.e. residual stresses. The compressive residual stresses partly compensate the tensile service stresses so that an increase of compressive residual stresses decreases the whole stress state of the component. Special manufacturing procedures, e.g. accelerated cooling after tempering can induce compressive residual stresses up to about 400 MPa in the hub bore region of turbine disk

  12. APOBEC3G inhibits HIV-1 RNA elongation by inactivating the viral trans-activation response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-07-29

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. dC-to-dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defense against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. We further show that free single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3'+5' ends is sufficient for A3G deamination. These results identify A3G as an efficient mutator and that deamination of (-)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Design of glulam according to the European timber code Eurocode 5 is based on the standard document prEN1194 , according to which glulam beam strength is to be established either by full scale testing or by calculation. The calculation must be based on a knowledge of lamination tensile strength....... This knowledge may be obtained either by adopting a general rule that the characteristic tensile strength is sixty percent of the characteristic bending strength, or by performing tensile tests on an adequate number of laminations representative of the whole population. The present paper presents...... an investigation aimed at establishing such an adequate experimental background for the assignment of strength classes for glulam made of visually strength graded laminations from Nordic sawmills. The investigation includes more than 1800 boards (laminations) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) sampled from eight...

  14. Ab initio elastic properties and tensile strength of crystalline hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, W Y; Rulis, Paul; Misra, A

    2009-10-01

    We report elastic constant calculation and a "theoretical" tensile experiment on stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystal using an ab initio technique. These results compare favorably with a variety of measured data. Theoretical tensile experiments are performed on the orthorhombic cell of HAP for both uniaxial and biaxial loading. The results show considerable anisotropy in the stress-strain behavior. It is shown that the failure behavior of the perfect HAP crystal is brittle for tension along the z-axis with a maximum stress of 9.6 GPa at 10% strain. Biaxial failure envelopes from six "theoretical" loading tests show a highly anisotropic pattern. Structural analysis of the crystal under various stages of tensile strain reveals that the deformation behavior manifests itself mainly in the rotation of the PO(4) tetrahedron with concomitant movements of both the columnar and axial Ca ions. These results are discussed in the context of mechanical properties of bioceramic composites relevant to mineralized tissues.

  15. Handbook for tensile properties of austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Ryu, W. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Chung, M. K.; Han, C. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Database system of nuclear materials has not been developed and the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in nuclear power plant are not summarized systematically in Korea. Although Korea designs nuclear power plant, many materials used in nuclear power plant are imported because we do not have database system of nuclear material yet and it was hard to select a proper material for the structural materials of nuclear power plant. To develop database system of nuclear materials, data of mechanical, corrosion, irradiation properties are needed. Of theses properties, tensile properties are tested and summarized in this report. Tensile properties of stainless steel used in nuclear reactor internal were investigated. Data between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and foreign laboratory were compared to determine the precision of the result. To develope database system, materials, chemical composition, heat treatment, manufacturing process, and grain size were classified. Tensile properties were tested and summarized to use input data of database system. 9 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  16. Two directional microstructure and effects of nanoscale dispersed Si particles on microhardness and tensile properties of AlSi7Mg melt-spun alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xixi, E-mail: dongxx09@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Liangju [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mi, Guangbao [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Peijie [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Both surface and cross-sectional microstructure of AlSi7Mg ribbon were characterized. • 13–50 nm and 50-hundreds of nm Si particles were dispersed both in α-Al and its boundary. • Tensile property of AlSi7Mg ribbon was studied with UTS 1.5 times higher than ingot. • Effects of nanoscale Si particles on hardness and tensile properties were provided. - Abstract: The two directional microstructure and multiple mechanical properties of the AlSi7Mg ribbon produced by melt-spun were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness and tensile tests. Both the surface and cross-sectional microstructure of the melt-spun ribbon were characterized in detail to give a clear and integrated description of the microstructure. Two kinds of nanoscale Si particles were observed, i.e., small Si particles ranging from 13 to 50 nm and large Si particles ranging from 50 nm to several hundreds of nanometers with clear size boundary were dispersed both in the interior and boundary of fine α-Al. XRD results revealed supersaturated solution of Si in Al matrix to be 0.62 at.%. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness of the ribbon were 1.53, 1.75 and 1.56 times higher than that of the conventional cast ingot separately. The breaking elongation of the ribbon was 1.73% with intergranular fracture feature. The effects of nanoscale dispersed Si particles on the significant improvement of both hardness and tensile properties of the AlSi7Mg melt-spun ribbon were discussed in detail.

  17. Phytotoxic grass residues reduce germination and initial root growth of ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Rietveld

    1975-01-01

    Extracts of green foliage of Arizona fescue and mountain muhly significantly reduced germination of ponderosa pine seeds, and retarded speed of elongation and mean radicle length. Three possible routes of release of the inhibitor were investigated: (1) leaching from live foliage, (2) root exudation, and (3) overwinter leaching from dead residues. The principal route...

