WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual stand damage

  1. Logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting to different overstory retention levels in a mature hardwood stand in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2006-01-01

    Partial cutting in mature hardwood stands often causes physical damage to residual stems through felling and skidding resulting in a decline in bole quality and subsequent loss of tree value. This study assessed the logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting in a fully stocked, mature oak-hickory stand cut to three overstory basal area retention...

  2. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area plots. Results show that wounding occurred on 16.4% of the remaining trees, but the severity of wounding varied significantly by species. Forty-six percent of wounding for all species combined was considered as small size. The greatest average amount of damage, to a bole, occurred along the first 1m up from the ground and also within 3m of the skid trail centerline (86.4%. Gouges were present on 79% of all scars. The stratification of the study unit would effectively improve accuracy of stand damage surveys. Selection of the appropriate method for damage reduction to trees adjacent skid trails was crucial. According to the results, skidding damage cannot be completely avoided in practice. We suggest that the education and the entertainment of the foresters and workers in forest would be enhanced and the injuries could be explained before the harvesting to the workers. In such a way the damages would be less in the future.

  3. Logging Damage to Residual Trees Following Partial Cutting in a Green Ash-Sugarberry Stand in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows

    1993-01-01

    Partial cutting in bottomland hardwoods to control stand density and species composition sometimes results in logging damage to the lower bole and/or roots of residual trees. If severe, logging damage may lead to a decline in tree vigor, which may subsequently stimulate the production of epicormic branches, causing a decrease in bole quality and an eventual loss in...

  4. MINIMIZING RESIDUAL STAND DAMAGE AND FELLING COST USING LOWEST POSSIBLE FELLING TECHNIQUE (A case study in one logging company in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Suhartana

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of felling technique in logging companies is not yet carried out efficiently and appropriately. Study on the lowest possible felling technique (LPFf is considered  to be important to  reduce residual  stand damage and felling cost. This study was carried out in a logging company in West Kalimantan in 2004. The aim of this study was to  determine the effect of LPFT on residual stand damage and felling cost. Data collected in this research include: residual stand damage, working time, timber  volume, productivity,  efficiency,  stump   height  and  felling cost.  Two categories  data were analyzed with  respect  to  their  possible  differences  using  T-test.    The  result  showed  that  the implementation   of  LPFT  was more advantage impact compared  to   that of  conventional felling technique, which is  indicated by the following factors:  (1  Trees damage decreased 2.96%;  (2 Poles damage decreased 4.75%;  (3 Felling productivity decreased 17.16%; (4 Felling efficiency  increased approximately  3.2%;  (5 Felling cost increased about Rp 327.07 /  m'; and (6 in average stump height was 40.60 cm lower.

  5. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  6. Residual tree damage during selection cuts using two skidding systems in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ficklin; John P. Dwyer; Bruce E. Cutter; Tom Draper

    1997-01-01

    Today, there is an interest in using alternative silvicultural systems like selection and two-aged management, because the public finds these systems more acceptable than clearcutting. However, repeated entries into forest stands to remove timber increase the risk of residual stand damage. Harvest techniques are desirable that (1) reduce the risk of stand damage and (2...

  7. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  8. Harvesting budworm-damaged stands for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henley, S.G. (York, Sunbury, Charlotte Wood Products Marketing Board, (Canada))

    1985-01-01

    This project was initiated to demonstrate the economics and logistics of harvesting budworm-damaged stands for use as fuel. Dead spruce and balsam fir were to be harvested from small private woodlots in southwestern New Brunswick, using an integrated, full-tree harvesting system to produce wood chip fuel and other forest products. The overall objectives of the study are listed. The harvesting equipment and the selection of sites are discussed. The most efficient methods of finding candidate woodlots was found to be by advertising and word of mouth. Contact was made with 85 woodlot owners, and 45 woodlots were visited and evaluated for their suitability. A further 150 management plans were screened and rejected for various reasons. Only 2 woodlots were initially recognized as potential sites; however, after showing some interest, the owners decided not to participate. The reasons for the rejection of the various woodlots are listed. The fact that a number of owners were against clearcutting, and, in some cases, against any cutting, and that others showed no interest in the study, is attributed to the high percentage of white-collar workers owning woodlots. Other strategies for harvesting dead or scrap wood are suggested. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  9. The Influence of Residual Stand Densities on Regeneration in Sugar Maple Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1968-01-01

    Studies of regeneration 2, 5, and 10 years after cutting mature and overmature sugar maple stands to several residual densities show that (1) sugar maple is still the predominant species under all stand densities (2) nearly all regeneration reaching larger size classes became established before cutting (3) heavier cuttings (30, 50, and 70 square feet) are more rapidly...

  10. Harvest operations for density management: planning requirements, production, costs, stand damage, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren D. Kellogg; Stephen J. Pilkerton

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, several studies have been undertaken to determine the planning requirements, productivity, costs, and residual stand damage of harvest operations in thinning treatments designed to promote development of complex forest structure in order to enhance ecological functioning and biological diversity. Th ese studies include the Oregon State...

  11. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  12. Expression of assayable residual stem cell damage in erythroid differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.E.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    In rodents, residual damage is inducible in hematopoietic stem cells by exposure to ionizing radiation or alkylating agents. This damage can b e assayed in mice by transferring bone marrow into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients and subsequently measuring the incremental increase of-( 125 I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in spleens. In this study, bone marrow from mice treated 3 weeks previously with Methylnitrosourea (50 mg/kg) or 450 rad was injected into recipients in order to determine possible residual effects of treatment of erythroid cell differentiation following stem cell seeding. Such effects were detected by a reduced amount of 59 Fe incorporation into spleens, thus indicatin g transfer of residual stem cell damage to differentiating cells. (orig.)

  13. Damage Detection on Thin-walled Structures Utilizing Laser Scanning and Standing Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Se Hyeok; Jeon, Jun Young; Kim, Du Hwan; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, To; Han, Soon Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes wavenumber filtering for damage detection using single-frequency standing wave excitation and laser scanning sensing. An embedded piezoelectric sensor generates ultrasonic standing waves, and the responses are measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and mirror tilting device. After scanning, newly developed damage detection techniques based on wavenumber filtering are applied to the full standing wave field. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques, several experiments were performed on composite plates with delamination and aluminum plates with corrosion damage. The results demonstrated that the developed techniques could be applied to various structures to localize the damage, with the potential to improve the damage detection capability at a high interrogation speed.

  14. Logging damage using an individual tree selection practice in Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1985-01-01

    Four West Virginia hardwood stands, managed using individual-tree selection for the past 30 years, were examined after the third and, in one instance, the fourth periodic harvest to determine the severity of logging damage. On existing skid roads, trees were removed with a rubber-tired skidder or a crawler tractor with a rubber-tired arch. Logging damage reduced...

  15. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  16. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T. (ROB, DCT, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (US))

    1991-05-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the {alpha} and {beta} terms reflect lethal damage created {ital during} the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD.

  17. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the α and β terms reflect lethal damage created during the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with ''unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD

  18. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  19. Tree damage from skyline logging in a western larch/Douglas-fir stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Michael J. Gonsior

    1981-01-01

    Damage to shelterwood leave trees and to understory trees in shelterwood and clearcut logging units logged with skyline yarders was measured, and related to stand conditions, harvesting specifications, and yarding system-terrain interactions. About 23 percent of the marked leave trees in the shelterwood units were killed in logging, and about 10 percent had moderate to...

  20. Logging damage associated with thinning central Appalachian hardwood stands with a wheeled skidder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Neil I. Lamson; Samuel M. Brock

    1984-01-01

    In north central West Virginia, unmanaged 53-year-old, mixed oak-cove hardwood stands were thinned to 75, 60, and 45 percent residual stocking. Cut trees were skidded tree-length with a rubber-tired skidder. Logging destroyed or severely bent 26, 29, and 34 percent of the unmarked stems in the 75, 60, and 45 percent stocking plots, respectively. Because 94 percent of...

  1. Digital Imaging of Pipeline Mechanical Damage and Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    The purpose of this program was to enhance characterization of mechanical damage in pipelines through application of digital eddy current imaging. Lift-off maps can be used to develop quantitative representations of mechanical damage and magnetic per...

  2. Residual capacity of a damaged water mist system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R. van der; Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Claesson, A.; Boonacker, B.

    2013-01-01

    Navies have been facing budget reductions over the past decade. Since crew size is a major cost driver, this has led to efforts to reduce manning on board naval ships. Traditionally, damage control and firefighting were manpower intensive operations. To enable crewing level reductions without

  3. Nonlinear Fatigue Damage Model Based on the Residual Strength Degradation Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongyi, Gao; Zhixiao, Su

    In this paper, a logarithmic expression to describe the residual strength degradation process is developed in order to fatigue test results for normalized carbon steel. The definition and expression of fatigue damage due to symmetrical stress with a constant amplitude are also given. The expression of fatigue damage can also explain the nonlinear properties of fatigue damage. Furthermore, the fatigue damage of structures under random stress is analyzed, and an iterative formula to describe the fatigue damage process is deduced. Finally, an approximate method for evaluating the fatigue life of structures under repeated random stress blocking is presented through various calculation examples.

  4. Influence of standing-wave fields on the laser damage resistance of dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.; Faulkner, G.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of standing-wave electric fields on the damage resistance of dielectric thin films was evaluated for the case of 30-ps laser pulses at 1.06 μm. Single-layer films of TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , SiO 2 , and MgF 2 were deposited by state-of-the-art electron-gun evaporation on BK-7 glass substrates with uniform surface preparation. The film thicknesses ranged from one to five quarter-wave increments. The thresholds for TiO 2 films of odd quarter-wave thickness were greater than for even multiples which correlated well with the calculated internal maximum electric fields. Threshold variations for ZrO 2 films were apparent but not as distinctly periodic with film thickness. Negligible variations were obtained for SiO 2 films, again correlating with electric-field calculations. Results of additional tests allowed comparisons of thresholds for 1) back-and front-surface films for normal incidence; 2) S- and P-polarized radiation at an incidence angle of 60 0 ; and 3) circular and linear polarizations for normal incidence. The thresholds were compared with calculated standing-wave field patterns at various locations in the films. A correlation was generally found between the internal field maxima and the thresholds, but in a few coatings, defects apparently decreased or prevented any correlation. (auth)

  5. Anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity in residual poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity in patients with residual poliomyelitis and to investigate whether the severity of preoperative equinus deformity affected the occurrence of symptomatic anterior impingement. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (mean age, 43.8 ± 9.4 years) with residual poliomyelitis who underwent tendo-Achilles lengthening for equinus foot deformity were included. On lateral foot-ankle weight-bearing radiographs, the tibiocalcaneal angle, plantigrade angle, and McDermott grade were measured and the presence of anterior blocking spur was evaluated. Eleven patients (40.7%) had anterior ankle impingement on radiographic findings preoperatively and 24 patients (88.9%) at latest follow-up. There was a significant difference in McDermott grade between preoperative and latest follow-up (P poliomyelitis had anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity, and the presence of symptomatic anterior ankle impingement was significantly associated with the severity of the equinus deformity. Therefore, for residual poliomyelitis patients with severe long-standing equinus deformity, surgeons should consider the possibility of a subsequent anterior procedure for anterior impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  6. An intelligent stand-alone ultrasonic device for monitoring local structural damage: implementation and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsch, Alexander; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Wang, Yang; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    Continuous structural health monitoring has the potential to significantly improve the safety management of aged, in-service civil structures. In particular, monitoring of local damage growth at hot-spot areas can help to prevent disastrous structural failures. Although ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved to be effective in monitoring local damage growth, conventional equipment and devices are usually bulky and only suitable for scheduled human inspections. The objective of this research is to harness the latest developments in embedded hardware and wireless communication for developing a stand-alone, compact ultrasonic device. The device is directed at the continuous structural health monitoring of civil structures. Relying on battery power, the device possesses the functionalities of high-speed actuation, sensing, signal processing, and wireless communication. Integrated with contact ultrasonic transducers, the device can generate 1 MHz Rayleigh surface waves in a steel specimen and measure response waves. An envelope detection algorithm based on the Hilbert transform is presented for efficiently determining the peak values of the response signals, from which small surface cracks are successfully identified

  7. Reorganization of associative memory in humans with long-standing hippocampal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Mischa; Finke, Carsten; Ostendorf, Florian; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Ploner, Christoph J

    2008-10-01

    Conflicting theories have been advanced to explain why hippocampal lesions affect distinct memory domains and spare others. Recent findings in monkeys suggest that lesion-induced plasticity may contribute to the seeming preservation of some of these domains. We tested this hypothesis by investigating visuo-spatial associative memory in two patient groups with similar surgical lesions to the right medial temporal lobe, but different preoperative disease courses (benign brain tumours, mean: 1.8 +/- 0.6 years, n = 5, age: 28.2 +/- 4.0 years; hippocampal sclerosis, mean: 16.8 +/- 1.9 years, n = 9, age: 38.9 +/- 4.1 years). Compared to controls (n = 14), tumour patients showed a significant delay-dependent deficit in memory of colour-location associations. No such deficit was observed in hippocampal sclerosis patients, which appeared to benefit from a compensatory mechanism that was inefficient in tumour patients. These results indicate that long-standing hippocampal damage can yield significant functional reorganization of the neural substrate underlying memory in the human brain. We suppose that this process accounts for some of the discrepancies between results from previous lesion studies of the human medial temporal lobe.

  8. Analysis of residual stresses on the transverse beam of a casting stand by means of drilling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Frankovský

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper demonstrates the application of drilling method in the analysis of residual stresses on the transverse beam of a casting stand. In the initial stage of the analysis the determination of strains was done for individual steps of drilling in the area which was determined by means of numerical analysis. The drilling was carried out gradually by 0,5 mm up to the depth of 5 mm, while the diameter of the drilled hole was 3,2 mm. During the analysis we used the drilling device RS-200, strain indicator P3 and SGD 1-RY21-3/120. The paper presents the development of residual stresses throughout the depth of the drilled hole which were determined according to standard ASTM E837-01, by means of integral method, power series method and by means of Power Series method.

  9. Impact damage and residual strength analysis of composite panels with bonded stiffeners. [for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ram C.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Blade-stiffened, compression-loaded cover panels were designed, manufactured, analyzed, and tested. All panels were fabricated from IM6/1808I interleafed graphite-epoxy. An orthotropic blade stiffener and an orthotropic skin were selected to satisfy the design requirements for an advanced aircraft configuration. All specimens were impact damaged prior to testing. Experimental results were obtained for three- and five-stiffener panels. Analytical results described interlaminar forces caused by impact and predicted specimen residual strength. The analytical results compared reasonably with the experimental results for residual strength of the specimens.

  10. The main forest inventory characteristics of the stands damaged by hurricane winds in the southern taiga subzone (Kostroma Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Petukhov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In June and July 2010 in Yaroslavl, Vologda and Kostroma regions, as a result of exposure to hurricane winds, recorded several violations of extensive forest cover in the form of windfalls and windbreaks (Krylov et al., 2012; Petukhov, Nemchinova, 2014. Retrospective analysis on the basis of remote sensing data for the period 1984–2011’s was conducted. It showed, that among the 21st dedicated mass windfall within the Kostroma region and border areas, windfall July 2010 is unique in the magnitude of the total area of disturbed forest cover. According to our estimates, derived from the analysis of remote sensing (RS, its area was more than 60 thousand Ha, which is four times the average annual area of clear felling, in particular, in the Kostroma region (Petukhov, Nemchinova, 2014. In addition to determining the areas of windfall violations of forest cover, based on forest inventory data and remote sensing data analyzed taxation characteristics of forest stands affected by the impact of the seven gale-force winds within the territory of the Kostroma region. The analysis revealed the following trends in hurricane-force winds damaged trees: for parameters such as completeness, forest type and site class is observed relatively uniform stands hurricane wind damage; I.e., we have not found an association between the degree (probability of forest stands damaged data and taxation values data. An exception is the age, height, and in some cases, the predominant species plantations. Plantations dominated by spruce in the stand proved to be somewhat less, but with a predominance of pine – more resistant to hurricane winds, compared to other tree species. Selectivity is also observed for breach of stands older than 40 years and a height of over 16 meters, which is possibly related to the morphological and physiological features of the trees of a given age and height.

  11. Vision restoration after brain and retina damage: the "residual vision activation theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Fedorov, Anton; Gall, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Vision loss after retinal or cerebral visual injury (CVI) was long considered to be irreversible. However, there is considerable potential for vision restoration and recovery even in adulthood. Here, we propose the "residual vision activation theory" of how visual functions can be reactivated and restored. CVI is usually not complete, but some structures are typically spared by the damage. They include (i) areas of partial damage at the visual field border, (ii) "islands" of surviving tissue inside the blind field, (iii) extrastriate pathways unaffected by the damage, and (iv) downstream, higher-level neuronal networks. However, residual structures have a triple handicap to be fully functional: (i) fewer neurons, (ii) lack of sufficient attentional resources because of the dominant intact hemisphere caused by excitation/inhibition dysbalance, and (iii) disturbance in their temporal processing. Because of this resulting activation loss, residual structures are unable to contribute much to everyday vision, and their "non-use" further impairs synaptic strength. However, residual structures can be reactivated by engaging them in repetitive stimulation by different means: (i) visual experience, (ii) visual training, or (iii) noninvasive electrical brain current stimulation. These methods lead to strengthening of synaptic transmission and synchronization of partially damaged structures (within-systems plasticity) and downstream neuronal networks (network plasticity). Just as in normal perceptual learning, synaptic plasticity can improve vision and lead to vision restoration. This can be induced at any time after the lesion, at all ages and in all types of visual field impairments after retinal or brain damage (stroke, neurotrauma, glaucoma, amblyopia, age-related macular degeneration). If and to what extent vision restoration can be achieved is a function of the amount of residual tissue and its activation state. However, sustained improvements require repetitive

  12. Influence of Hot Implantation on Residual Radiation Damage in Silicon Carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawski, M.; Zuk, J.; Kulik, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Turek, M.; Lin, L.; Prucnal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Remarkable thermomechanical and electrical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this material very attractive for high-temperature, high-power, and high-frequency applications. Because of very low values of diffusion coefficient of most impurities in SiC, ion implantation is the best method to selectively introduce dopants over well-defined depths in SiC. Aluminium is commonly used for creating p-type regions in SiC. However, post-implantation radiation damage, which strongly deteriorates required electric properties of the implanted layers, is difficult to anneal even at high temperatures because of remaining residual damage. Therefore implantation at elevated target temperatures (hot implantation) is nowadays an accepted method to decrease the level of the residual radiation damage by avoiding ion beam-induced amorphization. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy with channeling and micro-Raman spectroscopy investigations of room temperature and 500 o C Al + ion implantation-induced damage in 6H-SiC and its removal by high temperature (up to 1600 o C) thermal annealing. (author)

  13. Effects of stacking sequence on impact damage resistance and residual strength for quasi-isotropic laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, Ernest F.; Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Avery, William B.; Coxon, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    Residual strength of an impacted composite laminate is dependent on details of the damage state. Stacking sequence was varied to judge its effect on damage caused by low-velocity impact. This was done for quasi-isotropic layups of a toughened composite material. Experimental observations on changes in the impact damage state and postimpact compressive performance were presented for seven different laminate stacking sequences. The applicability and limitations of analysis compared to experimental results were also discussed. Postimpact compressive behavior was found to be a strong function of the laminate stacking sequence. This relationship was found to depend on thickness, stacking sequence, size, and location of sublaminates that comprise the impact damage state. The postimpact strength for specimens with a relatively symmetric distribution of damage through the laminate thickness was accurately predicted by models that accounted for sublaminate stability and in-plane stress redistribution. An asymmetric distribution of damage in some laminate stacking sequences tended to alter specimen stability. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was used to predict this behavior.

  14. Fertilizing of mixed stands in a smoke-damaged region of the Erzgebirge range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillmich, H D

    1969-01-01

    Three mixed stands established in a S.E. German area of chronic pollution (no lichens were found in the stands) in 1933 to 1941 responded positively to fertilizers (PKCaMg in 1938 to 1942 and NPKCaMg in 1960 to 1964). Scots Pine responded less than Norway Spruce, Larch, and Beech, and differences between species affected stand structure. Tests on Scots Pine and Norway Spruce showed better color, weight, length and number of needles, compared with untreated controls, but only in Pine was there an increase in the number of older needles. Analyses of Spruce needles showed increases in nutrient contents vs. untreated controls (which showed no deficiencies, except perhaps of N). 11 references, 12 tables.

  15. DEPENDENCIES TO DETERMINE THE MEASURE OF DAMAGE AND CALCULATION OF RESIDUAL LIFE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE, EXPOSED TO SALT CORROSION

    OpenAIRE

    SAATOVA NODIRA ZIYAYEVNA

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the current method of determining the measure of damage of concrete and reinforcement. The proposed dependence measures of damage, convenient for use in predicting the life of structures superstructures.The practical method of calculation determination of residual resource of the exploited superstructures developed. The main source of data for calculating the residual life are the parameters defined by the technical diagnosis.

  16. Residual Strength Analysisof Asymmetrically Damaged Ship Hull GirderUsing Beam Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Muis Alie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to analyze the residual strength of asymmetrically damaged ship hull girder under longitudinal bending. Beam Finite Element Method isused for the assessment of the residual strength of two single hull bulk carriers (Ship B1 and Ship B4 and a three-cargo-hold model of a single-side Panamax Bulk Carrierin hogging and sagging conditions. The Smith’s  method  is  adopted  and  implemented  into  Beam  Finite  Element Method. An efficient solution procedure is applied; i.e. by assuming the cross section remains plane, the vertical bending moment is applied to the  cross section  and  three-cargo-hold  model. As a fundamental  case,  the  damage is simply  created  by removing the elements from the cross section, neglecting any welding residual stress and initial imperfection. Also no crack  extension  is considered.  The  result  obtained  by  Beam  Finite  Element  Method  so-called Beam-HULLST is compared to the progressive collapse analysis obtained by HULLST for the validation of the present work. Then, for the three-hold-model, the Beam-HULLST is used to investigate the effect of the rotation of the netral axisboth intact and damage condition taking the one and five frame spaces into account. 

  17. Residual chromosomal damage after radiochemotherapy with and without amifostine detected by 24-color FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechler, A.; Wendt, T.G.; Dreidax, M.; Liehr, T.; Claussen, U.; Pigorsch, S.U.; Dunst, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Amifostine is a radioprotective drug applied to reduce acute radiation toxicity during a course of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. In the present study, amifostine was used in patients undergoing adjuvant radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer. It was described previously that additional application of amifostine led to less acute skin and bowel toxicity. The present study was aimed to determine whether amifostine has an influence on the amount of residual chromosomal damage. Material and Methods: Peripheral lymphocytes of twelve rectal cancer patients who had undergone postoperative radiochemotherapy 2-3 years ago were investigated for residual chromosomal damage using 24-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (24-color FISH). All twelve patients had received a total dose of 55.8 Gy in conventional fractionation of 1.8 Gy and a 120-h continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy (1,000 mg/m 2 per day) in the 1st and 5th week of irradiation. Seven out of twelve patients had been given additional amifostine on chemotherapy days (500 mg total dose as short i.v. infusion immediately prior to the daily radiation fraction). Cultivation of lymphocytes and 24-color FISH were performed according to standard protocols. 100 metaphases per patient were analyzed for chromosomal aberrations in a blind study. Results: Analysis of the average number of breaks per mitosis (B/M) revealed an increased amount of residual chromosomal damage in the group treated with amifostine (0.65 B/M [0.32-0.97]) as well as in those treated without amifostine (0.76 B/M [0.31-1.25]). Also the average number of cells containing aberrations per 100 analyzed metaphases was similar (with amifostine: 22.1 [13-32] vs. 24.4 [13-35] without amifostine). The aberration types, occurring as simple translocations, reciprocal translocations, breaks, dicentrics, inversions, rings and complex chromosomal rearrangements, did not show any specific accumulation in one or the other

  18. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera B, B.; Garcia C, E.S.; Garcia O, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  19. Effects of logging on stand damage in the rainforest of South-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the sum of 11.4% were for severely logged plots, indicating that the population of unlogged trees diminished with increasing logging intensity. Also, the large F value (11.971) and the low P value (0.000) indicated that logging intensity had significant contribution to the extent of damage to unlogged trees in the various ...

  20. Influence of standing-wave electric field pattern on the laser damage resistance of HfO sub 2 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Protopapa, M L; De Tomasi, F; Di Giulio, M; Perrone, M R; Scaglione, S

    2002-01-01

    The standing-wave electric field pattern that forms inside an optical coating as a consequence of laser irradiation is one of the factors influencing the coating laser-induced damage threshold. The influence of the standing-wave electric field profile on the damage resistance to ultraviolet radiation of hafnium dioxide (HfO sub 2) thin films was investigated in this work. To this end, HfO sub 2 thin films of different thicknesses deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique at the same deposition conditions were analyzed. Laser damage thresholds of the samples were measured at 308 nm (XeCl laser) by the photoacoustic beam deflection technique and microscopic inspections. The dependence of the laser damage threshold on the standing-wave electric field pattern was analyzed.

  1. Damage to spruce stands by deer barking and subsequent rots in Forest Range Proklest, the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise “Masaryk Forest” (the Drahany Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čermák

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with determination of the rate of damage by red deer barking, determination of the rate of damage by a subsequent rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum and the rate of its progress. The paper elucidates causes of the damage and quantifies depreciation of wood by rots in the Proklest Forest Range, the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise “Masaryk Forest“. The deer barking caused damage to 85% of stands. In the most damaged 2nd and 4th age classes, rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum was noticed in 89% of damaged trees. The greatest proportion is made by damage from the 70s of the last century. After the 80s, the damage occurred only exceptionally. The average percentage loss of wood is highest in the 2nd age class, viz. 38%. The determined progress of the rot ranged from 1 to 36.4 cm.year-1.

  2. EFFECT OF POST-LOGGING SILVICULTURAL TREATMENT ON GROWTH RATES OF RESIDUAL STAND IN A TROPICAL FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruni Krisnawati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-logging silvicultural treatments are generally performed to improve yields of the remaining tree species by increasing their growth rate. In this study the effects of silvicultural treatment on the growth rates of commercial (dipterocarps and non-dipterocarps as well as non- commercial tree species in a tropical forest in West Kalimantan were examined and were compared to a control treatment. Silvicultural treatment applied was liberation of future crop trees from lianas and neighbouring competing trees. Treatments were applied to six plots of 80 m x 80 m each. The plots comprised 64 quadrats of 10 m x 10 m to allow better control of measurements. The treatment and control plots were established 6 years after logging. Effects were measured 2,4 and 7 years after treatment application. In all obser vation periods, the growth rates increased with silvicultural treatment. Overall, commercial dipterocarps, commercial non-dipterocarps and non-commercial tree species groups differed in response to silvicultural treatment. The growth rates of commercial tree species in plots that received silvicultural treatment were 62–97% higher than in the control plots. For non-commercial tree species, the increase of growth rates was 20–58%, compared to the control plots. These results indicate that the application of silvicultural treatments after logging could help improve the growth of the residual stands. These provide quantitative information that silvicultural treatments in logged-over forest should be considered as a viable management option and may guide the choice of cutting cycle.

  3. A SEASONAL COMPARISON OF THE PHYSICAL DAMAGES ON RESIDUAL TREES AND SEEDLINGS DUE TO LOGGING OPERATION USING URUS MIII FOREST SKYLINE IN ARTVIN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Habip Eroğlu; Ufuk Özcan Öztürk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the physical damages of logging activities using Urus MIII forest skylines on residual trees and seedlings were evaluated through comparison between harvesting operations took place in winter and summer seasons in Artvin region. In order to achieve our aims, both in winter and summer, 4 representative plots were taken in the harvesting areas using Urus MIII skyline. Physical damages caused by logging to residual trees and seedling were noted. Damage classes for the residual tr...

  4. Residual strength and crack propagation tests on C-130 airplane center wings with service-imposed fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.

  5. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat; Tejido residual postesplenectomia detectado por centellografia esplenica con eritrocitos danados por calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera B, B; Garcia C, E S; Garcia O, J R [Centro Medico ABC, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  6. The numerical high cycle fatigue damage model of fillet weld joint under weld-induced residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Do, Vuong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a development of nonlinear continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for multiaxial high cycle fatigue is proposed in which the cyclic plasticity constitutive model has been incorporated in the finite element (FE) framework. T-joint FE simulation of fillet welding is implemented to characterize sequentially coupled three-dimensional (3-D) of thermo-mechanical FE formulation and simulate the welding residual stresses. The high cycle fatigue damage model is then taken account into the fillet weld joints under the various cyclic fatigue load types to calculate the fatigue life considering the residual stresses. The fatigue crack initiation and the propagation in the present model estimated for the total fatigue is compared with the experimental results. The FE results illustrated that the proposed high cycle fatigue damage model in this study could become a powerful tool to effectively predict the fatigue life of the welds. Parametric studies in this work are also demonstrated that the welding residual stresses cannot be ignored in the computation of the fatigue life of welded structures.

