WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual stand damage

  1. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-01-01

    The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area pl...

  2. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area plots. Results show that wounding occurred on 16.4% of the remaining trees, but the severity of wounding varied significantly by species. Forty-six percent of wounding for all species combined was considered as small size. The greatest average amount of damage, to a bole, occurred along the first 1m up from the ground and also within 3m of the skid trail centerline (86.4%. Gouges were present on 79% of all scars. The stratification of the study unit would effectively improve accuracy of stand damage surveys. Selection of the appropriate method for damage reduction to trees adjacent skid trails was crucial. According to the results, skidding damage cannot be completely avoided in practice. We suggest that the education and the entertainment of the foresters and workers in forest would be enhanced and the injuries could be explained before the harvesting to the workers. In such a way the damages would be less in the future.

  3. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  4. Investigation of timber harvesting operations using chainsaw considering productivity and residual stand damage: The case of Bahçe Forest Enterprise Chief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Gülci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are often performed in difficult conditions caused by the mountainous terrain conditions in Turkey. One of the most difficult and dangerous stages of the timber harvesting activities are felling, delimbing, and bucking stages. In some of the European countries with intensive forestry activities, felling, delimbing and bucking stages of timber harvesting are performed with harvesting machines (i.e. harvester, feller-buncher while these processes are mostly performed with chainsaw in Turkey. The chainsaw operations which are not properly planned and implemented may results in considerable amount of time and productivity losses and environmental damages. At the same time, the risk of work accidents increases during the felling activities. Thus, it is very important to investigate productivity and residual stand damage of chainsaw operations. In this study, harvesting activities using chainsaw were evaluated in terms of productivity and environmental aspects. The field studies were conducted in Brutian Pine stands within Bahçe Forest Enterprise Chief of Osmaniye Forest Enterprise Directorate, located in Adana Forest Regional Directorate. Average productivity and timber volume were calculated as 4.06 m3/hr and 0.30 m3, respectively, and productivity increased as the amount of timber production increased. The results indicated that total number of injured trees as a result of felling operation was 43 in which 13 injuries were on live wood while 30 injuries were on tree barks. It was found that sapwood and bark injuries occurred at the top of the trees during felling activities due to tree hang ups.

  5. Logging damage in thinned, young-growth true fir stands in California and recommendations for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Mike. Srago

    1983-01-01

    Logging-damage surveys and tree-dissection studies were made in commercially thinned, naturally established young-growth true fir stands in the Lassen National Forest in northern California. Significant damage occurred to residual trees in stands logged by conventional methods. Logging damage was substantially lower in stands thinned using techniques designed to reduce...

  6. Residual tree damage during selection cuts using two skidding systems in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ficklin; John P. Dwyer; Bruce E. Cutter; Tom Draper

    1997-01-01

    Today, there is an interest in using alternative silvicultural systems like selection and two-aged management, because the public finds these systems more acceptable than clearcutting. However, repeated entries into forest stands to remove timber increase the risk of residual stand damage. Harvest techniques are desirable that (1) reduce the risk of stand damage and (2...

  7. On the residual properties of damaged FRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbino, R.; Torrijos, M. C.; Giaccio, G.

    2017-09-01

    A discussion on the residual behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is performed based on two selected cases of concrete degradation: the exposure at High Temperatures and the development of Alkali Silica Reactions. In addition, and taking in mind that the failure mechanism in FRC is strongly related with the fibre pull-out strength, the bond strength in damaged matrices was shown concluding that the residual bond strength is less affected than the matrix strength. As the damage increases, the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity decrease, being the modulus of elasticity the most affected. There were no significant changes produced by the incorporation of fibres on the residual behaviour when compared with previous experience on plain damage concrete. Regarding the tensile behaviour although the first peak decreases as the damage increases, even for a severely damage FRC the residual stresses remain almost unaffected.

  8. The Influence of Residual Stand Densities on Regeneration in Sugar Maple Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1968-01-01

    Studies of regeneration 2, 5, and 10 years after cutting mature and overmature sugar maple stands to several residual densities show that (1) sugar maple is still the predominant species under all stand densities (2) nearly all regeneration reaching larger size classes became established before cutting (3) heavier cuttings (30, 50, and 70 square feet) are more rapidly...

  9. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  10. Harvest operations for density management: planning requirements, production, costs, stand damage, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren D. Kellogg; Stephen J. Pilkerton

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, several studies have been undertaken to determine the planning requirements, productivity, costs, and residual stand damage of harvest operations in thinning treatments designed to promote development of complex forest structure in order to enhance ecological functioning and biological diversity. Th ese studies include the Oregon State...

  11. Residual Strength Prediction of Debond Damaged Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian

    propagation and initiation, as these mechanisms are governing for the overall failure load of the structure. Thus, this presentation will describe the development, validation and application of a FEM based numerical model for prediction of residual strength of damaged sandwich panels. The core......This presentation concerns theoretical and experimental prediction of crack propagation and residual strength of debond damaged sandwich panels. It is evident that in order to achieve highly optimised structures which are able to operate in a stochastic loading environment, damage tolerance...... evaluation based on residual strength prediction is needed. Is a given damage critical for the structural integrity needing immanent repair, or is the damage negligible, where repair can be postponed to the next inspection? These questions are generally interesting for all types of structures...

  12. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  13. Expression of assayable residual stem cell damage in erythroid differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.E.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    In rodents, residual damage is inducible in hematopoietic stem cells by exposure to ionizing radiation or alkylating agents. This damage can b e assayed in mice by transferring bone marrow into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients and subsequently measuring the incremental increase of-( 125 I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in spleens. In this study, bone marrow from mice treated 3 weeks previously with Methylnitrosourea (50 mg/kg) or 450 rad was injected into recipients in order to determine possible residual effects of treatment of erythroid cell differentiation following stem cell seeding. Such effects were detected by a reduced amount of 59 Fe incorporation into spleens, thus indicatin g transfer of residual stem cell damage to differentiating cells. (orig.)

  14. Ice damage effects on thinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Hennessey; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman; Rodney Will; Thomas Lynch; Douglas Stevenson; Edward Lorenzi; Giulia Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Loblolly pine plantations in southeastern Oklahoma and Arkansas are periodically subjected to damaging ice storms. Following one such event, damage to a 25-year-old, previously thinned stand was assessed and quantitative relationships were developed to guide stand management in ice storm-prone areas.

  15. Damage Detection on Thin-walled Structures Utilizing Laser Scanning and Standing Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Se Hyeok; Jeon, Jun Young; Kim, Du Hwan; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, To; Han, Soon Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes wavenumber filtering for damage detection using single-frequency standing wave excitation and laser scanning sensing. An embedded piezoelectric sensor generates ultrasonic standing waves, and the responses are measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and mirror tilting device. After scanning, newly developed damage detection techniques based on wavenumber filtering are applied to the full standing wave field. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques, several experiments were performed on composite plates with delamination and aluminum plates with corrosion damage. The results demonstrated that the developed techniques could be applied to various structures to localize the damage, with the potential to improve the damage detection capability at a high interrogation speed.

  16. Effect of simulated ice storm damage on loblolly pine tree and stand growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Thomas Hennessey; Thomas Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Ice damage to loblolly pine plantations is a recurrent problem in eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas with significant ice events occurring recently in 1995, twice in 2000, and in 2007. Following ice damage, forest owners need to decide to clear-cut and replant, thin or partial cut to rehabilitate, or take no action. A quantitative assessment of tree and stand growth...

  17. Logging damage using an individual tree selection practice in Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1985-01-01

    Four West Virginia hardwood stands, managed using individual-tree selection for the past 30 years, were examined after the third and, in one instance, the fourth periodic harvest to determine the severity of logging damage. On existing skid roads, trees were removed with a rubber-tired skidder or a crawler tractor with a rubber-tired arch. Logging damage reduced...

  18. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  19. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  20. Logging damage associated with thinning central Appalachian hardwood stands with a wheeled skidder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Neil I. Lamson; Samuel M. Brock

    1984-01-01

    In north central West Virginia, unmanaged 53-year-old, mixed oak-cove hardwood stands were thinned to 75, 60, and 45 percent residual stocking. Cut trees were skidded tree-length with a rubber-tired skidder. Logging destroyed or severely bent 26, 29, and 34 percent of the unmarked stems in the 75, 60, and 45 percent stocking plots, respectively. Because 94 percent of...

  1. Digital Imaging of Pipeline Mechanical Damage and Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    The purpose of this program was to enhance characterization of mechanical damage in pipelines through application of digital eddy current imaging. Lift-off maps can be used to develop quantitative representations of mechanical damage and magnetic per...

  2. Estimates of biomass in logging residue and standing residual inventory following tree-harvest activity on timberland acres in the southern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This report provides estimates of biomass (green tons) in logging residue and standing residual inventory on timberland acres with evidence of tree cutting. Biomass as defined by Forest Inventory and Analysis is the aboveground dry weight of wood in the bole and limbs of live trees ≥ 1-inch diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), and excludes tree foliage, seedlings, and...

  3. Spectral Characterization of Suspected Acid Deposition Damage in Red Spruce (picea Rubens) Stands from Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to demonstrate the utility of remote sensing systems to monitor sites of suspected acid rain deposition damage, intensive field activities, coupled with aircraft overflights, were centered on red spruce stands in Vermont during August and September of 1984. Remote sensing data were acquired using the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, Thematic Mapper Simulator, Barnes Model 12 to 1000 Modular Multiband Radiometer and Spectron Engineering Spectrometer (the former two flown on the NASA C-130; the latter two on A Bell UH-1B Iroquois Helicopter). Field spectral data were acquired during the week of the August overflights using a high spectral resolution spectrometer and two broad-band radiometers. Preliminary analyses of these data indicate a number of spectral differences in vegetation between high and low damage sites. Some of these differences are subtle, and are observable only with high spectral resolution sensors; others are less subtle and are observable using broad-band sensors.

  4. Effect of Harvest Residue Management on Tree Productivity and Carbon Pools during Early Stand Development in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Phillip Dougherty; Daniel McInnis; Pete Anderson; Steve Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Soil incorporation of postharvest forest floor or logging residues during site preparation increased mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration and had a differential effect on early stand growth in a clonal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Incorporating 25 Mg ha

  5. Residual capacity of a damaged water mist system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R. van der; Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Claesson, A.; Boonacker, B.

    2013-01-01

    Navies have been facing budget reductions over the past decade. Since crew size is a major cost driver, this has led to efforts to reduce manning on board naval ships. Traditionally, damage control and firefighting were manpower intensive operations. To enable crewing level reductions without

  6. Residual strain and texture in free-standing nanoscale Cu-Nb multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydiner, C. C.; Brown, D. W.; Misra, A.; Mara, N. A.; Wang, Y.-C.; Wall, J. J.; Almer, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the residual strains in a free-standing Cu/Nb multilayer of 30 nm nominal layer thickness with synchrotron x-rays. This material system is characterized by columnar grains of Cu and Nb with incoherent interfaces and a sharp physical-vapor-deposition texture. High energy x-rays were used with an area detector along with multiple sample rotations to yield diffraction strain components in a very large number of directions. Due to the texture and the elastic anisotropy of constituents, observed diffraction strains cannot be derived from a single strain tensor (also known as linear sin 2 ψ). Orientation-dependent diffraction strain modeling is utilized with a Vook-Witt micromechanical model. Obtained phase-resolved in-plane stress magnitudes are -515 MPa in Nb and +513 MPa in Cu, satisfying force equilibrium within experimental errors. The stresses of this magnitude will certainly influence the mechanical behavior of the multilayer upon further loading. The Vook-Witt model describes the Nb diffraction strains very well, and thereby provides information on the stress distribution in crystallites as a function of their orientation. On the other hand, the same level of agreement with the Vook-Witt model has not been achieved for Cu diffraction strains

  7. Anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity in residual poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity in patients with residual poliomyelitis and to investigate whether the severity of preoperative equinus deformity affected the occurrence of symptomatic anterior impingement. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (mean age, 43.8 ± 9.4 years) with residual poliomyelitis who underwent tendo-Achilles lengthening for equinus foot deformity were included. On lateral foot-ankle weight-bearing radiographs, the tibiocalcaneal angle, plantigrade angle, and McDermott grade were measured and the presence of anterior blocking spur was evaluated. Eleven patients (40.7%) had anterior ankle impingement on radiographic findings preoperatively and 24 patients (88.9%) at latest follow-up. There was a significant difference in McDermott grade between preoperative and latest follow-up (P poliomyelitis had anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity, and the presence of symptomatic anterior ankle impingement was significantly associated with the severity of the equinus deformity. Therefore, for residual poliomyelitis patients with severe long-standing equinus deformity, surgeons should consider the possibility of a subsequent anterior procedure for anterior impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  8. Potential residual biomass in mature pine stands of the Midsouth, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.F. Rosson

    1989-01-01

    The extent, location, and ownership of residual woody biomass available on mature pine timberland prior to the harvest of log-size pine was determined for the Midsouth States. Most of this residual is on non-industrial private timberland. Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are the dominant species in the residual. Stems of all...

  9. Reorganization of associative memory in humans with long-standing hippocampal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Mischa; Finke, Carsten; Ostendorf, Florian; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Ploner, Christoph J

    2008-10-01

    Conflicting theories have been advanced to explain why hippocampal lesions affect distinct memory domains and spare others. Recent findings in monkeys suggest that lesion-induced plasticity may contribute to the seeming preservation of some of these domains. We tested this hypothesis by investigating visuo-spatial associative memory in two patient groups with similar surgical lesions to the right medial temporal lobe, but different preoperative disease courses (benign brain tumours, mean: 1.8 +/- 0.6 years, n = 5, age: 28.2 +/- 4.0 years; hippocampal sclerosis, mean: 16.8 +/- 1.9 years, n = 9, age: 38.9 +/- 4.1 years). Compared to controls (n = 14), tumour patients showed a significant delay-dependent deficit in memory of colour-location associations. No such deficit was observed in hippocampal sclerosis patients, which appeared to benefit from a compensatory mechanism that was inefficient in tumour patients. These results indicate that long-standing hippocampal damage can yield significant functional reorganization of the neural substrate underlying memory in the human brain. We suppose that this process accounts for some of the discrepancies between results from previous lesion studies of the human medial temporal lobe.

  10. Birefringence and residual stress induced by CO2 laser mitigation of damage growth in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Rullier, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the residual stress field created near mitigated sites and its influence on the efficiency on the CO2 laser mitigation of damage growth process. A numerical model of CO2 laser interaction with fused silica is developed that take into account laser energy absorption, heat transfer, thermally-induced stress and birefringence. Specific photoelastic methods are developed to characterize the residual stress near mitigated sites in fused silica samples. The stress distribution and quantitative values of stress levels are obtained for sites treated with the CO2 laser in various conditions of energy deposition (beam size, pulse duration, incident power). The results obtained also show that the presence of birefringence/residual stress around the mitigated sites has a critical effect on their laser damage resistance.

  11. Analysis of residual stresses on the transverse beam of a casting stand by means of drilling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Frankovský

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper demonstrates the application of drilling method in the analysis of residual stresses on the transverse beam of a casting stand. In the initial stage of the analysis the determination of strains was done for individual steps of drilling in the area which was determined by means of numerical analysis. The drilling was carried out gradually by 0,5 mm up to the depth of 5 mm, while the diameter of the drilled hole was 3,2 mm. During the analysis we used the drilling device RS-200, strain indicator P3 and SGD 1-RY21-3/120. The paper presents the development of residual stresses throughout the depth of the drilled hole which were determined according to standard ASTM E837-01, by means of integral method, power series method and by means of Power Series method.

  12. How to reduce injuries to residual trees during stand management activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Gregory M. Filip

    1983-01-01

    Losses of trees and tree volume that result from decay initiated by mechanical injuries during stand management activities in the western United States are substantial. They can be reduced through improved logging methods and careful planning of other forest management activities.

  13. Impact damage and residual strength analysis of composite panels with bonded stiffeners. [for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ram C.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Blade-stiffened, compression-loaded cover panels were designed, manufactured, analyzed, and tested. All panels were fabricated from IM6/1808I interleafed graphite-epoxy. An orthotropic blade stiffener and an orthotropic skin were selected to satisfy the design requirements for an advanced aircraft configuration. All specimens were impact damaged prior to testing. Experimental results were obtained for three- and five-stiffener panels. Analytical results described interlaminar forces caused by impact and predicted specimen residual strength. The analytical results compared reasonably with the experimental results for residual strength of the specimens.

  14. Influence of Hot Implantation on Residual Radiation Damage in Silicon Carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawski, M.; Zuk, J.; Kulik, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Turek, M.; Lin, L.; Prucnal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Remarkable thermomechanical and electrical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this material very attractive for high-temperature, high-power, and high-frequency applications. Because of very low values of diffusion coefficient of most impurities in SiC, ion implantation is the best method to selectively introduce dopants over well-defined depths in SiC. Aluminium is commonly used for creating p-type regions in SiC. However, post-implantation radiation damage, which strongly deteriorates required electric properties of the implanted layers, is difficult to anneal even at high temperatures because of remaining residual damage. Therefore implantation at elevated target temperatures (hot implantation) is nowadays an accepted method to decrease the level of the residual radiation damage by avoiding ion beam-induced amorphization. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy with channeling and micro-Raman spectroscopy investigations of room temperature and 500 o C Al + ion implantation-induced damage in 6H-SiC and its removal by high temperature (up to 1600 o C) thermal annealing. (author)

  15. Experimental measurements of surface damage and residual stresses in micro-engineered plasma facing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, David; Wirz, Richard E.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2017-04-01

    The thermomechanical damage and residual stresses in plasma-facing materials operating at high heat flux are experimentally investigated. Materials with micro-surfaces are found to be more resilient, when exposed to cyclic high heat flux generated by an arc-jet plasma. An experimental facility, dedicated to High Energy Flux Testing (HEFTY), is developed for testing cyclic heat flux in excess of 10 MW/m2. We show that plastic deformation and subsequent fracture of the surface can be controlled by sample cooling. We demonstrate that W surfaces with micro-pillar type surface architecture have significantly reduced residual thermal stresses after plasma exposure, as compared to those with flat surfaces. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the W-(110) peak reveal that broadening of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) for micro-engineered samples is substantially smaller than corresponding flat surfaces. Spectral shifts of XRD signals indicate that residual stresses due to plasma exposure of micro-engineered surfaces build up in the first few cycles of exposure. Subsequent cyclic plasma heat loading is shown to anneal out most of the built-up residual stresses in micro-engineered surfaces. These findings are consistent with relaxation of residual thermal stresses in surfaces with micro-engineered features. The initial residual stress state of highly polished flat W samples is compressive (≈ -1.3 GPa). After exposure to 50 plasma cycles, the surface stress relaxes to -1.0 GPa. Micro-engineered samples exposed to the same thermal cycling show that the initial residual stress state is compressive at (- 250 MPa), and remains largely unchanged after plasma exposure.

  16. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera B, B.; Garcia C, E.S.; Garcia O, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  17. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compression Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compression strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compression loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  18. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compressive strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compressive loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  19. Search for DNA damage by human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase involves early intercalation by an aromatic residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Jenna M; O'Brien, Patrick J

    2017-09-29

    DNA repair enzymes recognize and remove damaged bases that are embedded in the duplex. To gain access, most enzymes use nucleotide flipping, whereby the target nucleotide is rotated 180° into the active site. In human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), the enzyme that initiates base excision repair of alkylated bases, the flipped-out nucleotide is stabilized by intercalation of the side chain of tyrosine 162 that replaces the lesion nucleobase. Previous kinetic studies provided evidence for the formation of a transient complex that precedes the stable flipped-out complex, but it is not clear how this complex differs from nonspecific complexes. We used site-directed mutagenesis and transient-kinetic approaches to investigate the timing of Tyr 162 intercalation for AAG. The tryptophan substitution (Y162W) appeared to be conservative, because the mutant protein retained a highly favorable equilibrium constant for flipping the 1, N 6 -ethenoadenine (ϵA) lesion, and the rate of N -glycosidic bond cleavage was identical to that of the wild-type enzyme. We assigned the tryptophan fluorescence signal from Y162W by removing two native tryptophan residues (W270A/W284A). Stopped-flow experiments then demonstrated that the change in tryptophan fluorescence of the Y162W mutant is extremely rapid upon binding to either damaged or undamaged DNA, much faster than the lesion-recognition and nucleotide flipping steps that were independently determined by monitoring the ϵA fluorescence. These observations suggest that intercalation by this aromatic residue is one of the earliest steps in the search for DNA damage and that this interaction is important for the progression of AAG from nonspecific searching to specific-recognition complexes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Influence of standing-wave electric field pattern on the laser damage resistance of HfO sub 2 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Protopapa, M L; De Tomasi, F; Di Giulio, M; Perrone, M R; Scaglione, S

    2002-01-01

    The standing-wave electric field pattern that forms inside an optical coating as a consequence of laser irradiation is one of the factors influencing the coating laser-induced damage threshold. The influence of the standing-wave electric field profile on the damage resistance to ultraviolet radiation of hafnium dioxide (HfO sub 2) thin films was investigated in this work. To this end, HfO sub 2 thin films of different thicknesses deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique at the same deposition conditions were analyzed. Laser damage thresholds of the samples were measured at 308 nm (XeCl laser) by the photoacoustic beam deflection technique and microscopic inspections. The dependence of the laser damage threshold on the standing-wave electric field pattern was analyzed.