  18. Ratcheting Strain and Microstructure Evolution of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy under a Tensile-Tensile Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Wang, Denghui; Wang, Wenxian; Zhou, Jun; He, Xiuli; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Hongxia; Sun, Liyong

    2018-03-28

    In this paper, studies were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and microstructure change in a hot-rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy during a tensile-tensile cyclic loading. The relationship between ratcheting effect and microstructure change was discussed. The ratcheting effect in the material during current tensile-tensile fatigue loading exceeds the material's fatigue limit and the development of ratcheting strain in the material experienced three stages: initial sharp increase stage (Stage I); steady stage (Stage II); and final abrupt increase stage (Stage III). Microstructure changes in Stage I and Stage II are mainly caused by activation of basal slip system. The Extra Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GNDs) were also calculated to discuss the relationship between the dislocation caused by the basal slip system and the ratcheting strain during the cyclic loading. In Stage III, both the basal slip and the {11-20} twins are found active during the crack propagation. The fatigue crack initiation in the AZ31B magnesium alloy is found due to the basal slip and the {11-20} tensile twins.

  19. Influence of laser peening on the tensile strength and impact toughness of dissimilar welds of Inconel 625 and UNS S32205

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, K. Devendranath, E-mail: ramdevendranath@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Kumar, P. Siva Goutham; Krishna, V. Radha; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Dev, Sidharth; Abraham, Winston Sunny [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Prabhakaran, S.; Kalainathan, S. [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Sridhar, R. [Saraswathi Velu Engineering College, Sholinghur, Vellore 632501 (India)

    2016-10-31

    The present study addresses the effect of fillers on the microstructure and tensile strength of dissimilar joints of Inconel 625 and UNS S32205 by pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) employing ERNiCrMo-10 and ERNiCrMo-14 fillers. This study attested that tensile failure occurred in the fusion zone of the dissimilar joints for both the cases in the as-welded un-peened condition. Double shot laser shock peening (DLSP) was performed on the fusion zone of these PCGTA welds on the cap and root regions of the weldments. It was assimilated that after DLSP on the cap and root regions of the weldments, the yield and tensile strength of the welded joints employing these fillers were improved considerably. Residual stress analysis were carried out on the dissimilar coupons using X-ray Diffraction analysis. The results demonstrated that after subjecting to double sided DLSP, the fusion zones were subjected to compressive residual stresses. The present study articulated that shot peening using low energy laser beam resulted in better tensile strength.

  20. Effect of the weld joint configuration on stressed components, residual stresses and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, Bekir; Oezer, Alpay; Oezcatalbas, Yusuf [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the weld joint configuration on components has been studied, which are under service loads, under repair or construction and the residual stresses as well as the mechanical properties of the joint have been determined. For this purpose, a horizontal positioned tensile testing device and a semi-automatic MIG welding machine have been used and then the weld joints of the plates were subjected to different elastic stresses. When the temperature of the joined elements decreased to room temperature, applied elastic stresses were released. By this means, the effects of the existing tensile stresses in the joined parts and the tensile stresses created by the welding processes were investigated. The tensile stresses occurring in the joined elements were determined by using the photo-elasticity analysis method and the hole-drilling method. Also, tensile-shear tests were applied in order to determine the effect of permanent tensile loads on the mechanical properties of the joint. Experimental results showed that the application of corner welded lap joints for components under tensile loading significantly decrease the shear strength and yielding capacities of the joint. (orig.)

  1. Indigenous Design for Automatic Testing of Tensile Strength Using Graphical User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rafay; Junejo Faraz; Imtiaz Rafey; Shamsi Usama Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Tensile Testing is a fundamental material test to measure the tenacity and tensile strength. Tensile strength means ability to take tensile stress. This Universal Testing Machine is designed using Dual Cylinder Technique in order to comply with the maximun load (tensile force) with the reduction of minimum physical effort and minimized losses.It is to provide material testing opportunity to the students of different institutions, locally and globally, at lowest price; so that they can have a ...

  2. Endogenous abscisic acid as a key switch for natural variation in flooding-induced shoot elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Pierik, Ronald; Peeters, Anton J M; Poorter, Hendrik; Visser, Eric J W; Huber, Heidrun; de Kroon, Hans; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J

    2010-10-01

    Elongation of leaves and stem is a key trait for survival of terrestrial plants during shallow but prolonged floods that completely submerge the shoot. However, natural floods at different locations vary strongly in duration and depth, and, therefore, populations from these locations are subjected to different selection pressure, leading to intraspecific variation. Here, we identified the signal transduction component that causes response variation in shoot elongation among two accessions of the wetland plant Rumex palustris. These accessions differed 2-fold in petiole elongation rates upon submergence, with fast elongation found in a population from a river floodplain and slow elongation in plants from a lake bank. Fast petiole elongation under water consumes carbohydrates and depends on the (inter)action of the plant hormones ethylene, abscisic acid, and gibberellic acid. We found that carbohydrate levels and dynamics in shoots did not differ between the fast and slow elongating plants, but that the level of ethylene-regulated abscisic acid in petioles, and hence gibberellic acid responsiveness of these petioles explained the difference in shoot elongation upon submergence. Since this is the exact signal transduction level that also explains the variation in flooding-induced shoot elongation among plant species (namely, R. palustris and Rumex acetosa), we suggest that natural selection results in similar modification of regulatory pathways within and between species.