  7. Evaluation of myocardial damage and cardiac residual capacity by Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy in valvular heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indo, Shunju

    1992-01-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether the extent-score (Ex-Score) calculated by Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy is a reliable indicator of the severity of myocardial damage and cardiac residual capacity in valvular heart diseases. The subjects consisted of 38 patients (10 with aortic regurgitation (AR), 4 with aortic stenosis (AS), 13 with mitral regurgitation (MR) and 11 with mitral stenosis (MS)). Ex-Scores were significantly correlated with the severity of myocardial damage found in biopsied specimens obtained intraoperatively (correlation efficiency to Ex-Score with cell diameter in AR, % fibrosis in AR, cell diameter in AS, electron microscopic score in MR and % fibrosis in MS was 0.873, 0.734, 0.970, 0.913 and 0.659, respectively). Ex-Scores were also correlated with cardiac residual capacity determined by radioisotope angiography (correlation efficiency to Ex-Score with %Δ ejection fraction in AR, %Δ end-systolic volume in MR, %Δ end-diastolic volume in MS was -0.764, 0.790 and -0.763, respectively). These results suggest that the severity of myocardial damage and cardiac residual capacity can be estimated by Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy (Ex-Score) in valvular heart diseases. (author)

  8. Distortion and residual stresses in structures reinforced with titanium straps for improved damage tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljedahl, C.D.M.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Edwards, L.

    2008-01-01

    Distortion and residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process of bonded crack retarders have been investigated. Titanium alloy straps were adhesively bonded to an aluminium alloy SENT specimen to promote fatigue crack growth retardation. The effect of three different strap dimensions was investigated. The spring-back of a component when released from the autoclave and the residual stresses are important factors to take into account when designing a selective reinforcement, as this may alter the local aerodynamic characteristics and reduce the crack bridging effect of the strap. The principal problem with residual stresses is that the tensile nature of the residual stresses in the primary aluminium structure has a negative impact on the crack initiation and crack propagation behaviour in the aluminium. The residual stresses were measured with neutron diffraction and the distortion of the specimens was measured with a contour measurement machine. The bonding process was simulated with a three-dimensional FE model. The residual stresses were found to be tensile close to the strap and slightly compressive on the un-bonded side. Both the distortion and the residual stresses increased with the thickness and the width of the strap. Very good agreement between the measured stresses and the measured distortion and the FE simulation was found

  9. The energy overcompensating disintegrations of residual target nuclei damaged in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Massive target nuclei damaged in hadron-nucleus collisions at high energies are used to disintegrate into nuclear fragments. In many cases such breakup is egzoergic - some portion of nuclear energy is released; this portion should be overcompensating the energy used for the nuclear damage, in some cases. 30 refs

  10. Effects of soil compaction on residual stand growth in central Appalachian hardwood forest: a preliminary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...

  11. Evaluation of residual strength in the basalt fiber reinforced composites under impact damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Jin-Woo; Moon, Kyung-Man; Yoon, Sung-Won; Baek, Tae-Sil; Hwang, Kwang-Il

    2015-03-01

    Composites are vulnerable to the impact damage by the collision as to the thickness direction, because composites are being manufactured by laminating the fiber. The understanding about the retained strength after the impact damage of the material is essential in order to secure the reliability of the structure design using the composites. In this paper, we have tried to evaluate the motion of the material according to the kinetic energy and potential energy and the retained strength after impact damage by testing the free fall test of the basalt fiber reinforced composite in the limelight as the environment friendly characteristic.

  12. CSF inflammatory biomarkers responsive to treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis capture residual inflammation associated with axonal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Komori, Mika; von Essen, Marina Rode; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars; Bielekova, Bibi; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2018-05-01

    Development of treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenged by the lack of sensitive and treatment-responsive biomarkers of intrathecal inflammation. To validate the responsiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to treatment with natalizumab and methylprednisolone in progressive MS and to examine the relationship between CSF inflammatory and tissue damage biomarkers. CSF samples from two open-label phase II trials of natalizumab and methylprednisolone in primary and secondary progressive MS. CSF concentrations of 20 inflammatory biomarkers and CSF biomarkers of axonal damage (neurofilament light chain (NFL)) and demyelination were analysed using electrochemiluminescent assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In all, 17 natalizumab- and 23 methylprednisolone-treated patients had paired CSF samples. CSF sCD27 displayed superior standardised response means and highly significant decreases during both natalizumab and methylprednisolone treatment; however, post-treatment levels remained above healthy donor reference levels. Correlation analyses of CSF inflammatory biomarkers and NFL before, during and after treatment demonstrated that CSF sCD27 consistently correlates with NFL. These findings validate CSF sCD27 as a responsive and sensitive biomarker of intrathecal inflammation in progressive MS, capturing residual inflammation after treatment. Importantly, CSF sCD27 correlates with NFL, consistent with residual inflammation after anti-inflammatory treatment being associated with axonal damage.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED SKIDDING TECHNIQUE ON RESIDUAL STAND DAMAGE AND GROUND EXPOSURE IN SWAMP FOREST LOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Suhartana

    2004-11-01

    • The  average of ground  exposure  caused by controlled  skidding  technique  and conventionalskidding technique was respectively   16.06% and 18.4%.  The difference of 2.34%  was significant at 95%.

  14. Active disease and residual damage in treated Wegener's granulomatosis: an observational study using pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komocsi, Andras; Reuter, Michael; Heller, Martin; Murakoezi, Henriette; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Schnabel, Armin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can distinguish active inflammatory disease from inactive cicatricial disease in patients treated for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Twenty-eight WG patients with active pulmonary disease underwent a first HRCT examination immediately before standard immunosuppressive treatment and a second examination after clinical remission had been achieved. Lesions remaining after treatment were categorized as residual damage and were compared with findings during active disease to see by what features active and cicatricial disease can be distinguished. During active disease 17 patients had nodules/masses, 12 had ground-glass opacities, 6 had septal lines and 6 had non-septal lines. After treatment, ground-glass opacities had resolved completely. Nodules/masses had resolved in 8 patients and had diminished in 7 patients. Residual nodules were distinguished from nodules/masses in active disease by lack of cavitation and a diameter of mostly <15 mm. In one-third of patients lines resolved, but in 8 instances new lines evolved during immunosuppression. During a follow-up period of a median 26.5 months (range 20.0-33.8), patients with residual nodules or lines had no more relapses than patients with completely cleared lungs. Treated pulmonary WG leaves substantial residual damage. High-resolution CT does assist in the distinction between active and inactive lesions. Ground-glass opacities, cavitating nodules/masses and masses measuring more than 3 cm represent active disease ordinarily. Non-cavitary small nodules and septal or non-septal lines can be either active or cicatricial lesions. The nature of these lesions needs to be clarified by longitudinal observation. (orig.)

  15. Residual Strains and Their Relation to the Fatigue Damage Evolution in Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; Jespersen, Kristine Munk

    2016-01-01

    , the volumetric shrinkage of the epoxy at the two curing cycles is identical, the resulting residual strain in an embedded optical fibre measured using fibre Bragg Grating is found to be increased with a factor of 3. Together with, 3D x-ray tomography of partly fatigued test specimens there is an indication...

  16. Self-Diagnosis of Damage in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites Using Electrical Residual Resistance Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this research was to develop a practical integrated approach using extracted features from electrical resistance measurements and coupled electromechanical models of damage, for in-situ damage detection and sensing in carbon fiber reinforced plastic(CFRP) composites. To achieve this objective, we introduced specific known damage (in terms of type, size, and location) into CFRP laminates and established quantitative relationships with the electrical resistance measurements. For processing of numerous measurement data, an autonomous data acquisition system was devised. We also established a specimen preparation procedure and a method for electrode setup. Coupon and panel CFRP laminate specimens with several known damage were tested. Coupon specimens with various sizes of artificial delaminations obtained by inserting Teflon film were manufactured and the resistance was measured. The measurement results showed that increase of delamination size led to increase of resistance implying that it is possible to sense the existence and size of delamination. A quasi-isotropic panel was manufactured and electrical resistance was measured. Then three different sizes of holes were drilled at a chosen location. The panel was prepared using the established procedures with six electrode connections on each side making a total of twenty-four electrodes. Vertical, horizontal, and diagonal pairs of electrodes were chosen and the resistance was measured. The measurement results showed the possibility of the established measurement system for an in-situ damage detection method for CFRP composite structures.

  17. Residual Cdk1/2 activity after DNA damage promotes senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllers, E.; Cascales, H.S.; Burdová, Kamila; Macůrek, Libor; Lindqvist, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2017), s. 575-584 ISSN 1474-9726 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18392S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Cdk1 * Cdk2 * cell cycle * checkpoint recovery * DNA damage response * G2phase * p21 * senescence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  18. Effects of face sheet damage on residual strength of GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Echtermeyer, Andreas T.; Berggreen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    is represented by machined cracks and circular holes in the face laminates. Tests have been performed on laminate specimens with and without circular holes under tensile loading and on sandwich face sheets with holes, cracks and real impact damage under compressive loading. The results are compared...

  19. Nondestructive indication of fatigue damage and residual lifetime in ferromagnetic construction materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kovářík, O.; Vértesy, G.; Kadlecová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2014), "065601-1"-"065601-10" ISSN 0957-0233. [International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments /11./ (ISMTII). Aachen, 01.07.2013-03.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fatigue * residual lifetime * magnetic nondestructive evaluation * ferromagnetic construction materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2014

  20. Application of backpropagation neural networks to evaluate residual properties of thermally damaged concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, W.L.; Shigaki, Y.; Tolentino, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this work it was analyzed the residual performance of Portland cement concretes, when cold after heat-treated up to 600 deg C. Granite-gneiss was used in the three concrete mix proportions as the coarse aggregate, and river sand with finesses modulus of 2.7 as the fine aggregate. Ultrasonic pulse tests were performed on all the specimens and ultrasonic dynamic modulus were obtained. An artificial neural network of the backpropagation type was trained to evaluate and apply models in predicting residual properties of Portland cement concretes. The input layer for both models consists of an external layer input vector of the temperature. The hidden layer has two processing units with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer functions (tansig for short), and the output layer contains one processing unit that represents the network's output (ultrasonic pulse velocity or modulus of elasticity) for each input vector. The training phase of the network converged for reasonable results after 5.000 epochs approximately, resulting in mean squared errors less than 0.02 for the normalized data. The neural network developed for modeling residual properties of Portland cement concretes was shown to be efficient in both the training phase and the test. From the results reasonable predictions could be made for the ultrasonic pulse velocity or dynamic modulus of elasticity by using temperature. (author)

  1. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of residual magnetic field for ferromagnets under early damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Kai; Shen, Kai; Wang, Zheng-Dao; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 3D finite element analysis is presented by calculating the residual magnetic field signals of ferromagnets under the plastic deformation. The contour maps of tangential and normal RMF gradients are given, and the 3D effect is discussed. The results show that the tangential peak–peak amplitude and normal peak–vale amplitude are remarkably different in 2D and 3D simulations, but the tangential peak–peak width and normal peak–vale width are similar. Moreover, some key points are capable of capturing the plastic-zone shape, especially when the lift-off is small enough. The present study suggests an effective defect identification method with Metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis is presented by calculating the residual magnetic field signals of ferromagnets under the plastic deformation. • The contour maps of gradients of the tangential and normal residual magnetic fields are given, and the 3D effect is discussed. • The present study suggests an effective defect identification method with metal magnetic memory technique

  2. Tree-centered spot firing - a technique for prescribed burning beneath standing trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Phillip Weatherspoon; George A. Almond; Carl N. Skinner

    1989-01-01

    Prescribed burning beneath standing trees normally requires efforts to protect residual trees from excessive fire damage. Damage to both crowns and boles is strongly influenced by flame length, a fire characteristic functionally related to fireline intensity (Albini 1976). In a good prescribed burn, therefore, the prescription specifies desired or maximum flame lengths...

  3. Residual haematopoietic damage in adult and 8 day-old mice exposed to 7 Gy of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, T.; Bueren, J.A.; Gaitan, S.; Tejero, C.

    1993-01-01

    The authors' experiments have focused on the analysis of residual haematopoietic damage in 8-day-old and 12-week-old mice X-irradiated with a single dose of 7 Gy. In the case of adult mice, analysis of femoral and splenic CFU-S, CFU-GM and BFU-E showed a persistent depletion of these haematopoietic progenitor cells after irradiation. In contrast, in 1-week-old irradiated mice, a progressive recovery of the femoral haematopoietic progenitors was observed, achieving essentially normal values 1 year after irradiation. The spleens of these mice, however, contained significantly less haematopoietic progenitors than the control group, mainly as a consequence of the size reduction of this organ. In the peripheral blood, normal cellularity values were observed in most cases, although in the adult group a decline in numbers or circulating cells was noted after the first year following irradiation. (author)

  4. Cumulative damage and estimation of residual life in metallic alloys under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, T.L. da.

    1980-07-01

    The mechanical behavior and fracture characteristics have been determined for a group of materials tested under conditions of creep, and the ability of various models detailed in the literature to describe these observed characteristics discussed. The parametric methods employed in formulating the indices which define the allowable stresses for design codes have been analysed, and a method of Minimum Standard Deviation (MSD) for construction of reference curves has been proposed. The constitutive equations used in the methods of analysis of creep stresses have been discussed. Finally, the accumulated damage by creep in a particular structure which had been in extended service has been characterized and, based on these observations, the methods for estimation of remaining life in industrial equipment have been analysed. (Author) [pt

  5. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrinkevich, Kathryn H; Progar, Robert A; Shaw, David C

    2016-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage. The sites were grouped into two distinct damage categories (high damage and mortality versus little or no mortality and low damage) and the model estimates for each group were used to designate distinct value ranges for four climatic risk categories: minimal, low, moderate, and high. We then calculated model estimates for each cell of a 4-kilometer resolution climate raster and mapped the risk categories over the entire range of subalpine fir in the western United States. The spatial variation of risk classes indicates a gradient of climatic susceptibility generally decreasing from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington moving eastward, with the exception of some high risk areas in northern Idaho and western Montana. There is also a pattern of decreasing climatic susceptibility from north to south in the Rocky Mountains. Our study provides an initial step for modeling the relationship between climate and BWA damage severity across the range of subalpine fir. We showed that September minimum temperature and a metric calculated as the maximum May temperature divided by total May precipitation were the best climatic predictors of BWA severity. Although winter cold temperatures and summer heat have been shown to influence BWA impacts in other locations, these

  6. Radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors and normal tissues. II. Influence of dose, residual DNA damage and physiological factors in oxygenated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wheeler, K.T.

    1994-01-01

    Detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors is important for many experimental and clinical situations. Several laboratories, including ours, have suggested that assays which measure radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) might be used to detect or quantify hypoxic cells in tumors and normal tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of using an alkaline elution assay that measures strand breaks and DPCs to detect and/or quantify hypoxic cells in tissues. For this approach to be valid, DPCs must not be formed to any great extent in irradiated oxygenated cells, and the formation and repair of strand breaks and DPCs in oxygenated cells must not be modified appreciably by physiological factors (e.g., temperature, pH and nutrient depletion) that are often found in solid tumors. To address these issues, two sets of experiments were performed. In one set of experiments, oxygenated 9L cells in tissue culture, subcutaneous 9L tumors and rat cerebella were irradiated with doses of 15 or 50 Gy and allowed to repair until the residual strand break damage was low enough to detect DPCs. In another set of experiments, oxygenated exponentially growing or plateau-phase 9L cells in tissue culture were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy at 37 or 20 degrees C, while the cells were maintained at a pH of either 6.6 or 7.3. DNA-protein crosslinks were formed in oxygenated cells about 100 times less efficiently than in hypoxic cells. In addition, temperature, pH, nutrient depletion and growth phase did not appreciably alter the formation and repair of strand breaks or the formation of DPCs in oxygenated 9L cells. These results support the use of this DNA damage assay for the detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors. 27 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Creep deformation, creep damage accumulation and residual life prediction for three low alloyed CrMo-steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondyr, A.; Sandstroem, R.; Samuelsson, A.

    1979-02-01

    A detailed analysis of creep strain results for three low alloyed steels of type 0.5 Mo, 1 Cr-0.5 Mo and 2.25 Cr-1 Mo has been undertaken. The results show that, excluding the primary stage, the true strain rate can be described by a simple analytical expression dE/dt = Aexp(B.E) where A and B are constants at constant stress and temperature. A is approximately equal to the minimum strain rate and B inversly proportional to the fracture strain. Furthermore, 1/AB equals the time t sub(r) to rupture. The residual life fraction in creep can be expressed as exp(-B.E) = 1-t/t sub(r) and a creep damage function μ is introduced as μ = 1-ABt. The expressions for strain rate and damage are shown to be a special case of the Rabotnov-Kachanov equations. The analysis has been generalized to account for multiaxial stress states, and as an example creep in a tube with internal pressure is considered. (author)

  8. Non-spray spruce budworm management alternatives: Will thinning second-growth balsam fir in northwestern Ontario alter the stands` vulnerability to spruce budworm damage. NWOFTDU technical report No. 53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Schip, W.M.; Towill, W.D.; Zago, T.

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this study was to determine whether balsam fir stands, thinned to different levels of basal area, differ in their susceptibility and vulnerability to damage created by infestations of spruce budworm. In 1976-77, the investigators thinned two relatively pure, juvenile, second-growth balsam fir stands in northwestern Ontario to four levels of basal area by girdling or felling. The stands were assessed in 1988. Annual aerial and ground monitoring of the study sites indicated that one area experienced a moderate to severe defoliation by spruce budworm during 1984-86, while the other area experienced moderate to severe defoliation by budworm during 1980-86. This report presents results of the study and discusses the relation between thinning, budworm damage, and stand productivity.

  9. Liming with powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged forest ecosystem. 2.The effect on forest condition in a pine stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasmaa, T.; Pikk, J.

    1995-01-01

    First years after the treatment (in 1987) of forest soil with mineral fertilizers and powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged 50-year-old Scots pine ecosystem showed a comparatively small effect (B<0.95) of liming on the stand characters. However, in comparison with the effect of only NPK fertilization on the volume growth and the health state of trees, liming (NPK+oil-shale ash) tended to increase the positive influence of fertilizers. Under the influence of oil-shale ash the mortality of the trees was lower, the density of the stand rose more, and the mean radial increment of trees was by 26% greater than after the NPK treatment without a lime agent. On the whole, the effect of oil-shale ash liming on the growth and health condition of the pine stand was not high. However, the first results of its experimental use on mineral forest soil cannot serve as the basis for essential conclusions. Still, the results give us some assurance to continue our experimental work with powdered oil-shale ash in forests with the purpose of regulating the high acidity of forest soils in some sites to gain positive shifts in the forest life. Taking into account the low price of the powdered oil-shale ash and the plentiful resources of this liming material in Estonia, even a small trend towards an improvement of forest condition on poor sandy soils would be a satisfactory final result of the work. It is essential to note that oil-shale ash is not only a simple liming material, but also a lime fertilizer consisting of numerous chemical elements necessary for plant growth. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 18 refs

  10. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108-119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19-38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166-184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand.

  11. Analysis of the ways to decrease residual stresses on heat exchanging tubes and steam generator collector surfaces for reducing the material corrosion damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, G.V.; Kharchenko, V.V.; Shatco, A.A.; Dranchenko, V.V.; Titov, V.F.

    1994-01-01

    Computer simulations have been carried out to analyze the effect of heat exchanger tube pressing forming process into a steam generator collector, on its residual stresses and strains. The program takes into consideration kinetic process peculiarities, material non-linear rheological properties, separate deformation of tubes and collectors in the presence of a clearance and their contact interaction, damage and crack appearance. 4 figs

  12. Proliferative compensation of residual radiation damage in the compartment of hematopoietic early progenitor cells of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.E.; Wangenheim, K.H. von; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of cell entry from the compartment of hematopoietic early progenitor cells into differentiation was determined in sublethally irradiated mice. By use of the criterion of repopulating ability, transplantation of 5-( 125 I) iodo-2'-deoxyuridine labeled bone marrow cells into fatally irradiated syngeneic recipients allows to measure the relative number of early progenitor cells lodging in the spleen and the turnover of these cells in the donors. Following 450 rad the relative number of transplantable early progenitor cells in S-phase recovers to normal within 2 weeks and stabilizes after 5 weeks. At this time, the labeled progenitors turn over with a half-time of 1.4-2.2 days; the respective times for unirradiated mice are 1.5-1.8 days. This, quantitative and qualitative residual radiation damage that is known to exist in the compartment of CFU-S, is disguised within 2-5 weeks after irradiation by proliferative compensation in the entirety of early hemopoietic precursor cells which are here defined by their capacity of selfrenewal and delivery of differentiated cells and of seeding to spleens of lethally irradiated recipients. (orig.)

  13. Long-Term Strength of a Thick-Walled Pipe Filled with an Aggressive Medium, with Account for Damageability of the Pipe Material and Residual Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriev, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the study of scattered fracture of a thick-walled pipe filled with an aggressive medium, which creates uniform pressure on the inner surface of the pipe. It is assumed that the aggressive medium affects only the value of instantaneous strength. Damageability is described by an integral operator of the hereditary type. The problem is solved with allowance for residual strength of the pipe material behind the fracture front. Numerical calculation is carried out, and relationships between the fracture front coordinate and time for various concentrations of the aggressive medium and residual strength behind the fracture front are constructed.

  14. Modeling of the fatigue damage accumulation processes in the material of NPP design units under thermomechanical unstationary effects. Estimation of spent life and forecast of residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriushin, A.I.; Korotkikh, Yu.G.; Gorodov, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The estimation problems of spent life and forecast of residual life of NPP equipment design units, operated at unstationary thermal force loads are considered. These loads are, as a rule, unregular and cause rotation of main stress tensor platforms of the most loaded zones of structural elements and viscoelastic plastic deformation of material in the places of stresses concentrations. The existing engineering approaches to the damages accumulation processes calculation in the material of structural units, their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. For the processes of fatigue damages accumulation a model is proposed, which allows to take into account the unregular pattern of deformation multiaxiality of stressed state, rotation of main platforms, non-linear summation of damages at the loading mode change. The model in based on the equations of damaged medium mechanics, including the equations of viscoplastic deformation of the material and evolutionary equations of damages accumulation. The algorithms of spent life estimation and residual life forecast of the controlled equipment and systems zones are made on the bases of the given model by the known real history of loading, which is determined by real model of NPP operation. The results of numerical experiments on the basis of given model for various processes of thermal force loads and their comparison with experimental results are presented. (author)

  15. Comparison of residual strength-grounding damage index diagrams for tankers produced by the ALPS/HULL ISFEM and design formula method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the Residual ultimate longitudinal strength – grounding Damage index (R-D diagrams produced by two analysis methods: the ALPS/HULL Intelligent Supersize Finite Element Method (ISFEM and the design formula (modified Paik and Mansour method – used to assess the safety of damaged ships. The comparison includes four types of double-hull oil tankers: Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax and VLCC. The R-D diagrams were calculated for a series of 50 grounding scenarios. The diagrams were efficiently sampled using the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique and comprehensively analysed based on ship size. Finally, the two methods were compared by statistically analysing the differences between their grounding damage indices and ultimate longitudinal strength predictions. The findings provide a useful example of how to apply the ultimate longitudinal strength analysis method to grounded ships.

  16. Effect of Post-Fire Curing on the Residual Mechanical Properties of Fire-Damaged Self-Compacting Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Heidarpour, A.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Smith, S; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is recognized for being a fire-resistant construction material. At elevated temperatures concrete can, however, undergo considerable damage such as strength degradation, cracking, and explosive spalling. In recent decades, reuse of fire-damaged concrete structures by means of developing

  17. Liming with powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged forest ecosystem. 1.The effect on forest soil in a pine stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasmaa, T.; Sepp, S.

    1994-01-01

    A fertilization and liming experiment with mineral fertilizers and powdered oil-shale ash was carried out in a heavily damaged 50-year-old Scots pine ecosystem in South Estonia. In Estonia, where electric power is produced mainly in big oil-shale-fired power plants, huge quantities of SO 2 are flying into the atmosphere through the chimneys of the plants. However, it is characteristic of Estonia that simultaneously with comparatively high SO 2 pollution the proton load has been quite low because of big amounts of alkali c ash emitted together with SO 2 into the atmosphere through the chimneys of the thermal power plants. Therefore, acid rains are not frequent in Estonia. Acid precipitation here is caused mainly by SO 2 released in the central part of Europe. In Estonia acid rains are most frequently registered in the southern area of the country. At times rains with pH values below 5.1 (even 4.0 and lower) have been registered there. This is also the region where quite severely damaged pine forests can be found. As a rule, these forests grow on acid sandy soils poor in nutrients and bases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using oil shale ash as a liming agent in a forest ecosystem for protecting forest soils from acidification and, together with some mineral fertilizers, for improving the health of injured pine stands. In Estonia the most easily available liming agent is powdered oil-shale ash, which has been widely used as a lime fertilizer for agricultural crops but so far has not been tested for liming forests on mineral soils. The comparison of the present study with the liming experiments carried out with limestone in Finland shows that the effect of oil-shale ash treatment of acid sandy soils to raise pH values and to reduce other characteristics of soil acidity was more effective than limestone liming of mineral soils in Finnish forests. The present study demonstrates that powdered oil-shale ash is highly effective in short

  18. An analytical method to assess the damage and predict the residual strength of a ship in a shoal grounding accident scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified analytical method used to predict the residual ultimate strength of a ship hull after a shoal grounding accident is proposed. Shoal grounding accidents always lead to severe denting, though not tearing, of the ship bottom structure, which may threaten the global hull girder resistance and result in even worse consequences, such as hull collapse. Here, the degree of damage of the bottom structure is predicted by a series of analytical methods based on the plastic-elastic deformation mechanism. The energy dissipation of a ship bottom structure is obtained from individual components to determine the sliding distance of the seabed obstruction. Then, a new approach to assess the residual strength of the damaged ship subjected to shoal grounding is proposed based on the improved Smith's method. This analytical method is verified by comparing the results of the proposed method and those generated by numerical simulation using the software ABAQUS. The proposed analytical method can be used to assess the safety of a ship with a double bottom during its design phase and predict the residual ultimate strength of a ship after a shoal grounding accident occurs.

  19. Build Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site production prototype modular treatment system for stand alone core capability for residue unpack, sort, assay, repack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, R.A.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes a portable and modular suit of equipment that upfront and near-term accomplishes a sorting process that documents and removes Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) residue and waste from site inventory

  20. Residual stresses caused by head-on and 45° foreign object damage for a laser shock peened Ti–6Al–4V alloy aerofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabeen, S.; Preuss, M.; Withers, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect on the residual stresses of foreign object damage (FOD) to a previously laser shock peened (LSP) leading edge (LE). FOD was introduced onto the LE of the aerofoil-shaped specimen through ballistic impacts of a cube edge at angles of 0° and 45° to the leading edge. The residual stress distribution was mapped around the FOD notch by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results suggest that for both impact angles, the FOD event superimposed a significant additional residual stress on top of the pre-existing stress associated with the LSP process. In particular, the compressive stress was found to be largest directly beneath the notch and the tensile region, seen previously for unpeened aerofoils beneath the compressive zone, was absent due to the pre-existing peening stress field. This may help to explain the improved fatigue strength observed previously. It is shown that the FOD notch created by 45° impact was asymmetric in shape and smaller in depth compared to that created at 0°. The residual stresses were somewhat larger for the 0° impact condition than for 45° partly due to the larger notch depth introduced in the former case.

  1. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X D; Jennett, N M

    2017-01-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed. (paper)

  2. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. D.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-11-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed.

  3. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  4. Probabilistic residual life assessment of high temperature pipings in nuclear power plants against creep fatigue damage: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Residual life assessment of components of nuclear power plants is essential for their operational safety, reliability and financial viability. The high risks involved in the event of failures in nuclear power plants have led to the development of design philosophies that incorporate extreme conservatism in design. The implications of such conservatism in design leads to more frequent maintenance operations than necessary

  5. Inter-individual and inter-cell type variation in residual DNA damage after in vivo irradiation of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Melvin Lee Kiang; Somaiah, Navita; Bourne, Sara; Daley, Frances; A'Hern, Roger; Nuta, Otilia; Davies, Sue; Herskind, Carsten; Pearson, Ann; Warrington, Jim; Helyer, Sarah; Owen, Roger; Yarnold, John; Rothkamm, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare inter-individual and inter-cell type variation in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair following in vivo irradiation of human skin. Materials and methods: Duplicate 4 mm core biopsies of irradiated and unirradiated skin were collected from 35 patients 24 h after 4 Gy exposure using 6 MeV electrons. Residual DSB were quantified by scoring 53BP1 foci in dermal fibroblasts, endothelial cells, superficial keratinocytes and basal epidermal cells. Results: Coefficients of inter-individual variation for levels of residual foci 24 h after in vivo irradiation of skin were 39.9% in dermal fibroblasts, 44.3% in endothelial cells, 32.9% in superficial keratinocytes and 46.4% in basal epidermal cells (p < 0.001, ANOVA). In contrast, the coefficient of inter-cell type variation for residual foci levels was only 11.3% in human skin between the different epidermal and dermal cells (p = 0.034, ANOVA). Foci levels between the different skin cell types were correlated (Pearson's R = 0.855-0.955, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patient-specific factors appear to be more important than cell type-specific factors in determining residual foci levels following in vivo irradiation of human skin.