  1. Land application of hydrofracturing fluids damages a deciduous forest stand in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    In June 2008, 303,000 L of hydrofracturing fluid from a natural gas well were applied to a 0.20-ha area of mixed hardwood forest on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. During application, severe damage and mortality of ground vegetation was observed, followed about 10 d later by premature leaf drop by the overstory trees. Two years after fluid application,...

  2. Effects of logging on stand damage in the rainforest of South-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the sum of 11.4% were for severely logged plots, indicating that the population of unlogged trees diminished with increasing logging intensity. Also, the large F value (11.971) and the low P value (0.000) indicated that logging intensity had significant contribution to the extent of damage to unlogged trees in the various ...

  3. Hemispheric specificity for proprioception: Postural control of standing following right or left hemisphere damage during ankle tendon vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Noémie C; Maynard, Luc; Abbas, Djawad; Mesure, Serge

    2015-11-02

    Right brain damage (RBD) following stroke often causes significant postural instability. In standing (without vision), patients with RBD are more unstable than those with left brain damage (LBD). We hypothesised that this postural instability would relate to the cortical integration of proprioceptive afferents. The aim of this study was to use tendon vibration to investigate whether these changes were specific to the paretic or non-paretic limbs. 14 LBD, 12 RBD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included. Displacement of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) was recorded during quiet standing, then during 3 vibration conditions (80 Hz - 20s): paretic limb, non-paretic limb (left and right limbs for control subjects) and bilateral. Vibration was applied separately to the peroneal and Achilles tendons. Mean antero-posterior position of the CoP, variability and velocity were calculated before (4s), during and after (24s) vibration. For all parameters, the strongest perturbation was during Achilles vibrations. The Achilles non-paretic condition induced a larger backward displacement than the Achilles paretic condition. This condition caused specific behaviour on the velocity: the LBD group was perturbed at the onset of the vibrations, but gradually recovered their stability; the RBD group was significantly perturbed thereafter. After bilateral Achilles vibration, RBD patients required the most time to restore initial posture. The reduction in use of information from the paretic limb may be a central strategy to deal with risk-of-fall situations such as during Achilles vibration. The postural behaviour is profoundly altered by lesions of the right hemisphere when proprioception is perturbed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Site reactivity in the free radicals induced damage to leucine residues: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M E; Galano, A; Alvarez-Idaboy, J R

    2015-02-21

    Several recent computational studies have tried to explain the observed selectivity in radical damage to proteins. In this work we use Density Functional Theory and Transition State Theory including tunnelling corrections, reaction path degeneracy, the effect of diffusion, and the role of free radicals to get further insights into this important topic. The reaction between a leucine derivative and free radicals of biological significance, in aqueous and lipid media, has been investigated. Both thermochemical and kinetic analyses, in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments, have been carried out. DPPH, ˙OOH, ˙OOCH3, ˙OOCH2Cl, ˙OOCHCl2 and ˙OOCHCH2 radicals do not react with the target molecule. The reactions are proposed to be kinetically controlled. The leucine gamma site was the most reactive for the reactions with ˙N3, ˙OOCCl3, ˙OCH3, ˙OCH2Cl, and ˙OCHCl2 radicals, with rate constants equal to 1.97 × 10(5), 3.24 × 10(4), 6.68 × 10(5), 5.98 × 10(6) and 8.87 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, in aqueous solution. The ˙Cl, ˙OH and ˙OCCl3 radicals react with leucine at the beta, gamma, and delta positions at rates close to the diffusion limit with the alpha position which is the slowest path and the most thermodynamically favored. The presented results confirm that the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle does not apply for the reactions between amino acid residues and free radicals. Regarding the influence of the environment on the reactivity of the studied series of free radicals towards leucine residues, it is concluded that hydrophilic media slightly lower the reactivity of the studied radicals, compared to hydrophobic ones, albeit the trends in reactivity are very similar.

  5. Development of a Relationship Between Residual Ultimate Longitudinal Strength Versus Grounding Damage Index Diagram For Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    of the International Maritime Organization is being developed in the literature. In the present paper, the residual ultimate longitudinal strength versus grounding damage diagram (R-D diagram) for container ships is established as per the method of Paik et al. [1]. The proposed R-D diagram should be useful...

  6. Residual strength and crack propagation tests on C-130 airplane center wings with service-imposed fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.

  7. Microstructural damage and residual mechanical properties in helium-bearing gas metal Arc weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, S. H.; Yang, N. Y. C.

    1992-03-01

    The influence of entrapped helium on microstructural damage and residual mechanical properties subsequent to applying low-penetration gas metal arc (GMA) weld overlays was examined for an AISI Type 304 stainless steel. Two helium levels were examined: 22.5 and 85.0 atomic parts per million (appm) He. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The crack surfaces exhibited a dimple structure that was characteristic of a gas bubble embrittled material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the size and spacing of the grain boundary helium gas bubbles remained virtually unchanged (relative to that established by the charging and aging procedure) at distances greater than 1 mm from the fusion line. Within this first millimeter, the diameter of the bubbles increased rapidly, and the bubble spacing increased to the characteristic spacing of the dimples that decorated weld-induced cracks. Mechanical testing revealed a loss in strain-to-fracture and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at the higher helium level. While the majority of the fracture occurred in a transgranular, ductile manner, some deformation-induced intergranular cracking was observed. This cracking occurred over a very narrow region localized to the HAZ of the weldment. At the lower helium level, ductility and strength were unaffected compared to helium-free specimens.

  8. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat; Tejido residual postesplenectomia detectado por centellografia esplenica con eritrocitos danados por calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera B, B.; Garcia C, E.S.; Garcia O, J.R. [Centro Medico ABC, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  9. Distortion and residual stresses in structures reinforced with titanium straps for improved damage tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljedahl, C.D.M.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Edwards, L.

    2008-01-01

    Distortion and residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process of bonded crack retarders have been investigated. Titanium alloy straps were adhesively bonded to an aluminium alloy SENT specimen to promote fatigue crack growth retardation. The effect of three different strap dimensions was investigated. The spring-back of a component when released from the autoclave and the residual stresses are important factors to take into account when designing a selective reinforcement, as this may alter the local aerodynamic characteristics and reduce the crack bridging effect of the strap. The principal problem with residual stresses is that the tensile nature of the residual stresses in the primary aluminium structure has a negative impact on the crack initiation and crack propagation behaviour in the aluminium. The residual stresses were measured with neutron diffraction and the distortion of the specimens was measured with a contour measurement machine. The bonding process was simulated with a three-dimensional FE model. The residual stresses were found to be tensile close to the strap and slightly compressive on the un-bonded side. Both the distortion and the residual stresses increased with the thickness and the width of the strap. Very good agreement between the measured stresses and the measured distortion and the FE simulation was found

  10. Simulation of balloon angioplasty in residually stressed blood vessels-Application of a gradient-enhanced fibre damage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polindara, César; Waffenschmidt, Tobias; Menzel, Andreas

    2016-08-16

    In this contribution we study the balloon angioplasty in a residually stressed artery by means of a non-local gradient-enhanced fibre damage model. The balloon angioplasty is a common surgical intervention used to extend or reopen narrowed blood vessels in order to restore the continuous blood flow in, for instance, atherosclerotic arteries. Inelastic, i.e. predominantly damage-related and elastoplastic processes are induced in the artery during its inflation resulting in an irreversible deformation. As a beneficial consequence, provided that the inelastic deformations do not exceed a specific limit, higher deformations can be obtained within the same pressure level and a continuous blood flow can be guaranteed. In order to study the mechanical response of the artery in this scenario, we make use of the non-local gradient-enhanced model proposed in Waffenschmidt et al. (2014). In this contribution, we extend this model to make use of an incompressible format in connection with a Q1Q1P0 finite element implementation. The residual stresses in the artery are also taken into account following the framework presented in Waffenschmidt (2015). From the results it becomes apparent that, when the artery is subjected to radial stresses beyond the physiological range, damage evolution is triggered in the collagen fibres. The impact of the residual stresses on the structural response and on the circumferential stress distribution along the thickness of the arterial wall is also studied. It is observed that the residual stresses have a beneficial effect on the mechanical response of the arterial wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of soil compaction on residual stand growth in central Appalachian hardwood forest: a preliminary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...

  12. Pipeline repair technology damage and repair assessment of pipelines with high residual stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Høie, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology : subsea technology Today in the offshore industry, there are an increasing number of pipelines that require both maintenance and repair. A wide specter of research in pipeline repair technology is available. Damage to a pipeline could be a quite complex event to analyze, due to the many different combinations of internal pipe stresses and damage types. Standards, such as DNV and ASTM have experimental based assessment methods for evaluating many of t...

  13. Active disease and residual damage in treated Wegener's granulomatosis: an observational study using pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komocsi, Andras; Reuter, Michael; Heller, Martin; Murakoezi, Henriette; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Schnabel, Armin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can distinguish active inflammatory disease from inactive cicatricial disease in patients treated for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Twenty-eight WG patients with active pulmonary disease underwent a first HRCT examination immediately before standard immunosuppressive treatment and a second examination after clinical remission had been achieved. Lesions remaining after treatment were categorized as residual damage and were compared with findings during active disease to see by what features active and cicatricial disease can be distinguished. During active disease 17 patients had nodules/masses, 12 had ground-glass opacities, 6 had septal lines and 6 had non-septal lines. After treatment, ground-glass opacities had resolved completely. Nodules/masses had resolved in 8 patients and had diminished in 7 patients. Residual nodules were distinguished from nodules/masses in active disease by lack of cavitation and a diameter of mostly <15 mm. In one-third of patients lines resolved, but in 8 instances new lines evolved during immunosuppression. During a follow-up period of a median 26.5 months (range 20.0-33.8), patients with residual nodules or lines had no more relapses than patients with completely cleared lungs. Treated pulmonary WG leaves substantial residual damage. High-resolution CT does assist in the distinction between active and inactive lesions. Ground-glass opacities, cavitating nodules/masses and masses measuring more than 3 cm represent active disease ordinarily. Non-cavitary small nodules and septal or non-septal lines can be either active or cicatricial lesions. The nature of these lesions needs to be clarified by longitudinal observation. (orig.)

  14. Effects of face sheet damage on residual strength of GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Echtermeyer, Andreas T.; Berggreen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    is represented by machined cracks and circular holes in the face laminates. Tests have been performed on laminate specimens with and without circular holes under tensile loading and on sandwich face sheets with holes, cracks and real impact damage under compressive loading. The results are compared...

  15. Residual Cdk1/2 activity after DNA damage promotes senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllers, E.; Cascales, H.S.; Burdová, Kamila; Macůrek, Libor; Lindqvist, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2017), s. 575-584 ISSN 1474-9726 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18392S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Cdk1 * Cdk2 * cell cycle * checkpoint recovery * DNA damage response * G2phase * p21 * senescence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  16. Nondestructive indication of fatigue damage and residual lifetime in ferromagnetic construction materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kovářík, O.; Vértesy, G.; Kadlecová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2014), "065601-1"-"065601-10" ISSN 0957-0233. [International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments /11./ (ISMTII). Aachen, 01.07.2013-03.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fatigue * residual lifetime * magnetic nondestructive evaluation * ferromagnetic construction materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2014

  17. Application of backpropagation neural networks to evaluate residual properties of thermally damaged concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, W.L.; Shigaki, Y.; Tolentino, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this work it was analyzed the residual performance of Portland cement concretes, when cold after heat-treated up to 600 deg C. Granite-gneiss was used in the three concrete mix proportions as the coarse aggregate, and river sand with finesses modulus of 2.7 as the fine aggregate. Ultrasonic pulse tests were performed on all the specimens and ultrasonic dynamic modulus were obtained. An artificial neural network of the backpropagation type was trained to evaluate and apply models in predicting residual properties of Portland cement concretes. The input layer for both models consists of an external layer input vector of the temperature. The hidden layer has two processing units with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer functions (tansig for short), and the output layer contains one processing unit that represents the network's output (ultrasonic pulse velocity or modulus of elasticity) for each input vector. The training phase of the network converged for reasonable results after 5.000 epochs approximately, resulting in mean squared errors less than 0.02 for the normalized data. The neural network developed for modeling residual properties of Portland cement concretes was shown to be efficient in both the training phase and the test. From the results reasonable predictions could be made for the ultrasonic pulse velocity or dynamic modulus of elasticity by using temperature. (author)

  18. Cumulative damage and estimation of residual life in metallic alloys under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, T.L. da.

    1980-07-01

    The mechanical behavior and fracture characteristics have been determined for a group of materials tested under conditions of creep, and the ability of various models detailed in the literature to describe these observed characteristics discussed. The parametric methods employed in formulating the indices which define the allowable stresses for design codes have been analysed, and a method of Minimum Standard Deviation (MSD) for construction of reference curves has been proposed. The constitutive equations used in the methods of analysis of creep stresses have been discussed. Finally, the accumulated damage by creep in a particular structure which had been in extended service has been characterized and, based on these observations, the methods for estimation of remaining life in industrial equipment have been analysed. (Author) [pt

  19. Radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors and normal tissues. II. Influence of dose, residual DNA damage and physiological factors in oxygenated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wheeler, K.T.

    1994-01-01

    Detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors is important for many experimental and clinical situations. Several laboratories, including ours, have suggested that assays which measure radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) might be used to detect or quantify hypoxic cells in tumors and normal tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of using an alkaline elution assay that measures strand breaks and DPCs to detect and/or quantify hypoxic cells in tissues. For this approach to be valid, DPCs must not be formed to any great extent in irradiated oxygenated cells, and the formation and repair of strand breaks and DPCs in oxygenated cells must not be modified appreciably by physiological factors (e.g., temperature, pH and nutrient depletion) that are often found in solid tumors. To address these issues, two sets of experiments were performed. In one set of experiments, oxygenated 9L cells in tissue culture, subcutaneous 9L tumors and rat cerebella were irradiated with doses of 15 or 50 Gy and allowed to repair until the residual strand break damage was low enough to detect DPCs. In another set of experiments, oxygenated exponentially growing or plateau-phase 9L cells in tissue culture were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy at 37 or 20 degrees C, while the cells were maintained at a pH of either 6.6 or 7.3. DNA-protein crosslinks were formed in oxygenated cells about 100 times less efficiently than in hypoxic cells. In addition, temperature, pH, nutrient depletion and growth phase did not appreciably alter the formation and repair of strand breaks or the formation of DPCs in oxygenated 9L cells. These results support the use of this DNA damage assay for the detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors. 27 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Liming with powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged forest ecosystem. 2.The effect on forest condition in a pine stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasmaa, T.; Pikk, J.

    1995-01-01

    First years after the treatment (in 1987) of forest soil with mineral fertilizers and powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged 50-year-old Scots pine ecosystem showed a comparatively small effect (B<0.95) of liming on the stand characters. However, in comparison with the effect of only NPK fertilization on the volume growth and the health state of trees, liming (NPK+oil-shale ash) tended to increase the positive influence of fertilizers. Under the influence of oil-shale ash the mortality of the trees was lower, the density of the stand rose more, and the mean radial increment of trees was by 26% greater than after the NPK treatment without a lime agent. On the whole, the effect of oil-shale ash liming on the growth and health condition of the pine stand was not high. However, the first results of its experimental use on mineral forest soil cannot serve as the basis for essential conclusions. Still, the results give us some assurance to continue our experimental work with powdered oil-shale ash in forests with the purpose of regulating the high acidity of forest soils in some sites to gain positive shifts in the forest life. Taking into account the low price of the powdered oil-shale ash and the plentiful resources of this liming material in Estonia, even a small trend towards an improvement of forest condition on poor sandy soils would be a satisfactory final result of the work. It is essential to note that oil-shale ash is not only a simple liming material, but also a lime fertilizer consisting of numerous chemical elements necessary for plant growth. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 18 refs

  1. Long-Term Strength of a Thick-Walled Pipe Filled with an Aggressive Medium, with Account for Damageability of the Pipe Material and Residual Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriev, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the study of scattered fracture of a thick-walled pipe filled with an aggressive medium, which creates uniform pressure on the inner surface of the pipe. It is assumed that the aggressive medium affects only the value of instantaneous strength. Damageability is described by an integral operator of the hereditary type. The problem is solved with allowance for residual strength of the pipe material behind the fracture front. Numerical calculation is carried out, and relationships between the fracture front coordinate and time for various concentrations of the aggressive medium and residual strength behind the fracture front are constructed.

  2. Modeling of the fatigue damage accumulation processes in the material of NPP design units under thermomechanical unstationary effects. Estimation of spent life and forecast of residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriushin, A.I.; Korotkikh, Yu.G.; Gorodov, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The estimation problems of spent life and forecast of residual life of NPP equipment design units, operated at unstationary thermal force loads are considered. These loads are, as a rule, unregular and cause rotation of main stress tensor platforms of the most loaded zones of structural elements and viscoelastic plastic deformation of material in the places of stresses concentrations. The existing engineering approaches to the damages accumulation processes calculation in the material of structural units, their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. For the processes of fatigue damages accumulation a model is proposed, which allows to take into account the unregular pattern of deformation multiaxiality of stressed state, rotation of main platforms, non-linear summation of damages at the loading mode change. The model in based on the equations of damaged medium mechanics, including the equations of viscoplastic deformation of the material and evolutionary equations of damages accumulation. The algorithms of spent life estimation and residual life forecast of the controlled equipment and systems zones are made on the bases of the given model by the known real history of loading, which is determined by real model of NPP operation. The results of numerical experiments on the basis of given model for various processes of thermal force loads and their comparison with experimental results are presented. (author)

  3. Liming with powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged forest ecosystem. 1.The effect on forest soil in a pine stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasmaa, T.; Sepp, S.

    1994-01-01

    A fertilization and liming experiment with mineral fertilizers and powdered oil-shale ash was carried out in a heavily damaged 50-year-old Scots pine ecosystem in South Estonia. In Estonia, where electric power is produced mainly in big oil-shale-fired power plants, huge quantities of SO 2 are flying into the atmosphere through the chimneys of the plants. However, it is characteristic of Estonia that simultaneously with comparatively high SO 2 pollution the proton load has been quite low because of big amounts of alkali c ash emitted together with SO 2 into the atmosphere through the chimneys of the thermal power plants. Therefore, acid rains are not frequent in Estonia. Acid precipitation here is caused mainly by SO 2 released in the central part of Europe. In Estonia acid rains are most frequently registered in the southern area of the country. At times rains with pH values below 5.1 (even 4.0 and lower) have been registered there. This is also the region where quite severely damaged pine forests can be found. As a rule, these forests grow on acid sandy soils poor in nutrients and bases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using oil shale ash as a liming agent in a forest ecosystem for protecting forest soils from acidification and, together with some mineral fertilizers, for improving the health of injured pine stands. In Estonia the most easily available liming agent is powdered oil-shale ash, which has been widely used as a lime fertilizer for agricultural crops but so far has not been tested for liming forests on mineral soils. The comparison of the present study with the liming experiments carried out with limestone in Finland shows that the effect of oil-shale ash treatment of acid sandy soils to raise pH values and to reduce other characteristics of soil acidity was more effective than limestone liming of mineral soils in Finnish forests. The present study demonstrates that powdered oil-shale ash is highly effective in short

  4. Effect of Post-Fire Curing on the Residual Mechanical Properties of Fire-Damaged Self-Compacting Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Heidarpour, A.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Smith, S; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is recognized for being a fire-resistant construction material. At elevated temperatures concrete can, however, undergo considerable damage such as strength degradation, cracking, and explosive spalling. In recent decades, reuse of fire-damaged concrete structures by means of developing

  5. Second-year growth and bole quality response of residual poletimber trees following thinning in an even-aged bottomland hardwood sawtimber stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A., Jr. Skojac; James S. Meadows; Andrew W. Ezell

    2010-01-01

    Poletimber trees were classified as either superior or inferior poletimber stock, and then retained on separate plots receiving identical thinning treatments. Differences in post-treatment response were used to evaluate the potential of the two poletimber classes to produce grade sawtimber in the thinned sawtimber stand. Treatments included: an unthinned control, two...

  6. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X D; Jennett, N M

    2017-01-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed. (paper)

  7. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. D.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-11-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed.

  8. Active disease and residual damage in treated Wegener's granulomatosis: an observational study using pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komocsi, Andras [Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie, Universitaet Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Reuter, Michael; Heller, Martin [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologische, Universitaet Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 7, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Murakoezi, Henriette; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Schnabel, Armin [Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie, Universitaet Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can distinguish active inflammatory disease from inactive cicatricial disease in patients treated for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Twenty-eight WG patients with active pulmonary disease underwent a first HRCT examination immediately before standard immunosuppressive treatment and a second examination after clinical remission had been achieved. Lesions remaining after treatment were categorized as residual damage and were compared with findings during active disease to see by what features active and cicatricial disease can be distinguished. During active disease 17 patients had nodules/masses, 12 had ground-glass opacities, 6 had septal lines and 6 had non-septal lines. After treatment, ground-glass opacities had resolved completely. Nodules/masses had resolved in 8 patients and had diminished in 7 patients. Residual nodules were distinguished from nodules/masses in active disease by lack of cavitation and a diameter of mostly <15 mm. In one-third of patients lines resolved, but in 8 instances new lines evolved during immunosuppression. During a follow-up period of a median 26.5 months (range 20.0-33.8), patients with residual nodules or lines had no more relapses than patients with completely cleared lungs. Treated pulmonary WG leaves substantial residual damage. High-resolution CT does assist in the distinction between active and inactive lesions. Ground-glass opacities, cavitating nodules/masses and masses measuring more than 3 cm represent active disease ordinarily. Non-cavitary small nodules and septal or non-septal lines can be either active or cicatricial lesions. The nature of these lesions needs to be clarified by longitudinal observation. (orig.)