  3. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamdagni, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Thakur, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices

  4. EFFECTS OF EDGE COVERING ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF MDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Dowels, 6, 8 and 10 mm ? diameters were bonded with PVAc adhesive on Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF. Edges were covered with 5, 8 and 12 mm beech wood materials, drilled 25 mm depth. Tensile strength measurments were made on the samples. The highest tensile strength value was given as 6 mm ? dowel and MDF covered with 8 mm thickness beech wood material (2.294 N/mm2, the lowest value was obtained with 10 mm ? dowel and with unprocessed MDF (1.314 N/mm2.

  5. Development of Tensile Softening Model for Plain Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    Large-scale direct tensile softenng tests using plate concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) with notch were performed under uniaxial stress. There were presented the basic physical properties and the complete load-CMOD(Crack Mouth Opening Displacement) curves for them And them the fracture energy was evaluated using the complete load-CMOD curves respectively, and there was presents optimal tensile softening model which is modified by a little revision of an existing one. Therefore, here provided the real verification data through the tests for developing other nonlinear concrete finite element models. (author). 32 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Tensile tests of 2500-kip prestressing tendons for the PCRV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolayeff, V.

    1978-05-01

    A 2500-kip (11-MN) capacity prestressing tendon consisting of sixty 0.5-in. (12.7-mm) strands was designed and tested for General Atomic Company by VSL Corporation of Los Gatos, California. Results of the static tensile test described in this report, and of dynamic tensile tests conducted by VSL in 1968 and 1969, indicate that the tendon system satisfies the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 2, and so can be used for prestressing concrete reactor vessels

  7. Analysis/design of tensile property database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Jeon, I.; Lyu, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    The data base construction using the data produced from tensile experiment can increase the application of test results. Also, we can get the basic data ease from database when we prepare the new experiment and can produce high quality result by compare the previous data. The development part must be analysis and design more specific to construct the database and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. In this thesis, the analysis and design was performed to develop the database for tensile extension property

  8. Development of plastic elongation in nanocrystalline and amorphous Ni–W dual phase alloys by brushing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, S.; Adachi, H.; Yamasaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel agitation technique called the brushing technique is proposed. • A homogeneous material can be obtained with the brushing technique. • The brushed material exhibits large plastic elongation with work hardening. - Abstract: A novel agitation technique, referred to as the “brushing technique” is proposed to treat the surface of a Ni–W alloy film during electrodeposition. This technique was developed to directly remove hydrogen bubbles on the film surface and to apply Ni ions to the interfacial layer with the substrate. The intrinsic mechanical properties of the Ni–W electrodeposits are then evaluated with respect to application. High resolution transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that both treated and untreated films have nanocrystallites of approximately 5 nm in diameter and an amorphous phase. There was a compositional difference of about. 1.4 at% W between the face side and the reverse side of the film that was not subjected to the brushing technique, whereas this difference was absent in the film subjected to the brushing technique. In addition, the brushing technique reduced the surface roughness of the film and decreased the number of defects. As a result, a large plastic strain of about. 2.9% was observed with work hardening under tensile testing

  9. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prime, Michael Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); DeWald, Adrian T. [Hill Engineering, LLC, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2015-12-08

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  10. Residual stress change by thermal annealing in amorphous Sm-Fe-B thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, S.M.; Suh, S.J.; Kim, H.J.; Lim, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    The change in the residual stress and its effect on mechanical bending and magnetic properties of sputtered amorphous Sm-Fe-B thin films are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Two stress components of intrinsic compressive stress and tensile stress due to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and thin film are used to explain the stress state in as-deposited thin films, and the annealing temperature dependence of residual stress, mechanical bending and magnetic properties

  11. Measurement of the residual stresses in a PWR Control Rod Drive Mechanism nozzle

    OpenAIRE

    Coules, Harry; Smith, David

    2018-01-01

    Residual stress in the welds that attach Control Rod Drive Mechanism nozzles into the upper head of a PWR reactor vessel can influence the vessel's structural integrity and initiate Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking. PWSCC at Alloy 600 CRDM nozzles has caused primary coolant leakage in operating PWRs. We have used Deep Hole Drilling to characterise residual stresses in a PWR vessel head. Measurements of the internal cladding and nozzle attachment weld showed that although modest tensile...