  6. RESIDUAL STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE OF ROD CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS OF AIRCRAFT AFTER THE DAMAGE BY LIGHTNING-LIKE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caused by lightning damage to the external elements of construction of the aircraft, in the form of deformities, burn-through and erosive craters and also hidden defects in the affected area can cause a reduction in the strength of damaged parts. Fatigue tests of samples of rod construction elements damaged by lightning-like electrical discharges showed that for a symmetric cycle of variable loading at an amplitude of 100 kPa and a frequency of 50 Hz supply of fatigue strength decreased in 1,5-1,7 times, and fatigue life decreased in 25 times at local burns and in 70 times at annular burns. The main reason is education on the details of micro cracks in the area of erosive craters formed by discharge.

  7. Development of a Relationship Between Residual Ultimate Longitudinal Strength Versus Grounding Damage Index Diagram For Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Various accidents such as grounding, collision, fire, and explosion commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. Therefore, an accidental risk- based approach that is in line with the goal-based standard...

  8. Selective logging and damage to unharvested trees in a hyrcanian forest of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Keivan Behjou; Omid Ghafarzade Mollabashi

    2012-01-01

    Selective logging in mature hardwood stands of Caspian forests often causes physical damage to residual trees through felling and skidding operations, resulting in a decline in bole quality and subsequent loss of tree value. This study evaluated the logging damage to residual trees following logging operations. A total density of 5.1 trees/ha and 17.3 m3/ha of wood were harvested. On average, 9.8 trees were damaged for every tree extracted, including 8 trees destroyed or severely damaged. The...

  9. An estimation of core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor during midloop operation due to loss of residual heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.C.; Chen, C.T.; Lee, M.

    1995-01-01

    The core damage frequency caused by loss of residual heat removal (RHR) events was assessed during midloop operation of a Westinghouse-designed three-loop pressurized water reactor. The assessment considers two types of outages (refueling and drained maintenance) and uses failure data collected specifically for shutdown condition. Event trees were developed for five categories of loss of RHR events. Human actions to mitigate the loss of RHR events were identified and human error probabilities were quantified using the human cognitive reliability (HCR) and the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) models. The results showed that the core damage frequency caused by loss of RHR events during midloop operation was 3.4 x 10 -5 per year. The results also showed that the core damage frequency can be reduced significantly by removing a pressurizer safety valve before entering midloop operation. The establishment of reflux cooling, i.e., decay heat removal through the steam generator secondary side, also plays an important role in mitigating the loss of RHR events during midloop operation

  10. A severity rating system for evaluating stand-level balsam woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) damage in two Abies species in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn H. Hrinkevich; Robert A. Progar; David C. Shaw

    2016-01-01

    Severity rating systems are fundamental to understanding the impacts of disturbance agents in forest stands. The balsam woolly adelgid (BWA), Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an invasive forest pest in North America that infests and causes mortality in true fir, Abies spp. There is currently no single...

  11. Pesticide residues, heavy metals, and DNA damage in sentinel oysters Crassostrea gigas from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Boucard, Celia; Anguiano-Vega, Gerardo; Mercier, Laurence; Rojas del Castillo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides and heavy metals were analyzed in sentinel Crassostrea gigas oysters placed in six aquaculture sites close to a contaminated agricultural region. Each site was sampled twice. Tests revealed the presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the oysters at concentrations varying from 31.8 to 72.5 μg/kg for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH); from 1.2 to 3.1 μg/kg for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4-DDE); from 1.6 to 2.3 μg/kg for endosulfan I; and from 1.4 to 41.2 μg/kg for endosulfan II, as well as heavy metals in concentrations that exceeded Mexican tolerance levels (405.5 to 987.8 μg/g for zinc; 4.2 to 7.3 μg/g for cadmium; and 7.2 to 9.9 μg/g for lead). Significant levels of DNA damage in oyster hemocytes were also detected. There was a significant, positive correlation between genotoxic damage and concentration of nickel or the presence of endosulfan II. Cellular viability evaluated by cytotoxic analyses was found to be high at 80%. Marked inhibition in activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE ) and induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was noted. Data demonstrated a significant relation between AChE activity inhibition and presence of endosulfan II, γ-HCH, copper, lead, and 4,4-DDE, as well as between AChE and GST activity at different sites.

  12. A Large-scale Finite Element Model on Micromechanical Damage and Failure of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Including Thermal Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P. F.; Li, X. K.

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study micromechanical progressive failure properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with thermal residual stress by finite element analysis (FEA). Composite microstructures with hexagonal fiber distribution are used for the representative volume element (RVE), where an initial fiber breakage is assumed. Fiber breakage with random fiber strength is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation, progressive matrix damage is predicted by proposing a continuum damage mechanics model and interface failure is simulated using Xu and Needleman's cohesive model. Temperature dependent thermal expansion coefficients for epoxy matrix are used. FEA by developing numerical codes using ANSYS finite element software is divided into two steps: 1. Thermal residual stresses due to mismatch between fiber and matrix are calculated; 2. Longitudinal tensile load is further exerted on the RVE to perform progressive failure analysis of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Numerical convergence is solved by introducing the viscous damping effect properly. The extended Mori-Tanaka method that considers interface debonding is used to get homogenized mechanical responses of composites. Three main results by FEA are obtained: 1. the real-time matrix cracking, fiber breakage and interface debonding with increasing tensile strain is simulated. 2. the stress concentration coefficients on neighbouring fibers near the initial broken fiber and the axial fiber stress distribution along the broken fiber are predicted, compared with the results using the global and local load-sharing models based on the shear-lag theory. 3. the tensile strength of composite by FEA is compared with those by the shear-lag theory and experiments. Finally, the tensile stress-strain curve of composites by FEA is applied to the progressive failure analysis of composite pressure vessel.

  13. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers-Schoene, L.; Shugart, L.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Walton, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of freshwater ecosystems where both low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants are present. The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) and common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were analyzed for the presence of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, and Hg, radionuclides and chemicals known to be present at the contaminated site, and single-strand breaks in liver DNA. The integrity of the DNA was examined by the alkaline unwinding assay, a technique that detects strand breaks as a biological marker of possible exposure to genotoxic agents. This measure of DNA damage was significantly increased in both species of turtles at the contaminated site compared with turtles of the same species at a reference site, and shows that contaminant-exposed populations were under more severe genotoxic stress than those at the reference site. The level of strand breaks observed at the contaminated site was high and in the range reported for other aquatic species exposed to deleterious concentrations of genotoxic agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides and Hg were detected in the turtles from the contaminated area. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in the more carnivorous snapping turtle compared with the slider; however, both species were effective monitors of the contaminants

  14. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  15. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łotysz Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank’s headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  16. Stand quality management in a late-rotation, red oak-sweetgum stand in east Mississippi: preliminary results following thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Skojac

    2012-01-01

    Stand quality management is a new management strategy in which thinning prescriptions are based solely on tree quality rather than a quantitative level of residual stand density. As long as residual density falls within fairly broad limits, prescriptions are based on tree quality alone. We applied four thinning prescriptions based on stand quality management, along...

  17. Dynamics of radiation damage and repair processes in coniferous stands in a 10-km region of the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubov, G.M.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Properties of morphogenesis, growth dynamics, anatomy and ultrastructure of wood and needle, reproductive processes in coniferous plants were studied under different level of radiation effect in the 10-km zone in 1986-1992. It was established that the full drying of pine forests began under absorbed dose 80-100 Gy/year. Threshold doses, after which repair processes were possible, reached to 10-12 Gy/year for Picea abies and 50 Gy/year for Pinus sylvestris. Three maine stages are revealed in dynamics of radiation damage and repair processes in studied conifers and their morphological and functional characteristic is presented. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Impacto do manejo de resíduos orgânicos durante a reforma de plantios de eucalipto sobre indicadores de qualidade do solo Impact of organic residue management on soil quality indicators during replanting of eucalypt stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Montandon Chaer

    2007-12-01

    microbiological and biochemical attributes proved more adequate than the chemical or physical indicators to detect soil quality changes due to management. The greatest disturbance caused by the removal or burning of organic material on the soil surface was evidenced by the higher qCO2 and lower qMIC in the upper soil layer (0 to 5 cm. The principal component analysis underlying the graphical representation demonstrated that soil under secondary forest, taken as reference for soil quality, was very distant from that under eucalyptus, demonstrating that the introduction of eucalyptus monoculture causes significant changes in soil quality. The soil quality of a eucalyptus stand left unharvested after the first normal seven years cycle (11 year-old stand was the closest to the area with native forest, followed by the soils under eucalyptus subjected to management systems that prioritized organic residue conservation during stand replanting. Contrarily, areas from which the organic material at the soil surface was removed or burned appeared very distant from the reference area. Our results show that the management system adopted during eucalyptus stand replanting influenced, in the medium term, the potential of soils to store and cycle nutrients via microbial biomass and associated biochemical activities. The fact that the 11 years old eucalyptus stand was closest to the reference area may suggest that the adoption of longer cycles for eucalyptus plantations, contrasting with the actual model of short rotation eucalyptus forests in Brazil (about seven years, is relevant to maintain soil sustainability for eucalyptus production in the long run, in spite of the lower mean annual productivity. In this case, the option for a higher productivity in the short and medium term, or for the sustainability of soil use, with the consequent maintenance of its quality for the future generations, should be reevaluated from the data presented here.

  19. A Two-Stage Method for Structural Damage Prognosis in Shear Frames Based on Story Displacement Index and Modal Residual Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Rasouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage method is proposed to properly identify the location and the extent of damage in shear frames. In the first stage, a story displacement index (SDI is presented to precisely locate the damage in the shear frame which is calculated using the modal analysis information of the damaged structure. In the second stage, by defining a new objective function, the extent of the actual damage is determined via an imperialist competitive algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by implementing the technique to three examples containing five-, ten-, and twenty-five-story shear frames with noises and without them in modal data. Moreover, the performance of the proposed method has been verified through using a benchmark problem. Numerical results show the high efficiency of the proposed method for accurately identifying the location and the extent of structural damage in shear frames.

  20. Evaluating the damage of steel 09G2S under static and cyclic loading with regard for the level of residual stresses in the metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Kamantsev, I. S.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Drukarenko, N. A.; Goruleva, L. S.; Veselova, V. E.

    2017-12-01

    An approach to the estimation of the residual durability of structural elements in view of their initial stress-strain state is proposed. The adequacy of the developed approach is confirmed by experiments on cyclic loading of specimens without pronounced stress concentrators simulating the work of real structural elements under conditions of overshooting the total stresses causing local plastic deformation of the material, with regard for residual stresses.

  1. Residues in blackcurrants, fodder peas, spinach and potatoes treated with sublethal doses of 2,4,5-T to simulate wind drift damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Odgaard, Peder

    1981-01-01

    concentrations declined in the same period due to growth dilution. In spinach leaves from old plants, treated with 0.1 kg ha-1, 0.05 mg of 2,4,5-T kg-1 was found 14 days after treatment. Fodder peas showed no residues (

  2. Damages to soil and tree species by cable-skidding in Caspian forests of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavankar, Farzam; Bonyad, Amir E.; Nikooy, Mehrdad; Picchio, Rodolfo; Venanzi, Rachele; Calienno, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: The main aims of this study were to determine of damage level to residual stand and soil disturbance from mechanized selection logging. Area of study: Mixed beech stands in Caspian forests, northern Iran. Material and methods: Point-transect and systematic plot sampling were used for assessing damages to soil and trees, respectively. Main results: 89% of forest soil area was undisturbed or shallow disturbed, and 5.2% was deep disturbed. Soil bulk density of top 10 cm in the winching corridors, ruts and skid trails were increased 10.7%, 20.6% and 32.1% respectively than controlled area. Frequency of damages to regeneration and trees were 12% and 11.2%. The frequency of damages to regeneration was increased with increasing of their heights, but frequency of damages to trees was decreased with increasing of their diameter. The most type of damages was bole wounds in sizes of 100 to 200 cm2 within 1 m from the ground level, and deep wounds. The frequency of damages was different in tree species (p = 0.001). The mean size of bole wounds was 174 cm2, and the mean height of bole wounds was 70 cm from ground level. The intensity of wounds on trees bole were decreased with increasing of their heights from ground level (p = 0.02), while their sizes were increased (p = 0.001). Research highlights: Winching of logs was the main cause of damages to soil and residual stand. The detailed planning strategy will reduce damage to level which is acceptable and predictable.

  3. Damages to soil and tree species by cable-skidding in Caspian forests of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavankar, Farzam; Bonyad, Amir E.; Nikooy, Mehrdad; Picchio, Rodolfo; Venanzi, Rachele; Calienno, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The main aims of this study were to determine of damage level to residual stand and soil disturbance from mechanized selection logging. Area of study: Mixed beech stands in Caspian forests, northern Iran. Material and methods: Point-transect and systematic plot sampling were used for assessing damages to soil and trees, respectively. Main results: 89% of forest soil area was undisturbed or shallow disturbed, and 5.2% was deep disturbed. Soil bulk density of top 10 cm in the winching corridors, ruts and skid trails were increased 10.7%, 20.6% and 32.1% respectively than controlled area. Frequency of damages to regeneration and trees were 12% and 11.2%. The frequency of damages to regeneration was increased with increasing of their heights, but frequency of damages to trees was decreased with increasing of their diameter. The most type of damages was bole wounds in sizes of 100 to 200 cm2 within 1 m from the ground level, and deep wounds. The frequency of damages was different in tree species (p = 0.001). The mean size of bole wounds was 174 cm2, and the mean height of bole wounds was 70 cm from ground level. The intensity of wounds on trees bole were decreased with increasing of their heights from ground level (p = 0.02), while their sizes were increased (p = 0.001). Research highlights: Winching of logs was the main cause of damages to soil and residual stand. The detailed planning strategy will reduce damage to level which is acceptable and predictable.

  4. Standing footprint diagnostic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

    2013-10-01

    Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

  5. Stand quality management of a water oak plantation in Louisiana: preliminary results following thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A., Jr. Skojac

    2010-01-01

    Stand quality management is a new guiding principle in which thinning prescriptions are based on tree quality rather than on residual stand density. We recently initiated a series of hardwood thinning studies to determine the effects of four stand quality management thinning prescriptions on both stand-level and individual-tree-level growth, quality, and value: (1) no...

  6. Entry of a Six-Residue Antimicrobial Peptide Derived from Lactoferricin B into Single Vesicles and Escherichia coli Cells without Damaging their Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Islam, Md Zahidul; Sharmin, Sabrina; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2017-08-22

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) and shorter versions of this peptide have antimicrobial activity. However, the elementary processes of interactions of these peptides with lipid membranes and bacteria are still not well understood. To elucidate the mechanism of their antimicrobial activity, we investigated the interactions of LfcinB (4-9) (its sequence of RRWQWR) with Escherichia coli cells and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). LfcinB (4-9) and lissamine rhodamine B red-labeled LfcinB (4-9) (Rh-LfcinB (4-9)) did not induce an influx of a membrane-impermeant fluorescent probe, SYTOX green, from the outside of E. coli cells into their cytoplasm, indicating that no damage occurred in their plasma membrane. To examine the activity of LfcinB (4-9) to enter E. coli cytoplasm, we investigated the interaction of Rh-LfcinB (4-9) with single cells of E. coli containing calcein using confocal microscopy. We found that Rh-LfcinB (4-9) entered the cytoplasm without leakage of calcein. Next, we investigated the interactions of Rh-LfcinB (4-9) with single GUVs of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) mixtures containing a fluorescent probe, Alexa Fluor 647 hydrazide (AF647), using the single GUV method. The results indicate that Rh-LfcinB (4-9) outside the GUV translocated through the GUV membrane and entered its lumen without leakage of AF647. Interaction of Rh-LfcinB (4-9) with DNA increased its fluorescence intensity greatly. Therefore, we can conclude that Rh-LfcinB (4-9) can translocate across lipid membrane regions of the plasma membrane of E. coli cells to enter their cytoplasm without leakage of calcein and its antimicrobial activity is not due to damage of their plasma membranes.

  7. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  8. Pengaruh Pemanenan Hasil Hutan Terhadap Tingkat Kerusakan. Tegakan Tinggal Pada Dua Hak Pengusahaan Hutan (Hph) Di Kalimantan Barat (the Effect of Logging to Residual Stand Damages in Two Forest Concessions in West Kalimantan)

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartana, Sona

    1993-01-01

    Disturbed soil and vegetation caused by logging operation is difficult to be avoided, even in good logging operation.Past studies related to this problem. shows that forest concessions in Sumatera and Kalimantan used Indonesia Selective Cutting System (TPTI) as a basic activity in logging operation. However, because of the weakness of goverment control activity, most of the companies were looking for financial benefit only and neglect the sustainability of the forest.The aim of this study ...

  9. Harvesting systems for western stand health improvement cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Bryce J. Stokes; Joseph F. McNeel; William F. Watson

    1995-01-01

    A significant percentage of the forested area in the western United States is comprised of stands that have been altered over time by human activities, especially fire suppression, and are now being damaged by droughts, insect attacks, and wildfires. These stands should be returned to a condition where "biotic and abiotic influences do not threaten resource...

  10. Planter unit test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  11. Thinning results from a mixed upland hardwood stand after 35 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J., Jr. Myers; Kenneth R. Roeder; W. Henry McNab

    2008-01-01

    A long-term study of precommercial thinning was installed in a 6-year-old oak-dominated stand regenerated by clearcutting in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Three levels of residual stand density were tested: control (no thinning), and 200, and 400 residual trees per acre (TPA). Objectives of the study were to determine the response of an upland...

  12. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, Jani; Siren, Matti; Aeijaelae, Olli

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for causing growth loss. In this paper, the profitability of energy wood thinning was studied in 20 Scots pine-dominated stands where energy wood thinning was carried out. The growth of the stands after thinning was predicted with the help of Motti-stand simulator. Entire rotation time of the stands was simulated with different management alternatives. The intensity of first thinning and recovery level of logging residues varied between alternatives. In order to attain acceptable harvesting conditions, industrial wood thinning had to be delayed. The effect of energy wood thinning on subsequent stem wood growth was almost the same as in conventional thinning. Whole-tree harvesting for energy proved to be profitable alternative if the stumpage price is around 3EUR m -3 , the interest rate is 3% or 5% and the removal of pulpwood is less than 20 m 3 ha -1 . If the harvestable pulpwood yield is over 20 m 3 ha -1 , integrated harvesting of industrial and energy wood or delayed industrial wood harvesting becomes more profitable. (author)

  13. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  14. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  15. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  16. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  17. Where We Now Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Keith G.

    1969-01-01

    Noting the acceleration of scientific evaluation, the author focuses his attention on where we now stand in the evaluation of two methods of instruction: programed learning materials and television. (Editor)

  18. The Stimulus test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip

  19. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  20. Southern pine beetle in loblolly pine: simulating within stand interactions using the process model SPBLOBTHIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; J. R. Meeker; J. Bishir; James Roberds; X. Wan

    2016-01-01

    Pine stand density is a key determinant of damage resulting from attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). High-density stands of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are at high risk for losses to SPB, and reducing stand density is the primary tool available to forest managers for preventing and mitigating damage. Field studies are...

  1. Economics of stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    This paper sets out to demonstrate the importance of considering the wealth represented by the growing stock in economic analyses of stand management alternatives, and to demonstrate the role of thinning in the manipulation of the efficiency of growing stock in the management of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). These goals are achieved through a demonstration of...

  2. Principles of managing stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Marquis; Rodney Jacobs

    1989-01-01

    Forest stands are managed to achieve some combination of desired products or values. These products or values may include income and tangible benefits from timber production or fees for hunting rights and other recreational activities. The values may be intangible, such as the enjoyment of seeing wildlife or flowering plants, or the simple satisfaction of knowing that...

  3. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  4. Take a Stand!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danquah, I. H.; Kloster, S.; Holtermann, A.

    2017-01-01

    workers in total) were cluster randomized for intervention or control. The intervention included the appointment of local ambassadors, management support, environmental changes, a lecture and a workshop. Sitting time was measured using an ActiGraph GT3X+ fixed on the thigh. Data were processed using Acti4......Background: Prolonged sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Interventions at work may contribute to reduced sitting. The objective was to test if a multicomponent work-based intervention can reduce sitting time and the number of prolonged sitting periods (> 30 min......), increase the number of sit-to-stand transitions and decrease waist circumference and body fat percentage among office workers. Primary outcomes were: change in sitting time, prolonged sitting periods and sit-to-stand transitions at followup 1 month later. Methods: At four workplaces, 19 offices (317...

  5. Stand-alone XLIF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E. J.; Simony, A.; Hummel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    and clinical/radiological results in 22 patients treated with XLIF procedure for DS or degenerative disc disease (DDD). Material and methods: 22 consecutive patients with DS underwent surgery with the XLIF stand-alone procedure, with follow-up of 24 months. Clinical outcome scores were collected. Complications......Introduction: Adult thoracolumbar degeneration is an increasing challenge in the aging population. With age the progressive degeneration of the discs leads to an asymmetric collapse and a thoracolumbar coronal plane deformity, a degenerative scoliosis (DS). Aim: To evaluate the complication rate......-year follow-up, with a 31.8% revision rate. Due to the high revision rate we recommend supplementary posterior instrumentation, to achieve a higher fusion rate. When considering XLIF-stand-alone procedure for DS or DDD without supplemental posterior instrumentation, only single-level disease should...

  6. Standing wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavadtsev, A.A.; Zverev, B.V.; Sobepin, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerating ELA structures are considered and chosen for applied purposes of special designation. Accelerating structures with the standing wave are considered most effective for small size ELA. Designs and results of experimental investigation of two new accelerating structures are described. These are structures of the ''ring'' type with a decreased number of excitinq oscillation types and strucuture with transverse rods with a twice smaller transverse size as compared with the biperiodical structure with internal connection resonators. The accelerating biperiodical structures of the conventional type by the fact that the whole structure is not a linear chain of connected resonators, but a ring one. Model tests have shown that the homogeneous structure with transverse rods (STR) at the frequency of 2.8 GHz in the regime of the standing wave has an effective shunt resistance equalling 23 MOhm/m. It is shown that the small transverse size of biperiodic STR makes its application in logging linear electron accelerators

  7. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  8. Radiation damage to histones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.K.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The damage to histones irradiated in isolation is being elaborated to aid the identification of the crosslinking sites in radiation-induced DNA-histone adducts. Histones are being examined by amino acid analysis to determine the destruction of residues and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to delineate changes in conformation. For the slightly lysine-rich histone, H2A, a specific attack on selective residues has been established, the aromatic residues, tyrosine and phenylalanine, and the heterocyclic residue, histidine, being significantly destroyed. In addition, a significant increase in aspartic acid was found; this may represent a radiation product from scission of the ring in the histidine residues. The similarity of the effects on residues in nitrous oxide-saturated and nitrogen-saturated solutions suggests that OH . and e/sub aq//sup -/ are equally efficient and selective in their attack. On gel electrophoresis degradation of the histone H2A was found to be greatest for irradiations in nitrous oxide-saturated solutions, suggesting CH . is the most effective radical for producing changes in conformation; O/sub 2//sup -/ was essentially ineffective. Other histones are being examined for changes in amino acid composition, conformation, and for the formation of radiation products

  9. Stand dynamics following gap-scale exogenous disturbance in a single cohort mixed species stand in Morgan County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian S. Hughett; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2014-01-01

    Differences in composition, structure, and growth under canopy gaps created by the mortality of a single stem were analyzed using analysis of variance under two scenarios, with stem removed or with stem left as a standing snag. There were no significant differences in composition and structure of large diameter residual stems within upper canopy strata. Some...

  10. Ten year regeneration of southern Appalachian hardwood clearcuts after controlling residual trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. Zaldivar-Garcia; D.T. Tew

    1991-01-01

    Two upland hardwood stands were clearcut in 1978 and three treatments to control the unmerchantable and/or cull trees were applied. The treatments applied to the residual trees were chainsaw felling, herbicide injection, and a control, where residual trees were left standing. Regeneration was sampled 10 years after the cutting.

  11. The effects of stand characteristics on reindeer lichens and range use by semi-domesticated reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Kuusamo (66°15'N, 29°05'E and Inari (68°30'N, 28°15'E, northern Finland, where 24 and 22 Scots pine stands were studied respectively. Clear-cutting (logging residue caused a decline in lichen biomass for some few years, but otherwise the age of the stand had no effect upon lichen biomass. Instead, a positive correlation was found between litter/logging residue and the mean height of lichens; in Kuusamo, logging residue decreased significantly with the age of the stand. Grazing pressure in terms of fecal group density increased with the age of the stand. The preference of old forests came visible also as a lower mean height of lichens, which eliminates the possibility that the preference of old forests is associated only to the use of arboreal lichens. In Inari, grazing pressure sharply increased after the stand had reached the age of 100 years despite scarce litter/logging residue and fair lichen ranges in younger forests; there prevailed a negative correlation between stand density and grazing pressure. It has been suggested that there might be three main reasons for reindeers preferring old forests: 1 hardening of the snow (because of winds on clear-cut areas, 2 logging residue preventing digging for the food beneath the snow, and 3 poor visibility in young pine stands (Inari which might increase predation risk.

  12. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  13. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  14. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  15. ISSP Position Stand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia; Si, Gangyan

    2013-01-01

    The multicultural landscape of contemporary sport sets a challenge to rethink sport and exercise psychology research and practice through a culturally re␣exive lens. This ISSP Position Stand provides a rigorous synthesis and engagement with existing scholarship to outline a roadmap for future work...... in the ␣eld. The shift to culturally competent sport and exercise psychology implies: (a) recognizing hidden ethnocentric philosophical assumptions permeating much of the current theory, research, and practice; (b) transitioning to professional ethics in which difference is seen as not inherent and ␣xed...... but as relational and ␣uid; and (c) focusing on meaning (instead of cause) in cross-cultural and cultural research projects, and cultural praxis work. In the paper, we ␣rst provide an overview of the concepts of cultural competence and ethics of difference. Second, we present a step-by-step approach for developing...

  16. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary Meeting on 11 May 2009 The meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee held on 11 May 2009 was entirely dedicated to the preparation of the TREF meeting on 19 & 20 May 2009. The Committee took note, discussed and agreed on some clarifications on a number of documents and presentations that the Management planned to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: • Personnel statistics 2008: J. Purvis presented the Personnel Statistics for 2008 prepared by HR Department. In line with the previous year, key messages were firstly, a general reduction in staff (2544 to 2400, - 6%), secondly, a reduction in administrative services personnel (from 422 to 387, - 8%) and thirdly, a marked increase in the number of Users and Unpaid Associates (from 8369 to 9140, + 9%) • Five-Yearly Review 2010: A series of draft documents were submitted for discussion, comprising an introductory document explaining the statutory basis for the following four document...

  17. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee in the first quarter of 2009 included: Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) 2009 exercise The committee took note of 2009 MARS ceiling guidelines giving the advancement budget by career path and amounting to approx 1.80% of the basic salary bill. To this will be added 250 steps CERN-wide, financed by savings from implementation of the international indemnity for 2007, 2008 and the first half of 2009. The specific Senior Staff Guidelines, including the proposed number of promotions from Career Path E to F, were also noted. The guidelines with respect to step distribution were also noted: the minima and maxima remain the same as in previous years. Compliance with the guidelines will continue to be monitored closely (more details, including a frequently asked questions section). It was also noted that Financial Awards (awards for extraordinary service and responsibility allowances) may b...

  18. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Main issues examined at the meeting of 2 October 2009 The October 2009 meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee was entirely devoted to preparation of TREF’s meeting on 21-22 October. The Committee took note of, discussed and agreed on clarifications needed to some of the documents and presentations that the Management intended to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: Equal opportunities The Committee took note of a preliminary report on equal opportunities at CERN drawn up by D. Chromek-Burckhart, the Equal Opportunities Officer, and T. Smith, Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel, containing in particular a proposal for a new process for resolving harassment conflicts. Technical analysis of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme - Actuary’s Report The Committee took note of a presentation by P. Charpentier, Chairman of the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHIS Board), on the 2009 actuarial report on the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Th...