  9. Structural comparison of AP endonucleases from the exonuclease III family reveals new amino acid residues in human AP endonuclease 1 that are involved in incision of damaged DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Vigouroux, Armelle; Mursalimov, Aibek; Grin, Inga; Alili, Doria; Koshenov, Zhanat; Akishev, Zhiger; Maksimenko, Andrei; Bissenbaev, Amangeldy K; Matkarimov, Bakhyt T; Saparbaev, Murat; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Moréra, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively damaged DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: DNA glycosylase-initiated base excision repair (BER) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease-initiated nucleotide incision repair (NIR). In the BER pathway, an AP endonuclease cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases, whereas in the NIR pathway, the same AP endonuclease incises DNA 5' to an oxidized base. The majority of characterized AP endonucleases possess classic BER activities, and approximately a half of them can also have a NIR activity. At present, the molecular mechanism underlying DNA substrate specificity of AP endonucleases remains unclear mainly due to the absence of a published structure of the enzyme in complex with a damaged base. To identify critical residues involved in the NIR function, we performed biochemical and structural characterization of Bacillus subtilis AP endonuclease ExoA and compared its crystal structure with the structures of other AP endonucleases: Escherichia coli exonuclease III (Xth), human APE1, and archaeal Mth212. We found conserved amino acid residues in the NIR-specific enzymes APE1, Mth212, and ExoA. Four of these positions were studied by means of point mutations in APE1: we applied substitution with the corresponding residue found in NIR-deficient E. coli Xth (Y128H, N174Q, G231S, and T268D). The APE1-T268D mutant showed a drastically decreased NIR activity and an inverted Mg(2+) dependence of the AP site cleavage activity, which is in line with the presence of an aspartic residue at the equivalent position among other known NIR-deficient AP endonucleases. Taken together, these data show that NIR is an evolutionarily conserved function in the Xth family of AP endonucleases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  11. RESIDUAL STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE OF ROD CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS OF AIRCRAFT AFTER THE DAMAGE BY LIGHTNING-LIKE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caused by lightning damage to the external elements of construction of the aircraft, in the form of deformities, burn-through and erosive craters and also hidden defects in the affected area can cause a reduction in the strength of damaged parts. Fatigue tests of samples of rod construction elements damaged by lightning-like electrical discharges showed that for a symmetric cycle of variable loading at an amplitude of 100 kPa and a frequency of 50 Hz supply of fatigue strength decreased in 1,5-1,7 times, and fatigue life decreased in 25 times at local burns and in 70 times at annular burns. The main reason is education on the details of micro cracks in the area of erosive craters formed by discharge.

  12. Pesticide residues, heavy metals, and DNA damage in sentinel oysters Crassostrea gigas from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Boucard, Celia; Anguiano-Vega, Gerardo; Mercier, Laurence; Rojas del Castillo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides and heavy metals were analyzed in sentinel Crassostrea gigas oysters placed in six aquaculture sites close to a contaminated agricultural region. Each site was sampled twice. Tests revealed the presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the oysters at concentrations varying from 31.8 to 72.5 μg/kg for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH); from 1.2 to 3.1 μg/kg for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4-DDE); from 1.6 to 2.3 μg/kg for endosulfan I; and from 1.4 to 41.2 μg/kg for endosulfan II, as well as heavy metals in concentrations that exceeded Mexican tolerance levels (405.5 to 987.8 μg/g for zinc; 4.2 to 7.3 μg/g for cadmium; and 7.2 to 9.9 μg/g for lead). Significant levels of DNA damage in oyster hemocytes were also detected. There was a significant, positive correlation between genotoxic damage and concentration of nickel or the presence of endosulfan II. Cellular viability evaluated by cytotoxic analyses was found to be high at 80%. Marked inhibition in activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE ) and induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was noted. Data demonstrated a significant relation between AChE activity inhibition and presence of endosulfan II, γ-HCH, copper, lead, and 4,4-DDE, as well as between AChE and GST activity at different sites.

  13. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers-Schoene, L.; Shugart, L.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Walton, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of freshwater ecosystems where both low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants are present. The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) and common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were analyzed for the presence of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, and Hg, radionuclides and chemicals known to be present at the contaminated site, and single-strand breaks in liver DNA. The integrity of the DNA was examined by the alkaline unwinding assay, a technique that detects strand breaks as a biological marker of possible exposure to genotoxic agents. This measure of DNA damage was significantly increased in both species of turtles at the contaminated site compared with turtles of the same species at a reference site, and shows that contaminant-exposed populations were under more severe genotoxic stress than those at the reference site. The level of strand breaks observed at the contaminated site was high and in the range reported for other aquatic species exposed to deleterious concentrations of genotoxic agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides and Hg were detected in the turtles from the contaminated area. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in the more carnivorous snapping turtle compared with the slider; however, both species were effective monitors of the contaminants

  14. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  15. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łotysz Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank’s headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  16. Some remarks on in-situ studies using TEM-heavy-ion accelerator link from the stand point of extracting radiation damage caused by fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Shiori, E-mail: ishino@k9.dion.ne.jp [University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Kenta [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Radiation damage of materials for fission and fusion reactors has been scaled in terms of the number of displacements per atoms (dpa). The method of evaluating the dpa has been established and standardized. However, it has become obvious that more detailed analyses are required, particularly for the nature and spatial distribution of the introduced point defects and their clusters. Such detailed nature of the defects introduced is thought to be governed by the primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectrum, A number of trials to elucidate the PKA dependent radiation effects by choosing the mass and energy of the incident ions have been explored. In some cases, defect formation by a single impinging ion has been observed. However, it has also been recognized that there are a number of artefacts arising from energy deposition distributions, existence of surface sinks together with radiation induced surface modifications and so on. In this paper, discussion will be made on how to establish irradiation correlation between neutron and heavy ion irradiations in a cascade damage formation regime. For the past fifty years, the correlation between neutron and ion irradiations from the view point of simulating the neutron radiation damage by ion irradiations has been discussed many times. However, the correlation itself has not been fully discussed separately. This is the major objective of this paper.

  17. Stand quality management in a late-rotation, red oak-sweetgum stand in east Mississippi: preliminary results following thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Skojac

    2012-01-01

    Stand quality management is a new management strategy in which thinning prescriptions are based solely on tree quality rather than a quantitative level of residual stand density. As long as residual density falls within fairly broad limits, prescriptions are based on tree quality alone. We applied four thinning prescriptions based on stand quality management, along...

  18. Reproduction abilities of Ips typographus (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae in the stands damaged by the wind in 2013 in the Kościeliska Valley (Tatra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodzki Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2013, strong wind destroyed spruce stands on large areas of Kościeliska Valley in Tatra Mts. in Poland. In 2015–2017, 304 bark samples were collected from 106 spruces; 25 cm × 25 cm large samples were taken from 2 or 4 sections of infested trees in July/August each year. The infestation density, sex ratio, length of maternal galleries, number of progeny and impact of natural enemies were recorded. The infestation density in individual years was 0.79–0.86 mating chambers per dm2, the average length of maternal gallery (55.2–56.6 mm did not differ between years, The average number of progeny per female from 3-year pooled data was 18.22, the highest in 2015 (27.4 then collapsed to 15.5–16.8. The gallery systems with 2 females, in which the reproduction success was the highest, dominated (62.6%. The frequency of parasitoids or entomopathogens was very low (2–20% mortality rate in 19 bark samples. Possible reasons of relatively low reproduction success regardless generally favourable breeding conditions and its collapse after first year, such as high infestation density and low survival rate of larvae because of climatic conditions (drought, are discussed. Taking into account the described population features, very intense tree mortality and mechanisms known from the other wind events, further development of the outbreak can be expected in this area.

  19. Residues in blackcurrants, fodder peas, spinach and potatoes treated with sublethal doses of 2,4,5-T to simulate wind drift damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Odgaard, Peder

    1981-01-01

    Blackcurrants, treated with 0.1 kg of 2,4,5-T ha-1 (as esters of mixed C4-C6 alcohols; Tormona 80), contained 0.1 mg of 2,4,5-T residues kg-1 in the berries at ripeness 29 days after treatment. Total residues in the berries were not reduced during growth and ripening, although the residue...

  20. Impacto do manejo de resíduos orgânicos durante a reforma de plantios de eucalipto sobre indicadores de qualidade do solo Impact of organic residue management on soil quality indicators during replanting of eucalypt stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Montandon Chaer

    2007-12-01

    microbiological and biochemical attributes proved more adequate than the chemical or physical indicators to detect soil quality changes due to management. The greatest disturbance caused by the removal or burning of organic material on the soil surface was evidenced by the higher qCO2 and lower qMIC in the upper soil layer (0 to 5 cm. The principal component analysis underlying the graphical representation demonstrated that soil under secondary forest, taken as reference for soil quality, was very distant from that under eucalyptus, demonstrating that the introduction of eucalyptus monoculture causes significant changes in soil quality. The soil quality of a eucalyptus stand left unharvested after the first normal seven years cycle (11 year-old stand was the closest to the area with native forest, followed by the soils under eucalyptus subjected to management systems that prioritized organic residue conservation during stand replanting. Contrarily, areas from which the organic material at the soil surface was removed or burned appeared very distant from the reference area. Our results show that the management system adopted during eucalyptus stand replanting influenced, in the medium term, the potential of soils to store and cycle nutrients via microbial biomass and associated biochemical activities. The fact that the 11 years old eucalyptus stand was closest to the reference area may suggest that the adoption of longer cycles for eucalyptus plantations, contrasting with the actual model of short rotation eucalyptus forests in Brazil (about seven years, is relevant to maintain soil sustainability for eucalyptus production in the long run, in spite of the lower mean annual productivity. In this case, the option for a higher productivity in the short and medium term, or for the sustainability of soil use, with the consequent maintenance of its quality for the future generations, should be reevaluated from the data presented here.

  1. A Two-Stage Method for Structural Damage Prognosis in Shear Frames Based on Story Displacement Index and Modal Residual Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Rasouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage method is proposed to properly identify the location and the extent of damage in shear frames. In the first stage, a story displacement index (SDI is presented to precisely locate the damage in the shear frame which is calculated using the modal analysis information of the damaged structure. In the second stage, by defining a new objective function, the extent of the actual damage is determined via an imperialist competitive algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by implementing the technique to three examples containing five-, ten-, and twenty-five-story shear frames with noises and without them in modal data. Moreover, the performance of the proposed method has been verified through using a benchmark problem. Numerical results show the high efficiency of the proposed method for accurately identifying the location and the extent of structural damage in shear frames.

  2. Residues in blackcurrants, fodder peas, spinach and potatoes treated with sublethal doses of 2,4,5-T to simulate wind drift damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Odgaard, Peder

    1981-01-01

    Blackcurrants, treated with 0.1 kg of 2,4,5-T ha-1 (as esters of mixed C4-C6 alcohols; Tormona 80), contained 0.1 mg of 2,4,5-T residues kg-1 in the berries at ripeness 29 days after treatment. Total residues in the berries were not reduced during growth and ripening, although the residue...... concentrations declined in the same period due to growth dilution. In spinach leaves from old plants, treated with 0.1 kg ha-1, 0.05 mg of 2,4,5-T kg-1 was found 14 days after treatment. Fodder peas showed no residues (....1 kg ha-1 on potato plants, the disappearance of 2,4,5-T was rapid during the first month, but residues were translocated into the tubers and reached a constant level of 0.02 mg kg-1 after 1 month until harvest at 108 days after treatment. In all crops, visible effects were observed after treatment...

  3. Effect of Surface Preparation on Residual Stresses in Multilayer Coatings and the Consequences for Disbondment Following Construction Damage and Exposure to In-Service Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Underground pipelines are protected by a combination of cathodic protection and a protective coating. Multi-layer coatings offer protection against corrosion and from mechanical damage during construction or during service. Multi-layer coatings are w...

  4. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  5. Damages to soil and tree species by cable-skidding in Caspian forests of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavankar, Farzam; Bonyad, Amir E.; Nikooy, Mehrdad; Picchio, Rodolfo; Venanzi, Rachele; Calienno, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: The main aims of this study were to determine of damage level to residual stand and soil disturbance from mechanized selection logging. Area of study: Mixed beech stands in Caspian forests, northern Iran. Material and methods: Point-transect and systematic plot sampling were used for assessing damages to soil and trees, respectively. Main results: 89% of forest soil area was undisturbed or shallow disturbed, and 5.2% was deep disturbed. Soil bulk density of top 10 cm in the winching corridors, ruts and skid trails were increased 10.7%, 20.6% and 32.1% respectively than controlled area. Frequency of damages to regeneration and trees were 12% and 11.2%. The frequency of damages to regeneration was increased with increasing of their heights, but frequency of damages to trees was decreased with increasing of their diameter. The most type of damages was bole wounds in sizes of 100 to 200 cm2 within 1 m from the ground level, and deep wounds. The frequency of damages was different in tree species (p = 0.001). The mean size of bole wounds was 174 cm2, and the mean height of bole wounds was 70 cm from ground level. The intensity of wounds on trees bole were decreased with increasing of their heights from ground level (p = 0.02), while their sizes were increased (p = 0.001). Research highlights: Winching of logs was the main cause of damages to soil and residual stand. The detailed planning strategy will reduce damage to level which is acceptable and predictable.

  6. Damages to soil and tree species by cable-skidding in Caspian forests of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavankar, Farzam; Bonyad, Amir E.; Nikooy, Mehrdad; Picchio, Rodolfo; Venanzi, Rachele; Calienno, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The main aims of this study were to determine of damage level to residual stand and soil disturbance from mechanized selection logging. Area of study: Mixed beech stands in Caspian forests, northern Iran. Material and methods: Point-transect and systematic plot sampling were used for assessing damages to soil and trees, respectively. Main results: 89% of forest soil area was undisturbed or shallow disturbed, and 5.2% was deep disturbed. Soil bulk density of top 10 cm in the winching corridors, ruts and skid trails were increased 10.7%, 20.6% and 32.1% respectively than controlled area. Frequency of damages to regeneration and trees were 12% and 11.2%. The frequency of damages to regeneration was increased with increasing of their heights, but frequency of damages to trees was decreased with increasing of their diameter. The most type of damages was bole wounds in sizes of 100 to 200 cm2 within 1 m from the ground level, and deep wounds. The frequency of damages was different in tree species (p = 0.001). The mean size of bole wounds was 174 cm2, and the mean height of bole wounds was 70 cm from ground level. The intensity of wounds on trees bole were decreased with increasing of their heights from ground level (p = 0.02), while their sizes were increased (p = 0.001). Research highlights: Winching of logs was the main cause of damages to soil and residual stand. The detailed planning strategy will reduce damage to level which is acceptable and predictable.

  7. Stand quality management of a water oak plantation in Louisiana: preliminary results following thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A., Jr. Skojac

    2010-01-01

    Stand quality management is a new guiding principle in which thinning prescriptions are based on tree quality rather than on residual stand density. We recently initiated a series of hardwood thinning studies to determine the effects of four stand quality management thinning prescriptions on both stand-level and individual-tree-level growth, quality, and value: (1) no...

  8. Entry of a Six-Residue Antimicrobial Peptide Derived from Lactoferricin B into Single Vesicles and Escherichia coli Cells without Damaging their Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Islam, Md Zahidul; Sharmin, Sabrina; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2017-08-22

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) and shorter versions of this peptide have antimicrobial activity. However, the elementary processes of interactions of these peptides with lipid membranes and bacteria are still not well understood. To elucidate the mechanism of their antimicrobial activity, we investigated the interactions of LfcinB (4-9) (its sequence of RRWQWR) with Escherichia coli cells and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). LfcinB (4-9) and lissamine rhodamine B red-labeled LfcinB (4-9) (Rh-LfcinB (4-9)) did not induce an influx of a membrane-impermeant fluorescent probe, SYTOX green, from the outside of E. coli cells into their cytoplasm, indicating that no damage occurred in their plasma membrane. To examine the activity of LfcinB (4-9) to enter E. coli cytoplasm, we investigated the interaction of Rh-LfcinB (4-9) with single cells of E. coli containing calcein using confocal microscopy. We found that Rh-LfcinB (4-9) entered the cytoplasm without leakage of calcein. Next, we investigated the interactions of Rh-LfcinB (4-9) with single GUVs of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) mixtures containing a fluorescent probe, Alexa Fluor 647 hydrazide (AF647), using the single GUV method. The results indicate that Rh-LfcinB (4-9) outside the GUV translocated through the GUV membrane and entered its lumen without leakage of AF647. Interaction of Rh-LfcinB (4-9) with DNA increased its fluorescence intensity greatly. Therefore, we can conclude that Rh-LfcinB (4-9) can translocate across lipid membrane regions of the plasma membrane of E. coli cells to enter their cytoplasm without leakage of calcein and its antimicrobial activity is not due to damage of their plasma membranes.

  9. A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and clearfelled plots with burnt and unburnt harvest residue treatments of a clonal eucalypt plantation on the Zululand Coastal Plain, South Africa.

  10. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  11. Stand Structure and Composition 32 Years after Precommercial Thinning Treatments in a Mixed Northern Conifer Stand in Central Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Laura S. Kenefic; Rongxia Li; John Brissette

    2011-01-01

    The effects of four precommercial thinning (PCT) treatments on an even-aged northern conifer stand in Maine were investigated by examining stand structure and composition 32 years after treatment. Replicated treatments applied in 1976 included: (1) control (no PCT), (2) row thinning (rowthin; 5-ft-wide row removal with 3-ft-wide residual strips), (3) row thinning with...

  12. How to formulate and solve "optimal stand density over time" problems for even-aged stands using dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung M. Chen; Dietmar W. Rose; Rolfe A. Leary

    1980-01-01

    Describes how dynamic programming can be used to solve optimal stand density problems when yields are given by prior simulation or by a new stand growth equation that is a function of the decision variable. Formulations of the latter type allow use of a calculus-based search procedure; they determine exact optimal residual density at each stage.

  13. Weld Residual Stress in Corner Boxing Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi, Matsuoka; Tokuharu, Yoshii; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport

    1998-01-01

    Fatigue damage often occurs in corner boxing welded joints because of stress concentration and residual stress. The hot spot stress approach is applicable to stress concentration. However, the number of suitable methods for estimating residual stress in welded joints is limited. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the residual stress in corner boxing joints. The method of estimating residual stresses based on the inherent stress technique is presented. Residual stress measurements are per...

  14. Thinning results from a mixed upland hardwood stand after 35 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J., Jr. Myers; Kenneth R. Roeder; W. Henry McNab

    2008-01-01

    A long-term study of precommercial thinning was installed in a 6-year-old oak-dominated stand regenerated by clearcutting in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Three levels of residual stand density were tested: control (no thinning), and 200, and 400 residual trees per acre (TPA). Objectives of the study were to determine the response of an upland...

  15. Planter unit test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  16. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  17. Harvesting Impacts on Soil Properties and Tree Regeneration in Pure and Mixed Aspen Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Arikian; Kiaus J. Peuttmann; Alaina L. Davis; George E. Host; John Zasada

    1999-01-01

    Impacts of clearcutting and selective harvesting on pure aspen/mixed aspen hardwood stands were examined in northern Minnesota. We studied these impacts on 18 stands, which were harvested 4 to 11 years ago and received no further treatment. In each stand, residual composition, soil compaction, and tree regeneration were determined along a gradient of disturbance in the...

  18. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  19. 78 FR 41942 - Standing Rock Sioux Tribe; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    .... FEMA-4123-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] Standing Rock Sioux Tribe; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (FEMA-4123-DR), dated June 25...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage to the lands associated with the Standing Rock Sioux...

  20. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  1. Armillaria species in coniferous stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Żółciak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the Armillaria species in selected coniferous stands (Scots pine stands, Norway spruce stands and fir stands was the aim of the work carried out on the basis of mating tests and consideration of macroscopic traits of fruit-bodies. One species of Armillaria [A. ostoyae (Romagnesi Herink] was found in Scots pine stands, three species [A. ostoyae, A. cepistipes Velenovský and A. borealis Marxmüller et Korhonen] were found in Norway spruce stands and two species [A. ostoyae and A. cepistipes] were found in fir stands.

  2. Golden rule (standing theology)

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Randolph

    2017-01-01

    This study offers an example of ‘standing theology’ as distinguished from sitting theology or kneeling theology. The occasion was the Fourth Sunday of Easter in Bangor Cathedral, 2015. The Epistle reading was 1 John 3: 16–24.\\ud \\ud

  3. Economics of stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    This paper sets out to demonstrate the importance of considering the wealth represented by the growing stock in economic analyses of stand management alternatives, and to demonstrate the role of thinning in the manipulation of the efficiency of growing stock in the management of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). These goals are achieved through a demonstration of...