  12. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Mary Ann; Prime, Michael Bruce; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Berg, John M.; Clausen, Bjorn; Worl, Laura Ann; DeWald, Adrian T.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  13. The effect of residual thermal stresses on the fatigue crack growth of laser-surface-annealed AISI 304 stainless steel Part I: computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiue, R.K.; Chang, C.T.; Young, M.C.; Tsay, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of residual thermal stresses on the fatigue crack growth of the laser-surface-annealed AISI 304 stainless steel, especially the effect of stress redistribution ahead of the crack tip was extensively evaluated in the study. Based on the finite element simulation, the longitudinal residual tensile stress field has a width of roughly 20 mm on the laser-irradiated surface and was symmetric with respect to the centerline of the laser-annealed zone (LAZ). Meanwhile, residual compressive stresses distributed over a wide region away from the LAZ. After introducing a notch perpendicular to the LAZ, the distribution of longitudinal residual stresses became unsymmetrical about the centerline of LAZ. High residual compressive stresses exist within a narrow range ahead of notch tip. The improved crack growth resistance of the laser-annealed specimen might be attributed to those induced compressive stresses. As the notch tip passed through the centerline of the LAZ, the residual stress ahead of the notch tip was completely reverted into residual tensile stresses. The existence of unanimous residual tensile stresses ahead of the notch tip was maintained, even if the notch tip extended deeply into the LAZ. Additionally, the presence of the residual tensile stress ahead of the notch tip did not accelerate the fatigue crack growth rate in the compact tension specimen

  14. Residual stresses under quasi-static and cyclic loading in shot peened Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Juergen; Schulze, Volker [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials; Hessert, Roland; Koenig, Gerhard [MTU Aero Engines, Munich (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The residual stress state induced by shot peening should be taken into account in the dimensioning of turbine components. Understanding the changes in the residual stress state caused by the application of quasi-static and cyclic loads is a prerequisite. In order to describe the residual stress state after quasi-static loading, several different shot peened Inconel 718 specimens were loaded isothermally up to specific tensile loadings. To analyze the residual stress state after cyclic loading, isothermal low cycle fatigue tests were performed. These tests were stopped after a defined number of cycles. Finally, after the specimens had been subjected to different loads, the surface residual stresses and - for special loadings - the residual stress depth distributions were determined experimentally by using X-ray diffraction. The surface - core model was adapted so that the complete residual stress depth distribution after quasi-static and cyclic loading can now be described. (orig.)

  15. A new surgical procedure for phallic reconstruction in partial penis necrosis: penile elongation in combination with glanuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kaiyan; Cheng, Kaixiang; Song, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The radial forearm flap transfer has proved to be the standard technique in penile reconstruction. However, this operation still leads to a residual scar on the forearm. In the reconstruction of partial penis necrosis, achieving a desirable appearance and functional recovery while minimizing donor-site damage remains an unsolved problem. In this study, we report our experience using penile elongation combined with glanuloplasty to rebuild the partially necrotic penis.A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 33 patients with partial penis necrosis after microwave thermotherapy (not from our hospital) from December 2008 to May 2012 was conducted at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital. These patients, with an age range from 20 to 36 years, first underwent a scrotal skin flap transfer to cover residual cavernosum. The penis was simultaneously elongated at the proximal end. Six months later, all patients received glanuloplasty using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene that was implanted at the distal end of transferred scrotal skin flap to create the neoglans.Anthropometric measurements of preoperative and postoperative penile length were performed with an average follow-up period of 28 months. The mean extended penile length average was 2.57 cm, ranging from 3.16 to 5.73 cm. Patients' satisfaction rate was 88%. In addition, preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed for objective and subjective assessment of outcome parameters such as appearance of neophallus, urination, and erogenous sensation. Most importantly, the rebuilt penis postoperatively showed almost normal shape and restoration of basic physiologic function in most of the patients, with an acceptable complication rate. These preliminary results may provide a useful strategy for the reconstruction of a partially necrotic penis using a novel, simple, and effective approach.

  16. Residual stresses in U-bending deformations and expansion joints of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Sun Jae; Jang, Jin Sung; Kuk, Ii Hiun; Bae, Kang Gug; Kim, Sung Chung

    2000-01-01

    Residual stress induced in U-bending and tube-to-tubesheet joint processes of PWR's rew-1 heat exchanger tube was measured by X-ray method and Hole-Drilling Method(HDM). Compressive residual stresses(-) at the extrados surface were induced in U-bending, and its maximum value reached -319MPa in axial direction at the position of ψ=0 deg. Tensile residual stresses (+) of 0σ zz =45 MPa and σ θθ =25MPa were introduced in the intrados surface at the position of ψ=0 deg. Maximum tensile residual stress of 170 MPa was measured at the flank side at the position of ψ=90 deg, i.e., at apex region. It was observed that higher stress gradient was generated at the irregular transition regions (ITR). The trend of residual stress induced by U-bending process of the tubes was found to be related with the change of ovality. The residual stress induced by the explosive joint method was found to be lower than that by the mechanical roll method. The gradient of residual stress along the expanded tube was highest at the transition region (TR), and the residual stress in circumferential direction was found to be higher than the residual stress in axial direction

  17. The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation during anodization of aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, M.W.; Chung, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Al films of varying residual stress were prepared by sputtering. •Variation of the residual stress in the Al films influences pore growth during anodization. •The change in average pore size with residual stress is fairly small. •Interaction of residual stress with oxide growth stress leads to change in structure. •Residual tensile stress increases the pore density of porous alumina. -- Abstract: The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) have been investigated into anodizing the various-residual-stresses aluminium films. The plane stresses were characterised by X-ray diffraction with sin 2 ψ method. The pore density roughly linearly increased with residual stress from 64.6 (−132.5 MPa) to 90.5 pores/μm 2 (135.9 MPa). However, the average pore size around 40 nm was not changed significantly except for the rougher film. The tensile residual stress lessened the compressive oxide growth stress to reduce AAO plastic deformation for higher pore density. The findings provide new foundations for realizing AAO films on silicon