  19. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 2 november 2007 Extraordinary meeting on 12 November 2007 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 November 2007 and 12 November included: Restaurants Supervisory Committee Report The committee took note of the report by the chairman of the Restaurants Supervisory Committee (RSC), T. Lagrange. In particular, it was recorded that, in Restaurant No. 1, the new kitchen and free flow arrangements had been inaugurated and all works had been commissioned on schedule in October 2007.The contractor, Novae, had taken over maintenance of the new kitchen. Some price increases were to be expected in the coming months due mainly to strong increases in the cost of basic ingredients. A problem with bad smells in the area of Restaurant No. 1 was being taken care of by tuning the ventilation system. The RSC wished to thank the management and staff of Restaurant No. 2 for their cooperation while Restaurant No 1 was ...

  20. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had subscribed to the short-term saved leave scheme: approx 58% had subscribed 1 slice, 14% two slices, 5% three slices and 23% four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme to the Director-General for approval. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract to the Director-General for approval. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) was extended for a further year to 3...

  1. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The Committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had enrolled in the short-term saved leave scheme: approx. 58% had signed up for 1 slice, 14% for two slices, 5% for three slices and 23% for four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PR...

  2. Damage accumulation in ceramics during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; Begun, G.M.; Williams, J.M.; White, C.W.; Appleton, B.R.; Sklad, P.S.; Angelini, P.

    1985-01-01

    The damage structures of α-Al 2 O 3 and α-SiC were examined as functions of ion implantation parameters using Rutherford backscattering-channeling, analytical electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Low temperatures or high fluences of cations favor formation of the amorphous state. At 300 0 K, mass of the bombarding species has only a small effect on residual damage, but certain ion species appear to stabilize the damage microstructure and increase the rate of approach to the amorphous state. The type of chemical bonding present in the host lattice is an important factor in determining the residual damage state

  3. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  4. Multiple Site Damage in Flat Panel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrage, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This report aimed to experimentally verify analytical models that predict the residual strength of representative aircraft structures, such as wide panels, that are subjected to Multiple Site Damage (MSD...

  5. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 30 January 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement measure...

  6. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 30 JANUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The Committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement mea...

  7. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 27 February 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members: M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff Associatio...

  8. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members : M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines: In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff ...

  9. Stand-up physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A CMS physicist and amateur stand up comic was named the winner of NESTA FameLab 2009. Tom Whyntie battled it out with nine others young scientists from across the UK to win the contest to find the country’s next top science communicator. Tom Whyntie with his prize money after the NESTA Famelab final.Tom Whyntie, who is currently doing his PhD on the CMS experiment, managed to persuade his supervisor to give him a few days off on 5 June so he could fly back to the UK for the final of NESTA FameLab 2009. In the competition, which has been dubbed ‘the X Factor for scientists’, he had just three minutes to explain a complex scientific idea to a panel of judges made up of high-profile science professionals. During the final, he captivated the audience with his talk about how finding nothing at the LHC, far from being a waste of £5 billion, would actually catalyse the next scientific revolution. It Whyntie’s own words: "If the L...

  10. Standing concertation commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    MEETINGS ON 2 AND 9 DECEMBER 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 and 9 December 2008 included: Medical Service Report 2007 The Committee took note of the report by Dr. E. Reymond (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/fr/indexFR.htm) and of a number of points raised during the discussion. It was noted that the number of professional accidents declined in 2007 (361 accidents) in comparison with 2006 (483), as well as their gravity and frequency. The CERN Medical Service carried out a study on cancer prevalence (number of cases) and incidence (new cases per year per 100000 people), between 1993 and 2007, which identified some prostate, breast and colorectal cancers, though less than in the two Host States. Specific preventive actions will be promoted by the CERN CHISboard and the Medical Service in this context as well as in other areas. The committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work i...

  11. Economic considerations of managing stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    1989-01-01

    Managing central hardwood stands involves making choices. Each year landowners face at least three alternatives for managing a stand: (1) allow it to grow undisturbed, (2) undertake a partial or complete commercial harvest, or (3) culture the timber crop through a precommercial investment. Each activity affects long-term monetary returns. The "best" choice in...

  12. Dynamics of Connecticut hemlock stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; David M. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The stand dynamics and production of two one-acre plots of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L) in Connecticut have been followed for more than six decades. Data were recorded for all individual trees. One plot (Saltonstall) was established in 1924 after the removal of a hardwood overstory. This stand had a nearly pure, almost fully closed understory...

  13. Chapter 6: Fire damage of wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Kukay; R.H. White; F. Woeste

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the severity, fire damage can compromise the structural integrity of wood structures such as buildings or residences. Fire damage of wood structures can incorporate several models that address (1) the type, cause, and spread of the fire, (2) the thermal gradients and fire-resistance ratings, and (3) the residual load capacity (Figure 6.1). If there is a...

  14. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  15. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  16. Rotated sigmoid structures in managed uneven-aged northern hardwood stands: a look at the Burr Type III distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; William B. Leak; Lianjun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Stand structures from a combined density manipulation and even- to uneven-aged conversion experiment on the Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) were examined 25 years after initial treatment for rotated sigmoidal diameter distributions. A comparison was made on these stands between two probability density functions for fitting these residual structures:...

  17. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  18. Basic Modelling principles and Validation of Software for Prediction of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2000-01-01

    This report describes basic modelling principles, the theoretical background and validation examples for the collision damage prediction module in the ISESO stand-alone software.......This report describes basic modelling principles, the theoretical background and validation examples for the collision damage prediction module in the ISESO stand-alone software....

  19. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-10-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data.

  20. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data

  1. Introducing tree interactions in wind damage simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Kramer, K.; Peltola, H.; Werf, van der D.C.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Wind throw is an important risk factor in forest management in North-western Europe. In recent years, mechanistic models have been developed to estimate critical wind speeds needed to break or uproot the average tree of a forest stand. Based on these models, we developed a wind damage module for the

  2. Living with storm damage to forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardiner, B.; Schuck, A.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Orazio, C.; Blennow, K.; Nicoll, B.

    2013-01-01

    Windstorms are a major disturbance factor for European forests. In the past six decades wind storms have damaged standing forest volume, which on a yearly average equals about the size of Poland's annual fellings. The evedence also indicates that the actual severity of storms in the wake of climatic

  3. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D.; Askbrant, S.; Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas

  4. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  5. Risk of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzl, K.

    1997-01-01

    , the Act on Third party Liability for Damages from Nuclear Incidents of the year 1964 being the most important piece of legislation. She underlined that the Austrian nuclear liability law does in no way come up to the potential damage inherent to nuclear installations. This could be simply illustrated by the fact that in the event of a nuclear incident liability is limited to ATS 500 million and operators of nuclear installations are granted generous privileges limiting their liability, such as establishing a maximum amount of liability coverage even in the case of damage arising from gross negligence, or limited liability to provide compensation for any personal injury or any loss of, or damage to, property. The Austrian liability law does not consider the potential danger originating from foreign nuclear installations and hence does not cover damage resulting therefrom. As a response to the Chernobyl disaster the Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability of the IAEO has since 1989 been trying to improve compensation for victims from nuclear incidents as laid down in existing nuclear liability conventions. As a consequence, the Vienna Convention was revised to include a guaranteed liability coverage of 150 million SDRs (US $ 216 million). Another outcome of the negotiations was the Supplementary Funding Convention under which - in addition to the insurance coverage - per nuclear incident the Installation state has to ensure the availability of 300 million SDRs, the Contracting Parties are to make available another 300 million SDR on the basis of joint and several liability, half of the amount being earmarked for compensation of transboundary damage. (author)

  6. Isotope separation by standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altshuler, S.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of isotopes is accomplished by scattering a beam of particles from a standing electromagnetic wave. The particles may consist of either atoms or molecules, the beam having in either case a desired isotope and at least one other. The particle beam is directed so as to impinge on the standing electromagnetic wave, which may be a light wave. The particles, that is, the atomic or molecular quantum-mechanical waves, see basically a diffraction grating corresponding to the troughs and peaks of the electromagnetic wave. The frequency of the standing electromagnetic wave substantially corresponds to an internal energy level-transition of the desired isotope. Accordingly, the desired isotope is spatially separated by being scattered or diffracted. (author)

  7. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  8. Burnout : de stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten

  9. Residual Strength of In-plane Loaded Debonded Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a FEM based numerical model for prediction of residual strength of damaged sandwich panels. As demonstrated, the model can predict the maximum load carrying capacity of real-life panels with debond damages, where the failure is governed by face-sheet buckling followed by debond...

  10. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  11. Liability for damage to the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.

    1993-01-01

    The 'global commons' discussed in this paper are the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Responsibility to prevent environmental damage to these areas is clearly recognized in customary international law. On the other hand, although liability for such damage undoubtedly has a useful role to play in protecting these areas, the precise nature of liability for such damage is unclear. Some issues, such as whether liability for such damage is strict or tied to breaching a standard of care and the definition of environmental damage, equally arise in relation to damage to the environment of States. Others, such as who could take action to enforce the liability and the nature of the remedy, raise special problems in the case of damage to the global commons. The work under way in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage provides an opportunity for clarifying these issues in relation to nuclear damage to the global commons. Treaties dealing with particular types of damage which have recently been adopted or are currently being developed in other fields provide a starting point in dealing with this matter. More work, however, needs to be done

  12. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  13. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  14. CAREM-25: Residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvia, Roberto P.; Coppari, Norberto R.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was the definition and consolidation of the residual heat removal system for the CAREM 25 reactor. The function of this system is cool down the primary circuit, removing the core decay heat from hot stand-by to cold shutdown and during refueling. In addition, this system heats the primary water from the cold shutdown condition to hot stand-by condition during the reactor start up previous to criticality. The system has been designed according to the requirements of the standards: ANSI/ANS 51.1 'Nuclear safety criteria for the design of stationary PWR plants'; ANSI/ANS 58.11 'Design criteria for safe shutdown following selected design basis events in light water reactors' and ANSI/ANS 58.9 'Single failure criteria for light water reactor safety-related fluid systems'. The suggested design fulfills the required functions and design criteria standards. (author)

  15. Effects of fretting fatigue on the residual stress of shot peened Ti-6Al-4V samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, S.A.; Sathish, S.; Blodgett, M.P.; Mall, S.; Namjoshi, S.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement has been utilized as nondestructive tool for the characterization of fretting fatigue damage in shot peened samples of Ti-6Al-4V. Prior to fretting fatigue damage, compressive residual stresses were found to be uniform over the entire face of the sample and independent of the measurement direction. After fretting fatigue, inside and in the vicinity of the fretting damage zone large relaxation of compressive residual stress was observed. An anisotropic residual stress distribution has been observed in the fretting fatigue damaged region. Residual stress measurements in interrupted fretting fatigue experiments showed that the relaxation of residual stress increases as the number of fretting fatigue cycles increase. The results are discussed in the light of their importance in establishing X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement technique as a nondestructive tool to characterize fretting fatigue damage

  16. Stand up and move forward

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Johan; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity or being inactive is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases worldwide. Globally between 6-10% of premature mortality, caused by non-communicable diseases, could be avoided if people adhered to general physical activity guidelines. Besides that, studies link sitting for prolonged periods of time with many serious health concerns. The solution seems simple: Stand up and move forward. However, human behavior is difficult to change – due to th...

  17. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  18. Fatigue damage monitoring of structural aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.Р. Ігнатович

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  Results of the experiments directed on creation of a new tool method of fatigue damage diagnostics and an estimation of a residual life of aviation designs are presented. It is shown, that the defo rmation relief formed on a surface of cladding  layer of sheets of constructional alloys Д-16АТ, 2024-Т3, 7075-Т6  can be considered as the metal damage indicator  under cyclically repeating loadings.

  19. Fuelwood and woodland improvement (or damage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisler, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A 1985 survey (Green) of fuelwood use found that over one-fourth (26.4 percent) of Arkansas households burned fuelwood during the 1984-1985 heating season. More than 65 percent of the wood is self cut, and nearly one-half (47.7 percent) was cut from live timber. Removal of live timber through fuelwood cutting affords an opportunity to significantly improve hardwood or mixed hardwood-pine stands. It also provides an opportunity for extensive damage. This paper discusses the positive and negative impacts of fuelwood cutting and negative impacts of fuelwood cutting in live timber stands. It suggests programs for realizing woodland improvement through fuelwood cutting

  20. Fungal diseases of tree stands under urbanized conditions of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Oksana G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytosanitary and ecological estimation of tree-stands has been con­ducted at the Forest Experimental Station of Moscow Agricultural Academy and parks of Northeast of Moscow in 2007-2011. Fomes fomentarius was proved to be a very serious pathogen of trees under conditions of Moscow, Piptoporus betulinus, Phellinus igniarius, and Fomitopsis pinicola also occurred and caused damage to trees. This rather bad phytosanitary situation depends on alarming ecological situation in Moscow. At the Forest Experimental Station of Moscow Agricultural Academy a number and cover of lichens decreased. In general, all trees in Moscow are in dynamic equilibrium with the urbanized environment. In connection with this, the following classification of tree-stands was proposed for the urbanized environment: 1 - healthy trees, 2 - affected trees which can be managed, 3 - dry woods, 3a - very diseased. Many tree-stands in investigated regions of Moscow are found to belong to the groups 2 and 3c. All tree-stands must be carefully monitored and managed in order to provide a well-timed decision on the support system for preservation of trees as ‘lungs of city’ and avoid unpredictable tree falling which put people and traffic at risk.

  1. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  2. Compatible growth models and stand density diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.J.; Brand, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a stand average growth model based on the self-thinning rule developed and used to generate stand density diagrams. Procedures involved in testing are described and results are included

  3. Cellular radiosensitivity and DNA damage in primary human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, R.; Burnet, N.G.; Duggal, N.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between radiation-induced cell survival and DNA damage in primary human fibroblasts to decide whether the initial or residual DNA damage levels are more predictive of normal tissue cellular radiosensitivity. Five primary human nonsyndromic and two primary ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast strains grown in monolayer were studied. Cell survival was assessed by clonogenic assay. Irradiation was given at high dose rate (HDR) 1-2 Gy/min. DNA damage was measured in stationary phase cells and expressed as fraction released from the well by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). For initial damage, cells were embedded in agarose and irradiated at HDR on ice. Residual DNA damage was measured in monolayer by allowing a 4-h repair period after HDR irradiation. Following HDR irradiation, cell survival varied between SF 2 0.025 to 0.23. Measurement of initial DNA damage demonstrated linear induction up to 30 Gy, with small differences in the slope of the dose-response curve between strains. No correlation between cell survival and initial damage was found. Residual damage increased linearly up to 80 Gy with a variation in slope by a factor of 3.2. Cell survival correlated with the slope of the dose-response curves for residual damage of the different strains (p = 0.003). The relationship between radiation-induced cell survival and DNA damage in primary human fibroblasts of differing radiosensitivity is closest with the amount of DNA damage remaining after repair. If assays of DNA damage are to be used as predictors of normal tissue response to radiation, residual DNA damage provides the most likely correlation with cell survival. 52 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  5. Residual Strength Prediction of Debond Damaged Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian

    followed by debond growth. The developed theoretical procedure is an extension of the Crack Surface Displacement method, here denoted the Crack Surface Displacement Extrapolation method. The method is first developed in 2D and then extended to 3D by use of a number of realistic assumptions...... for the considered configurations. Comparison of the theoretical predictions to two series of large-scale experiments with loadings (uniform and non-uniform in-plane compression) comparable with real life loading scenarios for sandwich ships shows that the model is indeed able to predict the failure modes...

  6. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  7. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  8. 24 CFR 206.37 - Credit standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.37 Credit standing. Each mortgagor must have a general credit standing satisfactory to the Secretary. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit standing. 206.37 Section 206...

  9. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Key processes from tree to stand level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinckley, T.; Ford, D.; Segura, G.; Sprugel, D.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in six factors have been identified as having potential major future impacts on the productivity and survival of forest trees and stands. These factors are atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, tropospheric ozone concentration, mean annual air temperature and precipitation, extremes in temperature and precipitation, and levels of ultraviolet radiation. Except for precipitation, all of these factors are expected to increase with climatic change. However, the likelihood of their increase or change ranges from the given to the unknown. The way in which one or more of these factors might individually or in combination affect the productivity and survival of trees is discussed, and particularly sensitive physiological processes are identified. For example, increases in winter temperature and a doubling of CO 2 will result in early budburst in many species and therefore increase the risk of frost damage. In other species or locations, warm winters may mean insufficient chilling hours and the requirements for release from bud dormancy may not be met. The interaction of these processes with current species distribution, genotype selection, and management alternatives is reviewed. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Fatigue damage mechanics of notched graphite-epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Mark; Beaumont, Peter W. R.; Ashby, Michael F.

    A modeling approach is presented that recognizes that the residual properties of composite laminates after any form of loading depend on the damage state. Therefore, in the case of cyclic loading, it is necessary to first derive a damage growth law and then relate the residual properties to the accumulated damage. The propagation of fatigue damage in notched laminates is investigated. A power law relationship between damage growth and the strain energy release rate is developed. The material constants used in the model have been determined in independent experiments and are invariant for all the layups investigated. The strain energy release rates are calculated using a simple finite element representation of the damaged specimen. The model is used to predict the effect of tension-tension cyclic loading on laminates of the T300/914C carbon-fiber epoxy system. The extent of damage propagation is successfully predicted in a number of cross-ply laminates.

  12. Stand for visual ultrasonic testing of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, W.; Borek-Kruszewska, E.

    2001-01-01

    A stand for visual and ultrasonic testing of spent fuel, constructed under Strategic Governmental Programme for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, is presented in the paper. The stand, named 'STEND-1', built up at the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swjerk, is appointed for underwater visual testing of spent fuel elements type MR6 and WWR by means of TV-CCD camera and image processing system and for ultrasonic scanning of external surface of these elements by means of video scan immersion transducer and straight UHT connector. 'STEND-1' is built using flexible in use, high-tensile, anodized aluminum profiles. All the profiles feature longitudinal grooves to accommodate connecting elements and for the attachment of accessories at any position. They are also characterised by straight-through core bores for use with standard fastening elements and to accommodate accessory components. Stand, equipped with automatic control and processing system based on personal computer, may be manually or automatically controlled. Control system of movements of the camera in the vertical axis and rotational movement of spent fuel element permits to fix chosen location of fuel element with accuracy better than 0.1 mm. High resolution of ultrasonic method allows to record damages of outer surface of order 0.1 mm. The results of visual testing of spent fuel are recorded on video tape and then may be stored on the hard disc of the personal computer and presented in shape of photo or picture. Only selected damage surfaces of spent fuel elements are tested by means of ultrasonic scanning. All possibilities of the stand and results of visual testing of spent fuel type WWR are presented in the paper. (author)

  13. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Döring, C.; Rauch, E.

    2009-01-01

    is currently being developed at Göttingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining...... the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil–vegetation–atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks—changes of microclimate as a result...... the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend...

  14. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  15. Integrated geomechanical modelling for deep subsurface damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Orlic, B.; Zijl, W.; Jongerius, P.; Schreppers, G.J.; Hendriks, M.

    2001-01-01

    Government, E&P and mining industry increasingly demand fundamental insight and accurate predictions on subsurface and surface deformation and damage due to exploitation of subsurface natural resources, and subsurface storage of energy residues (e.g. CO2). At this moment deformation is difficult to

  16. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  17. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  18. Experience in determining the residual life expectancy of conventional thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1990-01-01

    A combination of computer analysis, degree of damage and approximate conversion to residual life expectancy gives acceptable results. There is considerable uncertainty in converting degree of damage to residual life expectancy, since structural component characteristics play a major role here. Structure damages play a major part in establishing the degree of damage. Damage categories are given, together with action if operations are to continue. Exhaustion calculations to TRD 508 are to be taken as conservative and as possible evidence of trends. 14 figs., 12 refs

  19. Changes to oak woodland stand structure and ground flora composition caused by thinning and burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Carter O.; Kabrick, John M.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to quantify the cumulative effects of prescribed burning and thinning on forest stocking and species composition at a woodland restoration experiment site in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. Our study used four treatments (burn, harvest, harvest and burn, control) on three slope position and aspect combinations (south, north, ridge) replicated in three complete blocks. Harvested stands were thinned from below to 40 percent residual stocking. Two prescribed fires were applied to both burn and harvest-burn treatment units in a 5-year period. Results reflect changes that have taken place over a 6-year period, from pretreatment conditions to 1 year after the last fire. In this period, there was a 10-percent reduction in the stocking in burned stands compared to control and a 6-percent reduction in harvested and burned stands compared to harvested stands. Compared to the control, percentage ground cover of woodland indicators was seven times greater in burned stands, six times greater in harvested stands, and 22 percent greater in harvested and burned stands. Th ere was no significant (P > 0.05) interaction between aspect and treatment on stocking or ground flora cover. Th is study indicated that silvicultural treatments do achieve various goals that are common to managers who aim to restore woodland communities.

  20. Effects of prescribed fire in a central Appalachian oak-hickory stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1986-01-01

    A prescribed fire in a central Appalachian mixed hardwood stand caused considerable damage to the butt logs of many overstory trees. Although there were increases in the abundance and distribution of several species of hardwoods, advanced red and chestnut oaks were poorly distributed 5-years after burning. An abundance of striped maple and other shrubs in the...

  1. Impacts of hemlock decline and ecological considerations for hemlock stand restoration following hemlock woolly adelgid outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Z. Jonas; Weimin Xi; John D. Waldron; Robert N. Coulson

    2012-01-01

    We present a synthesis of current knowledge and information of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) impact on hemlock forests and conceptual framework of restoring damaged hemlock stands by HWA infestation. Native to Asia, HWA has been thriving in the eastern United States since the early 1950s and has become a serious pathological agent of both eastern...

  2. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  3. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  4. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panferov, O; Rauch, E; Doering, C; Ahrends, B; Sogachev, A

    2009-01-01

    Wind damage is one of the major natural disturbances that can occur worldwide in most types of forests. Enhanced management using adequate decision support systems (DSS) can considerably reduce the risk of windthrow. The decision support system 'Forest and Climate Change' (DSS-WuK) which is currently being developed at Goettingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks-changes of microclimate as a result of tree fall and consequent stabilization or destabilization of a forest stand. The results of the study indicate that in Solling the risk of windthrow for spruce and pine forest stands is likely to increase considerably during the 21st century. The general tendencies indicate that under A1B the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend on the particular local or regional combination of climatic and soil factors with tree species, age and structure. For Solling the positive feedback to local climatic forcing is found. The feedback contributes considerably (up to 6% under given conditions) to the projected forest damage and cannot be neglected. Therefore, the adequate projection of future damage probabilities can be performed only with a process-based coupled soil-atmosphere model with corresponding high spatial

  5. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  6. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  7. Grounding-Induced Sectional Forces and Residual Strength of Grounded Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of groundedship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding-induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage due...... to grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to residual strength assessment of a damaged double hull tanker of 38,400 dwt due to grounding....

  8. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Petit, Pierre; Flick, Robert; Zallot, Rémi; Balmant, Kelly; Ziemak, Michael J.; Shanklin, John; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Fiehn, Oliver; Gregory, Jesse F.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), with subfamily II being split into stand-alone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metal-dependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed a novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.

  9. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  10. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-01-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  11. Assessing smoke damage. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, F; Hartig, W

    1957-06-01

    Briefly described are experiments comparing air pollution tests with rags impregnated with BaO, hung both in the tree tops and below the canopy of Spruce stands, with analyses of needles collected at the same points. S content of the atmosphere (expressed in mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ content of the rags) was, at equal distances, markedly greater above than below the closed canopy, suggesting that the tallest trees would suffer most. While absolute S content of needles (also expressed in mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) gave no indication of smoke damage, relative differences in S content between 1-year-old and 5-year-old needles proved to be a useful indication.

  12. Use of demolition residues construction in soil-lime bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.S.; Silva, C.G.; Silva, I.A.; Neves, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Besides being responsible for several environmental damage caused by its residues, the construction industry is also considered the greatest natural resources consumer. When finely ground, such residues can exhibit cementing properties, which may replace part of the lime used in the manufacture of soil-lime bricks. This study aimed to verify the viability of using demolition residues (DR) in soil-lime bricks without structural function. For this, test specimens were prepared using mixes in a 1:10 ratio of lime:soil and embedding residue in partial replacement of lime in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75%. The test specimens were submitted to curing periods of 28 and 52 days, then it was determined the compression strength. The results showed that when embedded on moderate percentages, demolition residues construction can be used in the production of soil-lime bricks. (author)

  13. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  14. Reineke’s stand density index: a quantitative and non-unitless measure of stand density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2013-01-01

    When used as a measure of relative density, Reineke’s stand density index (SDI) can be made unitless by relating the current SDI to a standard density but when used as a quantitative measure of stand density SDI is not unitless. Reineke’s SDI relates the current stand density to an equivalent number of trees per unit area in a stand with a quadratic mean diameter (Dq)...

  15. The Stand-alone Heliostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Navajas, G. I.; Egea Gea, A.

    2000-01-01

    The first Autonomous Heliostat has been developed by CIEMAT at PSA facilities in Almeria. This heliostat is an innovative approach to reducing the civil engineering work costs in heliostat fields of central tower plants. Channels, cables and other electric elements have been eliminated in the new heliostat. Thus, one 70-nr, classical T glass/metal heliostat has been adapted to include all the new stand-alone concept components. A PV system is able to drive two sun-tracking DC motors between 5 and 24Vdc, 0 and 15A. The heliostat communicates with the control room 400-m away by using a radio-modem working at 9600 baud. An anemometer, a wind switcher, light and ambient temperature sensors have been installed on the heliostat for self-protection decision-making. A PV panel integrated into the heliostat reflecting surface, eliminates cabling and other elements required for a conventional power supply. Communication lines between master control and local control have been replaced by radio-modem. Testing has validated the technical feasibility of the prototype and quantified the real consumption and efficiencies of new elements. The extra costs produced.by the autonomous concepts are compared with the cost of civil work in conventional heliostat field. (Author) 8 refs

  16. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Odette, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  17. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zybtsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  18. Evaluating growth performance of young stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Roe; R. E. Benson

    1966-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the diameter growth of young stands in relation to potential growth is described. A comparison technique is developed which contrasts relative diameter of crop trees to the relative diameter growth of the last decade to show the condition and trend of growth in the stand. The method is objective, easy to use, and has several...

  19. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  20. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5–18years and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p<0.001 when provided access to sit-stand desks (7.2min/h/student; 9.3% of class time spent standing compared to when they had access to seated desks (0.7min/h/student; 1.6% of class time spent standing but no differences were observed for the number of sit-stand transitions (p=0.47. Students reported high favorability for the sit-stand desks and improvements in several student engagement and affective outcomes while using the sit-stand desks. These findings support introducing sit-stand desks in university classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students. Keywords: Sedentary, University students, Sit-stand desk

  1. Preterm newborns show slower repair of oxidative damage and paternal smoking associated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Loock, Kim; Ciardelli, Roberta; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Haumont, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2012-09-01

    Newborns have to cope with hypoxia during delivery and a sudden increase in oxygen at birth. Oxygen will partly be released as reactive oxygen species having the potential to cause damage to DNA and proteins. In utero, increase of most (non)-enzymatic antioxidants occurs during last weeks of gestation, making preterm neonates probably more sensitive to oxidative stress. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that oxidative stress might be the common etiological factor for certain neonatal diseases in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess background DNA damage; in vitro H(2)O(2) induced oxidative DNA damage and repair capacity (residual DNA damage) in peripheral blood mononucleated cells from 25 preterm newborns and their mothers. In addition, demographic data were taken into account and repair capacity of preterm was compared with full-term newborns. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that preterm infants from smoking fathers have higher background DNA damage levels than those from non-smoking fathers, emphasizing the risk of paternal smoking behaviour for the progeny. Significantly higher residual DNA damage found after 15-min repair in preterm children compared to their mothers and higher residual DNA damage after 2 h compared to full-term newborns suggest a slower DNA repair capacity in preterm children. In comparison with preterm infants born by caesarean delivery, preterm infants born by vaginal delivery do repair more slowly the in vitro induced oxidative DNA damage. Final impact of passive smoking and of the slower DNA repair activity of preterm infants need to be confirmed in a larger study population combining transgenerational genetic and/or epigenetic effects, antioxidant levels, genotypes, repair enzyme efficiency/levels and infant morbidity.

  2. Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gang Kyu; Park, Sun Jong; Kwak, Hyo Gyoung [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hong Jae [Dept. of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.

  3. Prediction of fatigue damage in tapered laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raeis Hosseiny, Seyed Aydin; Jakobsen, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    Effective implementation of ply-drops configurations substantially improve the damage tolerant design of flexible and aero-elastic wind turbine blades. Terminating a number of layers for an optimized blade design creates local bending effects. Inter-laminar stress states in tapered areas give rise...... to delamination and premature structural failure. Precise calculation of the stress levels for embedded ply-drops is required to predict failure initiation within acceptable limits. Multi-axial stress states in orthotropic laminates subjected to diverse loading mechanisms nucleate microscopic cracks....... By increasing the cracks density, damage occurs when residual material properties reduce to a critical level. Residual strength and stiffness of simple laminates are assigned in a set of fatigue failure criteria to assess the remaining life of the components by increasing number of loading cycles. The mode...