  4. Principles of managing stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Marquis; Rodney Jacobs

    1989-01-01

    Forest stands are managed to achieve some combination of desired products or values. These products or values may include income and tangible benefits from timber production or fees for hunting rights and other recreational activities. The values may be intangible, such as the enjoyment of seeing wildlife or flowering plants, or the simple satisfaction of knowing that...

  5. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  6. Validation of Software for Prediction of Grounding Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2000-01-01

    This report contains a series of validation examples for the damage prediction module that will be implemented in the ISESO stand-alone stofware for Project 7: Grounding.......This report contains a series of validation examples for the damage prediction module that will be implemented in the ISESO stand-alone stofware for Project 7: Grounding....

  7. Radiation damage to histones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.K.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The damage to histones irradiated in isolation is being elaborated to aid the identification of the crosslinking sites in radiation-induced DNA-histone adducts. Histones are being examined by amino acid analysis to determine the destruction of residues and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to delineate changes in conformation. For the slightly lysine-rich histone, H2A, a specific attack on selective residues has been established, the aromatic residues, tyrosine and phenylalanine, and the heterocyclic residue, histidine, being significantly destroyed. In addition, a significant increase in aspartic acid was found; this may represent a radiation product from scission of the ring in the histidine residues. The similarity of the effects on residues in nitrous oxide-saturated and nitrogen-saturated solutions suggests that OH . and e/sub aq//sup -/ are equally efficient and selective in their attack. On gel electrophoresis degradation of the histone H2A was found to be greatest for irradiations in nitrous oxide-saturated solutions, suggesting CH . is the most effective radical for producing changes in conformation; O/sub 2//sup -/ was essentially ineffective. Other histones are being examined for changes in amino acid composition, conformation, and for the formation of radiation products

  8. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  9. Take a Stand!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danquah, I. H.; Kloster, S.; Holtermann, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prolonged sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Interventions at work may contribute to reduced sitting. The objective was to test if a multicomponent work-based intervention can reduce sitting time and the number of prolonged sitting periods (> 30 min......), increase the number of sit-to-stand transitions and decrease waist circumference and body fat percentage among office workers. Primary outcomes were: change in sitting time, prolonged sitting periods and sit-to-stand transitions at followup 1 month later. Methods: At four workplaces, 19 offices (317...... workers in total) were cluster randomized for intervention or control. The intervention included the appointment of local ambassadors, management support, environmental changes, a lecture and a workshop. Sitting time was measured using an ActiGraph GT3X+ fixed on the thigh. Data were processed using Acti4...

  10. Stand-alone XLIF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E. J.; Simony, A.; Hummel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    and clinical/radiological results in 22 patients treated with XLIF procedure for DS or degenerative disc disease (DDD). Material and methods: 22 consecutive patients with DS underwent surgery with the XLIF stand-alone procedure, with follow-up of 24 months. Clinical outcome scores were collected. Complications......Introduction: Adult thoracolumbar degeneration is an increasing challenge in the aging population. With age the progressive degeneration of the discs leads to an asymmetric collapse and a thoracolumbar coronal plane deformity, a degenerative scoliosis (DS). Aim: To evaluate the complication rate......-year follow-up, with a 31.8% revision rate. Due to the high revision rate we recommend supplementary posterior instrumentation, to achieve a higher fusion rate. When considering XLIF-stand-alone procedure for DS or DDD without supplemental posterior instrumentation, only single-level disease should...

  11. A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental site was established in a clonal eucalypt compartment on the Zululand Coastal Plain, to compare changes in water fluxes through the mature undisturbed eucalypt stand with those after felling and re-planting, under 2 conditions: burning, and retention of the harvesting residues. The study was located in an ...

  12. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  13. Stand dynamics following gap-scale exogenous disturbance in a single cohort mixed species stand in Morgan County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian S. Hughett; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2014-01-01

    Differences in composition, structure, and growth under canopy gaps created by the mortality of a single stem were analyzed using analysis of variance under two scenarios, with stem removed or with stem left as a standing snag. There were no significant differences in composition and structure of large diameter residual stems within upper canopy strata. Some...

  14. The effects of stand characteristics on reindeer lichens and range use by semi-domesticated reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Kuusamo (66°15'N, 29°05'E and Inari (68°30'N, 28°15'E, northern Finland, where 24 and 22 Scots pine stands were studied respectively. Clear-cutting (logging residue caused a decline in lichen biomass for some few years, but otherwise the age of the stand had no effect upon lichen biomass. Instead, a positive correlation was found between litter/logging residue and the mean height of lichens; in Kuusamo, logging residue decreased significantly with the age of the stand. Grazing pressure in terms of fecal group density increased with the age of the stand. The preference of old forests came visible also as a lower mean height of lichens, which eliminates the possibility that the preference of old forests is associated only to the use of arboreal lichens. In Inari, grazing pressure sharply increased after the stand had reached the age of 100 years despite scarce litter/logging residue and fair lichen ranges in younger forests; there prevailed a negative correlation between stand density and grazing pressure. It has been suggested that there might be three main reasons for reindeers preferring old forests: 1 hardening of the snow (because of winds on clear-cut areas, 2 logging residue preventing digging for the food beneath the snow, and 3 poor visibility in young pine stands (Inari which might increase predation risk.

  15. Standing equine dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert A; Easley, Jack

    2014-04-01

    Dental surgeries refer to procedures that affect the dental tissues or their supporting structures. With the development of specific, efficacious, and conservative treatments, morbidity risks have been lowered and chances of benefiting the health of equids improved. Advances in quality of sedation, analgesia, and locoregional anesthesia allow a majority of dental surgeries to be performed in the standing patient. This update focuses on an orthograde endodontic technique, a minimally invasive buccotomy technique, with the potential to combine it with a transbuccal screw extraction technique, and revisits the AO pinless external fixator for fractures of the body of the mandible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  17. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  18. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  19. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  20. Multiple Site Damage in Flat Panel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrage, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This report aimed to experimentally verify analytical models that predict the residual strength of representative aircraft structures, such as wide panels, that are subjected to Multiple Site Damage (MSD...

  1. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 2 november 2007 Extraordinary meeting on 12 November 2007 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 November 2007 and 12 November included: Restaurants Supervisory Committee Report The committee took note of the report by the chairman of the Restaurants Supervisory Committee (RSC), T. Lagrange. In particular, it was recorded that, in Restaurant No. 1, the new kitchen and free flow arrangements had been inaugurated and all works had been commissioned on schedule in October 2007.The contractor, Novae, had taken over maintenance of the new kitchen. Some price increases were to be expected in the coming months due mainly to strong increases in the cost of basic ingredients. A problem with bad smells in the area of Restaurant No. 1 was being taken care of by tuning the ventilation system. The RSC wished to thank the management and staff of Restaurant No. 2 for their cooperation while Restaurant No 1 was ...

  2. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee in the first quarter of 2009 included: Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) 2009 exercise The committee took note of 2009 MARS ceiling guidelines giving the advancement budget by career path and amounting to approx 1.80% of the basic salary bill. To this will be added 250 steps CERN-wide, financed by savings from implementation of the international indemnity for 2007, 2008 and the first half of 2009. The specific Senior Staff Guidelines, including the proposed number of promotions from Career Path E to F, were also noted. The guidelines with respect to step distribution were also noted: the minima and maxima remain the same as in previous years. Compliance with the guidelines will continue to be monitored closely (more details, including a frequently asked questions section). It was also noted that Financial Awards (awards for extraordinary service and responsibility allowances) may b...

  3. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary Meeting on 11 May 2009 The meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee held on 11 May 2009 was entirely dedicated to the preparation of the TREF meeting on 19 & 20 May 2009. The Committee took note, discussed and agreed on some clarifications on a number of documents and presentations that the Management planned to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: • Personnel statistics 2008: J. Purvis presented the Personnel Statistics for 2008 prepared by HR Department. In line with the previous year, key messages were firstly, a general reduction in staff (2544 to 2400, - 6%), secondly, a reduction in administrative services personnel (from 422 to 387, - 8%) and thirdly, a marked increase in the number of Users and Unpaid Associates (from 8369 to 9140, + 9%) • Five-Yearly Review 2010: A series of draft documents were submitted for discussion, comprising an introductory document explaining the statutory basis for the following four document...

  4. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Main issues examined at the meeting of 2 October 2009 The October 2009 meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee was entirely devoted to preparation of TREF’s meeting on 21-22 October. The Committee took note of, discussed and agreed on clarifications needed to some of the documents and presentations that the Management intended to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: Equal opportunities The Committee took note of a preliminary report on equal opportunities at CERN drawn up by D. Chromek-Burckhart, the Equal Opportunities Officer, and T. Smith, Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel, containing in particular a proposal for a new process for resolving harassment conflicts. Technical analysis of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme - Actuary’s Report The Committee took note of a presentation by P. Charpentier, Chairman of the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHIS Board), on the 2009 actuarial report on the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Th...

  5. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had subscribed to the short-term saved leave scheme: approx 58% had subscribed 1 slice, 14% two slices, 5% three slices and 23% four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme to the Director-General for approval. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract to the Director-General for approval. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) was extended for a further year to 3...

  6. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The Committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had enrolled in the short-term saved leave scheme: approx. 58% had signed up for 1 slice, 14% for two slices, 5% for three slices and 23% for four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PR...

  7. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  8. Advanced concept for damage control : A framework to simulate fire propagation and damage control effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, M.P.W.; Keijer, W.; Smit, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Current damage control procedures are developed on the basis of a long-standing experience. However there are reasons to believe that these procedures do not account for major weapon-induced calamities. Fire fighting after substantial blast and fragmentation damage, due to a weaponhit, is quite

  9. Effects of low-density thinning in a declining white pine stand in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2013-01-01

    Low-density (32 ft2/acre residual basal area) and medium-low density (60 ft2/acre residual basal area) thinnings were studied over a 4-year period in a declining white pine stand on the Massabesic Experimental Forest in southern Maine. Gross basal area growth at 60 ft2 was about three-fourths the rate...

  10. Prediction of fatigue damage in tapered laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raeis Hosseiny, Seyed Aydin; Jakobsen, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    . By increasing the cracks density, damage occurs when residual material properties reduce to a critical level. Residual strength and stiffness of simple laminates are assigned in a set of fatigue failure criteria to assess the remaining life of the components by increasing number of loading cycles. The mode...

  11. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 27 February 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members: M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff Associatio...

  12. Standing concertation commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    MEETINGS ON 2 AND 9 DECEMBER 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 and 9 December 2008 included: Medical Service Report 2007 The Committee took note of the report by Dr. E. Reymond (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/fr/indexFR.htm) and of a number of points raised during the discussion. It was noted that the number of professional accidents declined in 2007 (361 accidents) in comparison with 2006 (483), as well as their gravity and frequency. The CERN Medical Service carried out a study on cancer prevalence (number of cases) and incidence (new cases per year per 100000 people), between 1993 and 2007, which identified some prostate, breast and colorectal cancers, though less than in the two Host States. Specific preventive actions will be promoted by the CERN CHISboard and the Medical Service in this context as well as in other areas. The committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work i...

  13. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 30 JANUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The Committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement mea...

  14. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 30 January 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement measure...

  15. Stand-up physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A CMS physicist and amateur stand up comic was named the winner of NESTA FameLab 2009. Tom Whyntie battled it out with nine others young scientists from across the UK to win the contest to find the country’s next top science communicator. Tom Whyntie with his prize money after the NESTA Famelab final.Tom Whyntie, who is currently doing his PhD on the CMS experiment, managed to persuade his supervisor to give him a few days off on 5 June so he could fly back to the UK for the final of NESTA FameLab 2009. In the competition, which has been dubbed ‘the X Factor for scientists’, he had just three minutes to explain a complex scientific idea to a panel of judges made up of high-profile science professionals. During the final, he captivated the audience with his talk about how finding nothing at the LHC, far from being a waste of £5 billion, would actually catalyse the next scientific revolution. It Whyntie’s own words: "If the L...

  16. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members : M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines: In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff ...

  17. Dynamics of Connecticut hemlock stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; David M. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The stand dynamics and production of two one-acre plots of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L) in Connecticut have been followed for more than six decades. Data were recorded for all individual trees. One plot (Saltonstall) was established in 1924 after the removal of a hardwood overstory. This stand had a nearly pure, almost fully closed understory...

  18. A-1 Test Stand work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center work to maneuver a structural steam beam into place on the A-1 Test Stand on Jan. 13. The beam was one of several needed to form the thrust takeout structure that will support a new thrust measurement system being installed on the stand for future rocket engine testing. Once lifted onto the stand, the beams had to be hoisted into place through the center of the test stand, with only two inches of clearance on each side. The new thrust measurement system represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment installed more than 40 years ago when the test stand was first constructed.

  19. Wood quality and value production in mixed fir-spruce-beech stands: long-term research in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem quality and damage was evaluated in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands. Moreover, an assortments structure was determined with their financial value. Results were compared with pure spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst., fir (Abies alba Mill. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands. Repeated measurements on 31 long-term research plots, stand assortment models, assortment yield models and value yield models were used. Stem quality of fir and spruce was only slightly lower in mixed stands compared to pure stands but beech stem quality was considerably worse in mixed stands. Fir and spruce had slightly lower proportions of better IIIA quality logs and higher proportions of IIIB quality in mixed stands. Beech had worse assortment structure than spruce and fir, in general. Pure beech stands had higher proportions of better I–IIIA quality assortments than mixed stands by 1–7%. Fir and spruce average value production (€ m−3 culminated at about 56 and 62 cm mean diameters. Almost the same value production was found in pure stands. In these stands it culminated at the mean diameter of 58 and 60 cm. Beech produced substantially less value on the same sites. In mixed stands, its value production culminated at the mean diameter of 40 cm. In pure stands, it culminated at the mean diameter of 36 cm. Although the production was found to be similar in both mixed and pure forests, higher damage intensity and less stem quality in mixed forests suggest that the pure forests can be more profitable.

  20. Harvest residue and competing vegetation affect soil moisture, soil temperature, N availability, and Douglas-fir seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Constance A. Harrington; Thomas A. Terry

    2005-01-01

    Decisions made during stand regeneration that affect subsequent levels of competing vegetation and residual biomass can have important short-term consequences for early stand growth, and may affect long-term site productivity. Competing vegetation clearly affects the availability of site resources such as soil moisture and nutrients. Harvest residues can also impact...

  1. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  2. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  3. Rotated sigmoid structures in managed uneven-aged northern hardwood stands: a look at the Burr Type III distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; William B. Leak; Lianjun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Stand structures from a combined density manipulation and even- to uneven-aged conversion experiment on the Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) were examined 25 years after initial treatment for rotated sigmoidal diameter distributions. A comparison was made on these stands between two probability density functions for fitting these residual structures:...

  4. Stand Development 25 Years after a 9.0-inch Diameter-Limit First Cutting In Appalachian Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; N. I. Lamson

    1977-01-01

    This report is a case history of stand development 25 years after a 9.0-inch diameter-limit cutting in a primarily second growth 40- to 45-year-old Appalachian hardwood stand. Some old residual trees from the early 1900 logging era were scattered throughout the stand. In 1950, a 9.0-inch diameter-limit cutting removed 8,650 board feet per acre and reduced the basal...

  5. Basic Modelling principles and Validation of Software for Prediction of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2000-01-01

    This report describes basic modelling principles, the theoretical background and validation examples for the collision damage prediction module in the ISESO stand-alone software.......This report describes basic modelling principles, the theoretical background and validation examples for the collision damage prediction module in the ISESO stand-alone software....

  6. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  7. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D.; Askbrant, S.; Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas

  8. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data

  9. Post-breeding bird responses to canopy tree retention, stand size, and edge in regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    Avian use of even-aged timber harvests is likely affected by stand attributes such as size, amount of edge, and retained basal area, all characteristics that can easily be manipulated in timber harvesting plans. However, few studies have examined their effects during the post-breeding period. We studied the impacts of clearcut, low-leave two-age, and high-leave two-age harvesting on post-breeding birds using transect sampling and mist-netting in north-central West Virginia. In our approach, we studied the effects of these harvest types as well as stand size and edge on species characteristic of both early-successional and mature forest habitats. In 2005-2006, 13 stands ranging from 4 to 10. years post-harvest and 4-21. ha in size were sampled from late June through mid-August. Capture rates and relative abundance were similar among treatments for generalist birds. Early-successional birds had the lowest capture rates and fewer species (~30% lower), and late-successional birds reached their highest abundance and species totals (double the other treatments) in high-leave two-age stands. Area sensitivity was evident for all breeding habitat groups. Both generalist and late-successional bird captures were negatively related to stand size, but these groups showed no clear edge effects. Mean relative abundance decreased to nearly zero for the latter group in the largest stands. In contrast, early-successional species tended to use stand interiors more often and responded positively to stand size. Capture rates for this group tripled as stand size increased from 4 to 21. ha. Few birds in the forest periphery responded to harvest edge types despite within-stand edge effects evident for several species. To create suitable habitat for early-successional birds, large, non-linear openings with a low retained basal area are ideal, while smaller harvests and increased residual tree retention would provide habitat for more late-successional birds post-breeding. Although our study

  10. Isotope separation by standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altshuler, S.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of isotopes is accomplished by scattering a beam of particles from a standing electromagnetic wave. The particles may consist of either atoms or molecules, the beam having in either case a desired isotope and at least one other. The particle beam is directed so as to impinge on the standing electromagnetic wave, which may be a light wave. The particles, that is, the atomic or molecular quantum-mechanical waves, see basically a diffraction grating corresponding to the troughs and peaks of the electromagnetic wave. The frequency of the standing electromagnetic wave substantially corresponds to an internal energy level-transition of the desired isotope. Accordingly, the desired isotope is spatially separated by being scattered or diffracted. (author)

  11. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  12. Leaf area and structural changes after thinning in even-aged Picea rubens and Abies balsamea stands in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Robert S. Seymour

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that changes in leaf area index (LAIm2 m-2) and mean stand diameter following thinning are due to thinning type and residual density. The ratios of pre- to postthinning diameter and LAI were used to assess structural changes between replicated crown, dominant, and low thinning treatments to 33% and 50% residual density in even-aged Picea rubens...

  13. An Induction Linac Test Stand

    CERN Document Server

    De Hope, William; Kihara, Ron; Ong, Mike; Vogtlin, George; Zentler, Jan-Mark

    2005-01-01

    A single-cell test stand has been constructed to facilitate study and guide improvements of the induction electron linac at the FXR radiographic facility at LLNL.* This paper will discuss how modifications in pulse compression and shaping, pulse power transmission, initial ferrite state, and accelerator cell loading have been performed on the test stand and can be applied to the entire accelerator. Some of the specialized diagnostics being used will be described. Finally, the paper will discuss how computer modeling and judicious timing control can be used to optimize accelerator performance by making only selective changes that can be accomplished at minimal cost.

  14. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  15. Microclimate effects of crop residues on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    Residues from crops left on the soil surface have an impact on the microclimate, primarily temperature, within the soil and the atmosphere; but, the impact on the biological system is largely unknown. Residue is assumed to have a positive impact on the biological system in the soil and a negative impact on crop growth. This report investigates the effect of standing residue on the microclimate surrounding a cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop in a semi-arid environment and the effect of flat residue on the seasonal soil temperature and soil water regimes in a humid climate with a corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system. A study was conducted during 1987 and 1988 in a semi-arid climate at Lubbock, Texas using standing wheat stubble to shelter cotton from wind. In this study soil water, microclimatic variables, and plant growth were measured within standing stubble and bare soil during the early vegetative growth period. Air temperatures were warmer at night within the standing residue and the air more humid throughout the day. This led to a reduction in the soil water evaporation rate and an increase in the water use efficiency of the cotton plant within the stubble. Studies on corn residue with continuous corn and corn-soybean rotations with no-till, chiselplow, and moldboard plow tillage practices in central Iowa showed that the average soil temperatures in the upper soil profile were not affected by the presence of flat residue after tillage. Diurnal temperature ranges were most affected by the residue throughout the year. The largest effect of the residue on soil temperature was in the fall after harvest when no-till fields cooled more slowly than tilled fields. In the spring, surface residue decreased the soil water evaporation rate and increased the soil water storage within the soil profile covered with residue. In years with below normal rainfall, the additional stored soil water due to the surface residue was used by the

  16. Burnout : de stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten

  17. Students dance longitudinal standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    A demonstration is presented that involves students dancing longitudinal standing waves. The resulting kinaesthetic experience and visualization both contribute towards an understanding of the natural modes of vibrations in open and closed pipes. A video of this fun classroom activity is provided (http://mjtruiz.com/ped/dance/).

  18. MICRONUTRIENTS AND BIOMASS IN Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden STAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiele Dick

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of silviculture in Brazil, and the consequent intensive practices for soil preparation with high demand for fertilizers require sustainable nutrient management of forest sites. The objective of this study was to quantify the biomass and the micronutrient stocks of a 60-month-old Eucalyptus dunnii stand established in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul. The stand was established in a Rhodic Paleudult soil with low fertility and texture varying between sandy loam and sandy-clay loam. For the sampling of stand biomass, twelve trees were harvested, sectioned at ground level, and subsequently fractionated into the components roots, leaves, branches, stembark and stemwood to determine the dry mass and micronutrient content. The total biomass of the stand was 67.49 Mg ha-1, with mass allocation in descending order from: stem wood > root > bark > branches > leaves. Total micronutrient stocks for boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn were 562.57, 401.46, 9913.28, 31877.82, and 766.96 g ha-1, respectively. In addition, we found greater accumulation of Zn in the wood, high Mn accumulation especially in the bark, and high Fe content in the roots. Therefore, based on these micronutrient levels and their allocation between biomass fractions, we emphasize that the practice of retaining forest residues on-site after harvest is essential for forest nutrition through nutrient cycling and for soil conservation and fertility.