  18. Residual stress reduction in the penetration nozzle weld joint by overlay welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wenchun; Luo, Yun; Wang, B.Y.; Tu, S.T.; Gong, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Residual stress reduction in penetration weld nozzle by overlay welding was studied. • The overlay weld can decrease the residual stress in the weld root. • Long overlay welding is proposed in the actual welding. • Overlay weld to decrease residual stress is more suitable for thin nozzle. - Abstract: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the penetration nozzle weld joint endangers the structural reliability of pressure vessels in nuclear and chemical industries. How to decrease the residual stress is very critical to ensure the structure integrity. In this paper, a new method, which uses overlay welding on the inner surface of nozzle, is proposed to decrease the residual stresses in the penetration joint. Finite element simulation is used to study the change of weld residual stresses before and after overlay welding. It reveals that this method can mainly decrease the residual stress in the weld root. Before overlay welding, large tensile residual stresses are generated in the weld root. After overlay weld, the tensile hoop stress in weld root has been decreased about 45%, and the radial stress has been decreased to compressive stress, which is helpful to decrease the susceptibility to SCC. With the increase of overlay welding length, the residual stress in weld root has been greatly decreased, and thus the long overlay welding is proposed in the actual welding. It also finds that this method is more suitable for thin nozzle rather than thick nozzle

  19. Venus 2004: east and west elongations and solar transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, R. J.; Blaxall, K.; Heath, A.

    2007-04-01

    The year 2004 was exceptional in producing the first solar transit of Venus since the late Victorian era. The bright aureole and atmospheric ring were re-observed, and the entire phenomenon was witnessed for the first time ever in hydrogen alpha light. Although routine observations throughout 2004 were unexceptional, patterns of visibility of bright and dark markings, cusp extensions and cusp-caps were recorded. No correlation was found between the latitude of the sub-Earth point and the visibility of either cusp-cap, with the S. cap predominating for most of the year. It was possible to accurately follow individual ultraviolet dark markings over many consecutive rotations, extending from the E. to W. elongations, and thereby to make a current measurement of the synodic atmospheric rotation period for the near-equatorial features: 3.996 ± 0.001 days. The true Ashen Light was reported visually on only a few occasions, but these correspond closely to times when infrared emission from the surface of the dark side was recorded in 1-micron waveband images. Some of the stable dark side albedo features were also visible upon the 1-micron images, and have been tentatively identified with known surface features. Infrared imaging at the same waveband showed little detail on the sunlit disk, but a few bright spots were sufficiently well observed to suggest a synodic rotation period close to 5.0 days, not atypical for the lower cloud decks.

  20. APOBEC3G inhibits elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate N Bishop

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available APOBEC3G (A3G is a host cytidine deaminase that, in the absence of Vif, restricts HIV-1 replication and reduces the amount of viral DNA that accumulates in cells. Initial studies determined that A3G induces extensive mutation of nascent HIV-1 cDNA during reverse transcription. It has been proposed that this triggers the degradation of the viral DNA, but there is now mounting evidence that this mechanism may not be correct. Here, we use a natural endogenous reverse transcriptase assay to show that, in cell-free virus particles, A3G is able to inhibit HIV-1 cDNA accumulation not only in the absence of hypermutation but also without the apparent need for any target cell factors. We find that although reverse transcription initiates in the presence of A3G, elongation of the cDNA product is impeded. These data support the model that A3G reduces HIV-1 cDNA levels by inhibiting synthesis rather than by inducing degradation.

  1. Electrostatics Control Actin Filament Nucleation and Elongation Kinetics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H.; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L.; Lamb, Don C.; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment. PMID:23486468

  2. Electrostatics control actin filament nucleation and elongation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L; Lamb, Don C; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-04-26

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment.

  3. Combining orthogonal polarization for elongated target detection with GPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lualdi, Maurizio; Lombardi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    For an accurate imaging of ground penetrating radar data the polarization characteristics of the propagating electromagnetic (EM) wavefield and wave amplitude variations with antenna pattern orientation must be taken into account. For objects that show some directionality feature and cylindrical shape any misalignment between transmitter and target can strongly modify the polarization state of the backscattered wavefield, thus conditioning the detection capability of the system. Hints on the depolarization can be used to design the optimal GPR antenna survey to avoid omissions and pitfalls during data processing. This research addresses the issue of elongated target detection through a multi azimuth (or multi polarization) approach based on the combination of mutually orthogonal GPR data. Results from the analysis of the formal scattering problem demonstrate how this strategy can reach a scalar formulation of the scattering matrix and achieve a rotational invariant quantity. The effectiveness of the algorithm is then evaluated with a detailed field example showing results closely proximal to those obtained under the optimal alignment condition: detection is significantly improved and the risk of target missing is reduced. (paper)