  4. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  5. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent advances in standing equine orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas; Hunt, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    In all surgeries with the patient standing under chemical and physical restraint, patient compliance is of the utmost importance. All fractures of the third metacarpal or metatarsal condyles and sagittal fracture of the first phalanx are not amenable to internal fixation with the horse standing, and young unhandled horses may not have a suitable disposition for standing surgical treatment of septic pedal osteitis, or implantation and removal of transphyseal screws. Previous operator experience in performing the procedure or technique under general anesthesia is beneficial. Appreciation of appropriate topographic anatomic landmarks is important, and intraoperative radiographic control is useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  8. Reduction of fume damage in forests: report on the symposium on fume damage held in Tharandt from 30th September to 2nd October 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daessler, H G; Ranft, H

    1967-01-01

    Summaries are presented of 15 papers, including: extent of variation in fume resistance in Larix and problems of breeding for resistance (Schoenbach); results of research on fume damage on experimental areas in E. Germany (H. Enderlin) (noting differences in resistance to SO/sub 2/ damage of various species of Picea, Pinus, and Abies, varieties of Pseudotsuga taxifolia and provenances of Pinus contorta and Larix spp., effect of fertilizers on resistance, and mass selection of resistant planting stock in practice); resistance of Pinus omorika to fume damage (K.F. Wentzel); chemical and physiological studies on the metabolism of the assimilation organs of conifers affected by SO/sub 2/ (S. Boertitz); basic physiological and phenological studies on the preliminary selection of conifers for SO/sub 2/ resistance (M. Vogl); fertilizer trials in fume-damaged pine stands on Dueben Heath (H. Krauss); insect pests on young pine stands in fume-damaged regions in Poland (Z. Sierpinski); birch and alder pests in industrial regions (Z. Schnaider); management of young fume-damaged spruce stands (E. Pelz); effect of fumes from the potash industry on forest stands in East Germany (E. Ewert); the distribution of injurious substances in leaves (G. Halbwachs); emission of SO/sub 2/ absorbed by spruce needles (J. Materna); and estimating fume damage expected near future power stations (H. Lux).

  9. Photoexcited riboflavin induces oxidative damage to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Yoshioka, Takuto

    2015-08-01

    Photoexcited riboflavin induced damage of human serum albumin (HSA), a water soluble protein, resulting in the diminishment of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue. Because riboflavin hardly photosensitized singlet oxygen generation and sodium azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, did not inhibit protein damage, electron transfer-mediated oxidation of HSA was speculated. Fluorescence lifetime of riboflavin was not affected by HSA, suggesting that the excited triplet state of riboflavin is responsible for protein damage through electron transfer. In addition, the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives, triplet quenchers, on photosensitized protein damage could be evaluated using this photosensitized reaction system of riboflavin and HSA.

  10. Analysis of radiation damaged nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.; Sedlackova, K.; Sagatova, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ribbon-shaped specimens of the master alloy were prepared by planar flow casting. The ribbons with nominal composition of (Fe_1_-_xN_x)_8_1Nb_7B_1_2 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) were about 25 μm thick and 10 mm wide. To achieve nanocrystalline state, the amorphous ribbons were annealed in vacuum at the temperature of 550 grad C for 1 hour. Samples were irradiated by neutrons in nuclear reactor with fluence of 10"1"6 n/cm"2 and 10"1"7 n/cm"2. and by electrons in linear accelerator with dose 1 MGy at the Slovak Medical University. Moessbauer spectra were collected in transmission geometry by a conventional constant-acceleration spectrometer with a "5"7Co(Rh) source. All spectra were measured at room temperature and evaluated by the CONFIT program, which allows simultaneous treatment of crystalline and residual amorphous phase by means of individual lines and distribution of hyperfine components. After summarizing all obtained results, the fluence 10"1"6 n/cm"2 is still not sufficiently high significantly damage amorphous and crystalline structure. This fluence more or less modify the structure than damage. After fluence 10"17"n/cm"2 we observed beginning of the. structural damage. Our results show, that high electron dose also modify the structure of nanocrystaline alloys. In further study of this alloy it would be necessary to find the limit of electron dose under that the alloy is resistant against electron's damage. From point of view Moessbauer spectroscopy the most sensitive parameter is direction of net magnetic moment. (authors)

  11. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  12. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Inpatient Claims PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Inpatient Public Use Files (PUF) named CMS 2008 BSA Inpatient Claims PUF with information from 2008 Medicare...

  13. Compressor Load Stand: Commissioning and Control Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Causey, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project was to commission this load stand, which includes setting up the hardware, setting up a control system, a data acquisition system, and an automatic test sequence system...

  14. Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...

  15. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  16. Seismic design method of free standing rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Katsuhiko; Okuno, Daisaku; Iwasaki, Akihisa; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Matsuoka, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    For high earthquake resistance and ease of installation, free standing racks which are not anchored to the pool floor or walls has been adopted in many countries. Under the earthquake, the response of the free standing rack is highly nonlinear and involves a complex combination of motions (sliding, rocking, twisting, and turning) and impacts between the fuel assemblies and the fuel cell walls, rack-to-rack, and the pit floor and rack pedestals. We carried out seismic experiments on the full-scale rack model in water and dry conditions to obtain the fundamental data about free standing rack (sliding, rocking and turning motions). We have developed the nonlinear dynamic analysis method to predict seismic response for the free standing rack utilizing the full-scale test result and verified the analysis evaluation method of the rack by comparison of test result. (author)

  17. Lisa's Lemonade Stand: Exploring Algebraic Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Esther M. H.; Lakatos, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity, "Lisa's Lemonade Stand," that actively engages students in algebraic thinking as they analyze change by investigating relationships between variables and gain experience describing and representing these relationships graphically. (YDS)

  18. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  19. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  20. Impact of Hurricane Iniki on native Hawaiian Acacia koa forests: damage and two-year recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Paul G. Scowcroft; Cheryl S. Vann

    1997-01-01

    Damage to Hawaiian Acacia koa forest by Hurricane Iniki was assessed by comparison with our previous measures of stand structure and leaf area index (LAI) at sites along a precipitation/elevation gradient on western Kauai. Reductions in LAI ranged from 29 to 80% and were correlated with pre-hurricane LAI and canopy height. The canopy damage...

  1. Residual fatigue life evaluation of rail at squats seeds using 3D explicit finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling procedure to predict the residual fatigue life of rail at squats seeds is developed in this article. Two models are involved: a 3D explicit Finite Element (FE) model to compute the stress and strain at squats in rail, and the J-S fatigue damage model to determine the residual fatigue life

  2. First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Malinowski, Michael E.; Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, W. Miles; Steinhaus, Chip; Leung, Alvin H.; Haney, Steven J.

    2001-08-01

    The first environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) has been collected. Excellent control of high-mass hydrocarbons has been observed. This control is a result of extensive outgas testing of components and materials, vacuum compatible design of the ETS, careful cleaning of parts and pre-baking of cables and sub assemblies where possible, and clean assembly procedures. As a result of the hydrocarbon control, the residual ETS vacuum environment is rich in water vapor. Analysis of witness plate data indicates that the ETS environment does not pose a contamination risk to the optics in the absence of EUV irradiation. However, with EUV exposure, the water rich environment can lead to EUV- induced water oxidation of the Si-terminated Mo/Si optics. Added ethanol can prevent optic oxidation, allowing carbon growth via EUV cracking of low-level residual hydrocarbons to occur. The EUV environmental issues are understood, mitigation approaches have been validated, and EUV optic contamination appears to be manageable.

  3. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  4. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  5. Free-standing nanocomposites with high conductivity and extensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Youn Tae; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Baughman, Ray H

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of electronic circuits that are stretchable and bendable promises tantalizing applications such as skin-like electronics, roll-up displays, conformable sensors and actuators, and lightweight solar cells. The preparation of highly conductive and highly extensible materials remains a challenge for mass production applications, such as free-standing films or printable composite inks. Here we present a nanocomposite material consisting of carbon nanotubes, ionic liquid, silver nanoparticles, and polystyrene–polyisoprene–polystyrene having a high electrical conductivity of 3700 S cm −1 that can be stretched to 288% without permanent damage. The material is prepared as a concentrated dispersion suitable for simple processing into free-standing films. For the unstrained state, the measured thermal conductivity for the electronically conducting elastomeric nanoparticle film is relatively high and shows a non-metallic temperature dependence consistent with phonon transport, while the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity is metallic. We connect an electric fan to a DC power supply using the films to demonstrate their utility as an elastomeric electronic interconnect. The huge strain sensitivity and the very low temperature coefficient of resistivity suggest their applicability as strain sensors, including those that operate directly to control motors and other devices. (paper)

  6. Research items regarding seismic residual risk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    After learning the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP severe accidents in 2011, the government investigation committee proposed the effective use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and now it is required to establish new safety rules reflecting the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and proposed severe accident measures. Since the Seismic Design Guide has been revised on September 19, 2006, JNES has been discussing seismic PRA (Levels 1-3) methods to review licensees' residual risk assessment while preparing seismic PRA models. Meanwhile, new safety standards for light water reactors are to be issued and enforced on July 2013, which require the residual risk of tsunami, in addition to earthquakes, should be lowered as much as possible. The Fukushima accidents raised the problems related to risk assessment, e.g. approaches based on multi-hazard (earthquake and tsunami), multi-unit, multi-site, and equipment's common cause failure. This fiscal year, while performing seismic and/or tsunami PRA to work on these problems, JNES picked up the equipment whose failure greatly contribute to core damage, surveyed accident management measures on those equipment as well as effectiveness to reduce core damage probability. (author)

  7. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  8. Dynamic growth and yield model for Black pine stands in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, J. V.; Rio, M. del; Bravo-Oviedo, A.

    2012-07-01

    In a forestry context, modelling stand development over time relies on estimates of different stand characteristics obtained from equations which usually constitute a multivariate system. In this study we have developed a stand growth model for even-aged stands of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) in Spain. The 53 plots used to fit the equations came from the permanent sample plot network established by the Forest Research Centre (INIA) in 1963 and 1964 in the main distribution regions of Black pine. The model is made up of a system of equations to predict growth and yield in volume and basal area. In the fitting phase we took into account the correlation between the measurements within the same plot and the cross-equation residual correlations. The model incorporates a control function to estimate the thinning effect and a function for predicting the reduction in tree number due to regular mortality. In addition, we use the three parameter Weibull distribution function to estimate the number of trees in each diameter class by recovering the parameters using the moment method. The developed model is useful for simulating the evolution of even-aged stands with and without thinnings and allows the estimation of number of trees by diameter classes. (Author) 44 refs.

  9. Legal-Civil aspect of types of Immaterial Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Rrustem Qehaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Causing of damage is accompanied with causing of responsibility for its compensation. Human being in the daily life is often threatened by various risks which along with the causing of bodily injuries in some cases may bring also causes of death. From the legal doctrine, in Kosovo and in the region, related to nomination of material and immaterial damage, in addition there may also be found other nominations including the property damage and non-property damage or as differently called moral damage[1], but the basic distinction in this division stands at its compensation. Subject of analysis of this work shall be focused with particular emphasis in Kosovo with some superficial comparisons to the neighbour countries. The only formula of indemnification for the immaterial damage according to insurance coverage remains the satisfaction[2] expressed in monetary value which according to LMTPI[3] and the Directive of the Council of European Parliament underwent positive amendments in viewpoint of increase of amounts of insurance.[4] In context of this work, only some types of immaterial damage shall be reviewed, including: -          Damage in form of physical distress, -          Damage in form of fear and -          Damage in form of spiritual distress because of reduction of life activities.

  10. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  11. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V A [Siberian State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: GAIvanova@ksc.krasn.r [National Institute of Aerospace, Resident at NASA Langley Research Center, MS 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  12. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A; Ivanov, V A; Soja, A J

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  13. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jacob M; Fitschen, Peter J; Campbell, Bill; Wilson, Gabriel J; Zanchi, Nelo; Taylor, Lem; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Kreider, Richard B; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close pro...

  14. An explorative qualitative study to determine the footwear needs of workers in standing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jennifer; Williams, Anita E.; Nester, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many work places require standing for prolonged periods of time and are potentially damaging to health, with links to musculoskeletal disorders and acute trauma from workplace accidents. Footwear provides the only interaction between the body and the ground and therefore a potential means to impact musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is very limited research into the necessary design and development of footwear based on both the physical environmental constraints and the per...

  15. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  16. Climatic control of stand thinning in unmanaged spruce forests of the southern taiga in European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vygodskaya, N.N.; Schulze, E.D.; Tchebakova, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    .042 yr 1). This contrasts with trees that die by drought or insect damage, and which remain as standing dead trees with a mean residence time of 3-13 yr until they are brought to ground, mainly by wind. These standing dead trees require an additional mean residence time of about 22 yr for decay on the ground (k d = 0.031). In conclusion, we demonstrate that, rather than competitive interactions, it is climate extremes, namely drought, rapid changes of dry years followed by wet years, and storm that determine stand structure, biomass and density, which then affect the net exchange with the atmosphere. The climatic effects are difficult to predict, because the sensitivity of a stand to climate extremes depends on the past history. This may range from no effect, if the stand was recovering from an earlier drought and exhibited a relatively low density, to a total collapse of canopies, if drought reduces stand density to an extent that other climatic extremes (especially wind) may cause further damage

  17. Breakwater stability with damaged single layer armour units

    OpenAIRE

    De Rover, R.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van den Berge, A.; Reedijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of single layer interlocking armour unit breakage on the hydraulic armour layer stability and potential damage progression is addressed in this paper. A 2-dimensional scale model of a rubble mound breakwater with an armour layer consisting of Xbloc armour units was tested. The residual armour layer stability with broken units was determined. The armour unit displacement and damage progression was assessed. According to the test series breakage of the single layer armour units has a...

  18. Benfotiamine Protects against Peritoneal and Kidney Damage in Peritoneal Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kihm, Lars P.; Müller-Krebs, Sandra; Klein, Julia; Ehrlich, Gregory; Mertes, Laura; Gross, Marie-Luise; Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Thornalley, Paul J.; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Nawroth, Peter P.; Zeier, Martin; Schwenger, Vedat

    2011-01-01

    Residual renal function and the integrity of the peritoneal membrane contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. Glucose and its degradation products likely contribute to the deterioration of the remnant kidney and damage to the peritoneum. Benfotiamine decreases glucose-induced tissue damage, suggesting the potential for benefit in peritoneal dialysis. Here, in a model of peritoneal dialysis in uremic rats, treatment with benfotiamine decreased peri...

  19. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  20. Protein damage and repair controlling seed vigor and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogé, Laurent; Broyart, Caroline; Collet, Boris; Godin, Béatrice; Jallet, Denis; Bourdais, Gildas; Job, Dominique; Grappin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The formation of abnormal isoaspartyl residues derived from aspartyl or asparaginyl residues is a major source of spontaneous protein misfolding in cells. The repair enzyme protein L: -isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) counteracts such damage by catalyzing the conversion of abnormal isoaspartyl residues to their normal aspartyl forms. Thus, this enzyme contributes to the survival of many organisms, including plants. Analysis of the accumulation of isoaspartyl-containing proteins and its modulation by the PIMT repair pathway, using germination tests, immunodetection, enzymatic assays, and HPLC analysis, gives new insights in understanding controlling mechanisms of seed longevity and vigor.

  1. High-voltage test stand at Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the present design and future capability of the high-voltage test stand for neutral-beam sources at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The stand's immediate use will be for testing the full-scale sources (120 kV, 65 A) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. It will then be used to test parts of the sustaining source system (80 kV, 85 A) being designed for the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility. Following that will be an intensive effort to develop beams of up to 200 kV at 20 A by accelerating negative ions. The design of the test stand features a 5-MVA power supply feeding a vacuum tetrode that is used as a switch and regulator. The 500-kW arc supply and the 100-kW filament supply for the neutral-beam source are battery powered, thus eliminating one or two costly isolation transformers

  2. Quantification of residual stress from photonic signatures of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.; Hayward, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 ± 0.54 × 10 −12 Pa −1 . Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA’s Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented

  3. Stand development of trembling aspen in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; James T. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands of Canaan Valley, West Virginia, trembling aspen occurs as a disjunct population well south of its primary natural range. Based on sample data from 15 stands, we found that aspen occurs as nearly monospecific stands or clones. Eight stands had median ages between 30 and 40 yrs, and we suggest that stand initiation was related to changes in land use after...

  4. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Alexander X., E-mail: axgray@temple.edu

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects.

  5. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Alexander X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects

  6. Free-Standing, Flexible, Superomniphobic Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Hamed; Wang, Wei; Movafaghi, Sanli; Kota, Arun K

    2016-08-31

    Fabrication of most superomniphobic surfaces requires complex process conditions or specialized and expensive equipment or skilled personnel. In order to circumvent these issues and make them end-user-friendly, we developed the free-standing, flexible, superomniphobic films. These films can be stored and delivered to the end-users, who can readily attach them to virtually any surface (even irregular shapes) and impart superomniphobicity. The hierarchical structure, the re-entrant texture, and the low solid surface energy render our films superomniphobic for a wide variety of liquids. We demonstrate that our free-standing, flexible, superomniphobic films have applications in enhanced chemical resistance and enhanced weight bearing.

  7. [Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S

    2003-12-01

    Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.

  8. Stand alone photovoltaic systems: guarantee of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to provide a guarantee of results for system performance for users of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, which have no back-up generator. The appropriate main performance criterion for PV systems is that a specified load is supplied with power either continuously or intermittently whenever the load requires power. A methodology to evaluate the power availability of stand-alone PV systems has been developed as part of the project, which encompasses power losses due to weather variations. The guarantee of results produced allows users to compare system designs from different manufacturers. (UK)

  9. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  10. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Matthew; Janz, Kathleen F; Baquero, Barbara; Carr, Lucas J

    2017-12-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5-18 years) and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats) classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students.

  11. Learning to Stand: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing Standing Desks into College Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. Benzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for multiple negative health outcomes. Evidence supports introducing standing desks into K-12 classrooms and work settings to reduce sitting time, but no studies have been conducted in the college classroom environment. The present study explored the acceptability and feasibility of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. A total of 993 students and 149 instructors completed a single online needs assessment survey. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the fall semester of 2015 at a large Midwestern University. The large majority of students (95% reported they would prefer the option to stand in class. Most students (82.7% reported they currently sit during their entire class time. Most students (76.6% and instructors (86.6% reported being in favor of introducing standing desks into college classrooms. More than half of students and instructors predicted having access to standing desks in class would improve student’s “physical health”, “attention”, and “restlessness”. Collectively, these findings support the acceptability of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Future research is needed to test the feasibility, cost-effectiveness and efficacy of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Such studies would be useful for informing institutional policies regarding classroom designs.

  12. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  13. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  14. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  15. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  16. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  17. Long standing intra oral acid burn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.V.; Ebenezer, S.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Oral burn due to ingestion of corrosive substances can bring about debilitating consequences. It often brings mortality, and the survivors can have severe impairment of functions, especially in relation to the stomatognathic and gastrointestinal systems. This article presents a long-standing case

  18. Estimating white trunk rot in aspen stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan C. Jones; Michael E. Ostry

    1998-01-01

    Advanced decay caused by Phellinus tremulae was estimated in 295 trembling aspen on 30 plots in 2 Minnesota counties using existing inventory guides, and then measured by felling and sectioning the trees. In standing trees, decay volume was underestimated by 38% compared to measured decay volume in felled trees. The most reliable external indicator...

  19. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  20. Direct sampling for stand density index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine

    2008-01-01

    A direct method of estimating stand density index in the field, without complex calculations, would be useful in a variety of silvicultural situations. We present just such a method. The approach uses an ordinary prism or other angle gauge, but it involves deliberately "pushing the point" or, in some cases, "pulling the point." This adjusts the...

  1. Ranking Thinning Potential of Lodgepole Pine Stands

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents models for predicting edge-response of dominant and codominant trees to clearing. Procedures are given for converting predictions to a thinning response index, for ranking stands for thinning priority. Data requirements, sampling suggestions, examples of application, and suggestions for management use are included to facilitate use as a field guide.

  2. IMS Learning Design: De stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Tattersall, C. & Manderveld, J. (2004) IMS Learning Design: De stand van zaken In: Gorissen, P., Manderveld, J., Benneker, F. & Cordewener, B. Leertechnologie in de Lage Landen (pp. 31-33). Utrecht, Stichting Surf. Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/270

  3. Construction alternatives for free-standing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G

    1990-01-01

    Many hospitals are exploring free-standing facilities as an option for providing more efficient imaging services. Mr. Brown discusses the pros and cons of an emerging building technology, manufactured construction, in which building and site preparation are done simultaneously. He presents the criteria managers should use to make a knowledgeable decision.

  4. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.

  5. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  6. Standing stability evaluation using a triaxial accelerometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E.; Mayagoitia, R.E.; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Lotters, Joost Conrad; Veltink, Petrus H.

    1996-01-01

    A triaxial accelerometer is placed at the back of the subject at the height of the center of mass. Force plate data are collected simultaneously. Subjects stand in a comfortable position with eyes open, eyes closed and doing cognitive tasks; and with feet together with eyes open and closed. The

  7. Standing on the shoulders of giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial, the author explains that the journal Temperature stands on the shoulders of giants-prominent scientists of the past and current members of the Temperature community. Temperature also uses the best tools, such as Google Scholar profiles. The editorial includes a new puzzle: why does warm water freeze faster than cold water?

  8. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  9. Thinning of Tree Stands in the Arctic Zone of Krasnoyarsk Territory With Different Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Polyakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2001 six permanent sample plots (PSP were established in forest stands differing in degrees of damage by pollution from the Norilsk industrial region. In 2004 the second forest inventory was carried out at these PSP for evaluation of pollutant impacts on stand condition changes. During both inventory procedures the vigor state of every tree was visually categorized according to 6-points scale of «Forest health regulations in Russian Federation». The changeover of tree into fall was also taken into account. Two types of Markov’s models simulating thinning process in tree stands within different ecological conditions has been developed: 1 based on assessment for probability of tree survival during three years; 2 in terms of evaluation of matrix for probability on change of vigor state category in the same period. The reconstruction of tree mortality from 1979 after industrial complex «Nadezda» setting into operation was realized on the basis of probability estimation of dead standing trees conservation during three years observed. The forecast of situation was carried out up to 2030. Using logistic regression the probability of tree survival was established depending on four factors: degree of tree damage by pollutants, tree species, stand location in relief and tree age. The acquired results make it possible to single out an impact of pollutants to tree stands’ resistance from other factors. There was revealed the percent of tree fall, resulted by pollution. The evaluation scale of SO2 gas resistance of tree species was constructed: birch, spruce, larch. Larch showed the highest percent of fall because of pollution.

  10. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  11. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed

  12. Lysine residue 185 of Rad1 is a topological but not a functional counterpart of lysine residue 164 of PCNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek Wit

    Full Text Available Monoubiquitylation of the homotrimeric DNA sliding clamp PCNA at lysine residue 164 (PCNA(K164 is a highly conserved, DNA damage-inducible process that is mediated by the E2/E3 complex Rad6/Rad18. This ubiquitylation event recruits translesion synthesis (TLS polymerases capable of replicating across damaged DNA templates. Besides PCNA, the Rad6/Rad18 complex was recently shown in yeast to ubiquitylate also 9-1-1, a heterotrimeric DNA sliding clamp composed of Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 in a DNA damage-inducible manner. Based on the highly similar crystal structures of PCNA and 9-1-1, K185 of Rad1 (Rad1(K185 was identified as the only topological equivalent of PCNA(K164. To investigate a potential role of posttranslational modifications of Rad1(K185 in DNA damage management, we here generated a mouse model with a conditional deletable Rad1(K185R allele. The Rad1(K185 residue was found to be dispensable for Chk1 activation, DNA damage survival, and class switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes as well as recruitment of TLS polymerases during somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our data indicate that Rad1(K185 is not a functional counterpart of PCNA(K164.

  13. The ambiguity of standing in standing devices: a qualitative interview study concerning children and parents experiences of the use of standing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Birgitta; Näslund, Annika; Ekenberg, Lilly; Zingmark, Karin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe children's and parents' experiences of the significance of standing in a standing device. Individual interviews were performed with six children/teenagers (aged 7-19 years) and 14 parents. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the major theme, the duality of uprightness and the related themes: (1) the instrumental dimension of standing; (2) the social dimension of standing; and (3) the ambivalent dimension of standing. Each of the themes comprised several subthemes. There is an inherent duality related to the use of a standing device. Standing in a standing device was seen as a treatment of body structures and functions, as well as a possible source of pain. Standing was considered to influence freedom in activities and participation both positively and negatively. The parents experienced that standing influenced other peoples' views of their child, while the children experienced standing as a way to extend the body and as something that gave them benefits in some activities. Physiotherapists working with children should take into account both the social and physical dimensions of using a standing device and consider both the child's and the parents' views.

  14. Experiment and numerical simulation of welding induced damage: stainless steel 15-5PH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study is the prediction of damage and residual stresses induced by hot processing which leads to phase transformation in martensitic stainless steel. This study firstly concerns the modelling of the damage of material induced by a complex history of thermo-elastoplastic multiphase in heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of welding. In this work, a two-scale mode of elastoplastic damage multiphase was developed in the framework of thermodynamics of irreversible process. The constitutive equations are coupling with ductile damage, elasto-plasticity, phase transformation, and transformation plasticity. Besides, a damage equation was proposed based on the Lemaitre's damage model in the framework of continuum damage mechanics. The experiments of 15-5PH were implemented for the identification of phase transformation, transformation plasticity and damage models. Tensile tests of round specimens were used to identify the parameters of damage model as well as mechanical behaviours at various temperatures. Tests of flat notched specimen were designed to provide the validation of damage model and strain localization using three dimensional image correlation technologies. In addition, microscopic analysis was performed to provide microstructure characterization of 15-5PH and to discover the damage mechanism. Finally the numerical simulation was performed in the code CAST3M of CEA. On the one hand, numerical verification of the flat notched plates was implemented and compared with experimental results. On the other hand, we used the two-scale model including phase transformation, transformation plasticity and damage to simulate the level of residual stresses of a disk made of 15-5PH metal heated by laser. The internal variables, such as strain, stress, damage, were successfully traced in the simulation of two-scale model. The simulation results showed the transformation plasticity changes the level of residual stresses and should not be negligible; damage decreases

  15. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  16. Breakwater stability with damaged single layer armour units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rover, R.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van den Berge, A.; Reedijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of single layer interlocking armour unit breakage on the hydraulic armour layer stability and potential damage progression is addressed in this paper. A 2-dimensional scale model of a rubble mound breakwater with an armour layer consisting of Xbloc armour units was tested. The residual

  17. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Andrew D. [Horticultural Sciences Department and; Henry, Christopher S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, email:; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637; Fiehn, Oliver [Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616, email:; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie [Microbiology and Cell Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, email: ,

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms.

  18. Computational learning on specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Li, Yue; Peng, Chengbin; Moses, Alan M.; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2015-01-01

    The protein–DNA interactions between transcription factors and transcription factor binding sites are essential activities in gene regulation. To decipher the binding codes, it is a long-standing challenge to understand the binding mechanism across different transcription factor DNA binding families. Past computational learning studies usually focus on learning and predicting the DNA binding residues on protein side. Taking into account both sides (protein and DNA), we propose and describe a computational study for learning the specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions of different known DNA-binding domain families. The proposed learning models are compared to state-of-the-art models comprehensively, demonstrating its competitive learning performance. In addition, we describe and propose two applications which demonstrate how the learnt models can provide meaningful insights into protein–DNA interactions across different DNA binding families.

  19. Computational learning on specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2015-11-02

    The protein–DNA interactions between transcription factors and transcription factor binding sites are essential activities in gene regulation. To decipher the binding codes, it is a long-standing challenge to understand the binding mechanism across different transcription factor DNA binding families. Past computational learning studies usually focus on learning and predicting the DNA binding residues on protein side. Taking into account both sides (protein and DNA), we propose and describe a computational study for learning the specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions of different known DNA-binding domain families. The proposed learning models are compared to state-of-the-art models comprehensively, demonstrating its competitive learning performance. In addition, we describe and propose two applications which demonstrate how the learnt models can provide meaningful insights into protein–DNA interactions across different DNA binding families.

  20. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  1. Instructive of chemical residues waste administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Vargas, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the waste management system of chemical residues generated at the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, separation, transportation, reuse, recycling and final disposal. The laboratory waste management system is conditioned to the volume and type of waste generated. The respective procedures are listed in data sheets according to the corresponding model: avoid, reduce, recycle, treat, delete. The materials are identified as: expired products, materials or damaged products, substances that have lost some of the required characteristics, waste from the regular activities of the lab, unused products that now no longer used because they are considered inadequate. The chemicals reagents or hazardous are transformed into small amounts of derivatives safe products, or less hazardous, to allow for removal or to pick up a spill of these without problem [es

  2. Investigations into the fungal flora of forest stands under severe stress from immissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butin, H.