  19. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast east was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This photograph of the Pump House area was taken August 13, 1963. The massive round water storage tanks can be seen to the left of

  20. Fatigue damage monitoring of structural aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.Р. Ігнатович

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  Results of the experiments directed on creation of a new tool method of fatigue damage diagnostics and an estimation of a residual life of aviation designs are presented. It is shown, that the defo rmation relief formed on a surface of cladding  layer of sheets of constructional alloys Д-16АТ, 2024-Т3, 7075-Т6  can be considered as the metal damage indicator  under cyclically repeating loadings.

  1. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  2. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  3. CAREM-25: Residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvia, Roberto P.; Coppari, Norberto R.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was the definition and consolidation of the residual heat removal system for the CAREM 25 reactor. The function of this system is cool down the primary circuit, removing the core decay heat from hot stand-by to cold shutdown and during refueling. In addition, this system heats the primary water from the cold shutdown condition to hot stand-by condition during the reactor start up previous to criticality. The system has been designed according to the requirements of the standards: ANSI/ANS 51.1 'Nuclear safety criteria for the design of stationary PWR plants'; ANSI/ANS 58.11 'Design criteria for safe shutdown following selected design basis events in light water reactors' and ANSI/ANS 58.9 'Single failure criteria for light water reactor safety-related fluid systems'. The suggested design fulfills the required functions and design criteria standards. (author)

  4. Seasonal Biennial Burning and Woody Plant Control Influence Native Vegetation in Loblolly Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Alton Martin; Henry A. Pearson; Harold E. Grelen

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the results of a study to determine the effects of selectedvegetation-management treatments in loblolly pine. Vegetation in precommercially thinned, 6-year-old stands was subjected to five biennial growing season burns in either early March, May, or July coupled with hand felling of residual woody stems. Using a randomized complete block design, we...

  5. Influence of stand density on stem quality in pole-size northern hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; David J. Books

    1971-01-01

    Relates the type and frequency of limbs and limb-related defects in the first two logs of five hardwood species to residual basal area 15 years after initial cutting. Also discusses other tree characteristics influenced by stand density and the applicability of present silvicultural guides to improve stem quality.

  6. The carbon consequences of thinning techniques: stand structure makes a difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeli Hoover; Susan Stout

    2007-01-01

    Using results from a 25-year study of thinning in a northwestern Pennsylvania Allegheny hardwood stand, we assess whether and how thinning method affected carbon sequestration and merchantable volume production. Plots were thinned to similar residual relative density by removing trees from different portions of the diameter distribution. Plots that were thinned from...

  7. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  8. A Damage-Dependent Finite Element Analysis for Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.

    1998-01-01

    A progressive damage methodology has been developed to predict damage growth and residual strength of fiber-reinforced composite structure with through penetrations such as a slit. The methodology consists of a damage-dependent constitutive relationship based on continuum damage mechanics. Damage is modeled using volume averaged strain-like quantities known as internal state variables and is represented in the equilibrium equations as damage induced force vectors instead of the usual degradation and modification of the global stiffness matrix.

  9. Development and Evaluation of an Expert System for Diagnosing Pest Damage of Red Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L Schmoldt; George L. Martin

    1989-01-01

    An expert system for diagnosing pest damage of red pine stands in Wisconsin, PREDICT, runs on IBM or compatible microcomputers and is designed to be useful for field foresters with no advanced training in forest pathology or entomology. PREDICT recognizes 28 damaging agents including species of mammals, insects, and pathogens, as well as two types of abiotic damage....

  10. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  11. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  12. Stand hazard rating for central Idaho forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Steele; Ralph E. Williams; Julie C. Weatherby; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; James T. Hoffman; R. W. Thier

    1996-01-01

    Growing concern over sustainability of central ldaho forests has created a need to assess the health of forest stands on a relative basis. A stand hazard rating was developed as a composite of 11 individual ratings to compare the health hazards of different stands. The composite rating includes Douglas-fir beetle, mountain pine beetle, western pine beetle, spruce...

  13. Enhancing wildlife habitat when regenerating stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R., III Thompson

    1989-01-01

    Forest regeneration cuttings affect wildlife habitat more drastically than most forest management practices because a mature forest stand is replaced by a young sapling stand. Regeneration cuttings quickly provide habitat for many wildlife species but they also influence wildlife use of the new stand and adjacent areas throughout the rotation. Retaining snags, cavity...

  14. Integrated geomechanical modelling for deep subsurface damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Orlic, B.; Zijl, W.; Jongerius, P.; Schreppers, G.J.; Hendriks, M.

    2001-01-01

    Government, E&P and mining industry increasingly demand fundamental insight and accurate predictions on subsurface and surface deformation and damage due to exploitation of subsurface natural resources, and subsurface storage of energy residues (e.g. CO2). At this moment deformation is difficult to

  15. Damage tolerant evaluation of cracked stiffened panels under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hence remaining life approach will govern the design. It is noted that residual strength increases with the increase of stiffener size. Keywords. Stiffened panels; stress intensity factor; fatigue and fracture; damage tolerant evaluation; remaining life; residual strength. 1. Introduction. Most of the structures such as nuclear ...

  16. Residual Stress in Wheels: Comparison of Neutron Diffraction and Ultrasonic Methods, with Trends in RCF

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Bevan, Adam; Zhang, S. Y; Kabra, S

    2014-01-01

    The critical damage mechanism on many GB passenger train wheels is Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) cracking in the rim. Evidence from field observations suggests that RCF damage occurs much more quickly as the wheelsets near the end of their life. Wheel manufacturing processes induce a compressive hoop stress in the wheel rim; variations in residual stress through the life of a wheel may influence the observed RCF damage rates.\\ud This paper describes experiments to measure residual stresses in...

  17. Uneven-aged management of old-growth spruce-fir forests: Cutting methods and stand structure goals for the initial entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Alexander; Carleton B. Edminster

    1977-01-01

    Topics discussed include: (1) cutting methods, (2) stand structure goals, which involve choosing a residual stocking level, selecting a maximum tree size, and establishing a diameter distribution using the "q" technique, and (3) harvesting and removal of trees. Examples illustrate how to determine realistic stand structures for the initial entry for...

  18. Species composition, diameter distribution, and crown class at initiation of a thinning study of pole-size hardwood stands in the Hoosier National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L. Woods; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2008-01-01

    During the spring of 2007, a low thinning was implemented in stands on the Hoosier National Forest that had been clearcut harvested between 1975 and 1979; treatments consisted of 60- and 75-percent residual stocking, as well as control plots with no thinning. The 60-percent treatment increased the relative oak density per acre in all stands with the exception of one...

  19. An evaluation of uneven-aged cutting methods in even-aged oak-hickory stands in the Boston mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Graney; Paul A. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    A test of group-selection and single-tree selection cutting methods was installed in 80-year-old even-aged oak-hickory stands in the Boston Mountains of northern Arkansas. Twenty-four 11-ac study plots were installed in well stocked stands representing north or east and south or west aspects. Stands between group openings were cut to residual basal areas of 65 and 85...

  20. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  1. Beyond Technology, there Stands Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Fernandes Lobato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article shows evidence that despite the prominent influences of the technological revolution and the spectacular panoramas on the contemporary world, magic seems to stand beyond technology. To support this hypothesis, the author investigates the images on the cinema, pointing out that to discover magic in a film, for instance, it is necessary to recognize its subjective structures disguised in the objectivity of the screen. Finally, the author indicates that in the field of image production, dance films that are created out of a cross-disciplinary effort are another by product of the fusion between art and video, born out of technological advancements.

  2. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  3. E-1 Test Stand Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addlesperger, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the investigation of a fire at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) on February 21, 2004. The fire occurred during structural welding to accomodate a new propellant tank. The presentation includes images of the fire damage, as well as findings/recommendations from the investigators.

  4. Consistent definition and application of Reineke's Stand Density Index in silviculture and stand projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw; James N. Long

    2010-01-01

    Reineke’s Stand Density Index (SDI) has been available to silviculturists for over 75 years, but application of this stand metric has been inconsistent. Originally described as a measurement of relative density in single-species, even-aged stands, it has since been generalized for use in uneven-aged stands and mixed-species stands. However, methods used to establish...

  5. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  6. Damage tolerant evaluation of cracked stiffened panels under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the methodologies for damage tolerant evaluation of stiffened panels under fatigue loading. The two major objectives of damage tolerant evaluation, namely, the remaining life prediction and residual strength evaluation of stiffened panels have been discussed. Concentric and eccentric stiffeners have ...

  7. Changes to oak woodland stand structure and ground flora composition caused by thinning and burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Carter O.; Kabrick, John M.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to quantify the cumulative effects of prescribed burning and thinning on forest stocking and species composition at a woodland restoration experiment site in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. Our study used four treatments (burn, harvest, harvest and burn, control) on three slope position and aspect combinations (south, north, ridge) replicated in three complete blocks. Harvested stands were thinned from below to 40 percent residual stocking. Two prescribed fires were applied to both burn and harvest-burn treatment units in a 5-year period. Results reflect changes that have taken place over a 6-year period, from pretreatment conditions to 1 year after the last fire. In this period, there was a 10-percent reduction in the stocking in burned stands compared to control and a 6-percent reduction in harvested and burned stands compared to harvested stands. Compared to the control, percentage ground cover of woodland indicators was seven times greater in burned stands, six times greater in harvested stands, and 22 percent greater in harvested and burned stands. Th ere was no significant (P > 0.05) interaction between aspect and treatment on stocking or ground flora cover. Th is study indicated that silvicultural treatments do achieve various goals that are common to managers who aim to restore woodland communities.

  8. Effects of prescribed fire in a central Appalachian oak-hickory stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1986-01-01

    A prescribed fire in a central Appalachian mixed hardwood stand caused considerable damage to the butt logs of many overstory trees. Although there were increases in the abundance and distribution of several species of hardwoods, advanced red and chestnut oaks were poorly distributed 5-years after burning. An abundance of striped maple and other shrubs in the...

  9. White fir stands killed by tussock moth...70-mm. color photography aids detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Wert; Boyd E. Wickman

    1968-01-01

    The use of large-scale 70 mm. aerial photography proved to be an effective technique for detecting trees in white fir stands killed by Douglas-fir tussock moth in northeastern California. Correlations between ground and photo estimates of dead trees were high. But correlations between such estimates of lesser degrees of tree damage--thin tops and topkill--were much...

  10. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  11. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  12. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panferov, O; Rauch, E; Doering, C; Ahrends, B; Sogachev, A

    2009-01-01

    Wind damage is one of the major natural disturbances that can occur worldwide in most types of forests. Enhanced management using adequate decision support systems (DSS) can considerably reduce the risk of windthrow. The decision support system 'Forest and Climate Change' (DSS-WuK) which is currently being developed at Goettingen University aims at providing a tool for the quantitative assessment of biotic and abiotic risks for forest ecosystems under the conditions of changing climate. In order to assess the future risks of wind damage the system employs a coupled modelling approach combining the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks-changes of microclimate as a result of tree fall and consequent stabilization or destabilization of a forest stand. The results of the study indicate that in Solling the risk of windthrow for spruce and pine forest stands is likely to increase considerably during the 21st century. The general tendencies indicate that under A1B the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend on the particular local or regional combination of climatic and soil factors with tree species, age and structure. For Solling the positive feedback to local climatic forcing is found. The feedback contributes considerably (up to 6% under given conditions) to the projected forest damage and cannot be neglected. Therefore, the adequate projection of future damage probabilities can be performed only with a process-based coupled soil-atmosphere model with corresponding high spatial

  13. Soil mesofauna in disturbed spruce forest stands near Čertovo and Plešné Lakes, the Bohemian Forest: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter; Starý, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    The soil microarthropod communities were studied in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo (CT) and Plešné (PL) Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study is focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Within the soil microarthropods, two main groups, Collembola (Hexapoda) and Oribatida (Acari) are analysed. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: CT1 and PL1 stands - undamaged control forest stands, CT2 and PL2 stands - "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, CT3 and PL3 stands - slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and CT4 and PL4 stands - harvested windthrown stands. Soil samples were taken in June (CT1/PL1 - CT3/PL3), July and October (CT1/PL1 - CT4/PL4) 2012 from each treatment. Microarthropods were subsequently extracted in a modified high-gradient apparatus in the laboratory for seven days. Finally, the comparison of the microarthropod assemblages found at different treatment stands was performed. The most abundant groups in both study areas (Čertovo and Plešné Lakes) were Collembola and Oribatida with considerable diferences within particular treatments and in time as well.

  14. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  15. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  16. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  17. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  18. Macro-residual strains due to cyclic loading of composites

    CERN Document Server

    Hashin, Z

    1999-01-01

    Macro-residual strains produced by load cycles on elastic-brittle composites are analytically expressed in terms of the effective thermal expansion coefficients of the composite as affected by the damage states developing during the $9 cycling. Limiting values of residual strain are evaluated for unidirectional fiber composites and cross-ply laminates. Frictional losses due to internal sliding are not considered. (17 refs).

  19. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  20. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-01-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  1. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  2. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Petit, Pierre; Flick, Robert; Zallot, Rémi; Balmant, Kelly; Ziemak, Michael J.; Shanklin, John; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Fiehn, Oliver; Gregory, Jesse F.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), with subfamily II being split into stand-alone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metal-dependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed a novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.

  3. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    . To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  4. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  5. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Hora, P.

    2012-01-01

    The anisotropy in damage can be driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic defor-mation state named Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic (shape and/or distribution) second phase particles named Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). Most anisotropic damage models are based

  6. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  7. The Stand-alone Heliostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Navajas, G. I.; Egea Gea, A.

    2000-01-01

    The first Autonomous Heliostat has been developed by CIEMAT at PSA facilities in Almeria. This heliostat is an innovative approach to reducing the civil engineering work costs in heliostat fields of central tower plants. Channels, cables and other electric elements have been eliminated in the new heliostat. Thus, one 70-nr, classical T glass/metal heliostat has been adapted to include all the new stand-alone concept components. A PV system is able to drive two sun-tracking DC motors between 5 and 24Vdc, 0 and 15A. The heliostat communicates with the control room 400-m away by using a radio-modem working at 9600 baud. An anemometer, a wind switcher, light and ambient temperature sensors have been installed on the heliostat for self-protection decision-making. A PV panel integrated into the heliostat reflecting surface, eliminates cabling and other elements required for a conventional power supply. Communication lines between master control and local control have been replaced by radio-modem. Testing has validated the technical feasibility of the prototype and quantified the real consumption and efficiencies of new elements. The extra costs produced.by the autonomous concepts are compared with the cost of civil work in conventional heliostat field. (Author) 8 refs

  8. Determining maximum stand density index in mixed species stands for strategic-scale stocking assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris W. Woodall; Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage

    2005-01-01

    Stand density index (SDI), although developed for use in even-aged monocultures, has been used for assessing stand density in large-scale forest inventories containing diverse tree species and size distributions. To improve application of SDI in unevenaged, mixed species stands present in large-scale forest inventories, trends in maximum SDI across diameter classes...

  9. Use of demolition residues construction in soil-lime bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.S.; Silva, C.G.; Silva, I.A.; Neves, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Besides being responsible for several environmental damage caused by its residues, the construction industry is also considered the greatest natural resources consumer. When finely ground, such residues can exhibit cementing properties, which may replace part of the lime used in the manufacture of soil-lime bricks. This study aimed to verify the viability of using demolition residues (DR) in soil-lime bricks without structural function. For this, test specimens were prepared using mixes in a 1:10 ratio of lime:soil and embedding residue in partial replacement of lime in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75%. The test specimens were submitted to curing periods of 28 and 52 days, then it was determined the compression strength. The results showed that when embedded on moderate percentages, demolition residues construction can be used in the production of soil-lime bricks. (author)

  10. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    An aircraft turn-round refers to the set of processes taking place from when an aircraft parks at its arrival stand until the time it departs from its departure stand. When handling a turn-round, the different processes involved (arrival, disembarkation of passengers, cleaning, etc.) require diff...

  11. Short communication. Nitrogen content of residual alfalfa taproots under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. residues can provide significant amounts of N to subsequent crops, but most of the data on this subject has been obtained from 1-2 year old alfalfa stands. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass of alfalfa taproots and their N content in irrigated alfalfa stands that are more than 2 years old. Twenty-two commercial irrigated alfalfa fields were evaluated in the Ebro Valley (Northeast Spain from 2006 to 2010. The taproot biomass in the arable layer (0 to 30 cm depth ranged from 1.8 to 10.1 Mg ha-1 and averaged 4.8 Mg ha-1. In contrast, the N concentration in alfalfa taproots was constant among fields and averaged 24.6 g N kg-1. The total amount of N contained in alfalfa taproots (0-30 cm depth ranged from 47 to 96 kg N ha-1 in 55% of the fields, ranged from 97 to 200 kg N ha-1 in 22% of the fields, and exceeded 200 kg N ha-1 in 23% of the fields. The N content of the irrigated alfalfa taproots studied here is in the upper range previously reported in other areas, mainly with younger alfalfa stands. Based on the current finding, a classification of the quality of irrigated alfalfa stands is proposed to improve the estimates of the residual-N effects of alfalfa on subsequent crops.

  12. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  13. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5–18years and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p<0.001 when provided access to sit-stand desks (7.2min/h/student; 9.3% of class time spent standing compared to when they had access to seated desks (0.7min/h/student; 1.6% of class time spent standing but no differences were observed for the number of sit-stand transitions (p=0.47. Students reported high favorability for the sit-stand desks and improvements in several student engagement and affective outcomes while using the sit-stand desks. These findings support introducing sit-stand desks in university classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students. Keywords: Sedentary, University students, Sit-stand desk

  14. Photoexcited riboflavin induces oxidative damage to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Yoshioka, Takuto

    2015-08-01

    Photoexcited riboflavin induced damage of human serum albumin (HSA), a water soluble protein, resulting in the diminishment of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue. Because riboflavin hardly photosensitized singlet oxygen generation and sodium azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, did not inhibit protein damage, electron transfer-mediated oxidation of HSA was speculated. Fluorescence lifetime of riboflavin was not affected by HSA, suggesting that the excited triplet state of riboflavin is responsible for protein damage through electron transfer. In addition, the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives, triplet quenchers, on photosensitized protein damage could be evaluated using this photosensitized reaction system of riboflavin and HSA.

  15. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  16. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  17. Reduction of fume damage in forests: report on the symposium on fume damage held in Tharandt from 30th September to 2nd October 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daessler, H.G.; Ranft, H.

    1967-01-01

    Summaries are presented of 15 papers, including: extent of variation in fume resistance in Larix and problems of breeding for resistance (Schoenbach); results of research on fume damage on experimental areas in E. Germany (H. Enderlin) (noting differences in resistance to SO/sub 2/ damage of various species of Picea, Pinus, and Abies, varieties of Pseudotsuga taxifolia and provenances of Pinus contorta and Larix spp., effect of fertilizers on resistance, and mass selection of resistant planting stock in practice); resistance of Pinus omorika to fume damage (K.F. Wentzel); chemical and physiological studies on the metabolism of the assimilation organs of conifers affected by SO/sub 2/ (S. Boertitz); basic physiological and phenological studies on the preliminary selection of conifers for SO/sub 2/ resistance (M. Vogl); fertilizer trials in fume-damaged pine stands on Dueben Heath (H. Krauss); insect pests on young pine stands in fume-damaged regions in Poland (Z. Sierpinski); birch and alder pests in industrial regions (Z. Schnaider); management of young fume-damaged spruce stands (E. Pelz); effect of fumes from the potash industry on forest stands in East Germany (E. Ewert); the distribution of injurious substances in leaves (G. Halbwachs); emission of SO/sub 2/ absorbed by spruce needles (J. Materna); and estimating fume damage expected near future power stations (H. Lux).

  18. A quantitative non-destructive residual stress assessment tool for pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    G2MT successfully demonstrated the eStress system, a powerful new nondestructive evaluation : system for analyzing through-thickness residual stresses in mechanical damaged areas of steel : pipelines. The eStress system is designed to help pipe...

  19. Dynamics of dense direct-seeded stands of southern pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C.G. Goelz

    2006-01-01

    Direct seeding of southern pines is an effective method of artificial regeneration, producing extremely dense stands when survival exceeds expectations. Long-term studies of dense direct-seeded stands provide ideal data for exploring development of stands as they approach the limit of maximum stand density. I present data from seven studies with ages of stands ranging...