  4. X chromosome dosage compensation via enhanced transcriptional elongation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larschan, Erica; Bishop, Eric P; Kharchenko, Peter V; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T; Park, Peter J; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2011-03-03

    The evolution of sex chromosomes has resulted in numerous species in which females inherit two X chromosomes but males have a single X, thus requiring dosage compensation. MSL (Male-specific lethal) complex increases transcription on the single X chromosome of Drosophila males to equalize expression of X-linked genes between the sexes. The biochemical mechanisms used for dosage compensation must function over a wide dynamic range of transcription levels and differential expression patterns. It has been proposed that the MSL complex regulates transcriptional elongation to control dosage compensation, a model subsequently supported by mapping of the MSL complex and MSL-dependent histone 4 lysine 16 acetylation to the bodies of X-linked genes in males, with a bias towards 3' ends. However, experimental analysis of MSL function at the mechanistic level has been challenging owing to the small magnitude of the chromosome-wide effect and the lack of an in vitro system for biochemical analysis. Here we use global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to examine the specific effect of the MSL complex on RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) on a genome-wide level. Results indicate that the MSL complex enhances transcription by facilitating the progression of RNAP II across the bodies of active X-linked genes. Improving transcriptional output downstream of typical gene-specific controls may explain how dosage compensation can be imposed on the diverse set of genes along an entire chromosome.

  5. Stability of machining induced residual stresses in Inconel 718 under quasi-static loading at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madariaga, A.; Esnaola, J.A.; Arrazola, P.J.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Muñoz, P.; Ostolaza, K.

    2015-01-01

    Tensile residual stresses are very often generated on the surface when machining nickel alloys. In order to determine their influence on the final mechanical behaviour of the component residual stress stability should be considered. In the present work the evolution of surface residual stresses induced by machining in Inconel 718 under static loading at room temperature was studied experimentally and numerically. An Inconel 718 disc was face turned employing industrial working conditions and specimens for tensile tests were extracted from the disc. Surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction for initial state and after applying different loads over the material's yield stress. Then, a finite element model based on the surface–core approach was fitted to experimental results and the study was extended to analyse the influence of load level, degree of work-hardening and initial surface conditions. For the studied case, initial tensile surface residual stress (776 MPa) became even more tensile when applying loads higher than the material yield stress, but a shift was observed at the highest applied load (1350 MPa) and initial residual stress was relaxed about 170 MPa. This particular behaviour is associated to the modified stress–strain properties of the machined affected surface layer which was strongly work-hardened. Moreover, if the work-hardened properties are not considered in the finite element model results differ substantially from experiments. Surface residual stress stability also depends on the initial surface residual stress, but the degree of work-hardening induced by the machining process must be considered as well. If the difference between the yield stress of the surface and the yield stress of the core is lower than the initial surface residual stress, the surface begins yielding first and consequently the surface residual stress is decreased. In contrast, if the difference between the yield stress of the surface and the

  6. Stability of machining induced residual stresses in Inconel 718 under quasi-static loading at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madariaga, A., E-mail: amadariaga@mondragon.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Production Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mondragon Unibertsitatea, Loramendi 4, Mondragon 20500 Gipuzkoa (Spain); Esnaola, J.A.; Arrazola, P.J. [Mechanical and Industrial Production Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mondragon Unibertsitatea, Loramendi 4, Mondragon 20500 Gipuzkoa (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Muñoz, P. [Departamento Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, c/Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ostolaza, K. [Materials and Processes Technology Department, ITP S.A., Parque Tecnológico, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2015-01-03

    Tensile residual stresses are very often generated on the surface when machining nickel alloys. In order to determine their influence on the final mechanical behaviour of the component residual stress stability should be considered. In the present work the evolution of surface residual stresses induced by machining in Inconel 718 under static loading at room temperature was studied experimentally and numerically. An Inconel 718 disc was face turned employing industrial working conditions and specimens for tensile tests were extracted from the disc. Surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction for initial state and after applying different loads over the material's yield stress. Then, a finite element model based on the surface–core approach was fitted to experimental results and the study was extended to analyse the influence of load level, degree of work-hardening and initial surface conditions. For the studied case, initial tensile surface residual stress (776 MPa) became even more tensile when applying loads higher than the material yield stress, but a shift was observed at the highest applied load (1350 MPa) and initial residual stress was relaxed about 170 MPa. This particular behaviour is associated to the modified stress–strain properties of the machined affected surface layer which was strongly work-hardened. Moreover, if the work-hardened properties are not considered in the finite element model results differ substantially from experiments. Surface residual stress stability also depends on the initial surface residual stress, but the degree of work-hardening induced by the machining process must be considered as well. If the difference between the yield stress of the surface and the yield stress of the core is lower than the initial surface residual stress, the surface begins yielding first and consequently the surface residual stress is decreased. In contrast, if the difference between the yield stress of the surface and the

  7. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2015-03-09

    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  8. Analysis of residual stresses in girth welded type 304 stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, F.W.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping is a problem for the nuclear power industry. Tensile residual stresses induced by welding are an important factor in IGSCC of Type 304 stainless steel pipes. Backlay and heat sink welding can retard IGSCC. 17 refs