    1992-01-01

    This finalized research project on the fungal flora of forest stands under severe stress form immissions looked into the question of the contribution of fungi to the triggering of topical forest damage and investigated whether correlations between certain symptoms and needle yellowing or root damage can be established. The main tree species selected were spruce and pine; but spot sample checks were also carried out on other tree species. Fungal flora was determined both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the pathogenic significance of the individual species was determined. Further, it was investigated whether fungal species are correlated to certain symptoms of damage, and which fungal species are. For selected fungal species, their pathogenicity was investigated by infection experiments. (RHE) [de

  3. Residual life estimation of cracked aircraft structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimović, Mirko S.; Vasović, Ivana V.; Maksimović, Katarina S.; Trišović, Nataša; Maksimović, Stevan M.

    2018-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is focused on developing computation procedure for strength analysis of damaged aircraft structural components with respect to fatigue and fracture mechanics. For that purpose, here will be defined computation procedures for residual life estimation of aircraft structural components such as wing skin and attachment lugs under cyclic loads of constant amplitude and load spectrum. A special aspect of this investigation is based on using of the Strain Energy Den...

  4. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  5. DNA damage and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy; Poon, Randy Y C

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that polyploidization triggers chromosomal instability and contributes to tumorigenesis. DNA damage is increasingly being recognized for its roles in promoting polyploidization. Although elegant mechanisms known as the DNA damage checkpoints are responsible for halting the cell cycle after DNA damage, agents that uncouple the checkpoints can induce unscheduled entry into mitosis. Likewise, defects of the checkpoints in several disorders permit mitotic entry even in the presence of DNA damage. Forcing cells with damaged DNA into mitosis causes severe chromosome segregation defects, including lagging chromosomes, chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges. The presence of these lesions in the cleavage plane is believed to abort cytokinesis. It is postulated that if cytokinesis failure is coupled with defects of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint pathway, cells can enter S phase and become polyploids. Progress in the past several years has unraveled some of the underlying principles of these pathways and underscored the important role of DNA damage in polyploidization. Furthermore, polyploidization per se may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to DNA damage, thereby may offer an opportunity for novel therapies.

  6. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage threshold on hybrid mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Jan; Muresan, Mihai-George; Bilek, Vojtech; Sebek, Matej; Hanus, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mocek, Tomas; Škoda, Václav

    2017-11-01

    So-called hybrid mirrors, consisting of broadband metallic surface coated with dielectric reflector designed for specific wavelength, becoming more important with progressing development of broadband mid-IR sources realized using parametric down conversion system. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage on such mirrors was tested by method s-on-1, where s stands for various numbers of pulses. We show difference in damage threshold between common protected silver mirrors and hybrid silver mirrors prepared by PVD technique and their variants prepared by IAD. Keywords: LIDT,

  7. Application of x-ray residual stress measurement to products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Iwamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    The X-ray residual stress measuring method is the only nondestructive method for measuring residual stress in polycrystalline materials. It is capable of obtaining information not only on macroscopic stress but also microscopic stress. The authors are employing this method for the development of pre-service and in-service inspection methods and for the improvement of various manufacturing techniques. In this paper, the results of measurement of some products as examples of its application are described. The examples introduced concern the following: (1) Selection of optimum conditions in heat treatment and stress-relief treatment. (2) Residual stress produced by mechanical processes such as autofrettage and flow form. (3) Check of manufacturing processes of rotary shaft and welded parts. (4) Estimation of fatigue strength of shot-peened part. (5) Detection of fatigue damage of shot-peened part. (auth.)

  8. Decline in girth increment in forest stands damaged by smoke exhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, B; Parez, J

    1963-01-01

    A survey of the effects of air pollution on tree growth was carried out in several regions of Czechoslovakia. It was found that in areas of air pollution tree growth rate (as deduced from annual ring study) declined by as much as 90% from control areas. An economic evolution of air-pollution-related losses was carried out.

  9. Differences in regeneration between hurricane damaged and clear-cut mangrove stands 25 years after clearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.G.; Ketner, P.; McGuiness, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of human disturbance on mangrove forest may be substantially different from the effects of natural disturbances. This paper describes differences in vegetation composition and structure of five vegetation types in two mangrove areas near Darwin, Australia, 25 years after disturbance. The

  10. An explorative qualitative study to determine the footwear needs of workers in standing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer; Williams, Anita E; Nester, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Many work places require standing for prolonged periods of time and are potentially damaging to health, with links to musculoskeletal disorders and acute trauma from workplace accidents. Footwear provides the only interaction between the body and the ground and therefore a potential means to impact musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is very limited research into the necessary design and development of footwear based on both the physical environmental constraints and the personal preference of the workers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore workers needs for footwear in the 'standing' workplace in relation to MSD, symptoms, comfort and design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from demanding work environments that require standing for high proportions of the working day. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the results and gain an exploratory understanding into the footwear needs of these workers. Interviews revealed the environmental demands and a very high percentage of musculoskeletal disorders, including day to day discomfort and chronic problems. It was identified that when designing work footwear for standing environments, the functionality of the shoe for the environment must be addressed, the sensations and symptoms of the workers taken into account to encourage adherence and the decision influencers should be met to encourage initial footwear choice. Meeting all these criteria could encourage the use of footwear with the correct safety features and comfort. Development of the correct footwear and increased education regarding foot health and footwear choice could help to reduce or improve the effect of the high number of musculoskeletal disorders repeatedly recorded in jobs that require prolonged periods of standing. This study provides a unique insight into the footwear needs of some workers in environments that require prolonged standing. This user based enquiry has provided information which is important

  11. Characterization and damage evaluation of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Milan

    Mechanical characterization of advanced materials, namely magnetostrictive and graphite/epoxy composite materials, is studied in this dissertation, with an emphasis on damage evaluation of composite materials. Consequently, the work in this dissertation is divided into two parts, with the first part focusing on characterization of the magneto-elastic response of magnetostrictlve materials, while the second part of this dissertation describes methods for evaluating the fatigue damage in composite materials. The objective of the first part of this dissertation is to evaluate a nonlinear constitutive relation which more closely depict the magneto-elastic response of magnetostrictive materials. Correlation between experimental and theoretical values indicate that the model adequately predicts the nonlinear strain/field relations in specific regimes, and that the currently employed linear approaches are inappropriate for modeling the response of this material in a structure. The objective of the second part of this dissertation is to unravel the complexities associated with damage events associated with polymeric composite materials. The intent is to characterize and understand the influence of impact and fatigue induced damage on the residual thermo-mechanical properties and compressive strength of composite systems. The influence of fatigue generated matrix cracking and micro-delaminations on thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and compressive strength is investigated for woven graphite/epoxy composite system. Experimental results indicate that a strong correlation exists between TEC and compressive strength measurements, indicating that TEC measurements can be used as a damage metric for this material systems. The influence of delaminations on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a composite laminate is also investigated. Based on the changes of these parameters as a function of damage, a methodology for determining the size and location of damage is suggested

  12. Evaluation of Crops Sensitivity to Atrazine Soil Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the sensitivity of 9 crops to atrazine soil residual, two separate experiments were conducted in field and greenhouse conditions. First experiment was conducted in a field with treated soil by atrazine based on split plot and the results evaluated in greenhouse conditions. Treatments in the field experiment included two organic manure application rates (0 and 50 t/ha as main plots and 2 atrazine application rates (2 and 4 kg/ha atrazine a.i. as sob plots. After corn harvesting soil was sampled at 0-15 cm surface layer in each plots in 15 points, after mixing the samples. Wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens and colza planted in pots at greenhouse. Second experiment conducted in greenhouse conditions for evaluation of atrazine soil residual in completely randomized design. Treatments included atrazine soil residual concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg soil and crops included wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens, rape, bean and tomato. Results showed that atrazine residue had no effect on crops growth in field experiment treated with atrazine. It seems that atrazine residue in filed soil is lower that its damage threshold for crops or maybe for its fast removal in field than in control conditions. But in bioassay experiment (greenhouse experiment crops response to atrazine residues were different. Results showed that onion and pea were most susceptible ant tolerant crops between studied species and based of ED50 parameter the other crops tolerance to total residue ranked as: pea< bean< lentil< sugar beet< tomato< barley< wheat< rape< onion. Keywords: Atrazine residue, Pea, Bean, Lentil, Sugar beet, Barley, Wheat, Rape, Tomato

  13. Transformation of solar radiation in Norway spruce stands into produced biomass - the effect of stand density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marková, I.; Marek, M.V.; Pokorný, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is focused on the assessment of the effects of stand density and leaf area development on radiation use efficiency in the mountain cultivated Norway spruce stand. The young even-aged (17-years-old in 1998) plantation of Norway spruce was divided into two experimental plots differing in their stand density in 1995. During the late spring of 2001 next cultivating high-type of thinning of 15% intensity in a reduction of stocking density was performed. The PAR regime of investigated stands was continually measured since 1992. Total aboveground biomass (TBa) and TBa increment were obtained on the basis of stand inventory. The dynamic of LAI development showed a tendency to be saturated, i.e. the LAI value close to 11 seems to be maximal for the local conditions of the investigated mountain cultivated Norway spruce stand in the Beskids Mts. Remarkable stimuli (up to 17%) of LAI formation were started in 2002, i.e. as an immediate response to thinning. Thus, the positive effect of thinning on LAI increase was confirmed. The data set of absorbed PAR and produced TBa in the period 1998-2003 was processed by the linear regression of Monteith's model, which provided the values of the coefficient of solar energy conversion efficiency into biomass formation. The differences in biomass formation values between the dense and sparse plot after thinning amounted to 18%

  14. Calculation of the increment reduction in spruce stands by charcoal smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, J

    1954-01-01

    Chronic damage to spruce trees by charcoal smoke, often hardly noticeable from outward appearance but causing marked reductions of wood increment can be determined by means of a calculation by increment cores. Sulfurous acid anhydride causes the closure of the stomates of needles by which the circulation of water is checked. The assimilation and the wood increment are reduced. The cores are taken from uninjured trees belonging to the dominant class. These trees are liable to irregular variations in the trend of growth only by atmospheric influences and disturbances in the circulation of water. The decrease of increment of a stand can be judged by the trend of growth of the basal area of sample trees. Two methods are applied: in the first method, the difference between the mean total increment before the damage has been caused and that after it is calculated by the yield table in deriving the site quality classes from the basal area growth of dominant stems. This is possible by using the mean diameter of each age class and the frequency curve of basal area for each site class. In the other method, the reduction of basal area increment of sample trees is measured directly. The total reduction of a stand can be judged by the share of the dominant class of stem in the total current growth of the basal area of a sound stand and by the percent of reduction of the sample trees.

  15. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  16. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  17. Combining specificity determining and conserved residues improves functional site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the location of functionally important sites from protein sequence and/or structure is a long-standing problem in computational biology. Most current approaches make use of sequence conservation, assuming that amino acid residues conserved within a protein family are most likely to be functionally important. Most often these approaches do not consider many residues that act to define specific sub-functions within a family, or they make no distinction between residues important for function and those more relevant for maintaining structure (e.g. in the hydrophobic core. Many protein families bind and/or act on a variety of ligands, meaning that conserved residues often only bind a common ligand sub-structure or perform general catalytic activities. Results Here we present a novel method for functional site prediction based on identification of conserved positions, as well as those responsible for determining ligand specificity. We define Specificity-Determining Positions (SDPs, as those occupied by conserved residues within sub-groups of proteins in a family having a common specificity, but differ between groups, and are thus likely to account for specific recognition events. We benchmark the approach on enzyme families of known 3D structure with bound substrates, and find that in nearly all families residues predicted by SDPsite are in contact with the bound substrate, and that the addition of SDPs significantly improves functional site prediction accuracy. We apply SDPsite to various families of proteins containing known three-dimensional structures, but lacking clear functional annotations, and discusse several illustrative examples. Conclusion The results suggest a better means to predict functional details for the thousands of protein structures determined prior to a clear understanding of molecular function.

  18. Modeling natural regeneration biomass of Pinus stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cubas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass data are very important in the evaluation of ecosystems, and help in understanding the contribution of forests in climate change. Variables that describe the size of the tree, like diameter and height are directly associated with biomass, which allows the use of regression models to estimate this element. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate by regression models, the biomass of different compartments of natural regeneration of trees of a Pinus taeda L. stand. The data were obtained through direct destructive method, using 100 randomly selected trees in the understory of a stand of Pinus taeda. We analyzed three arithmetical models, three logarithmic and two models developed by Stepwise process. Logarithmic equations developed by Stepwise procedure showed the best estimates of total and stems biomass. However, for needles and twigs compartments the best adjust was observed with Husch model and for root biomass Berkhout model proved to be the most suitable.

  19. The standing advisory group on safeguards implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.H.F.

    1982-09-01

    In 1975 the Director General of the IAEA called together ten persons from member states with nuclear programs at varying stages of development to form the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation. The group was later expanded to twelve. The Director General asked the group to evaluate the technical objectives of Agency safeguards, assess the effectiveness and efficiency of specific safeguards operating methods in meeting these technical objectives, advise on techniques to be employed in safeguards operations, and recommend areas where further work is needed. This paper reviews the work of the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation since its formation in 1975, summarizes the subjects that have been examined and the advice rendered, and outlines the problem areas requiring further study

  20. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  1. Nonlinear theory of localized standing waves

    OpenAIRE

    Denardo, Bruce; Larraza, Andrés; Putterman, Seth; Roberts, Paul

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the nonlinear dispersive equations of continuum mechanics reveals localized standing-wave solutions that are domain walls between regions of different wave number. These states can appear even when the dispersion law is a single-valued function of the wave number. In addition, we calculate solutions for kinks in cutoff and noncutoff modes, as well as cutoff breather solitons. Division of Engineering and Geophysics of the Office of Basic Energy Science of U.S. DOE for su...

  2. Beam instrumentation for an ISOL test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, G.H.; Dombsky, M.; Rawnsley, W.; Stanford, G.; Yin, Y.; Novikov, A.

    1995-09-01

    TRIUMF is constructing a test bed for the first stages of the proposed TISAC accelerated radioactive beam facility. The authors will present the requirements for the diagnostic system for this test stand and describe the design and development work underway. Scintillators, beamstops and a Faraday Cup have been tested using stable, mass analyzed, 12 keV beams of ions from mass 14 to 132. The design of a linear drive, with 10 microm resolution, for scanning wires and slits has begun

  3. Beam instrumentation for an ISOL test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, G.H.; Dombsky, M.; Rawnsley, W.; Stanford, G.; Yin, Y.; Novikov, A.

    1995-09-01

    TRIUMF is constructing a test bed for the first stages of the proposed TISAC accelerated radioactive beam facility. We will present the requirements for the diagnostic system for this test stand and describe the design and development work underway. Scintillators, beamstops and Faraday Cup have been tested using stable, mass analyzed, 12 keV beams of ions from mass 14 to 132. The design of a linear drive, with 10 μm resolution, for scanning wires and slits has begun. (author)

  4. Down force calibration stand test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Down Force Calibration Stand was developed to provide an improved means of calibrating equipment used to apply, display and record Core Sample Truck (CST) down force. Originally, four springs were used in parallel to provide a system of resistance that allowed increasing force over increasing displacement. This spring system, though originally deemed adequate, was eventually found to be unstable laterally. For this reason, it was determined that a new method for resisting down force was needed

  5. Test Stand for Linear Induction Accelerator Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, M; DeHope, B; Griffin, K; Goerz, D; Kihara, R; Vogtlin, G; Zentler, J M; Scarpetti, R

    2003-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed and constructed a test stand to improve the voltage regulation in our Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator cell. The goal is to create a more mono-energetic electron beam that will create an x-ray source with a smaller spot size. Studying the interaction of the beam and pulse-power system with the accelerator cell will improve the design of high-current accelerators at Livermore and elsewhere. On the test stand, a standard FXR cell is driven by a flexible pulse-power system and the beam current is simulated with a switched center conductor. The test stand is fully instrumented with high-speed digitizers to document the effect of impedance mismatches when the cell is operated under various full-voltage conditions. A time-domain reflectometry technique was also developed to characterize the beam and cell interactions by measuring the impedance of the accelerator and pulse-power component. Computer models are being developed in parallel with the testing program to validate the measurements and evaluate different design changes. Both 3D transient electromagnetic and circuit models are being used

  6. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  7. Quantification of Residual Stress from Photonic Signatures of Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Hayward, Maurice; Yost, William E.

    2013-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 +/- 0.54 x 10(exp -12)/Pa. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA's Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented. Keywords: Glass, fused silica, photoelasticity, residual stress

  8. Volume and weight characteristics of a typical Douglas-fir/ western larch stand, Coram Experimental Forest, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1980-01-01

    An over-mature Douglas-fir/western larch stand on the Coram Experimental Forest in Montana averaged about 7,300 ft3/acre (511 rn3/ha) of wood over 3 inches (7.62 cm) in diameter, and an additional 57 tons/acre (128/ha) of fine material, before harvest. After logging, using three different cutting methods and four different levels of utilization, wood residues ranged...

  9. Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana–Nothofagus stands in central Chile. Rafael M Navarro-Cerrillo, Fernando Olave, Francisco Moreno, Sergio de Miguel, Margarita Clemente ...

  10. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...

  11. Tropical forest biomass estimation from truncated stand tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. J. R. Gillespie; S. Brown; A. E. Lugo

    1992-01-01

    Total aboveground forest biomass may be estimated through a variety of techniques based on commercial inventory stand and stock tables. Stand and stock tables from tropical countries commonly omit trees bellow a certain commercial limit.

  12. Effects of thinnings on growth and yield in natural Pinus arizonica and Pinus durangensis stands in the El Largo-Madera region in Chihuahua State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Estrada Murrieta; Luis A. Dominguez Pereda; Marcelo Zepeda Bautista

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the first dasometric analysis made with the data of some permanent thinning plots established at different times since 1964 in the Unit of Conservation and Forest Development #2 in Chihuahua State, Mexico. The results show the benefits of thinnings on the growth rates of residual stands, the increment's redistribution, and the...

  13. 21 CFR 880.2700 - Stand-on patient scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stand-on patient scale. 880.2700 Section 880.2700... Devices § 880.2700 Stand-on patient scale. (a) Identification. A stand-on patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to weigh a patient who is able to stand on the scale platform...

  14. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  15. New experimental research stand SVICKA neutron field analysis using neutron activation detector technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuza, Jan; Katovsky, Karel; Zeman, Miroslav; Stastny, Ondrej; Haysak, Ivan; Holomb, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of neutron energy spectra is very important because neutrons with various energies have a different material impact or a biological tissue impact. This paper presents basic results of the neutron flux distribution inside the new experimental research stand SVICKA which is located at Brno University of Technology in Brno, Czech Republic. The experiment also focused on the investigation of the sandwich biological shielding quality that protects staff against radiation effects. The set of indium activation detectors was used to the investigation of neutron flux distribution. The results of the measurement provide basic information about the neutron flux distribution inside all irradiation channels and no damage or cracks are present in the experimental research stand biological shielding.

  16. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  18. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  19. Relationship of stand age to streamwater nitrate in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; C. Wayne Martin

    1975-01-01

    Streamwater nitrate content of six watersheds during spring and summer was apparently related to stand age or age since disturbance. Nitrate concentration averaged 10.3 ppm right after cutting, dropped to a trace in medium-aged stands, and then rose again to a maximum of 4.8 ppm as stands became overmature.

  20. Production economics of harvesting young hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary W. Miller; Joe McNeel

    2004-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, fell-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands of 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a stand generator and harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree...

  1. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  2. Effect of two Notebook stands on work posture and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könemann, R.; Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Lingen, P. van; Sauvage, S.; Hallbeck, S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using a notebook stand on the physical load when working with a notebook in a home environment. Sixteen subjects evaluated working with a notebook by performing three different tasks using two notebook stands and without using a notebook stand.

  3. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  4. Stocking equations for regeneration in mixed oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration stocking equations for mixed-oak stands were developed based on data collected from nearly 14,000 plots in the central Appalachians. Maximum stand density was identified by plotting aggregate height against number of seedlings per plot, and was used as the reference level of the average maximum stand density (100 percent stocking or A-level stocking)....

  5. A simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection for predictive and interpretative purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.

    1994-01-01

    The in-reactor fuel rod support conditions against the fretting wear-induced damage can be evaluated by spacer grid residual spring deflection. In order to predict the spacer grid residual spring deflection as a function of burnup for various spring designs, a simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection has been developed and implemented in the GRIDFORCE program. The simulation methodology takes into account cladding creep rate, initial spring deflection, initial spring force, and spring force relaxation rate as the key parameters affecting the residual spring deflection. The simulation methodology developed in this study can be utilized as an effective tool in evaluating the capability of a newly designed spacer grid spring to prevent the fretting wear-induced damage

  6. Residual subsidence analysis after the end of coal mine work. Example from Lorraine Colliery, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Heib, M.; Nicolas, M.; Noirel, J.F.; Wojtkowiak, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the residual movements associated with the deep coal mines. The studied case relates to works located into Lorraine coal basin. The paper is divided into two sections. The first one describes subsidence phenomena, especially the residual phase in terms of amplitude, duration and localization. The second one focus on Morsbach case: the total and residual subsidence measurements will be analyzed and compared to the state of the art as well as the currant knowledge. The results of the analysis show that the duration of residual movements does not exceed 24 months and their amplitude is about 5% of total subsidence. We analyze also the declarations of the mining damage during and after the mining period. Damages occur, after this period are probably due to late observations. (authors)

  7. Practical research of free standing rack. Seismic experiment study on full scale free standing rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Akihisa; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Morita, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Katsuhiko; Okuno, Daisaku; Matsuoka, Toshihiro; Chigusa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The spent fuel taken out of a plant reactor is temporarily stored in a spent fuel rack. This fuel will often have to be stored in the rack for long periods before it can be moved to a reprocessing facility. Therefore, the spent fuel rack must have a high tolerance against big seismic loads. The free standing spent fuel rack has been developed as the optimal equipment meeting these requirements. It can be placed on the spent fuel pool floor without fixation to any support structure. Response of the free standing rack is reduced by the effect of the water and friction force on the spent fuel pool floor. For nuclear plant safety, it is necessary to understand the free standing rack behavior under earthquake in pools to verify the design of free standing racks and peripheral components. Several tests on a shaking table have been conducted on full-scale one free standing rack in air and in water, and sliding and rocking have been measured. The rack response is very complex and the study necessitates to take into account the sliding, the rocking, the effect of the water and of the arrangement of the fuel assemblies inside. (author)

  8. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  9. Stand-alone photovoltaic applications. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loois, G.; Van Hemert, B.

    1999-02-01

    The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative R and D agreements established within the IEA. The objective of Task III is to promote and facilitate the exchange of information and experiences in the field of PV Systems in Stand-alone and Island Applications (SAPV). The book focuses on the practical experiences gained, and does not aim to provide a complete manual on SAPV. When Task III started its activities in 1993, a collection of 50 'State of the art' projects was published in the book 'Examples of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems'. This publication marked the base line for the work of the task. Now, in 1998, the showcases from each country demonstrate the lessons learned in five years of cooperation. The book consists of two parts. The first part contains eight chapters dealing with a specific aspect of stand-alone PV. The second part introduces 14 national showcase projects in a systematic presentation. Each chapter and showcase can be read independently from the rest of the book. Chapter 2, contributed by The Netherlands, analyses the market for stand-alone PV systems. It gives an overview of the 'traditional' application of stand-alone PV, which is the electrification of remote buildings and which has been addressed in depth in other publications. The focus is on the market niches of service applications that are also interesting for more densely populated areas, e.g. in industrialised countries. The United Kingdom illustrates the economic aspects in Chapter 3. Cost comparisons are made, but more important is the illustration of the non-financial considerations that make PV the preferred choice as a power source for many applications. Switzerland explores in Chapter 4 (financing aspects) different financing mechanisms, and financial policies used to overcome the initial cost barrier. Most of these approaches have been applied in developing countries rather than in the western world. Using various examples from all over the

  10. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  11. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  12. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  13. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  14. Construction of an automated table standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neira, R E; Barbero, M D; Di Giulio, E A; Folco, J F; Jiménez, G F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  15. The scientific dating of standing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Nathaniel W

    2017-11-17

    The techniques of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) and radiocarbon (14C) dating are described, as they are applied to historic buildings. Both rely on determining the felling dates of the trees used in their construction. For dendrochronology, the construction of master chronologies and the matching of individual ring-width sequences to them is described and, for radiocarbon dating, the use of tree-ring results in calibration. Results of dating are discussed, ranging from the cathedrals of Peterborough and Beauvais and the development of crown-post roof structures, to the dating and identification of standing medieval peasant houses, particularly those built using cruck construction.

  16. Glass temperatures in free-standing canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, B.J.; Hensel, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The waste-forms produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) are subject to the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The WAPS sets the maximum post cooldown temperature of the waste-form glass at 400 degrees C. This criterion must be satisfied for the ambient conditions and heat generation rates expected for the waste-forms. As part of the work described in task plan, WSRC-RP-93-1177, Rev. 0, a computer model was used to calculate the maximum glass temperatures in free standing wasteforms for a variety of ambient temperatures and heat generation rates

  17. Construction of an automated table standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, R. E.; Barbero, M. D.; Di Giulio, E. A.; Folco, J. F.; Jiménez, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  18. SSRL photocathode RF gun test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.; Baltay, M.; Boyce, A.

    1995-01-01

    A photocathode RF gun test stand designed for the production and study of high brightness electron beams will be constructed at SSRL. The beam will be generated from a laser driven third generation photocathode RF gun being developed in collaboration with BNL, LBL, and UCLA. The 3-5 [MeV] beam from the gun will be accelerated using a SLAC three meter S-band accelerator section, in order to achieve the desired low emittance beam, emittance compensation with solenoidal focusing will be employed

  19. Droplets bouncing on a standing wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Tambasco, Lucas; Harris, Daniel; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    A liquid bath subject to a vertical vibration becomes unstable to standing surface waves at a critical vibrational acceleration known as the Faraday threshold. We examine the behavior of a millimetric droplet bouncing on the surface of a quasi-one-dimensional fluid channel above the Faraday threshold. We identify a sequence of bifurcations that occurs as the vibrational acceleration is increased progressively, ultimately leading to the erratic, diffusive motion of the droplet along the length of the channel. A simple theoretical model is presented. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  20. Modelling of creep damage development in ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, R. [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The physical creep damage, which is observed in fossil-fired power plants, is mainly due to the formation of cavities and their interaction. It has previously been demonstrated that both the nucleation and growth of creep cavities can be described by power functions in strain for low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels. It possible to show that the physical creep damage is proportional to the product of the number of cavities and their area. Hence, the physical creep damage can also be expressed in terms of the creep strain. In the presentation this physical creep damage is connected to the empirical creep damage classes (1-5). A creep strain-time function, which is known to be applicable to low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels, is used to describe tertiary creep. With this creep strain - time model the residual lifetime can be predicted from the observed damage. For a given damage class the remaining life is directly proportional to the service time. An expression for the time to the next inspection is proposed. This expression is a function of fraction of the total allowed damage, which is consumed till the next inspection. (orig.) 10 refs.

  1. Modelling of creep damage development in ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, R [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The physical creep damage, which is observed in fossil-fired power plants, is mainly due to the formation of cavities and their interaction. It has previously been demonstrated that both the nucleation and growth of creep cavities can be described by power functions in strain for low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels. It possible to show that the physical creep damage is proportional to the product of the number of cavities and their area. Hence, the physical creep damage can also be expressed in terms of the creep strain. In the presentation this physical creep damage is connected to the empirical creep damage classes (1-5). A creep strain-time function, which is known to be applicable to low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels, is used to describe tertiary creep. With this creep strain - time model the residual lifetime can be predicted from the observed damage. For a given damage class the remaining life is directly proportional to the service time. An expression for the time to the next inspection is proposed. This expression is a function of fraction of the total allowed damage, which is consumed till the next inspection. (orig.) 10 refs.

  2. Bark and wood pests of smoke-damaged Scots pine. [Myclophilus piniperda, Pissodes pini, Pissodes piniphilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudela, M; Wolf, R

    1964-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between smoke damage and insect infestation of trees. Two stands of trees were examined. The trees ranged in age from 64 > 75 years. Details are tabulated on the number and distribution of pests. The chief pests were Myclophilus piniperda, Pissodes pini, and Pissodes piniphilus. Results indicated that the intensity of attack by pests increased with increasing severity of smoke damage. 20 references.