  20. Recent advances in standing equine orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas; Hunt, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    In all surgeries with the patient standing under chemical and physical restraint, patient compliance is of the utmost importance. All fractures of the third metacarpal or metatarsal condyles and sagittal fracture of the first phalanx are not amenable to internal fixation with the horse standing, and young unhandled horses may not have a suitable disposition for standing surgical treatment of septic pedal osteitis, or implantation and removal of transphyseal screws. Previous operator experience in performing the procedure or technique under general anesthesia is beneficial. Appreciation of appropriate topographic anatomic landmarks is important, and intraoperative radiographic control is useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Pump House Waterline

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through

  2. New damage-sensitive feature for structures with bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W. F.; Yu, L.

    2017-05-01

    Compared with riveted and welded joints, bolted joints have advantages of easily dismantled, high load carrying and load-transferring capacity. However, bolted joints are also weaker components of assembled structures. Structural damage detection (SDD) on bolted joints is much required in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). A new SDD method is proposed for damage identification of structures with bolted joints based on residual error of AR model in time series analysis. Firstly, a new data standardization process is defined to maintain the information of damage location. Then, a new structural damage feature sensitive to structural damage is developed based on the standard deviation of AR model residual errors. To verify the proposed method, a bolted joint structure is designed and fabricated in laboratory, connection damages of structures are simulated by loosening the bolted joints. The acceleration responses of structures with bolted joints under healthy and damage cases are acquired. Finally, the SDD is performed by traditional DSF and the new DSF. The illustrated results show that the proposed method is a hybrid tool for the bolted joint damage detection with the new damage-sensitive feature. In addition, some related issues will be discussed as well.

  3. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  4. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Outpatient Procedures PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Outpatient Procedures Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare outpatient claims. The CMS BSA...

  5. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Hospice Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Hospice Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare hospice claims. The CMS BSA Hospice...

  6. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  7. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Inpatient Claims PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Inpatient Public Use Files (PUF) named CMS 2008 BSA Inpatient Claims PUF with information from 2008 Medicare...

  8. Compressor Load Stand: Commissioning and Control Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Causey, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project was to commission this load stand, which includes setting up the hardware, setting up a control system, a data acquisition system, and an automatic test sequence system...

  9. RLC Forest Stand Carbon Map of Russia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is a 1:15 million scale map of forest stand carbon for the land area of Russia (Stone et al., 2000). The objective was to create a first approximation...

  10. RLC Forest Stand Carbon Map of Russia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This dataset is a 1:15 million scale map of forest stand carbon for the land area of Russia (Stone et al., 2000). The objective was to create a first...

  11. Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...

  12. Commanding Officer's Standing Orders: A Powerful and Unique Genre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Kyle H

    2006-01-01

    Commanding Officer's Standing Orders are critical to shipboard watch standing. Written by the captain and used by watch standers, Standing Orders perform many unique and powerful functions aboard ships...

  13. Species composition of developing Central Appalachian hardwood stands following clearcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas Fox

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the species composition of 47 paired stands on submesic sites on the Appalachian Plateau of West Virginia. Paired stands consisted of a mature stand adjacent to a young clearcut that was

  14. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  15. Residual fatigue life evaluation of rail at squats seeds using 3D explicit finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling procedure to predict the residual fatigue life of rail at squats seeds is developed in this article. Two models are involved: a 3D explicit Finite Element (FE) model to compute the stress and strain at squats in rail, and the J-S fatigue damage model to determine the residual fatigue life

  16. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  17. Free-standing nanocomposites with high conductivity and extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Youn Tae; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Aliev, Ali E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2013-04-01

    The prospect of electronic circuits that are stretchable and bendable promises tantalizing applications such as skin-like electronics, roll-up displays, conformable sensors and actuators, and lightweight solar cells. The preparation of highly conductive and highly extensible materials remains a challenge for mass production applications, such as free-standing films or printable composite inks. Here we present a nanocomposite material consisting of carbon nanotubes, ionic liquid, silver nanoparticles, and polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene having a high electrical conductivity of 3700 S cm-1 that can be stretched to 288% without permanent damage. The material is prepared as a concentrated dispersion suitable for simple processing into free-standing films. For the unstrained state, the measured thermal conductivity for the electronically conducting elastomeric nanoparticle film is relatively high and shows a non-metallic temperature dependence consistent with phonon transport, while the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity is metallic. We connect an electric fan to a DC power supply using the films to demonstrate their utility as an elastomeric electronic interconnect. The huge strain sensitivity and the very low temperature coefficient of resistivity suggest their applicability as strain sensors, including those that operate directly to control motors and other devices.

  18. ARX model-based damage sensitive features for structural damage localization using output-only measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Koushik; Bhattacharya, Bishakh; Ray-Chaudhuri, Samit

    2015-08-01

    The study proposes a set of four ARX model (autoregressive model with exogenous input) based damage sensitive features (DSFs) for structural damage detection and localization using the dynamic responses of structures, where the information regarding the input excitation may not be available. In the proposed framework, one of the output responses of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is assumed as the input and the rest are considered as the output. The features are based on ARX model coefficients, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test statistical distance, and the model residual error. At first, a mathematical formulation is provided to establish the relation between the change in ARX model coefficients and the normalized stiffness of a structure. KS test parameters are then described to show the sensitivity of statistical distance of ARX model residual error with the damage location. The efficiency of the proposed set of DSFs is evaluated by conducting numerical studies involving a shear building and a steel moment-resisting frame. To simulate the damage scenarios in these structures, stiffness degradation of different elements is considered. It is observed from this study that the proposed set of DSFs is good indicator for damage location even in the presence of damping, multiple damages, noise, and parametric uncertainties. The performance of these DSFs is compared with mode shape curvature-based approach for damage localization. An experimental study has also been conducted on a three-dimensional six-storey steel moment frame to understand the performance of these DSFs under real measurement conditions. It has been observed that the proposed set of DSFs can satisfactorily localize damage in the structure.

  19. Parameter subset selection based damage detection of aluminium frame structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titurus, B; Friswell, M I

    2011-01-01

    A three storey aluminium frame structure was tested in multiple damage cases. All damage scenarios, simulated by the localized stiffness changes, were associated with joint areas of the structure. Further, between damage tests the structure was returned to its healthy reference conditions and was again measured. In this paper, a parameter subset selection methodology is applied to an updated finite element model of the structure, together with a previously demonstrated approach employing concepts of model sensitivity subspace angles, first order model representation and mixed response residuals for damage detection. The objective of this paper is the evaluation of these methods on a real experimental structure with significant complexity, represented by an imprecise reference mathematical model and in the environment with uncertain reference structural state. The questions of symmetry, mixed response residuals and semi-localized parameterization are also addressed in this work.

  20. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Flame Deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. In this photo of the S-IC test stand, taken September 25, 1963, the flame deflector can be seen rotated to the outside on

  1. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  2. An explorative qualitative study to determine the footwear needs of workers in standing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jennifer; Williams, Anita E.; Nester, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many work places require standing for prolonged periods of time and are potentially damaging to health, with links to musculoskeletal disorders and acute trauma from workplace accidents. Footwear provides the only interaction between the body and the ground and therefore a potential means to impact musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is very limited research into the necessary design and development of footwear based on both the physical environmental constraints and the per...

  3. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  4. Late normal-tissue damage after combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of chemotherapeutic agents on the extent of late normal-tissue radiation injury is reviewed. Alterations in the time of expression of damage after combined treatments are described, as well as the relative contributions of independent toxicities versus interaction. Long-term residual damage after either irradiation or chemotherapy alone is discussed in relation to retreatment tolerance when long intervals between the two agents are allowed. (author)

  5. Protein damage and repair controlling seed vigor and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogé, Laurent; Broyart, Caroline; Collet, Boris; Godin, Béatrice; Jallet, Denis; Bourdais, Gildas; Job, Dominique; Grappin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The formation of abnormal isoaspartyl residues derived from aspartyl or asparaginyl residues is a major source of spontaneous protein misfolding in cells. The repair enzyme protein L: -isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) counteracts such damage by catalyzing the conversion of abnormal isoaspartyl residues to their normal aspartyl forms. Thus, this enzyme contributes to the survival of many organisms, including plants. Analysis of the accumulation of isoaspartyl-containing proteins and its modulation by the PIMT repair pathway, using germination tests, immunodetection, enzymatic assays, and HPLC analysis, gives new insights in understanding controlling mechanisms of seed longevity and vigor.

  6. Climatic control of stand thinning in unmanaged spruce forests of the southern taiga in European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vygodskaya, N.N.; Schulze, E.D.; Tchebakova, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    .042 yr 1). This contrasts with trees that die by drought or insect damage, and which remain as standing dead trees with a mean residence time of 3-13 yr until they are brought to ground, mainly by wind. These standing dead trees require an additional mean residence time of about 22 yr for decay on the ground (k d = 0.031). In conclusion, we demonstrate that, rather than competitive interactions, it is climate extremes, namely drought, rapid changes of dry years followed by wet years, and storm that determine stand structure, biomass and density, which then affect the net exchange with the atmosphere. The climatic effects are difficult to predict, because the sensitivity of a stand to climate extremes depends on the past history. This may range from no effect, if the stand was recovering from an earlier drought and exhibited a relatively low density, to a total collapse of canopies, if drought reduces stand density to an extent that other climatic extremes (especially wind) may cause further damage

  7. Numerical Study of Damage Modes and Damage Assessment of CFST Columns under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Columns of frame structures are the key load-bearing components and the exterior columns are susceptible to attack in terrorist blasts. When subjected to blast loads, the columns would suffer a loss of bearing capacity to a certain extent due to the damage imparted, which may induce the collapse of them and even cause the progressive collapse of the whole structure. In this paper, the high-fidelity physics-based finite element program LS-DYNA was utilized to investigate the dynamic behavior and damage characteristics of the widely used concrete-filled steel tube (CFST columns subjected to blast loads. The established numerical model was calibrated with test data in open literatures. Possible damage modes of CFST columns under blast loading were analyzed, and the damage criterion based on the residual axial load capacity of the columns was adopted to assess the damage degree. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effects of critical parameters such as blast conditions and column details on the damage degree of CFST columns. Based on the numerical simulation data, an empirical equation was proposed to estimate the variation of columns damage degree with the various parameters.

  8. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  9. Impact damage of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Young T.; Springer, George S.

    1986-01-01

    A model is described for estimating the impact damage of fiber reinforced composite plates. The displacements and stresses are calculated by a three dimensional transient, finite element method of solution of the governing equations applicable to a linearly elastic body. The region in which damage occurs is estimated using the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. A computer code was developed which can be used to calculate the impact force, displacements and velocities of the plate and the impact body, stresses and strains in the plate, and the damage area. Sample numerical results are presented illustrating the type of information provided by the code. Comparisons between measured and calculated damage areas are also given.

  10. Hepatocytes Contribute to Residual Glucose Production in a Mouse Model for Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, Brenda S.; Boss, Andreas; van Dijk, Theo H.; Soty, Maud; Wolters, Henk; Mutel, Elodie; Groen, Albert K.; Derks, Terry G. J.; Mithieux, Gilles; Heerschap, Arend; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Rajas, Fabienne; Oosterveer, Maaike H.

    2017-01-01

    It is a long-standing enigma how glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I patients retain a limited capacity for endogenous glucose production despite the loss of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Insight into the source of residual endogenous glucose production is of clinical importance given the risk

  11. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  12. High throughput electric thruster test stand design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, W.C.; Myer, R.C.; Post, R.S.; Torti, R.P.

    1987-05-01

    The difficulty in developing a test stand for electric (MPD or ion) thrusters involves the following issues: Pumping requirements for high speed and throughput, power supply requirements and associated waste heat removal, erosion of surfaces in contact with the plume and the lack of plume data required for test stand design. The pumping requirements which are dealt with here, have been so difficult to meet that little progress has been made on long pulse issues. A design is proposed using a surface pumping technology, titanium gettering, that has been developed in fusion research laboratories. The getter pumping must be used in a differential pumping scheme to handle the throughput and pumping speed requirements. By starting with short pulse experiments, plume data can be accumulated for the more critical design of the continuous operation test stand for MPD thruster life time tests

  13. Static standing, dynamic standing and spasticity in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M; Mclvor, J; Finlayson, H; Sawatzky, B

    2016-05-01

    This was a cross-over efficacy study design. To determine spasticity differences between static and dynamic standing training in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Vancouver, Canada. Ten individuals with SCI who could stand with or without bracing or supports participated in both dynamic and static standing training (one session each, 2 days apart) using a Segway. The primary outcome was spasticity as measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and electromyography (EMG) of the quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors and gastrocnemius. There was no statistically detectable difference in spasticity between dynamic and static standing training in individuals with SCI as measured by VAS, MAS or EMG, although there was a trend towards decreased spasticity after the dynamic training. There is no significant difference in spasticity outcomes between static and dynamic standing training on a Segway for individuals with SCI. This research was funded by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries.

  14. Standing sausage modes in curved coronal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Magnetohydrodynamic waveguides such as dense coronal loops can support standing modes. The ratios of the periods of oscillations for different longitudinal harmonics depend on the dispersive nature of the waveguide and so may be used as a seismological tool to determine coronal parameters. Aims: We extend models of standing sausage modes in low β coronal loops to include the effects of loop curvature. The behaviour of standing sausage modes in this geometry is used to explain the properties of observed oscillations that cannot be accounted for using straight loop models. Methods: We perform 2D numerical simulations of an oscillating coronal loop, modelled as a dense slab embedded in a potential magnetic field. The loop is field-aligned and so experiences expansion with height in addition to being curved. Standing sausage modes are excited by compressive perturbations of the loop and their properties are studied. Results: The spatial profiles of standing sausage modes are found to be modified by the expanding loop geometry typical for flaring loops and modelled by a potential magnetic field in our simulations. Longitudinal harmonics of order n > 1 have anti-nodes that are shifted towards the loop apex and the amplitude of anti-nodes near the loop apex is smaller than those near the loop footpoints. Conclusions: We find that the observation of standing sausage modes by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph in a flaring coronal loop on 12 January 2000 is consistent with interpretation in terms of the global mode (n = 1) and third harmonic (n = 3). This interpretation accounts for the period ratio and spatial structure of the observed oscillations.

  15. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Alexander X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects

  16. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Water Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. In this photograph, a construction worker demonstrates the size of the massive water valve that was used in the testing cooling

  17. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This photograph, taken September 25, 1963, depicts the construction progress of the Pump House and massive round water

  18. Damage Theory Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures.......This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures....

  19. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  20. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  1. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  2. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  3. Quantification of residual stress from photonic signatures of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.; Hayward, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 ± 0.54 × 10 −12 Pa −1 . Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA’s Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented

  4. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed

  5. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  6. Oxidative stress, protein damage and repair in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezraty, Benjamin; Gennaris, Alexandra; Barras, Frédéric; Collet, Jean-François

    2017-07-01

    Oxidative damage can have a devastating effect on the structure and activity of proteins, and may even lead to cell death. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine are particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive chlorine species (RCS), which can damage proteins. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the reducing systems that enable bacteria to repair oxidatively damaged cysteine and methionine residues in the cytoplasm and in the bacterial cell envelope. We highlight the importance of these repair systems in bacterial physiology and virulence, and we discuss several examples of proteins that become activated by oxidation and help bacteria to respond to oxidative stress.

  7. Experiment and numerical simulation of welding induced damage: stainless steel 15-5PH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this study is the prediction of damage and residual stresses induced by hot processing which leads to phase transformation in martensitic stainless steel. This study firstly concerns the modelling of the damage of material induced by a complex history of thermo-elastoplastic multiphase in heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of welding. In this work, a two-scale mode of elastoplastic damage multiphase was developed in the framework of thermodynamics of irreversible process. The constitutive equations are coupling with ductile damage, elasto-plasticity, phase transformation, and transformation plasticity. Besides, a damage equation was proposed based on the Lemaitre's damage model in the framework of continuum damage mechanics. The experiments of 15-5PH were implemented for the identification of phase transformation, transformation plasticity and damage models. Tensile tests of round specimens were used to identify the parameters of damage model as well as mechanical behaviours at various temperatures. Tests of flat notched specimen were designed to provide the validation of damage model and strain localization using three dimensional image correlation technologies. In addition, microscopic analysis was performed to provide microstructure characterization of 15-5PH and to discover the damage mechanism. Finally the numerical simulation was performed in the code CAST3M of CEA. On the one hand, numerical verification of the flat notched plates was implemented and compared with experimental results. On the other hand, we used the two-scale model including phase transformation, transformation plasticity and damage to simulate the level of residual stresses of a disk made of 15-5PH metal heated by laser. The internal variables, such as strain, stress, damage, were successfully traced in the simulation of two-scale model. The simulation results showed the transformation plasticity changes the level of residual stresses and should not be negligible; damage

  8. Experiment and numerical simulation of welding induced damage: stainless steel 15-5PH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study is the prediction of damage and residual stresses induced by hot processing which leads to phase transformation in martensitic stainless steel. This study firstly concerns the modelling of the damage of material induced by a complex history of thermo-elastoplastic multiphase in heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of welding. In this work, a two-scale mode of elastoplastic damage multiphase was developed in the framework of thermodynamics of irreversible process. The constitutive equations are coupling with ductile damage, elasto-plasticity, phase transformation, and transformation plasticity. Besides, a damage equation was proposed based on the Lemaitre's damage model in the framework of continuum damage mechanics. The experiments of 15-5PH were implemented for the identification of phase transformation, transformation plasticity and damage models. Tensile tests of round specimens were used to identify the parameters of damage model as well as mechanical behaviours at various temperatures. Tests of flat notched specimen were designed to provide the validation of damage model and strain localization using three dimensional image correlation technologies. In addition, microscopic analysis was performed to provide microstructure characterization of 15-5PH and to discover the damage mechanism. Finally the numerical simulation was performed in the code CAST3M of CEA. On the one hand, numerical verification of the flat notched plates was implemented and compared with experimental results. On the other hand, we used the two-scale model including phase transformation, transformation plasticity and damage to simulate the level of residual stresses of a disk made of 15-5PH metal heated by laser. The internal variables, such as strain, stress, damage, were successfully traced in the simulation of two-scale model. The simulation results showed the transformation plasticity changes the level of residual stresses and should not be negligible; damage decreases

  9. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Andrew D. [Horticultural Sciences Department and; Henry, Christopher S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, email:; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637; Fiehn, Oliver [Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616, email:; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie [Microbiology and Cell Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, email: ,

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms.

  10. Protein modification: Standing out from the crowd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yichao; Liu, Lei

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of a tetrapeptide containing a reactive cysteine provides a method to site-selectively modify peptides and proteins, even if other cysteine residues are present in the polypeptide chain.

  11. Breakwater stability with damaged single layer armour units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rover, R.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van den Berge, A.; Reedijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of single layer interlocking armour unit breakage on the hydraulic armour layer stability and potential damage progression is addressed in this paper. A 2-dimensional scale model of a rubble mound breakwater with an armour layer consisting of Xbloc armour units was tested. The residual

  12. Computational stress and damage modelling for rolling contact fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele

    and of compressive residual stresses are also analyzed. The stress history of a material point at the depth where the maximum Dang Van damage factor is reached is then recorded and used in a subsequent micro-mechanical analysis. The stress history is applied as periodic boundary conditions in a representative volume...

  13. Learning to Stand: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing Standing Desks into College Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. Benzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for multiple negative health outcomes. Evidence supports introducing standing desks into K-12 classrooms and work settings to reduce sitting time, but no studies have been conducted in the college classroom environment. The present study explored the acceptability and feasibility of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. A total of 993 students and 149 instructors completed a single online needs assessment survey. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the fall semester of 2015 at a large Midwestern University. The large majority of students (95% reported they would prefer the option to stand in class. Most students (82.7% reported they currently sit during their entire class time. Most students (76.6% and instructors (86.6% reported being in favor of introducing standing desks into college classrooms. More than half of students and instructors predicted having access to standing desks in class would improve student’s “physical health”, “attention”, and “restlessness”. Collectively, these findings support the acceptability of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Future research is needed to test the feasibility, cost-effectiveness and efficacy of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Such studies would be useful for informing institutional policies regarding classroom designs.

  14. Sliding and Lower Limb Mechanics during Sit-Stand-Sit Transitions with a Standing Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the shear displacement between the body and backrest/seat, range of motion (ROM, and force acting on the lower limb joints during sit-stand-sit transitions by operating an electric-powered standing wheelchair. Methods and Materials. The amounts of sliding along the backrest and the seat plane, ROM of lower limb joints, and force acting on the knee/foot were measured in twenty-four people with paraplegia. Results. Without an antishear mechanism, the shear displacement was approximately 9 cm between the user’s body and the backrest/seat surfaces. During standing up, the user’s back slid down and the thigh was displaced rearward, but they moved in opposite directions when wheelchair sat back down. A minimum of 60 degrees of ROM at the hip and knee was needed during sit-stand-sit transitions. The maximal resultant forces acting on the knee restraints could reach 23.5% of body weight. Conclusion. Sliding between the body and backrest/seat occurred while transitioning from sitting to standing and vice versa. A certain amount of ROM at lower limb joints and force acting on the knee was necessitated during sit-stand-sit transitions. Careful consideration needs to be given to who the user of the electric powered standing wheelchair is.