  9. Residual stresses in as-sprayed and heat treated TBCs : measurements and FEM calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolloos, M.F.J.; Houben, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The first part of this paper concerns measurement of through-thickness residual stresses in TBCs by the hole-drilling method. The influences of top coat thickness and different thermal histories (furnace and burner rig) were determined. Low tensile stresses prevailed in the as-sprayed state, and low

  10. Effects of microstructure and residual stress on fatigue crack growth of stainless steel narrow gap welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Changheui; Cho, Pyung-Yeon; Kim, Minu; Oh, Seung-Jin; Yang, Jun-Seog

    2010-01-01

    The effects of weld microstructure and residual stress distribution on the fatigue crack growth rate of stainless steel narrow gap welds were investigated. Stainless steel pipes were joined by the automated narrow gap welding process typical to nuclear piping systems. The weld fusion zone showed cellular-dendritic structures with ferrite islands in an austenitic matrix. Residual stress analysis showed large tensile stress in the inner-weld region and compressive stress in the middle of the weld. Tensile properties and the fatigue crack growth rate were measured along and across the weld thickness direction. Tensile tests showed higher strength in the weld fusion zone and the heat affected zone compared to the base metal. Within the weld fusion zone, strength was greater in the inner weld than outer weld region. Fatigue crack growth rates were several times greater in the inner weld than the outer weld region. The spatial variation of the mechanical properties is discussed in view of weld microstructure, especially dendrite orientation, and in view of the residual stress variation within the weld fusion zone. It is thought that the higher crack growth rate in the inner-weld region could be related to the large tensile residual stress despite the tortuous fatigue crack growth path.

  11. The Microstructure and Tensile Properties of a Newly Developed Mg-Al/Mg3Sb2 In Situ Composite in As-Cast and Extruded Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montajabnia, A.; Pourbahari, B.; Emamy, M.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructures and tensile properties of Mg-x wt%Al-y wt%Sb alloys have been studied where x/y ratio was 1 and Sb(Al) contents were 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%, respectively. The results indicated that by increasing Sb(Al) content, not only the crystals of primary Mg3Sb2 alter from small flake-like particles to polygonal or needle-like morphology, but also the eutectic structure changes from semi-continuous network in Mg-5Al-5Sb to continuous network in Mg-20Sb-20Al alloy. The results obtained from thermal analysis revealed different peaks related to the formation of Mg3Sb2 as primary phase and eutectic structure containing Mg17Al12 + Al3Mg2 intermetallic phases. Further results also revealed that Sb(Al) additions change the solidification performance of the material by depressing the Mg3Sb2 nucleation temperature, reducing solidification range and widening eutectic area. Tensile testing results showed that with the increase in Sb (Al) content, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation values of the alloys are decreased in as-cast condition. But, significant improvement in the UTS and elongation values of the extruded specimens was attributed to the severe fragmentation of intermetallic phases and well distributed fine particles in the matrix which provided proper obstacles for dislocation motion. It was interesting to note that the fracture behavior of intermetallic particles was found to be different, while Mg3Sb2 was ductile, intermetallic compounds in eutectic regions were brittle.

  12. Development of a new ultrafine grained dual phase steel and examination of the effect of grain size on tensile deformation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidi, N., E-mail: navidsae@gmail.com; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Niroumand, B.

    2014-04-01

    Ultrafine grained dual phase (DP) steels are among the newest grades of DP steels that incorporate the uniform distribution of fine martensite particles (in the order of 1–2 μm) within a ferrite matrix. These new grades of steels have been developed in response to the world's demand for decreasing the fuel consumption in automobiles by increasing the strength to weight ratio. In the present research, a new kind of ultrafine grained DP (UFG-DP) steel with an average grain size of about 2 μm as well as a coarse grained DP (CG-DP) steel with an average grain size of about 5.4 μm was produced by consecutive intercritical annealing and cold rolling of low carbon AISI 8620 steel. The martensite volume fraction for both microstructures was the same and about 50 percent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructural examination and room temperature tensile deformation analyses were performed on both UFG-DP and CG-DP steels and their deformation behavior in terms of strength, elongation and strain hardening was studied and compared. Room-temperature uniaxial tensile tests revealed that for a given martensite volume fraction, yield and tensile strengths were not very sensitive to martensite morphology. However, uniform and total elongation values were noticeably affected by refining martensite particles. The higher plasticity of fine martensite particles as well as the more uniform strain distribution within the UFG-DP microstructure resulted in higher strain hardenability and, finally, the higher ductility of the UFG-DP steel.