  3. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Three-dimensional Instability of Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing waves under the influence of gravity using the transition matrix method. For accurate calculation of the transition matrices, we apply an efficient high-order spectral element method for nonlinear wave dynamics in complex domain. We consider two types of standing waves: (a) plane standing waves; and (b) standing waves in a circular tank. For the former, in addition to the confirmation of the side-band-like instability, we find a new three-dimensional instability for arbitrary base standing waves. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique standing wave, with an arbitrary angle relative to the base flow, whose frequency is approximately equal to that of the base standing wave. Based on direct simulations, we confirm such a three-dimensional instability and show the occurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon during nonlinear evolution. For the latter, we find that beyond a threshold wave steepness, the standing wave with frequency Ω becomes unstable to a small three-dimensional disturbance, which contains two dominant standing-wave components with frequencies ω1 and ω_2, provided that 2Ω ω1 + ω_2. The threshold wave steepness is found to decrease/increase as the radial/azimuthal wavenumber of the base standing wave increases. We show that the instability of standing waves in rectangular and circular tanks is caused by third-order quartet resonances between base flow and disturbance.

  5. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  6. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  7. Science stand-up at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephanie McClellan

    2013-01-01

    Supported by host Helen Keen from BBC4’s "It is Rocket Science", six amateur performers from CERN (Sam Gregson, Alex Brown, Benjamin Frisch, Claire Lee, Hugo Day and Clara Nellist) were joined on stage by geek-pop sensation Jonny Berliner and comedians Pierre Novellie and Lieven Scheire for a night of science stand-up comedy.   Host Helen Keen starts off the comedy event. (Image: Piotr Traczyk). Like the genesis of most great things, the LHComedy event began as an idea. Sam Gregson, a PhD student at CERN, had been a regular at the Cambridge Bright Club. This public engagement event promotes scientists’ research through stand-up comedy. Sam thought, “If people came to watch Bright Club at Cambridge and enjoyed the research, why can’t we do it at the biggest scientific experiment in the world?” Sam’s idea gained momentum after being introduced to FameLab participants at CERN. Similar to Bright Club, FameLab is a com...

  8. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface 2 shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN 2 cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  9. Standing Stability in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Being prevalent in the more than 40 years old persons, the knee osteoarthritis is one of the main factors in the function system failure mainly affecting their life. There is a type of instability in the persons with knee osteoarthritis, which is an increase in the domain and frequency of body pressure center. The aim of the present study was to compare the standing stability parameters in persons with knee osteoarthritis and healthy persons. Instrument & Methods: In this case-control, 15 patients with knee osteoarthritis referred to the physiotherapy clinic of the rehabilitation center and Al-Zahra hospital were studied in the muscle-skeletal research center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The subjects were selected via stratified sampling method. As control group, 15 healthy persons were also studied in Isfahan. Total path length and the domain and frequency of pressure center in different directions were measured to assess the stability. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using descriptive statistics and paired T test. Findings: There were increases in the mean movement domain and the frequency of pressure center in the anterior-posterior and the internal-external directions, as well as in the total path proceeded by the pressure center in the internal-external direction, in the persons with knee osteoarthritis than the healthy persons (p0.05. Conclusion: Standing stability and balance in persons with knee osteoarthritis decreases compared to healthy persons.

  10. mapDamage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginolhac, Aurélien; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of contaminant DNA molecules, most often originating from environmental microbes, and endogenous fragments exhibiting substantial levels of DNA damage. The latter introduce specific nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation signatures in sequenci...... of the SAMtools suite and R environment and has been validated on both GNU/Linux and MacOSX operating systems....

  11. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  12. Windthrow Dynamics in Boreal Ontario: A Simulation of the Vulnerability of Several Stand Types across a Range of Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Anyomi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Boreal North America, management approaches inspired by the variability in natural disturbances are expected to produce more resilient forests. Wind storms are recurrent within Boreal Ontario. The objective of this study was to simulate wind damage for common Boreal forest types for regular as well as extreme wind speeds. The ForestGALES_BC windthrow prediction model was used for these simulations. Input tree-level data were derived from permanent sample plot (PSP data provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. PSPs were assigned to one of nine stand types: Balsam fir-, Jack pine-, Black spruce-, and hardwood-dominated stands, and, Jack pine-, spruce-, conifer-, hardwood-, and Red and White pine-mixed species stands. Morphological and biomechanical parameters for the major tree species were obtained from the literature. At 5 m/s, predicted windthrow ranged from 0 to 20%, with damage increasing to 2 to 90% for winds of 20 m/s and to 10 to 100% for winds of 40 m/s. Windthrow varied by forest stand type, with lower vulnerability within hardwoods. This is the first study to provide such broad simulations of windthrow vulnerability data for Boreal North America, and we believe this will benefit policy decisions regarding risk management and forest planning.

  13. Performance studies of the vibration wire monitor on the test stand with low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    2015-01-01

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic. (author)

  14. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  15. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  16. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  17. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - I. Recently Cutover Natural Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    A 1988 USDA Forest Service report indicated that 22% (40 million ac) of the commercial timberland in the South was understocked (less than 60% stocking) with desirable tree species for timber production (USDA Forest Service 1988). The understocked stands are usually the result of past har-vesting practices, natural catastrophes, or regeneration fail-ures. Understocked...

  18. Transmission components of solar radiation in pine stands in relation to climatic and stand variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Muller

    1971-01-01

    In a new approach, transmission was studied by relating to stand biomass the ratio of incoming solar radiation beneath tree crowns to that within the atmosphere. Several assumptions were used to estimate analytically the various ways in which solar radiation penetrates through crowns of three pine species in northern California. Sunflecks accounted for much of the...

  19. Stand characteristics of 65-year-old planted and naturally regenerated stands near Sequim, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson

    1995-01-01

    Tree numbers, height, and volume were determined in six 63- to 66-year-old plantations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in northwest Washington. These stands resulted from the first extensive plantings of this species in the Pacific Northwest. Data from 0.25-acre plots in these...

  20. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  1. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  2. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  3. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  4. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  5. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  6. Life assessment of aerospace structure using damage tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, W.; Khan, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Damage Tolerant Design plays a major role in the Aerospace Industry not only in the design of new structures and components but also their ongoing maintenance and support. Damage Tolerance Analysis (DT A) is a procedure that defines whether a crack can be sustained safely during the projected service life of the structure. Using this methodology, service life of an aerospace structure can be determined and may be extended by applying proper tooling and machining for repair. In this research the effect of damage increment on the convergence of the residual strength is investigated for a wing component of an aircraft. The stresses redistribution with damage growth is discussed. Simulation using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) laws are performed, those results the damage scenarios to be assessed in the real structural geometry and loading environment, using Stress Intensity Factors, Critical Crack Sizes and the Residual Strength of that component. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of the component is also investigated experimentally. The fatigue experiments were performed under constant stress amplitude loadings and constant amplitude loading with single overload. It has been observed that the computed fatigue curves fit well with the experimental results. (author)

  7. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  8. The relationship between measures of tree vigor and pear thrips damage in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen Smith; Christina M. Petersen; Roy Van Driesche; Charles Burnham

    1991-01-01

    In this presentation I will address three points associated with pear thrips damage and sugar maple. First, I will describe the impact of pear thrips on sugar maple in Massachusetts, in both the sugarbush and the natural forest stand, based on root starch assays that were completed this fall (1988). Secondly, I will discuss the relationship between tree health and...

  9. Effects of ice storm damage on hardwood survival and growth in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Turcotte; Thomas R. Elliott; Mary Ann Fajvan; Yong-Lak Park; Daniel A. Snider; Patrick C. Tobin

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, an ice storm occurred across four Mid-Atlantic states. This study investigated the effects of the ice-storm damage on growth and mortality of five tree species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Quercus alba, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubra) from three forest stands in the Wayne National Forest in Ohio. We remeasured the same...

  10. Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAHL, NEIL K.; MANDELL, JOHN F.; SAMBORSKY, DANIEL D.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of spectrum loading on lifetime and residual strength of a typical fiberglass laminate configuration used in wind turbine blade construction. Over 1100 tests have been run on laboratory specimens under a variety of load sequences. Repeated block loading at two or more load levels, either tensile-tensile, compressive-compressive, or reversing, as well as more random standard spectra have been studied. Data have been obtained for residual strength at various stages of the lifetime. Several lifetime prediction theories have been applied to the results. The repeated block loading data show lifetimes that are usually shorter than predicted by the most widely used linear damage accumulation theory, Miner's sum. Actual lifetimes are in the range of 10 to 20 percent of predicted lifetime in many cases. Linear and nonlinear residual strength models tend to fit the data better than Miner's sum, with the nonlinear providing a better fit of the two. Direct tests of residual strength at various fractions of the lifetime are consistent with the residual strength models. Load sequencing effects are found to be insignificant. The more a spectrum deviates from constant amplitude, the more sensitive predictions are to the damage law used. The nonlinear model provided improved correlation with test data for a modified standard wind turbine spectrum. When a single, relatively high load cycle was removed, all models provided similar, though somewhat non-conservative correlation with the experimental results. Predictions for the full spectrum, including tensile and compressive loads were slightly non-conservative relative to the experimental data, and accurately captured the trend with varying maximum load. The nonlinear residual strength based prediction with a power law S-N curve extrapolation provided the best fit to the data in most cases. The selection of the constant amplitude fatigue regression model becomes important at the lower stress, higher

  11. Investigation of Standing Seam Metal Roofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    assembly is critical to avoid a gap where rain could which a leak will result in expensive water damage to enter. (Vulcraft Nucor Corp.) the building’s...flexible (EPDM) (Vulcraft/ Nucor Corp.) membrane that allows for differential thermal move- ment between the two parts. Connection between the 3...joint design would and possibly the building contents. (ACS Pacific. become critical. ( Vulcraft Nucor (orp.) Inc.) 34 % ,,% 1 %t ASLREQUIRE G/UTTER

  12. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, F.P.; Santella, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA). (author)

  13. Neutron induced radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1977-01-01

    We derive a general expression for the number of displaced atoms of type j caused by a primary knock-on of type i. The Kinchin-Pease model is used, but considerably generalised to allow for realistic atomic potentials. Two cases are considered in detail: the single particle problem causing a cascade and the neutron initiated problem which leads to multiple subcascades. Numerical results have been obtained for a variety of scattering laws. An important conclusion is that neutron initiated damage is much more severe than atom-initiated damage and leads to the number of displaced atoms being a factor of (A+1) 2 /4A larger than the single primary knock-on theory predicts. A is the ratio of the atomic mass to the neutron mass. The importance of this result to the theory of neutron sputtering is explained. (orig.) [de

  14. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, F P; Santella, R M

    1988-09-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

  15. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  16. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  17. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  18. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  19. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  20. Radiation damage of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1966-11-01

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method

  1. Cavitation damage of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Marinin, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigation of ceramic material damage under the effect of cavitation field on their surface, formed in water under the face of exponential concentrator, connected with ultrasonic generator UZY-3-0.4. Amplitude of vibrations of concentrator face (30+-2)x10 -6 m, frequency-21 kHz. It was established that ceramics resistance to cavitation effect correlated with the product of critical of stress intensity factor and material hardness

  2. Ultraviolet damage resistance of laser coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    The damage resistance of several thin-film materials used in ultraviolet laser optics was measured at 266 and 355 nm. The coatings included single, quarterwave (QW) layers of NaF, LaF 3 , MgF 2 , ThO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 , ZrO 2 , Y 2 O 3 and SiO 2 , plus multilayer reflectors composed of some of these materials. The substrates were uv-grade fused silica. Single-shot thresholds were obtained with 22 ns and 27 ns (FWHM) pulses at 266 and 355 nm, respectively. One of the samples had previously been tested using 20-ps pulses, providing a pulsewidth comparison. At 266 nm the coating with the highest damage threshold was a QW layer of NaF at 10.8 J/cm 2 (450 MW/cm 2 ), whereas for a maximum reflector of Al 2 O 3 /NaF the value was 3.6 J/cm 2 (154 MW/cm 2 ), and the threshold of the maximum reflector was 12.2 J/cm 2 (470 MW/cm 2 ). The results were analyzed to determine correlations with standing-wave electric fields and linear and two-photon absorption. Scaling relationships for wavelength, refractive index and atomic density, and pulsewidth were found

  3. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  4. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolamo, D.; Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies

  5. A review of experimental methods for determining residual creep life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.J.

    1977-11-01

    Experimental methods available for determining how much creep life remains at a particular time in the high temperature service of a component are reviewed. After a brief consideration of the limitations of stress rupture extrapolation techniques, the application of post-exposure creep testing is considered. Ways of assessing the effect of microstructural degradation on residual life are then reviewed. It is pointed out that while this type of work will be useful for certain materials, there are other materials in which 'mechanical damage' such as cavitation will be more important. Cavitation measurement techniques are therefore reviewed. The report ends with a brief consideration of the use of crack growth measurements in assessing the residual life of cracked components. (author)

  6. The stand prototype of minimum power NRE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, A.I.; Grigorenko, L.N.; Mamontov, Yu.I.; Rachuk, V.S.; Stukalov, A.I.; Konyukhov, G.V.

    1995-01-01

    For ensuring of full-scale development of nuclear rocket engine (NRE) reactor was created stand prototype (reactor IRGIT?) The main differences of its are as follows: 1) Fasteners of technologies channels contents fuel assemblies in bottom are worked out the split. It is provides possibility a distance channels change without disassembly of reactor stand prototype from stand; 2) Cooling of the vessels, the moderator, the reflector and the barrel actuate is carried out by hydrogen; 3) The lower bottom modified for organization the hydrogen efflux in the form a reactor jet; 4) Radiation defence is introduced as part of stand prototype for ensuring of serviceability of stand accessories and tests routine service; 5) Each technology channels is provided of critical nozzle; 6) Control, regulation and defence of reactor has being carried out on stand system

  7. Stand model for upland forests of Southern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, D.L.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

    1978-06-01

    A forest stand growth and composition simulator (FORAR) was developed by modifying a stand growth model by Shugart and West (1977). FORAR is a functional stand model which used ecological parameters to relate individual tree growth to environment rather than using Markov probability matrices or differential equations to determine single tree or species replacement rates. FORAR simulated tree growth and species composition of upland forests of Union County, Ark., by considering 33 tree species on a /sup 1///sub 12/ ha circular plot.

  8. Damage tolerance of candidate thermoset composites for use on single stage to orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D.; Hodge, A.

    1994-01-01

    Four fiber/resin systems were compared for resistance to damage and damage tolerance. One toughened epoxy and three toughened bismaleimide (BMI) resins were used, all with IM7 carbon fiber reinforcement. A statistical design of experiments technique was used to evaluate the effects of impact energy, specimen thickness, and impactor diameter on the damage area, as computed by C-scans, and residual compression-after-impact (CAI) strength. Results showed that two of the BMI systems sustained relatively large damage zones yet had an excellent retention of CAI strength.

  9. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  10. Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W

    1993-10-01

    A patient with a T12 spinal cord injury and intractable extensor spasms of the lower extremities participated in tilt table standing trial on 5 nonconsecutive days to determine if the intervention would affect his spasticity and spasms. Each day's standing trial was followed by an immediate reduction in lower extremity spasticity (measured using the modified Ashworth scale and pendulum testing). Standing was also accompanied by a reduction in spasms that lasted until the following morning. The reduction of spasms was particularly advantageous to the performance of car transfers. Tilt table standing merits further examination as a physical treatment of spasms that accompany central nervous system lesions.

  11. Flexible integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bigeng; Wu, Hao; Xin, Chenguang; Dai, Daoxin; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-14

    Silicon photonics has been developed successfully with a top-down fabrication technique to enable large-scale photonic integrated circuits with high reproducibility, but is limited intrinsically by the material capability for active or nonlinear applications. On the other hand, free-standing nanowires synthesized via a bottom-up growth present great material diversity and structural uniformity, but precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a great challenge. Here we report hybrid integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics with high flexibility by coupling free-standing nanowires onto target silicon waveguides that are simultaneously used for precise positioning. Coupling efficiency between a free-standing nanowire and a silicon waveguide is up to ~97% in the telecommunication band. A hybrid nonlinear-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a racetrack resonator for significantly enhanced optical modulation are experimentally demonstrated, as well as hybrid active-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides circuits for light generation. These results suggest an alternative approach to flexible multifunctional on-chip nanophotonic devices.Precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a challenge. Here, Chen et al. integrate free-standing nanowires into silicon waveguides and show all-optical modulation and light generation on silicon photonic chips.

  12. Relationship of Tree Stand Heterogeneity and Forest Naturalness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARTHA, Dénes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate if compositional (tree species richness andstructural (vertical structure, age-structure, patterns of canopy closure heterogeneity of the canopylayer is related to individual naturalness criteria and to overall forest naturalness at the stand scale. Thenaturalness values of the assessed criteria (tree species composition, tree stand structure, speciescomposition and structure of shrub layer and forest floor vegetation, dead wood, effects of game, sitecharacteristics showed similar behaviour when groups of stands with different heterogeneity werecompared, regardless of the studied aspect of canopy heterogeneity. The greatest difference was foundfor criteria describing the canopy layer. Composition and structure of canopy layer, dead wood andtotal naturalness of the stand differed significantly among the stand groups showing consistentlyhigher values from homogeneous to the most heterogeneous group. Naturalness of the compositionand structure of the shrub layer is slightly but significantly higher in stands with heterogeneous canopylayer. Regarding other criteria, significant differences were found only between the homogeneous andthe most heterogeneous groups, while groups with intermediate level of heterogeneity did not differsignificantly from one extreme. However, the criterion describing effects of game got lowernaturalness values in more heterogeneous stands. Naturalness of site characteristics did not differsignificantly among the groups except for when stands were grouped based on pattern of canopyclosure. From the practical viewpoint it is shown that purposeful forestry operations affecting thecanopy layer cause changes in compositional and structural characteristics of other layers as well as inoverall stand scale forest naturalness.

  13. Analysis of lifetime and residual strength of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is thought of as a working paper for the CTBA-seminar on Thematic network in the field for reliability based design of timber structures, Topic: Numerical methods for structural analysis. It is preliminary and quite informal in its structure. The intention is to present some wood...... technological problems which can be solved with respect to lifetime and residual strength by the so-called DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material). The outlines of the paper is straight on: Expressions are presented by which the analysis is made. then some examples are considered with solutions presented...

  14. The experiences of mastery of stand-by energy demand; Les experiences de MDE stand by

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P

    2001-07-01

    In the residential sector of the OECD countries, the electricity losses of domestic appliances in stand-by position represent 1.5% of the total electricity consumption. This study belongs to the SAVE project (pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy). Its aim is to observe the policies and experiments implemented by municipalities and municipal energy companies for the abatement of the electricity consumptions of stand-by origin. A working group consisting of the German Stadtwerke and some international partners have debated the possible actions and documents for an efficient information of the public. This document presents the brochures and local actions of this program. (J.S.)

  15. Residual stress evaluation and fatigue life prediction in the welded joint by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Keun Bong; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2009-01-01

    In the fossil power plant, the reliability of the components which consist of the many welded parts depends on the quality of welding. The residual stress is occurred by the heat flux of high temperature during weld process. This decreases the mechanical properties as the strength of fatigue and fracture or occurs the stress corrosion cracking and fatigue fracture. The residual stress of the welded part in the recently constructed power plants has been the cause of a variety of accidents. The objective of this study is measurement of the residual stress by X-ray diffraction method and to estimate the feasibility of this application for fatigue life assessment of the high-temperature pipeline. The materials used for the study is P92 steel for the use of high temperature pipe on super critical condition. The test results were analyzed by the distributed characteristics of residual stresses and the Full Width at Half Maximum intensity (FWHM) in x-ray diffraction intensity curve. Also, X-ray diffraction tests using specimens simulated low cycle fatigue damage were performed in order to analyze fatigue properties when fatigue damage conditions become various stages. As a result of X-ray diffraction tests for specimens simulated fatigue damages, we conformed that the ratio of the FWHM due to fatigue damage has linear relationship with fatigue life ratio algebraically. From this relationships, it was suggested that direct expectation of the life consumption rate was feasible.

  16. Military Robotics and Collateral Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kott, Robert Douglass ;Alexander

    2004-01-01

    .... Such concepts raise important questions in terms of their impact on collateral damage. In a broader context, western warfare in general places a continuously growing emphasis on issues of collateral damage...

  17. Liability for nuclear damage. An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The book deals with some of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on this experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed in Committee's work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world's public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states the engage their liability; conflict of interests between nuclear and non-nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussion no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structures of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issues, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author)

  18. Individual fluctuations of S content in healthy, and smoke-damaged Scots Pine and the relations between S content and contents of other major nutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Themlitz, R

    1960-01-01

    This paper compares the sulfur content of pine needles on trees not subject to smoke damage to the sulfur content of pine needles from trees subject to smoke damage. Four stands of pines located in East and West Germany were studied. The data showed no correlation with the sulfur content, with the age of the trees, nor with the uptake of other nutrients.

  19. Validation of the VitaBit Sit–Stand Tracker: Detecting Sitting, Standing, and Activity Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M. Berninger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB has detrimental consequences and cannot be compensated for through moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA. In order to understand and mitigate SB, tools for measuring and monitoring SB are essential. While current direct-to-customer wearables focus on PA, the VitaBit validated in this study was developed to focus on SB. It was tested in a laboratory and in a free-living condition, comparing it to direct observation and to a current best-practice device, the ActiGraph, on a minute-by-minute basis. In the laboratory, the VitaBit yielded specificity and negative predictive rates (NPR of above 91.2% for sitting and standing, while sensitivity and precision ranged from 74.6% to 85.7%. For walking, all performance values exceeded 97.3%. In the free-living condition, the device revealed performance of over 72.6% for sitting with the ActiGraph as criterion. While sensitivity and precision for standing and walking ranged from 48.2% to 68.7%, specificity and NPR exceeded 83.9%. According to the laboratory findings, high performance for sitting, standing, and walking makes the VitaBit eligible for SB monitoring. As the results are not transferrable to daily life activities, a direct observation study in a free-living setting is recommended.

  20. Using a stand-level model to predict light absorption in stands with vertically and horizontally heterogeneous canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Forrester

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest ecosystem functioning is strongly influenced by the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR, and therefore, accurate predictions of APAR are critical for many process-based forest growth models. The Lambert-Beer law can be applied to estimate APAR for simple homogeneous canopies composed of one layer, one species, and no canopy gaps. However, the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies is rarely homogeneous. Detailed tree-level models can account for this heterogeneity but these often have high input and computational demands and work on finer temporal and spatial resolutions than required by stand-level growth models. The aim of this study was to test a stand-level light absorption model that can estimate APAR by individual species in mixed-species and multi-layered stands with any degree of canopy openness including open-grown trees to closed canopies. Methods The stand-level model was compared with a detailed tree-level model that has already been tested in mixed-species stands using empirical data. Both models were parameterised for five different forests, including a wide range of species compositions, species proportions, stand densities, crown architectures and canopy structures. Results The stand-level model performed well in all stands except in the stand where extinction coefficients were unusually variable and it appears unlikely that APAR could be predicted in such stands using (tree- or stand-level models that do not allow individuals of a given species to have different extinction coefficients, leaf-area density or analogous parameters. Conclusion This model is parameterised with species-specific information about extinction coefficients and mean crown length, diameter, height and leaf area. It could be used to examine light dynamics in complex canopies and in stand-level growth models.

  1. Radiation damage in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1981-12-01

    A survey is presented of the important damage-producing interactions in semiconductor detectors and estimates of defect numbers are made for MeV protons, neutrons and electrons. Damage effects of fast neutrons in germanium gamma ray spectrometers are given in some detail. General effects in silicon detectors are discussed and damage constants and their relationship to leakage current is introduced

  2. Tokamak ARC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

  3. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  4. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  5. Severe fuel damage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    1987-10-01

    After the descriptions of the generation of a Severe Fuel Damage Accident in a LWR the hypothetical course of such an accident is explained. Then the most significant projects are described. At each project the experimental facility, the most important results and the concluding models and codes are discussed. The selection of the projects is concentrated on the German Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS), tests performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and smaller projects in France and Great Britain. 25 refs., 26 figs. (Author)

  6. Tokamak ARC damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage.

  7. Effect of Stand-Off Distance on Impact Pressure of High Speed Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittiwong, Wuttichai; Seehanam, Wirapan; Pianthong, Kulachate; Matthujak, Anirut

    2010-06-01

    High speed liquid jets may be applied to jet cutting, drilling and cleaning. Recently, in the automotive industries, the spray injection pressure becomes higher and higher to enhance the fuel mixing for the improved combustion efficiency. However, the ultra high injection pressure may cause the damage to the nozzle and also the combustion chamber. In the medical application, the high speed liquid injection might be applied for the drug delivery through the skin where the needle is not required anymore. From the above mentioned application, the investigation on the impact pressure of the high speed liquid jet relative to the stand-off distant is significant. The high speed liquid jets are generated by the projectile impact driven method. The high speed projectile is launched by the horizontal single stage powder gun. The experimental study focuses on the stand-off between 1.5 cm to 6.0 cm, while the nozzle contains approximately 1.5cm3 of water in its cavity. The nozzle conical angles are 30° and 60° with the orifice diameter of 0.7 mm. The jet velocities are measured by laser beam interruptions method. The target material is the Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) which the impact pressure is measured by using a piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) film. From the experiments, the maximum water jet velocity of 2290 m/s can be obtained from the 30° conical angle nozzle. The maximum impact pressures of nozzle conical angle of 30° and 60° are 3.4 GPa and 2.6 GPa respectively, at stand-off distance 3 cm. However, at the stand-off distance more than 3 cm, the impact pressure significantly decreases, because of aerodynamic drag, jets core break-up, and atomization of the water.

  8. Influence of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the Cerebellum on Standing Posture Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Inukai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the vestibular cerebellum results in dysfunctional standing posture control. Patients with cerebellum dysfunction have a larger sway in the center of gravity while standing compared with healthy subjects. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive technique for selectively exciting or inhibiting specific neural structures with potential applications in functional assessment and treatment of neural disorders. However, the specific stimulation parameters for influencing postural control have not been assessed. In this study, we investigated the influence of tDCS when applied over the cerebellum on standing posture control. Sixteen healthy subjects received tDCS (20 min, 2 mA over the scalp 2 cm below the inion. In experiment 1, all 16 subjects received tDCS under three stimulus conditions, Sham, Cathodal, and Anodal, in a random order with the second electrode placed on the forehead. In experiment 2, five subjects received cathodal stimulation only with the second electrode placed over the right buccinator muscle. Center of gravity sway was measured twice for 60 s before and after tDCS in a standing posture with eyes open and legs closed, and average total locus length, locus length per second, rectangular area, and enveloped area were calculated. In experiment 1, total locus length and locus length per second decreased significantly after cathodal stimulation but not after anodal or sham stimulation, while no tDCS condition influenced rectangular or enveloped areas. In experiment 2, cathodal tDCS again significantly reduced total locus length and locus length per second but not rectangular and enveloped areas. The effects of tDCS on postural control are polarity-dependent, likely reflecting the selective excitation or inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Cathodal tDCS to the cerebellum of healthy subjects can alter body sway (velocity.

  9. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  10. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  11. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  12. H-/H∞ structural damage detection filter design using an iterative linear matrix inequality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B; Nagarajaiah, S

    2008-01-01

    The existence of damage in different members of a structure can be posed as a fault detection problem. It is also necessary to isolate structural members in which damage exists, which can be posed as a fault isolation problem. It is also important to detect the time instants of occurrence of the faults/damage. The structural damage detection filter developed in this paper is a model-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) observer suitable for detecting and isolating structural damage. In systems, possible faults, disturbances and noise are coupled together. When system disturbances and sensor noise cannot be decoupled from faults/damage, the detection filter needs to be designed to be robust to disturbances as well as sensitive to faults/damage. In this paper, a new H - /H ∞ and iterative linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique is developed and a new stabilizing FDI filter is proposed, which bounds the H ∞ norm of the transfer function from disturbances to the output residual and simultaneously does not degrade the component of the output residual due to damage. The reduced-order error dynamic system is adopted to form bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs), then an iterative LMI algorithm is developed to solve the BMIs. The numerical example and experimental verification demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can successfully detect and isolate structural damage in the presence of measurement noise

  13. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  14. Developing a mobile stand alone photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler-Bientz, R.; Ricalde-Cab, L.O.; Solis-Rodriguez, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a recent work developed to create a mobile stand alone photovoltaic generator that can be easily relocated in remote areas to evaluate the feasibility of photovoltaic energy applications. A set of sensors were installed to monitor the electric current and voltage of the energy generated, the energy stored and the energy used by the loads that may be connected to the system. Other parameters like solar radiations (both on the horizontal and on the photovoltaic generation planes) and temperatures (of both the environment and the photovoltaic module) were monitored. This was done while considering the important role of temperature in the photovoltaic module performance. Finally, a measurement and communication hardware was installed to interface the system developed with a conventional computer. In this way, the performance of the overall system in real rural conditions could be evaluated efficiently. Visual software that reads, visualizes and saves the data generated by the system was also developed by means of the LabVIEW programming environment

  15. Visual evoked responses during standing and walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Gramann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has been shaped both by our body structure and by its complex interactionswith its environment. Our cognition is thus inextricably linked to our own and others’ motorbehavior. To model brain activity associated with natural cognition, we propose recording theconcurrent brain dynamics and body movements of human subjects performing normal actions.Here we tested the feasibility of such a mobile brain/body (MoBI imaging approach byrecording high-density electroencephalographic (EEG activity and body movements of subjectsstanding or walking on a treadmill while performing a visual oddball response task. Independentcomponent analysis (ICA of the EEG data revealed visual event-related potentials (ERPs thatduring standing, slow walking, and fast walking did not differ across movement conditions,demonstrating the viability of recording brain activity accompanying cognitive processes duringwhole body movement. Non-invasive and relatively low-cost MoBI studies of normal, motivatedactions might improve understanding of interactions between brain and body dynamics leadingto more complete biological models of cognition.