  15. Thinning of Tree Stands in the Arctic Zone of Krasnoyarsk Territory With Different Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Polyakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2001 six permanent sample plots (PSP were established in forest stands differing in degrees of damage by pollution from the Norilsk industrial region. In 2004 the second forest inventory was carried out at these PSP for evaluation of pollutant impacts on stand condition changes. During both inventory procedures the vigor state of every tree was visually categorized according to 6-points scale of «Forest health regulations in Russian Federation». The changeover of tree into fall was also taken into account. Two types of Markov’s models simulating thinning process in tree stands within different ecological conditions has been developed: 1 based on assessment for probability of tree survival during three years; 2 in terms of evaluation of matrix for probability on change of vigor state category in the same period. The reconstruction of tree mortality from 1979 after industrial complex «Nadezda» setting into operation was realized on the basis of probability estimation of dead standing trees conservation during three years observed. The forecast of situation was carried out up to 2030. Using logistic regression the probability of tree survival was established depending on four factors: degree of tree damage by pollutants, tree species, stand location in relief and tree age. The acquired results make it possible to single out an impact of pollutants to tree stands’ resistance from other factors. There was revealed the percent of tree fall, resulted by pollution. The evaluation scale of SO2 gas resistance of tree species was constructed: birch, spruce, larch. Larch showed the highest percent of fall because of pollution.

  16. Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates the induction of one-dimensional standing waves, called "natural-harmonics" on a guitar to provide a unique tone. The analysis shows that a normally complex vibration is composed of a number of simple and discrete vibrations.

  17. Criteria for fitness to stand criminal trial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fitness to stand trial. The proposed criteria. used as a single rating instrument, are cost·effective in tenns of time and staff, avoid unnecessary hospitalisation and ... health professionals. A preliminary questionnaire comprising the following components was compiled, viz.: (I) legal Items; VI) psychiatric items; Vii) special ...

  18. IMS Learning Design: De stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Tattersall, C. & Manderveld, J. (2004) IMS Learning Design: De stand van zaken In: Gorissen, P., Manderveld, J., Benneker, F. & Cordewener, B. Leertechnologie in de Lage Landen (pp. 31-33). Utrecht, Stichting Surf. Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/270

  19. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  20. La stand up comedy e il parresiasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cantino

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present essay the author examines the american Stand up comedy as a form of art and entertainement which involves many different aspects (for instance One man show and Preaching. The intent of this essay is to look into the correlation that the comedian creates between laughter and the search for truth (both personal and universal. By comparing different bits and excerpts taken from the comedy acts of american authors such as Lenn Bruce, George Carlin and Bill Hicks, the author finds a relation between the elements of satire in the Stand up comedy genre and the concept of ‘parrhesia’ and parrhesiast. The purpose of the essay is to demonstrate how the peculiar figure of the stand up comedian can assume a precise philosophical and ethical role. The act of showing the people their own hypocrisies and self deceptions by using the laughter is a way  to stimulate a reflection and, potentially, determine a growth of self awareness in the mind of the people of the audience. Stand up comedy should be seen not only as a form of entertainment, but also as a way for developing a critical thinking and can be considered, in some cases, a tool for achieving some kind of revelation and change.

  1. Long standing intra oral acid burn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.V.; Ebenezer, S.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Oral burn due to ingestion of corrosive substances can bring about debilitating consequences. It often brings mortality, and the survivors can have severe impairment of functions, especially in relation to the stomatognathic and gastrointestinal systems. This article presents a long-standing case

  2. Direct sampling for stand density index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine

    2008-01-01

    A direct method of estimating stand density index in the field, without complex calculations, would be useful in a variety of silvicultural situations. We present just such a method. The approach uses an ordinary prism or other angle gauge, but it involves deliberately "pushing the point" or, in some cases, "pulling the point." This adjusts the...

  3. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  4. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.

  5. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  6. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  7. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage threshold on hybrid mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Jan; Muresan, Mihai-George; Bilek, Vojtech; Sebek, Matej; Hanus, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mocek, Tomas; Škoda, Václav

    2017-11-01

    So-called hybrid mirrors, consisting of broadband metallic surface coated with dielectric reflector designed for specific wavelength, becoming more important with progressing development of broadband mid-IR sources realized using parametric down conversion system. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage on such mirrors was tested by method s-on-1, where s stands for various numbers of pulses. We show difference in damage threshold between common protected silver mirrors and hybrid silver mirrors prepared by PVD technique and their variants prepared by IAD. Keywords: LIDT,

  8. Investigations into the fungal flora of forest stands under severe stress from immissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butin, H.

    1992-01-01

    This finalized research project on the fungal flora of forest stands under severe stress form immissions looked into the question of the contribution of fungi to the triggering of topical forest damage and investigated whether correlations between certain symptoms and needle yellowing or root damage can be established. The main tree species selected were spruce and pine; but spot sample checks were also carried out on other tree species. Fungal flora was determined both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the pathogenic significance of the individual species was determined. Further, it was investigated whether fungal species are correlated to certain symptoms of damage, and which fungal species are. For selected fungal species, their pathogenicity was investigated by infection experiments. (RHE) [de

  9. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  10. Damage Analysis of CFRP under Impact Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tsigkourakos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs have become some of the most important structural materials in the aerospace industry due to their excellent stiffness and strength to weight ratios. The real-life loading histories of aerospace composite components and structures involve the generation of transient loads that can propagate as cyclic impacts. This phenomenon is known as impact fatigue (IF. Such loads can cause various types of damage in composites, including fibre breakage, transverse matrix cracking, de-bonding between fibres and matrix and delamination, resulting in a reduction of residual stiffness and a loss of functionality.

  11. Differences in regeneration between hurricane damaged and clear-cut mangrove stands 25 years after clearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.G.; Ketner, P.; McGuiness, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of human disturbance on mangrove forest may be substantially different from the effects of natural disturbances. This paper describes differences in vegetation composition and structure of five vegetation types in two mangrove areas near Darwin, Australia, 25 years after disturbance. The

  12. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  13. Continuous damage mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboche, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The classical structural life predictions are based on stabilized stress-strain analysis and some parametric relations with the number of cycles to failure. During the last ten years a different approach, initiated by the works of Kachanov and Rabotnov for creep rupture, has been developed by different laboratories. This continuous Damage Mechanics, treating the damaged material as a macroscopically homogeneous one, leads to the possibility of globally modelling the nucleation and the propagation of microdefects including their effect on the stress-strain behaviour. This paper presents the general theory and several applications to a turbine blade refractory alloy. It includes the description of sequence effects and creep-fatigue interaction. The generalization for three-dimensional conditions, where anisotropic damage effects are possible, is discussed and some new proposals are given for the determination of simple anisotropic damage equations. (orig.)

  14. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  15. Overseeding endophytic perennial ryegrass into stands of Kentucky bluegrass to manage bluegrass billbug (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, D S; Niemczyk, H D; Shetlar, D J

    2000-12-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the utility of overseeding endophyte enhanced varieties of perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., into existing stands of Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis L., to manage bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus Gyllenhal, larval populations and their damage. Two commercial varieties of endophyte enhanced perennial ryegrass (Repell II and Triple Play) were overseeded at two different rates in the field. S. parvulus larval populations, their damage, and turfgrass composition were monitored over the course of 3 yr. Significantly fewer larvae were found in plots overseeded with Repell II, whereas Triple Play had no significant effect on larval population density. Endophyte infection was confirmed in approximately 58% of all Repell II shoots, whereas only approximately 31% of Triple Play shoots were infected. Regression analysis, using a segmented model, demonstrated that larval populations declined as the proportion of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass increased. However, no additional reductions in larval population density were achieved in stands containing >40% endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass. Visual damage varied with cultivar, seeding rate, and year, but generally decreased as the proportion of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass increased. Although seeding rate had an initial effect on turfgrass composition, these differences were not detected after the first year of the study. Results indicate overseeding existing stands of Kentucky bluegrass with endophytic varieties of perennial ryegrass can reduce S. parvulus larval populations and their damage. However, plant genetic characteristics (i.e., different cultivars) may be overriding determinants of many aspects of plant performance including establishment, tolerance to insect feeding, and expression of endophyte-mediated resistance.

  16. Computational learning on specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2015-11-02

    The protein–DNA interactions between transcription factors and transcription factor binding sites are essential activities in gene regulation. To decipher the binding codes, it is a long-standing challenge to understand the binding mechanism across different transcription factor DNA binding families. Past computational learning studies usually focus on learning and predicting the DNA binding residues on protein side. Taking into account both sides (protein and DNA), we propose and describe a computational study for learning the specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions of different known DNA-binding domain families. The proposed learning models are compared to state-of-the-art models comprehensively, demonstrating its competitive learning performance. In addition, we describe and propose two applications which demonstrate how the learnt models can provide meaningful insights into protein–DNA interactions across different DNA binding families.

  17. An explorative qualitative study to determine the footwear needs of workers in standing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer; Williams, Anita E; Nester, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Many work places require standing for prolonged periods of time and are potentially damaging to health, with links to musculoskeletal disorders and acute trauma from workplace accidents. Footwear provides the only interaction between the body and the ground and therefore a potential means to impact musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is very limited research into the necessary design and development of footwear based on both the physical environmental constraints and the personal preference of the workers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore workers needs for footwear in the 'standing' workplace in relation to MSD, symptoms, comfort and design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from demanding work environments that require standing for high proportions of the working day. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the results and gain an exploratory understanding into the footwear needs of these workers. Interviews revealed the environmental demands and a very high percentage of musculoskeletal disorders, including day to day discomfort and chronic problems. It was identified that when designing work footwear for standing environments, the functionality of the shoe for the environment must be addressed, the sensations and symptoms of the workers taken into account to encourage adherence and the decision influencers should be met to encourage initial footwear choice. Meeting all these criteria could encourage the use of footwear with the correct safety features and comfort. Development of the correct footwear and increased education regarding foot health and footwear choice could help to reduce or improve the effect of the high number of musculoskeletal disorders repeatedly recorded in jobs that require prolonged periods of standing. This study provides a unique insight into the footwear needs of some workers in environments that require prolonged standing. This user based enquiry has provided information which is important

  18. Kinetic asymmetry in transfemoral amputees while performing sit to stand and stand to sit movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Carey, Stephanie L; Lura, Derek J; Dubey, Rajiv V; Csavina, Kristine R; Quillen, William S

    2011-05-01

    Transitional movements are a determinant of functional independence and have limited study in amputees. Microprocessor prosthetic knees' abilities to assist transfemoral amputees with sitting and standing have not been studied. Through cross-sectional study, 21 transfemoral amputees, divided into 3 groups of 7 by knee type (power knee, C-leg, Mauch SNS) and 7 non-amputee controls (n=28) performed sit to stand and stand to sit while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded. Transfemoral amputees can stand (1.6-2.0s) and sit (2.1-2.8s) at rates comparable to controls (1.6s). Controls' ground reaction force (GRF) and knee moment production was knee moments. For stand to sit, amputees' asymmetry for GRF ranged from 32 to 60% and 84 to 114% for knee moments. Hip moment asymmetry for sit to stand was less for control (21%) and power knee (34%) groups than that produced by the Mauch SNS (59%) group. For stand to sit, hip moment production for the Mauch SNS (47%) and C-leg groups (71%) were more asymmetric than controls (19%). In the majority of cases transfemoral amputees do not load their prosthesis extensively for standing up or sitting down. Therefore, this transitional movement is currently a one-legged task, which increases stress on the sound limb. Generally, the prosthetic knees studied did not produce a significant knee moment in either task. Although most differences between knee groups were not statistically significant, differences may be clinically meaningful on an individual basis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The effects of obesity and standing time on postural sway during prolonged quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Park, W; Levy, M S; Jung, Eui S

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the effects of obesity level, standing time and their interaction on postural sway during a prolonged quiet upright standing task. Ten extremely obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) and 10 non-obese (18.5 kg/m(2) falls, especially during prolonged physical work activities. The research findings are relevant to identifying and reducing risks of balance loss and falls in various workplace settings for a wide variety of workers.

  20. Lifetime and residual strength of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    The DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material) previously developed by the author to predict lifetime of wood subjected to static loads is further developed in this paper such that harmonic load variations can also be considered. Lifetime (real time or number of cycles) is predicted as a function...... of load amplitude, load average, fractional time under maximum load, and load frequency.The analysis includes prediction of residual strength (re-cycle strength) during the process of load cycling. It is concluded that number of cycles to failure is a very poor design criterion. It is demonstrated how...... the theory developed can be generalized also to consider non-harmonic load variations.Algorithms are presented for design purposes which may be suggested as qualified alternatives to the Palmgren-Miner's methods normally used in fatigue analysis of materials under arbitrary load variations. Prediction...

  1. Instructive of chemical residues waste administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Vargas, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the waste management system of chemical residues generated at the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, separation, transportation, reuse, recycling and final disposal. The laboratory waste management system is conditioned to the volume and type of waste generated. The respective procedures are listed in data sheets according to the corresponding model: avoid, reduce, recycle, treat, delete. The materials are identified as: expired products, materials or damaged products, substances that have lost some of the required characteristics, waste from the regular activities of the lab, unused products that now no longer used because they are considered inadequate. The chemicals reagents or hazardous are transformed into small amounts of derivatives safe products, or less hazardous, to allow for removal or to pick up a spill of these without problem [es

  2. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  3. Carbon accretion in unthinned and thinned young-growth forest stands of the Alaskan perhumid coastal temperate rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, David V; Oken, Kiva L; Herendeen, Paul A; Steel, E Ashley; Hennon, Paul E

    2015-12-01

    Accounting for carbon gains and losses in young-growth forests is a key part of carbon assessments. A common silvicultural practice in young forests is thinning to increase the growth rate of residual trees. However, the effect of thinning on total stand carbon stock in these stands is uncertain. In this study we used data from 284 long-term growth and yield plots to quantify the carbon stock in unthinned and thinned young growth conifer stands in the Alaskan coastal temperate rainforest. We estimated carbon stocks and carbon accretion rates for three thinning treatments (basal area removal of 47, 60, and 73 %) and a no-thin treatment across a range of productivity classes and ages. We also accounted for the carbon content in dead trees to quantify the influence of both thinning and natural mortality in unthinned stands. The total tree carbon stock in naturally-regenerating unthinned young-growth forests estimated as the asymptote of the accretion curve was 484 (±26) Mg C ha -1 for live and dead trees and 398 (±20) Mg C ha -1 for live trees only. The total tree carbon stock was reduced by 16, 26, and 39 % at stand age 40 y across the increasing range of basal area removal. Modeled linear carbon accretion rates of stands 40 years after treatment were not markedly different with increasing intensity of basal area removal from reference stand values of 4.45 Mg C ha -1  year -1 to treatment stand values of 5.01, 4.83, and 4.68 Mg C ha -1  year -1 respectively. However, the carbon stock reduction in thinned stands compared to the stock of carbon in the unthinned plots was maintained over the entire 100 year period of observation. Thinning treatments in regenerating forest stands reduce forest carbon stocks, while carbon accretion rates recovered and were similar to unthinned stands. However, that the reduction of carbon stocks in thinned stands persisted for a century indicate that the unthinned treatment option is the optimal choice for short

  4. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  5. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  6. Evaluation of Crops Sensitivity to Atrazine Soil Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the sensitivity of 9 crops to atrazine soil residual, two separate experiments were conducted in field and greenhouse conditions. First experiment was conducted in a field with treated soil by atrazine based on split plot and the results evaluated in greenhouse conditions. Treatments in the field experiment included two organic manure application rates (0 and 50 t/ha as main plots and 2 atrazine application rates (2 and 4 kg/ha atrazine a.i. as sob plots. After corn harvesting soil was sampled at 0-15 cm surface layer in each plots in 15 points, after mixing the samples. Wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens and colza planted in pots at greenhouse. Second experiment conducted in greenhouse conditions for evaluation of atrazine soil residual in completely randomized design. Treatments included atrazine soil residual concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg soil and crops included wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens, rape, bean and tomato. Results showed that atrazine residue had no effect on crops growth in field experiment treated with atrazine. It seems that atrazine residue in filed soil is lower that its damage threshold for crops or maybe for its fast removal in field than in control conditions. But in bioassay experiment (greenhouse experiment crops response to atrazine residues were different. Results showed that onion and pea were most susceptible ant tolerant crops between studied species and based of ED50 parameter the other crops tolerance to total residue ranked as: pea< bean< lentil< sugar beet< tomato< barley< wheat< rape< onion. Keywords: Atrazine residue, Pea, Bean, Lentil, Sugar beet, Barley, Wheat, Rape, Tomato

  7. Modeling natural regeneration biomass of Pinus stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cubas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass data are very important in the evaluation of ecosystems, and help in understanding the contribution of forests in climate change. Variables that describe the size of the tree, like diameter and height are directly associated with biomass, which allows the use of regression models to estimate this element. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate by regression models, the biomass of different compartments of natural regeneration of trees of a Pinus taeda L. stand. The data were obtained through direct destructive method, using 100 randomly selected trees in the understory of a stand of Pinus taeda. We analyzed three arithmetical models, three logarithmic and two models developed by Stepwise process. Logarithmic equations developed by Stepwise procedure showed the best estimates of total and stems biomass. However, for needles and twigs compartments the best adjust was observed with Husch model and for root biomass Berkhout model proved to be the most suitable.

  8. 2015 Dust Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Dust Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), NASA Headquarters, and the NASA Research Education and Support Services on November 12, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated Evidence Report for The Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure, as well as the Research Plan for this Risk.

  9. Bioinformatic prediction and in vivo validation of residue-residue interactions in human proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Daniel; Davis, Erica; Katsanis, Nicholas; Sunyaev, Shamil

    2014-03-01

    Identifying residue-residue interactions in protein molecules is important for understanding both protein structure and function in the context of evolutionary dynamics and medical genetics. Such interactions can be difficult to predict using existing empirical or physical potentials, especially when residues are far from each other in sequence space. Using a multiple sequence alignment of 46 diverse vertebrate species we explore the space of allowed sequences for orthologous protein families. Amino acid changes that are known to damage protein function allow us to identify specific changes that are likely to have interacting partners. We fit the parameters of the continuous-time Markov process used in the alignment to conclude that these interactions are primarily pairwise, rather than higher order. Candidates for sites under pairwise epistasis are predicted, which can then be tested by experiment. We report the results of an initial round of in vivo experiments in a zebrafish model that verify the presence of multiple pairwise interactions predicted by our model. These experimentally validated interactions are novel, distant in sequence, and are not readily explained by known biochemical or biophysical features.

  10. Radiological Features of Long-Standing Hypoparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Deepa Regina; Suthar, Pokhraj P.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism is an extremely rare endocrinal disorder with a prevalence of 37 per 100,000. Herein we presented a case of a 30-year-old male who came with symptoms of muscle weakness, carpopedal spasms and limitation of movement which gradually progressed over 8 years. A 30-year-old male patient presented in an outpatient department of a tertiary care centre with a complaint of severe pain in both hip joints. He had generalized muscle weakness, facial discomfort, recurrent episodes of carpopedal spasms and crampy abdominal pains. On clinical examination, the patient had Chvostek sign and Trousseau sign. Biochemical tests revealed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypomagnesemia with low plasma parathyroid hormone level. X-ray of the pelvis and spine revealed spondylarthropathic changes of long-standing hypoparathyroidism. Computed Tomography of the brain revealed bilateral basal ganglia calcifications. The patient was treated with intravenous calcium gluconate, magnesium and oral vitamin D3. On follow-up the patient showed improvement of muscle weakness and carpopedal spasm with near-normal biochemical parameters. However, there was no improvement in symptoms related to spondyloarthropathy. Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder with clinic and biochemical features of hypocalcemia. Long- standing hypoparathyroidism can cause spondyloarthropathic changes closely resembling ankylosing spondylitis and DISH. Skeletal changes of long-standing hypoparathyroidism are irreversible. If left untreated, life-threatening complications like cardiac arrhythmias and broncholaryngospasm may occur

  11. MICROSCALE METROLOGY USING STANDING WAVE PROBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauza, M B; Woody, S C; Smith, S T; Seugling, R M; Darnell, I; Florando, J N

    2008-08-04

    Miniaturization has been one of the driving forces in the development of new technologies leading to new products in a variety of industries. As a result, the integration of components over several orders of magnitude on the length scale poses enormous challenges for quality assurance and control. Therefore, new solutions are necessary to meet the growing need for more challenging metrology tasks and metrology requirements in nano- and micro-technology. However, with miniaturization, new challenges arise such as the increased influence of adhesion, electrostatic, Van der Waals and meniscus forces that affect the measurement process. Technical solutions to overcome these micro- and nano-metrology challenges will include the need for traceability, new calibration procedures and calibration artifacts. Over the past decade many new metrology tools have been proposed, however; for contact based measurements, adhesion between the measurement probe and the specimen still proves to be one of the more difficult challenges to overcome. To address this issue, a new class of tactile sensing probe referred to as standing wave sensor has been developed and was previously presented. Previous work introduced the principle of operation of the standing wave senor. This work presents new measurements showing applications of the standing wave probe as the sensing element in a microscale high aspect ratio profiling system.