  13. Quasi-static tensile properties of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL) in adult cattle: towards the design of a prosthetic CrCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diotalevi, Lucien; Petit, Yvan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Nichols, Sylvain; Marchionatti, Emma; Wagnac, Éric

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical properties of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL) in adult cattle are not well documented and protocols used in the literature focus on testing a full femur-CrCL-tibia complex rather than an isolated CrCL. The aim of this study was to assess a wider range of tensile properties of the CrCL along its anatomic axis with experimental measurements of the global elongation, displacement and strain fields, in order to provide guidelines for the design of CrCL prosthetic surrogates. Fourteen bovine CrCL were harvested from seven mature cows (5.1 ± 1.3 years) weighing 631 ± 90kg. The mean CrCL length was 41.4 ± 1.5mm and its mean cross-section was 103.9 ± 23.8mm 2 . Pre-conditioning was achieved with 30 cycles of loading from 30 to 200N at a strain rate of 0.02s -1 . Specimens were then loaded to failure at the same strain rate. The following results were obtained: the mean ultimate tensile load (UTL) 4372 ± 1485N and the median [quartiles] maximal global elongation 19.3 [17.8; 21.4] %. At first physical signs of tearing, the mean load was 3315 ± 1336N and mean elongation 13.5 ± 4.9%. The mean absorbed energy at failure was 5.23 ± 2.08 MJ.mm -3 and the mean stiffness at various levels of elongation was: 220 ± 195N.% -1 (5%), 285 ± 162N.% -1 (10%), 239 ± 200N.% -1 (15%), 146 ± 59N.% -1 (20%), 153 ± 136N.% -1 (25%). None of these properties were related to the bovine weight, age and side of the body (p > 0.05). An ideal prosthetic surrogate should then follow these sets of properties and the experimental data suggest that the in-vivo maximal elongation is below 13.5%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Shear instabilities in perfect bcc crystals during simulated tensile tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, M.; Šesták, P.; Pokluda, J.; Šob, Mojmír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), 014117/1-014117/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : instabilities * tensile test * bcc metals * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013

  15. Tensile Strength of Finger Joints at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter C.; Olesen, Frits Bolonius

    A series of test s aimed a t establishing the effect of temperature upon the tensile strength parallel-to-grain of finger jointed laminae for glulam has been conducted in the Fire Research Laboratory at Aalborg University Centre. The objective of this report is to present the background...

  16. Evaluation of microtensile and tensile bond strength tests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare two different bond strength test methods (tensile and microtensile) in investing the influence of erbium, chromium: yttrium‑scandium‑gallium‑garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser pulse frequency on resin‑enamel bonding. Materials and Methods: One‑hundred and twenty‑five ...

  17. Micro-tensile strength of a welded turbine disc superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oluwasegun, K.M.; Cooper, C.; Chiu, Y.L.; Jones, I.P. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Li, H.Y., E-mail: h.y.li.1@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Baxter, G. [Rolls-Royce plc., P.O. Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-24

    A micro-tensile testing system coupled with focussed ion beam (FIB) machining was used to characterise the micro-mechanical properties of the weld from a turbine disc alloy. The strength variations between the weld and the base alloy are rationalised via the microstructure obtained.

  18. Non-contact tensile viscoelastic characterization of microscale biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Hong, Yuan; Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Shaobao; Shi, Qiang; Tang, Deding; Yang, Hui; Genin, Guy M.; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2018-06-01

    Many structures and materials in nature and physiology have important "meso-scale" structures at the micron length-scale whose tensile responses have proven difficult to characterize mechanically. Although techniques such as atomic force microscopy and micro- and nano-identation are mature for compression and indentation testing at the nano-scale, and standard uniaxial and shear rheometry techniques exist for the macroscale, few techniques are applicable for tensile-testing at the micrometre-scale, leaving a gap in our understanding of hierarchical biomaterials. Here, we present a novel magnetic mechanical testing (MMT) system that enables viscoelastic tensile testing at this critical length scale. The MMT system applies non-contact loading, avoiding gripping and surface interaction effects. We demonstrate application of the MMT system to the first analyses of the pure tensile responses of several native and engineered tissue systems at the mesoscale, showing the broad potential of the system for exploring micro- and meso-scale analysis of structured and hierarchical biological systems.

  19. Swelling Characteristics and Tensile Properties of Natural Fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The swelling behavior and tensile strength of natural fiber-reinforced plastic in premium motor spirit (PMS), dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and sea water have been studied. Composite formed by reinforcing polyester resin with Okam fibers was immersed in the selected solvents for 16 weeks (4 months). Swelling ...

  20. Tensile Strength of GFRP Reinforcing Bars with Hollow Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP has been proposed to replace steel as a reinforcing bar (rebar due to its high tensile strength and noncorrosive material properties. One obstacle in using FRP rebars is high price. Generally FRP is more expensive than conventional steel rebar. There are mainly two ways to reduce the cost. For example, one is making the price of each composition cost of FRP rebar (e.g., fibers, resin, etc. lower than steel rebar. Another is making an optimized design for cross section and reducing the material cost. The former approach is not easy because the steel price is very low in comparison with component materials of FRP. For the latter approach, the cost could be cut down by reducing the material cost. Therefore, an idea of making hollow section over the cross section of FRP rebar was proposed in this study by optimizing the cross section design with acceptable tensile performance in comparison with steel rebar. In this study, glass reinforced polymer (GFRP rebars with hollow section and 19 mm of outer diameter were manufactured and tested to evaluate the tensile performance in accordance with the hollowness ratio. From the test results, it was observed that the tensile strength decreased almost linearly with increase of hollowness ratio and the elastic modulus decreased nonlinearly.