  16. Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Snydstrup, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the electron beam test stand (EBTS) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory is to build a versatile device to develop technologies that are relevant for a high intensity electron beam ion source (EBIS) and to study the physics of ion confinement in a trap. The EBTS will have all the main attributes of EBIS: a 1-m-long, 5 T superconducting solenoid, electron gun, drift tube structure, electron collector, vacuum system, ion injection system, appropriate control, and instrumentation. Therefore it can be considered a short prototype of an EBIS for a relativistic heavy ion collider. The drift tube structure will be mounted in a vacuum tube inside a open-quotes warmclose quotes bore of a superconducting solenoid, it will be at room temperature, and its design will employ ultrahigh vacuum technology to reach the 10 -10 Torr level. The first gun to be tested will be a 10 A electron gun with high emission density and magnetic compression of the electron beam. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  17. RAMSES stands guard over the accelerator chain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    RAMSES, the system that is used to monitor radiation at the LHC, CNGS, CTF3 and n-TOF facilities, will soon be installed at strategic points in the accelerator chain, replacing the older monitoring system ARCON. The replacement programme has already begun.   RAMSES (which stands for “Radiation Monitoring System for the Environment and Safety”) is designed to protect workers, the general public and the environment, both on the Organization’s site and in the surrounding areas. It is currently operational on all the LHC sites and at CTF3, CNGS and n-TOF, while the remaining sites are still equipped with the ARCON (Area CONtroller) system. Daniel Perrin, head of the Instrumentation and Logistics Section of the HSE Unit's Radiation Protection Group, explains: “ARCON was designed for the old LEP accelerator and dates back to the early 1980s, while RAMSES is a much more recent design intended specifically for the LHC. With 389 detectors distributed across 124 mea...

  18. F-15B ACTIVE test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the underside of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the thrust stand being used for ground testing of a new thrust-vectoring concept. The twin-engine F-15 research aircraft is equipped with new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. They give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. Ground testing during the first two weeks of November 1995 went well, and flight tests began in March 1996. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace.

  19. Release of dissolved 85Kr by standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Norikatsu; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Tsukui, Kohei

    1986-01-01

    The experiments on the release of dissolved 85 Kr by standing at room temperature were carried out to examine the influence of liquid level in a sampler and properties of solvent on the release efficiency. Six kinds of organic solvents as well as water were taken as solvents. The half-life period in case of the decrease in concentration of the dissolved 85 Kr which was used as an index of release efficiency, was proportional to the liquid level in the sampler and was inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient of Kr gas in solvent. For organic solvents belonging to homologous series, the half-life period became longer with increasing the carbon number of solvent molecule. From the relationship between the half-life period and the carbon number, the release efficiency in the dissolved 85 Kr can be predicted for any commonly used solvent as a practical application. This method was found to be an effective means of removing the dissolved 85 Kr of low level though it takes rather long time. (author)

  20. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  1. C-130: Results of center wing residual strength and crack propagation test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.; Snider, H. L.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings which had experienced from approximately 4,000 to 13,000 hours of flight service and its associated fatigue damage were tested to destruction, seven in upbending and seven in downbending. Six wings were tested directly for static residual strength in the fatigue-damaged condition as received from field service. The other eight wings were tested in crack propagation cyclic testing at a prescribed stress level for a maximum of 10,000 cycles. Then the stress level was reduced and testing was continued up to a maximum of 20,000 total cycles. Cyclic testing was performed with constant-amplitude stresses at a stress ratio of +0.1. Maximum cyclic skin stresses were approximately 18,000 psi. At the conclusion of cyclic testing, a static test to destruction was conducted to determine the residual strength of each fatigue-damaged specimen.

  2. Can `loss and damage' carry the load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verchick, Robert R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Even assuming a heroic rush towards carbon reduction and adaptation, some regions of the world will be hammered hard by climate impacts. Thus, a global consensus now sees the need for a supplemental plan to deal with the kind of harms that cannot be avoided-what Parties call `loss and damage'. For a loss-and-damage plan to work, it must be capable of carrying the load, the load being whatever minimal standards that morality and political consensus require. But if residual risk climbs too high, it will fall short of even the most basic expectations. The Paris Agreement calls for holding the rise in global average temperature to `well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels', while working to limit the increase to 1.5°C. How much difference is in that half-degree? From the point of view of residual risk, quite a lot. According to a 2016 study published by the European Geosciences Union, a jump from 1.5°C to 2°C could produce outsize impacts, particularly in tropical latitudes. That difference could mark the line between a plan that is politically and morally defensible and one that is not. At the very least, the difference is enough to inform the design and expectations of any future plan. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  3. Investigation of the possibility of using residual heat reactor energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Yurin, V. E.; Bessonov, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    The largest contribution to the probable frequency of core damage is blackout events. The main component of the heat capacity at each reactor within a few minutes following a blackout is the heat resulting from the braking of beta-particles and the transfer of gamma-ray energy by the fission fragments and their decay products, which is known as the residual heat. The power of the residual heat changes gradually over a long period of time and for a VVER-1000 reactor is about 15-20 MW of thermal power over 72 hours. Current cooldown systems increase the cost of the basic nuclear power plants (NPP) funds without changing the amount of electricity generated. Such systems remain on standby, accelerating the aging of the equipment and accordingly reducing its reliability. The probability of system failure increases with the duration of idle time. Furthermore, the reactor residual heat energy is not used. A proposed system for cooling nuclear power plants involves the use of residual thermal power to supply the station’s own needs in emergency situations accompanied by a complete blackout. The thermal power of residual heat can be converted to electrical energy through an additional low power steam turbine. In normal mode, the additional steam turbine generates electricity, which makes it possible to ensure spare NPP and a return on the investment in the reservation system. In this work, experimental data obtained from a Balakovo NPP was analyzed to determine the admissibility of cooldown of the reactors through the 2nd circuit over a long time period, while maintaining high-level parameters for the steam generated by the steam generators.

  4. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  5. Flooding effects on stand development in cypress-tupelo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Thomas J. Dean; Jim L. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inundation on growth of cypress (Taxodium spp.) and tupelo (Nyssa spp.) trees have been extensively researched, but conclusions are often complicated by attendant effects on stand development. Flooding affects development of cypress-tupelo stands by limiting seedling germination and survival, truncating species...

  6. Simple Excitation of Standing Waves in Rubber Bands and Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortel, Adolf

    2004-04-01

    Many methods to excite standing waves in strings, plates, membranes, rods, tubes, and soap bubbles have been described. Usually a loudspeaker or a vibrating reed is driven by the amplified output of an audio oscillator. A novel and simple method consists of using a tuning fork or a singing rod to excite transversal standing waves in stretched rubber membranes sprinkled with fine sand.

  7. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  8. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stand-alone special services. 122.2 Section 122.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard...

  9. Stand, Harvest, and Equipment Interactions in Simulated Harvesting Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; W. Dale Greene; Bryce J. Stokes

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated potential interactions of stand type, harvesting method, and equipment in an experiment using interactive simulation. We examined three felling methods (chain saw, feller-buncher, harvester) and two extraction methods (grapple skidder and forwarder) performing clearcuts, sheltenvood cuts, and single-tree selection cuts in both an uneven-aged natural stand...

  10. Natural disturbance and stand development principles for ecological forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik

    2007-01-01

    Foresters use natural disturbances and stand development processes as models for silvicultural practices in broad conceptual ways. Incorporating an understanding of natural disturbance and stand development processes more fully into silvicultural practice is the basis for an ecological forestry approach. Such an approach must include 1) understanding the importance of...

  11. The importance of spatial accuracy in characterizing stand types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the potential use of Landsat 7 ETM+ (15 and 30 m spatial resolutions) images to estimate forest stand attributes such as development stages, crown closure and stand types. The study evaluates the performance of spatial and image classification accuracies between Landsat images (15 and 30 m ...

  12. XML/TEI Stand-off Markup. One step beyond.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadini, E.; Turska, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Stand-off markup is widely considered as a possible solution for overcoming the limitation of inline XML markup, primarily dealing with multiple overlapping hierarchies. Considering previous contributions on the subject and implementations of stand-off markup, we propose a new TEI-based model for

  13. "Growing trees backwards": Description of a stand reconstruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Bakker; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Peter Z. Fule; David W. Huffman; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    We describe an individual-tree model that uses contemporary measurements to "grow trees backward" and reconstruct past tree diameters and stand structure in ponderosa pine dominated stands of the Southwest. Model inputs are contemporary structural measurements of all snags, logs, stumps, and living trees, and radial growth measurements, if available. Key...

  14. Direct measurement of the intrinsic ankle stiffness during standing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; Vlutters, M.; Boonstra, Tjitske; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; van der Kooij, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Ankle stiffness contributes to standing balance, counteracting the destabilizing effect of gravity. The ankle stiffness together with the compliance between the foot and the support surface make up the ankle-foot stiffness, which is relevant to quiet standing. The contribution of the intrinsic

  15. Hydrogen damage in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen damage has been studied in a wide variety of stainless steels. Both internal and external hydrogen damage were evaluated by ductility or J-integral under rising tensile loads and by fractography. Analysis of the data has emphasized the potential effects of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen damage. Strain-induced martensite was neither necessary nor sufficient for hydrogen damage in the alloys studied. Neither ductility loss nor fracture-mode change correlated generally with martensite formation. Alloy composition, particularly nickel and nitrogen contents, was the primary factor in resistance to hydrogen damage. Thermomechanical processing, however, could alter the degree of hydrogen damage in an alloy and was critical for optimizing resistance to hydrogen damage. 10 figures, 10 tables

  16. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  17. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Dassios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography (IRT and acoustic emission (AE are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material’s performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  18. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genki Terashi

    Full Text Available Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align, which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1 agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2 alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3 consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4 classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins

  19. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashi, Genki; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align), which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1) agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2) alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3) consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4) classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite) using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins in both

  20. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  1. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  3. Information Entropy Measures for Stand Structural Diversity:Joint Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xiangdong; Lu Yuanchang

    2004-01-01

    Structural diversity is the key attribute of a stand. A set of biodiversity measures in ecology was introduced in forest management for describing stand structure, of which Shannon information entropy (Shannon index) has been the most widely used measure of species diversity. It is generally thought that tree size diversity could serve as a good proxy for height diversity. However, tree size diversity and height diversity for stand structure is not completely consistent. Stand diameter cannot reflect height information completely. Either tree size diversity or height diversity is one-dimensional information entropy measure. This paper discussed the method of multiple-dimensional information entropy measure with the concept of joint entropy. It is suggested that joint entropy is a good measure for describing overall stand structural diversity.

  4. The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tian; Hedblom, Marcus; Emilsson, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    be achieved if indicators are derived from existing data. In this study, a model for classifying forest stand structures was developed and tested as an indicator of overall plant species diversity at stand level. The model combines four stand structure parameters: canopy coverage, age of canopy trees, tree...... species composition and canopy stratification. Using data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden and General Linear Mixed Model, plant species diversity (Shannon diversity index, SHDI) and composition (Sørensen-Dice index, SDI) were tested between 26 different stand structure types and nine...... soil classes. The results showed that mature stands with a stratified canopy had the highest plant species diversity across the soil classes, particularly if they comprised mixed coniferous and broadleaved species with a semi-open canopy. In contrast, young (...

  5. Dihydrocoumarin, an HDAC Inhibitor, Increases DNA Damage Sensitivity by Inhibiting Rad52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chuan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective DNA repair enables cancer cells to survive DNA damage induced by chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic treatments. Therefore, inhibiting DNA repair pathways is a promising therapeutic strategy for increasing the efficacy of such treatments. In this study, we found that dihydrocoumarin (DHC, a flavoring agent, causes deficiencies in double-stand break (DSB repair and prolonged DNA damage checkpoint recovery in yeast. Following DNA damage, Rad52 recombinase was revealed to be inhibited by DHC, which results in deficiencies in DSB repair and prolonged DNA damage checkpoint recovery. The deletion of RPD3, a class I histone deacetylase (HDAC, was found to mimic DHC-induced suppression of Rad52 expression, suggesting that the HDAC inhibitor activity of DHC is critical to DSB repair and DNA damage sensitivity. Overall, our findings delineate the regulatory mechanisms of DHC in DSB repair and suggest that it might potentially be used as an inhibitor of the DNA repair pathway in human cells.

  6. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, B., E-mail: bianca@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lesage, J. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Pasqualino, I. [Subsea Technology Laboratory (LTS), Ocean Engineering Department, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68508, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Benseddiq, N. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Bemporad, E. [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy (LIME), University of Rome TRE, Via Della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work we study the fatigue damage evolution in an API 5L X60 steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural changes and residual stresses are evaluated during fatigue tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microdeformations and macro residual stresses are estimated by X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are discussed in view of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This indicator could allow the prediction of residual life before macrocracking. - Abstract: Steel pipes used in the oil and gas industry undergo the action of cyclic loads that can cause their failure by fatigue. A consistent evaluation of the fatigue damage during the initiation phase should fundamentally be based on a nanoscale approach, i.e., at the scale of the dislocation network, in order to take into account the micromechanisms of fatigue damage that precede macrocrack initiation and propagation until the final fracture. In this work, microstructural changes related to fatigue damage initiation are investigated in the API 5L X60 grade steel, used in pipe manufacturing. Microdeformations and macro residual stress are evaluated using X-ray diffraction in real time during alternating bending fatigue tests performed on samples cut off from an X60 steel pipe. The aim of this ongoing work is to provide ground for further development of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation in X60 steel. This damage indicator could allow a good residual life prediction of steel pipes previously submitted to fatigue loading, before macroscopic cracking, and help to increase the reliability of these structures.

  7. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  8. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  9. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  10. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  11. Alleviating inequality in climate policy costs: an integrated perspective on mitigation, damage and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cian, E.; Hof, A. F.; Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    Equity considerations play an important role in international climate negotiations. While policy analysis has often focused on equity as it relates to mitigation costs, there are large regional differences in adaptation costs and the level of residual damage. This paper illustrates the relevance of including adaptation and residual damage in equity considerations by determining how the allocation of emission allowances would change to counteract regional differences in total climate costs, defined as the costs of mitigation, adaptation, and residual damage. We compare emission levels resulting from a global carbon tax with two allocations of emission allowances under a global cap-and-trade system: one equating mitigation costs and one equating total climate costs as share of GDP. To account for uncertainties in both mitigation and adaptation, we use a model-comparison approach employing two alternative modeling frameworks with different damage, adaptation cost, and mitigation cost estimates, and look at two different climate goals. Despite the identified model uncertainties, we derive unambiguous results on the change in emission allowance allocation that could lessen the unequal distribution of adaptation costs and residual damages through the financial transfers associated with emission trading.

  12. Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2011-01-01

    There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...

  13. Converting partially-stocked aspen stands to fully-stocked stands in the Lake States: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey T. Olson; Allen L. Lundgren

    1978-01-01

    The 1968 Wisconsin Forest Survey showed large areas of aspen type that are not considered fully stocked. The economic feasibility of converting partially-stocked stands to full stocking is examined, and a rule presented for determining when a partially-stocked stand should be harvested to maximize its present value.

  14. Desk-based workers' perspectives on using sit-stand workstations: a qualitative analysis of the Stand@Work study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Daley, M.; Srinivasan, A.; Dunn, S.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolonged sitting time has been identified as a health risk factor. Sit-stand workstations allow desk workers to alternate between sitting and standing throughout the working day, but not much is known about their acceptability and feasibility. Hence, the aim of this study was to

  15. Multi-muscle electrical stimulation and stand training: Effects on standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Kamyar; Ramanujam, Arvind; Garbarini, Erica L; Forrest, Gail F

    2018-02-15

    To examine the biomechanical and neuromuscular effects of a longitudinal multi-muscle electrical stimulation (submaximal intensities) training of the lower limbs combined with/without activity-based stand training, on the recovery of stability and function for one individual with spinal cord injury (SCI). Single-subject, longitudinal study. Neuroplasticity laboratory. A 34-year-old male, with sensory- and motor-complete SCI (C5/C6). Two consecutive interventions: 61 hours of supine, lower-limb ES (ES-alone) and 51 hours of ES combined with stand training using an overhead body-weight support system (ST + ES). Clinical measures, trunk stability, and muscle activity were assessed and compared across time points. Trunk Stability Limit (TSL) determined improvements in trunk independence. Functional clinical values increased after both interventions, with further increases post ST + ES. Post ES-alone, trunk stability was maintained at 81% body-weight (BW) loading before failure; post ST + ES, BW loading increased to 95%. TSL values decreased post ST + ES (TSL A/P =54.0 kg.cm, TSL M/L =14.5 kg.cm), compared to ES-alone (TSL A/P =8.5 kg.cm, TSL M/L =3.9 kg.cm). Trunk muscle activity decreased post ST + ES training, compared to ES-alone. Neuromuscular and postural trunk control dramatically improved following the multi-muscle ES of the lower limbs with stand training. Multi-muscle ES training paradigm of the lower limb, using traditional parameters, may contribute to the functional recovery of the trunk.

  16. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81

  17. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its 'thermal' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York.

  18. Vasectomy and psychosexual damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P M

    1972-11-01

    The director of the Family Planning Project of the San Bernardino County (California) Health Department reviews the results of a questionnaire completed by 300 husbands and their wives 6 months to 1 year after vasectomy. The replies indicated psychosexual damage from vasectomy is virtually nonexistent. 100% of the males reported an enhanced or unchanged sense of masculinity. Vasectomy clinics have been conducted by the San Bernardino County Health Department since August 1970. More than 1000 vasectomies have been completed. Vasectomies are currently being performed at a rate of 12/week. Prevasectomy group counseling should inform couples of 1) the physiological mechanisms involved, 2) the situational nature of any psychologic changes, and 3) the probability of irreversibility of the procedure.

  19. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne [Toulouse School of Economics (IDEI and GREMAQ) (France); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [HEC Montreal (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its ''thermal'' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York. (author)

  20. Tactical Damage Control Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew D; Miles, Ethan A; Cap, Andrew P; Strandenes, Geir; Kane, Shawn F

    2015-08-01

    Recently the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care changed the guidelines on fluid use in hemorrhagic shock. The current strategy for treating hemorrhagic shock is based on early use of components: Packed Red Blood Cells (PRBCs), Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio. We suggest that lack of components to mimic whole blood functionality favors the use of Fresh Whole Blood in managing hemorrhagic shock on the battlefield. We present a safe and practical approach for its use at the point of injury in the combat environment called Tactical Damage Control Resuscitation. We describe pre-deployment preparation, assessment of hemorrhagic shock, and collection and transfusion of fresh whole blood at the point of injury. By approaching shock with goal-directed therapy, it is possible to extend the period of survivability in combat casualties. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. The experiences of MDE stand-by; Les experiences de MDE stand-by

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The control of the electric power demand (MDE) is a worrying subject for many countries. The consumption of the electrical equipment in stand-by, is evaluated at 20 TWh/year for the ternary and residential sectors in Germany and 5,3 in France. Taking into account the SAVE project (Pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy), this study aims to observe the policies and the experiences of local governments in terms of energy consumption reduction. (A.L.B.)

  2. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  3. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  4. Computerized axial tomography in the detection of brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cala, L.A.; Mastaglia, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    The cranial computerized axial tomography (CAT) findings in groups of patients with epilepsy, migraine, hypertension, and other general medical disorders have been reviewed to assess the frequency and patterns of focal and diffuse brain damage. In addition to demonstrating focal lesions in a proportion of patients with seizures and in patients presenting with a stroke, the CAT scan showed a premature degree of cerebral atrophy in an appreciable proportion of patients with long-standing epilepsy, hypertension and diabetes, and in some patients with migraine, valvular and ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive airways disease, and chronic renal failure. The value of CAT as a means of screening for brain damage in groups of individuals at risk is discussed

  5. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  6. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  7. Effect of Benfotiamine in Podocyte Damage Induced by Peritoneal Dialysis Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller-Krebs, Sandra; Nissle, Katharina; Tsobaneli, Julia; Zeier, Martin; Kihm, Lars Philipp; Kender, Zoltan; Fleming, Thomas; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Reiser, Jochen; Schwenger, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Background: In peritoneal dialysis (PD), residual renal function (RRF) fundamentally contributes to improved quality of life and patient survival. High glucose and advanced glycation end-products (AGE) contribute locally to peritoneal and systemically to renal damage. Integrity of podocyte structure and function is of special importance to preserve RRF. Benfotiamine could counteract the glucose and AGE-mediated toxicity by blocking hyperglycemia-associated podocyte damage via the pentose-phos...

  8. JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) stand-alone tritium test at the TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Inoue, Masahiko

    1993-03-01

    JAERI designed, fabricated, and installed the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) as a subsystem of simulated fusion fuel loop at the TSTA. The main function of the J-FCU is to purify and to recover hydrogen isotopes from simulated plasma exhaust while exhausting tritium free impurities. After a lot of deuterium tests, a first tritium test of the J-FCU was performed with one gram of tritium at the TSTA on June 1991. Main purpose of this test was to evaluate the total integrity and function of the J-FCU system with a DT mixture. Through this test, the J-FCU was operated well and its function with tritium was demonstrated. This report describes the detail test results of the J-FCU first tritium test and discuss its functions by stand-alone mode. Residual tritium inventory of the J-FCU system was also discussed. (author)

  9. Development of nondestructive evaluation of creep-fatigue damage in SUS316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Tetsuo; Kawahara, Tetsuji; Awano, Masakazu; Sato, Yasumoto

    1999-01-01

    Creep-fatigue is a fatal failure mode of high temperature structural materials. It is recognized that the law of linear damage, according to which creep-fatigue damage is expressed by the sum of the creep damage and the fatigue damage, is inadequate to evaluate creep-fatigue damage. This is due to the fact that the law of linear damage does not include the effect of interaction between the creep damage and the fatigue damage. Consequently, development of direct measurement of damage accumulation on the sample of interest is required for plant life evaluation. In this study, the induced current focusing potential drop (ICFPD) technique was used to evaluate the depth of small surface cracks in SUS316FR stainless steel which was subjected to creep-fatigue damage. It is shown that the potential drop increased during the micro-crack initiation and propagation. Correspondingly, the ICFPD technique applied to estimate micro-crack depth changes was used to accurately evaluate the residual life of creep-fatigue damaged structural materials. (author)

  10. Self-Healing Characteristics of Damaged Rock Salt under Different Healing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt deposits are commonly regarded as ideal hosts for geologic energy reservoirs. Underground cavern construction-induced damage in salt is reduced by self-healing. Thus, studying the influencing factors on such healing processes is important. This research uses ultrasonic technology to monitor the longitudinal wave velocity variations of stress-damaged rock salts during self-recovery experiments under different recovery conditions. The influences of stress-induced initial damage, temperature, humidity, and oil on the self-recovery of damaged rock salts are analyzed. The wave velocity values of the damaged rock salts increase rapidly during the first 200 h of recovery, and the values gradually increase toward stabilization after 600 h. The recovery of damaged rock salts is subjected to higher initial damage stress. Water is important in damage recovery. The increase in temperature improves damage recovery when water is abundant, but hinders recovery when water evaporates. The presence of residual hydraulic oil blocks the inter-granular role of water and restrains the recovery under triaxial compression. The results indicate that rock salt damage recovery is related to the damage degree, pore pressure, temperature, humidity, and presence of oil due to the sealing integrity of the jacket material.

  11. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  12. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  13. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  14. Isotope enrichment effect of gaseous mixtures in standing sound vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knesebeck, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    When standing acoustic waves are excited in a tube containing a mixture of two gases, a partial zonal fractioning of the components arises as consequence of mass transport by diffusion, driven by the thermal and pressure gradients which are associeted with the standing waves. This effect is present in each zone corresponding to a quarter wavelength, with the heavier component becoming enriched at the nodes fo the standing waves and deplected at the crests. The magnitude of the enrichment in one of the components of a binary gas mixture is given by Δω=ap 2 /lambda [b + (1-bω)] 2 . Where ω is the mass concentration of the component in the mixture, a and b are parameters which are related to molecular proprieties of the gases, p is the relative pressure amplitude of the standing wave and lambda is its wavelength. For a natural mixture of uranium hexafluorate, with 0.715% of the uranium isotope 340 an enrichment of about 2 x 10 -6 % in the concentration of this isotope is theorecticaly attainable per stage consisting of a quarter wavelenght, when a standing acoustical wave of relative pressure amplitude of 0,2 and wavelenght of 20 cm is used. Since standing acoustical waves are easely excited in gas columns, an isotope enrichment plant made of a cascade of tubes in which standing waves are excited, is presumably feasible with relatively low investment and operation costs. (Author) [pt

  15. Soil carbon and nitrogen pools in mid- to late-successional forest stands of the northwestern United States: Potential impact of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2006-01-01

    When sampling woody residue (WR) and organic matter (OM) present in forest floor, soil wood, and surface mineral soil (0­30 cm) in 14 mid- to late-successional stands across a wide variety of soil types and climatic regimes in the northwestern USA, we found that 44%-84% of carbon (C) was in WR and surface OM, whereas >80% of nitrogen (N) was in the mineral soil. In...

  16. StandsSIM-MD: a Management Driven forest SIMulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Rua, J.; Tomé, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The existing stand level forest simulators available in Portugal were not developed with the aim of including up-to-date model versions and were limited in terms of accounting for forest management. The simulators’ platform, sIMfLOR was recently created to implement different growth models with a common philosophy. The objective was developing one easily-updatable, user-friendly, forest management and climate change sensitive simulator capable of projecting growth for the main tree species in Portugal. Area of the study: Portugal. Material and methods: The new simulator was programmed in a modular form consisting of several modules. The growth module integrates different forest growth and yield models (empirical and process-based) for the main wood production tree species in Portugal (eucalypt, umbrella and maritime pines); whereas the management module drives the growth projections along the planning horizon according to a range of forest management approaches and climate (at present only available for eucalypt). Main results: The main result is the StandsSIM-MD Management Driven simulator that overcomes the limitations of the existing stand level simulators. It is a step forward when compared to the models currently available in the sIMfLOR platform covering more tree species, stand structures and stand compositions. It is focused on end-users and it is based on similar concepts regarding the generation of required inputs and generated outputs. Research highlights: Forest Management Driven simulations approach. Multiple Prescriptions-Per-Stand functionality. StandsSIM-MD can be used to support landowners decisions on stand forest management. StandsSIM-MD simulations at regional level can be combined with optimization routines. (Author)

  17. Stand for testing the electrical race car engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, M.; Franiasz, J.; Mierzwa, P.; Wylenzek, D.

    2015-11-01

    An engine test stand created especially for research of electrical race car is described in the paper. The car is an aim of Silesian Greenpower project whose participants build and test electrical vehicles to take part in international races in Great Britain. The engine test stand is used to test and measure the characteristics of vehicles and their engines. It has been designed particularly to test the electric cars engineered by students of Silesian Greenpower project. The article contains a description how the test stand works and shows its versatility in many areas. The paper presents both construction of the test stand, control system and sample results of conducted research. The engine test stand was designed and modified using PLM Siemens NX 8.5. The construction of the test stand is highly modular, which means it can be used both for testing the vehicle itself or for tests without the vehicle. The test stand has its own wheel, motor, powertrain and braking system with second engine. Such solution enables verifying various concepts without changing the construction of the vehicle. The control system and measurement system are realized by enabling National Instruments product myRIO (RIO - Reconfigurable Input/Output). This controller in combination with powerful LabVIEW environment performs as an advanced tool to control torque and speed simultaneously. It is crucial as far as the test stand is equipped in two motors - the one being tested and the braking one. The feedback loop is realized by an optical encoder cooperating with the rotor mounted on the wheel. The results of tests are shown live on the screen both as a chart and as single values. After performing several tests there is a report generated. The engine test stand is widely used during process of the Silesian Greenpower vehicle design. Its versatility enables powertrain testing, wheels and tires tests, thermal analysis and more.

  18. Electron damage in organic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howitt, D.G.; Thomas, G.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage in three crystalline organic materials (l-valine, cytosine, copper phthalocyanine) have been investigated by electron microscopy. The degradation of these materials has been found to be consistent with a gradual collapse of their crystal structures brought about by ionization damage to the comprising molecules. It is inferred that the crystallinity of these materials is destroyed by ionizing radiation because the damaged molecules cannot be incorporated into the framework of their original structures. (author)

  19. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  20. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.