  12. Combining specificity determining and conserved residues improves functional site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the location of functionally important sites from protein sequence and/or structure is a long-standing problem in computational biology. Most current approaches make use of sequence conservation, assuming that amino acid residues conserved within a protein family are most likely to be functionally important. Most often these approaches do not consider many residues that act to define specific sub-functions within a family, or they make no distinction between residues important for function and those more relevant for maintaining structure (e.g. in the hydrophobic core. Many protein families bind and/or act on a variety of ligands, meaning that conserved residues often only bind a common ligand sub-structure or perform general catalytic activities. Results Here we present a novel method for functional site prediction based on identification of conserved positions, as well as those responsible for determining ligand specificity. We define Specificity-Determining Positions (SDPs, as those occupied by conserved residues within sub-groups of proteins in a family having a common specificity, but differ between groups, and are thus likely to account for specific recognition events. We benchmark the approach on enzyme families of known 3D structure with bound substrates, and find that in nearly all families residues predicted by SDPsite are in contact with the bound substrate, and that the addition of SDPs significantly improves functional site prediction accuracy. We apply SDPsite to various families of proteins containing known three-dimensional structures, but lacking clear functional annotations, and discusse several illustrative examples. Conclusion The results suggest a better means to predict functional details for the thousands of protein structures determined prior to a clear understanding of molecular function.

  13. Effects of thinnings on growth and yield in natural Pinus arizonica and Pinus durangensis stands in the El Largo-Madera region in Chihuahua State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Estrada Murrieta; Luis A. Dominguez Pereda; Marcelo Zepeda Bautista

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the first dasometric analysis made with the data of some permanent thinning plots established at different times since 1964 in the Unit of Conservation and Forest Development #2 in Chihuahua State, Mexico. The results show the benefits of thinnings on the growth rates of residual stands, the increment's redistribution, and the...

  14. Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana–Nothofagus stands in central Chile. Rafael M Navarro-Cerrillo, Fernando Olave, Francisco Moreno, Sergio de Miguel, Margarita Clemente ...

  15. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...

  16. Report on tests of tip-filter using residue from Zeitz TTH-separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, L.; Eisenhut, A.

    1943-03-15

    In the TTH process as run at Zeitz, one of the steps was paraffin removal from the Abstreifer (an intermediate, viscous, liquid product) by filtration. Apparently a filtration-aiding material known as Filterhilfe A was used in the process; each batch seemed to have been used more than once, since Filterhilfe A appeared in the filtration residue and then in the residue left upon distillation to release most of the paraffin from the filtration residue. This report described tests run by Ludwigshafen on samples (from different days' operations) of this distillation residue from Zeitz to evaluate how well the effectiveness of the filter aid contained in the residue was being maintained through time, as compared to the effectiveness of fresh Filterhilfe A in paraffin removal. It was found that most samples of residue showed a drop-off of 35% to 47% in effectiveness, measured by the percentage of distillation residue in the filtration mixture which was necessary to give filtration residues of comparable properties to those given by 0.5% of fresh Filterhilfe A. Thus the Filterhilfe A seemed to have been damaged somewhat by the processing procedure at Zeitz; the report described suggested ways of distilling the paraffin from the filtration residue so as to damage the Filterhilfe A as little as possible. In testing the distillation residues before the filtration experiment, it was found that their content of high-molecular-weight waxlike materials increased with the number of times the residues had been recycled as filtration aids. It was suggested that such a buildup could be lessened by cycling part of the distillation residue back through the hydrogenation process each time. Finally, the report mentioned two types of asphalt which seemed to be comparable in effectiveness to Filterhilfe A as filtration aids.

  17. Quantification of Residual Stress from Photonic Signatures of Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Hayward, Maurice; Yost, William E.

    2013-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 +/- 0.54 x 10(exp -12)/Pa. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA's Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented. Keywords: Glass, fused silica, photoelasticity, residual stress

  18. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 880.2700 - Stand-on patient scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stand-on patient scale. 880.2700 Section 880.2700... Devices § 880.2700 Stand-on patient scale. (a) Identification. A stand-on patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to weigh a patient who is able to stand on the scale platform...

  20. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  1. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  2. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  3. The Frontline of Refusal: Indigenous Women Warriors of Standing Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Temryss MacLean

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous women stand in solidarity on the frontline of refusal, protecting their ancestral homelands and their ways of life across North America and beyond. The Indigenous stand-off at Standing Rock in opposition to the Dakota Access Pipeline inspires this photo series of vignettes where Indigenous voices accompany images of Indigenous women in…

  4. Standing Sound Waves in Air with DataStudio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments related to standing sound waves in air are adapted for using the ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system with the DataStudio software from PASCO scientific. First, the standing waves are created by reflection from a plane reflector. The distribution of the sound pressure along the standing wave is measured. Second, the resonance…

  5. Relationship of stand age to streamwater nitrate in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; C. Wayne Martin

    1975-01-01

    Streamwater nitrate content of six watersheds during spring and summer was apparently related to stand age or age since disturbance. Nitrate concentration averaged 10.3 ppm right after cutting, dropped to a trace in medium-aged stands, and then rose again to a maximum of 4.8 ppm as stands became overmature.

  6. Standing dead tree resources in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Karen L. Waddell; Christopher M. Oswalt; James E. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees to numerous forest ecosystem attributes/ processes such as fuel loadings and wildlife habitat, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, initiated a consistent nationwide inventory of standing dead trees in 1999. As the first cycle of annual standing dead tree...

  7. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  8. STUDY ON THE EXPLAINABLE ABILITY BY USING AIRBORNE LIDAR IN STAND VALUE AND STAND COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy structure is composed by the various species. Sun light is a main factor to affect the crown structures after tree competition. However, thinning operation is an appropriate way to control canopy density, which can adjust the competition conditions in the different crown structures. Recently, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, has been established as a standard technology for high precision three dimensional forest data acquisition; it could get stand characteristics with three-dimensional information that had develop potential for the structure characteristics of forest canopy. The 65 years old, different planting density of Cryptomeria japonica experiment area was selected for this study in Nanytou, Taiwan. Use the LiDAR image to estimate LiDAR characteristic values by constructed CHM, voxel-based LiDAR, mu0ltiple echoes, and assess the accuracy of stand characteristics with intensity values and field data. The competition index was calculated with field data, and estimate competition index of LiDAR via multiple linear regression. The results showed that the highest accuracy with stand characteristics was stand high which estimate by LiDAR, its average accuracy of 91.03%. LiDAR raster grid size was 20 m × 20 m for the correlation was the best, however, the higher canopy density will reduce the accuracy of the LiDAR characteristic values to estimate the stand characteristics. The significantly affect canopy thickness and the degree of competition in different planting distances.

  9. Modelling of creep damage development in ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, R. [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The physical creep damage, which is observed in fossil-fired power plants, is mainly due to the formation of cavities and their interaction. It has previously been demonstrated that both the nucleation and growth of creep cavities can be described by power functions in strain for low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels. It possible to show that the physical creep damage is proportional to the product of the number of cavities and their area. Hence, the physical creep damage can also be expressed in terms of the creep strain. In the presentation this physical creep damage is connected to the empirical creep damage classes (1-5). A creep strain-time function, which is known to be applicable to low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels, is used to describe tertiary creep. With this creep strain - time model the residual lifetime can be predicted from the observed damage. For a given damage class the remaining life is directly proportional to the service time. An expression for the time to the next inspection is proposed. This expression is a function of fraction of the total allowed damage, which is consumed till the next inspection. (orig.) 10 refs.

  10. Residual capacity estimation of bridges using structural health monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Reza; Feng, Maria Q.; Torbol, Marco

    2011-04-01

    In this study, a vibration-based procedure for residual capacity estimation of bridges after damaging earthquake events is proposed. The procedure starts with estimation of collapse capacity of the intact bridge using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) curves. The collapse capacity is defined as the median intensity level of the earthquakes that cause global or local collapse within the structure. A database of post-earthquake modal properties is created by calculating the analytical modal properties of the bridge after each nonlinear response history analysis performed for generation IDA curves. After the damaging event, experimental modal properties of the bridge are identified from vibration measurements of the bridge. These properties along with the modal properties database are used to find ground motionintensity pairs that can drive nonlinear FE model of the structure to the current damage state of the bridge. The IDA curves corresponding to the damaged FE model of the bridge are subsequently used to estimate amount of loss in collapse capacity of the damaged structure. Estimated loss in capacity of the bridge besides the bridge-site-specific seismic hazard curves are used to update the functionality status of the bridge. Proposed procedure is applied to experimental data from a large-scale shake table test on a quarter-scale model of a short-span reinforced concrete bridge. The bridge was subjected to a series of earthquake ground motions introducing progressive seismic damage to the bridge which finally led to the failure of one of the bents. Residual collapse capacity and functionality status of the bridge are updated at different stages of the experiment using the proposed procedure.

  11. A simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection for predictive and interpretative purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.

    1994-01-01

    The in-reactor fuel rod support conditions against the fretting wear-induced damage can be evaluated by spacer grid residual spring deflection. In order to predict the spacer grid residual spring deflection as a function of burnup for various spring designs, a simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection has been developed and implemented in the GRIDFORCE program. The simulation methodology takes into account cladding creep rate, initial spring deflection, initial spring force, and spring force relaxation rate as the key parameters affecting the residual spring deflection. The simulation methodology developed in this study can be utilized as an effective tool in evaluating the capability of a newly designed spacer grid spring to prevent the fretting wear-induced damage

  12. Residual subsidence analysis after the end of coal mine work. Example from Lorraine Colliery, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Heib, M.; Nicolas, M.; Noirel, J.F.; Wojtkowiak, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the residual movements associated with the deep coal mines. The studied case relates to works located into Lorraine coal basin. The paper is divided into two sections. The first one describes subsidence phenomena, especially the residual phase in terms of amplitude, duration and localization. The second one focus on Morsbach case: the total and residual subsidence measurements will be analyzed and compared to the state of the art as well as the currant knowledge. The results of the analysis show that the duration of residual movements does not exceed 24 months and their amplitude is about 5% of total subsidence. We analyze also the declarations of the mining damage during and after the mining period. Damages occur, after this period are probably due to late observations. (authors)

  13. Bark- and wood-boring beetles on Scots pine logging residues from final felling: Effects of felling date, deposition location and diameter of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Foit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the risk of bark- and wood-boring beetle pests, the extensive removal of logging residues is conducted in forests; however, this practice can lead to a loss of saproxylic insect diversity. Thus, finding a better pest management strategy is needed and requires additional information on the actual effects of various, differently treated logging residues for pest multiplication. In the present study, a total of 2,160 fragments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. logging residues generated during final felling in a single stand in the Drahanská Highlands in the Czech Republic were examined for bark- and wood-boring beetles. The felling occurred on four dates in 2006 (in February, May, August and November. The logging residues from each felling were left scattered on the clear-cut area or were gathered into piles. The fauna inhabiting the logging residues were investigated by peeling off the bark during the first six months of the vegetative period following the felling. The logging residues hosted species-rich assemblages of bark- and wood-boring beetles (25 species were identified. Beetle occurrence was significantly affected by felling date, logging residue type (trunk fragment or branch and branch thinner or thicker than 1 cm, diameter and the manner in which the logging residues were deposited (freely scattered, top pile layer, or bottom pile layer. The Scots pine logging residues were a substrate for the significant multiplication of several potentially significant pests (particularly, Pityogenes chalcographus [Linnaeus], Ips acuminatus [Gyllenhal] and Pityophthorus pityographus [Ratzeburg]. The results indicated that the risk of pest reproduction can be minimised by felling the trees in August (and probably also September and October. For I. acuminatus and P. pityographus, the risk can be minimised by gathering the logging residues into piles.

  14. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  15. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  16. Residual stress analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques which are or could be employed to measure residual stresses are outlined. They include X-ray and neutron diffraction. Comments are made on the reliability and accuracy to be expected from particular techniques

  17. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  18. Vegetation of the selected forest stands and land use in the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzinska, Krystyna; Godzik, Barbara; Fraczek, Witold; Badea, Ovidiu; Oszlanyi, Julius; Postelnicu, Daniela; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    Vegetation and land use maps of forested mountain areas in central Europe are presented. - Within the framework of the project 'Effects of forest health on biodiversity with emphasis on air pollution in the Carpathian Mountains' 26 permanent study sites were established in the vicinity of the ozone monitoring sites. The study sites were located on the NW-SE transect through the Western (12 sites), Eastern (11 sites) and Southern (3 sites) Carpathians in forest ecosystems typical of each area. Some of the forest monitoring sites were located in national parks, biosphere reserves and areas of protected landscape. Each permanent site of 0.7 ha area consisted of 5 small 500m{sup 2} circular plots, arranged in the form of a cross, i.e. four placed on the cardinal points (N, E, S, W) and one in the center. Phytosociological records were done twice during the 1998 growing season using the Braun-Blanquet's method. The study sites represented various types of forest: Picea abies stands (8), beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands (10), fir (Abies alba) stands (2) and mixed beech-fir, spruce-fir and beech-spruce stands (6). Age of most stands was 80-100 years. Degree of crown damage varied greatly between sites, a percentage of damaged trees decrease in Carpathians from West to East. It corresponds well with the O{sub 3} level in these areas. Typical damage by O{sub 3} in herb layer species in several Carpathian sites were found. Land-use map for the entire Carpathian Mountains and two detailed land use maps for Tatras (Western Carpathians) and Retezat (Southern Carpathians) are presented. A little more than half of the Carpathian territory is forested. The most densely forested are Eastern Carpathians, while the most sparsely Western Carpathians. Arable lands occupy 22.6% of the Carpathians, pastures and meadows 6.2%, water bodies 1.9%, and build up areas several percent. In the highest elevation of the Carpathians alpine meadows (11.3%) and rocks (3.5%) are

  19. Radiation damage with biological specimens and organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation damage referred to in this chapter is defined as any changes in the physical structure or chemical makeup of the specimen which occur as a result of exposure to the electron beam. Radiation damage occurs in organic materials predominantly as a consequence of inelastic scattering of the incident electrons which frequently results in molecular ionization and radiolysis. Other types of radiation damage which can occur are specimen etching, which occurs as the result of synergistic action of electron irradiation and the presence of certain residual gasses, and specimen heating which occurs only at electron current densities that are large on the scale of ionization damage. The primary events in radiation physics and radiation chemistry and signal-to-noise considerations are also discussed in some detail

  20. Stand-alone photovoltaic applications. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loois, G.; Van Hemert, B.

    1999-02-01

    The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative R and D agreements established within the IEA. The objective of Task III is to promote and facilitate the exchange of information and experiences in the field of PV Systems in Stand-alone and Island Applications (SAPV). The book focuses on the practical experiences gained, and does not aim to provide a complete manual on SAPV. When Task III started its activities in 1993, a collection of 50 'State of the art' projects was published in the book 'Examples of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems'. This publication marked the base line for the work of the task. Now, in 1998, the showcases from each country demonstrate the lessons learned in five years of cooperation. The book consists of two parts. The first part contains eight chapters dealing with a specific aspect of stand-alone PV. The second part introduces 14 national showcase projects in a systematic presentation. Each chapter and showcase can be read independently from the rest of the book. Chapter 2, contributed by The Netherlands, analyses the market for stand-alone PV systems. It gives an overview of the 'traditional' application of stand-alone PV, which is the electrification of remote buildings and which has been addressed in depth in other publications. The focus is on the market niches of service applications that are also interesting for more densely populated areas, e.g. in industrialised countries. The United Kingdom illustrates the economic aspects in Chapter 3. Cost comparisons are made, but more important is the illustration of the non-financial considerations that make PV the preferred choice as a power source for many applications. Switzerland explores in Chapter 4 (financing aspects) different financing mechanisms, and financial policies used to overcome the initial cost barrier. Most of these approaches have been applied in developing countries rather than in the western world. Using various examples from all over the

  1. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  2. mapDamage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginolhac, Aurélien; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of contaminant DNA molecules, most often originating from environmental microbes, and endogenous fragments exhibiting substantial levels of DNA damage. The latter introduce specific nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation signatures in sequenci...... of the SAMtools suite and R environment and has been validated on both GNU/Linux and MacOSX operating systems....

  3. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  4. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  5. Reconstructed old-growth forest stand structure and composition of two stands on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Peter; Constance A. Harrington

    2010-01-01

    We reconstructed the stand structure and composition for two western Washington old-growth forest stands harvested around 1930 (named Fresca and Rail) from field and historical data. Both old-growth stands had a codominant or dominant 250-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) overstory with a few scattered older Douglas-fir....

  6. Maintaining standing balance by handrail grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraf, Thiago A; Marigold, Daniel S; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining balance while standing on a moving bus or subway is challenging, and falls among passengers are a significant source of morbidity. Standing passengers often rely on handrail grasping to resist perturbations to balance. We conducted experiments that simulated vehicle starts, to examine how handrail location (overhead or shoulder-height), perturbation direction (forward, backward, left or right), and perturbation magnitude (1 or 2m/s(2)) affected the biomechanical effort (peak centre-of-pressure (COP) excursion and hand force) and muscle activations (onset and integrated EMG activity) involved in balance maintenance. COP excursions, hand forces and muscle activations were altered in a functional manner based on task constraints and perturbation characteristics. Handrail position affected normalized values of peak COP and hand force during forward and backward, but not sideways perturbations. During backward perturbations, COP excursion was greater when grasping overhead than shoulder-height. During forward perturbations, hand force was greater when grasping shoulder-height than overhead. Biceps activations were earlier during shoulder-height than overhead grasping, while tibialis anterior activity was higher during overhead than shoulder-height grasping. Our results indicate that, when facing forward or backward to the direction of vehicle motion, overhead grasping minimizes hand force, while shoulder-height grasping minimizes COP excursion. In contrast, grasping with a sideways stance eliminates the effect of handrail location, and was associated with equal or lower biomechanical effort. This suggests that, at least for vehicle starts, the most reasonable strategy may be to stand sideways to the direction of the vehicle movement, and grasp either at shoulder-height or overhead. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-standing poliomyelitis and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Gartsman, Irina; Meiner, Zeev; Schwartz, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    To compare the psychological health of the individuals with long-standing poliomyelitis, with or without post-polio syndrome (PPS), to the general population and to identify the role of work as well as other variables with regard to their psychological health. A cross-sectional study. One hundred and ninety-five polio patients attending postpolio clinic in Jerusalem. Emotional distress (ED) was measured using the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Demographic, medical, social and functional data were recorded using a specific structured questionnaire. Each polio patient was compared to four age- and sex-matched controls. ED was higher in the polio population as compared to the general population. Within the polio population ED was inversely correlated with work status. No correlation was found between ED and the functional level of polio participants and no difference was found in GHQ score between polio participants with or without post-polio. In addition, ED was less affected by subjective perception of physical health among polio patients as compared to the general population. Long-standing poliomyelitis is associated with decreased psychological health as compared to the general population. Yet, the resilience of polio survivors is manifested by their ability to block further decline of their psychological health in spite of deterioration in their physical health. Work appears as a significant source of resilience in the polio population. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with long-standing poliomyelitis often suffer from high emotional distress and may benefit from psychotherapy aimed at reducing distress. As active employment status is associated with increased mental health among polio survivors, encouraging participation at work needs to be a significant component of psychotherapeutic programs. Polio survivors, although physically disabled, may be relatively resilient, as their mental health is less affected by their negative health perception

  8. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  9. Droplets bouncing on a standing wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Tambasco, Lucas; Harris, Daniel; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    A liquid bath subject to a vertical vibration becomes unstable to standing surface waves at a critical vibrational acceleration known as the Faraday threshold. We examine the behavior of a millimetric droplet bouncing on the surface of a quasi-one-dimensional fluid channel above the Faraday threshold. We identify a sequence of bifurcations that occurs as the vibrational acceleration is increased progressively, ultimately leading to the erratic, diffusive motion of the droplet along the length of the channel. A simple theoretical model is presented. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  10. Construction of an automated table standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, R. E.; Barbero, M. D.; Di Giulio, E. A.; Folco, J. F.; Jiménez, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  11. Final Focus Test Stand final report

    CERN Document Server

    Jeremie, A; Burrows, P

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line and especially at the Final Focus section. A dedicated Final Focus test stand has been used for this study and is comprised of several sub-parts. First there is the Stabilisation/Isolation system with sensors and actuators stabilizing down to sub-nanometre level. Then the Magnet itself needs to comply with very specific design constraints. In addition to the mechanical items, the beam can be stabilized acting on the trajectory directly and Beam-based controls have been developed and tested on different accelerator facilities.

  12. Construction of an automated table standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neira, R E; Barbero, M D; Di Giulio, E A; Folco, J F; Jiménez, G F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  13. Methods for evaluating crown area profiles of forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrasich, Michael E.; Hann, D.W.; Tappeiner, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Canopy architectures of five structurally complex forest stands and three structurally simple forest stands in southwest Oregon and the Willamette Valley, Oregon, were evaluated and quantified through crown area profiles. Mixed conifer and mixed conifer hardwood stands across a range of sites were sampled for crown widths and heights. Crown width and shape equations were derived and used to quantify the stand crown area at incremental heights above the forest floor. Crown area profiles describe the spatial arrangement of aboveground forest vegetation and the total pore spaces between crowns. Plot by plot profiles were combined to produce vertical and horizontal displays of the stand crown area distribution. In complex stands, the forest space was moderately occupied by crowns from the forest floor up to heights over 30 m, producing uniform distributions of between-crown porosity. The structurally complex stands had between-crown porosity values of 70% to 90% for more than 23 vertical metres of canopy, and they had total between-crown porosities of 86% to 91%. The structurally simple stands had between-crown porosity values of 70% to 90% for less than 8 vertical metres of canopy, and they had total between-crown porosities of 69% to 85%. Variances in crown area indicate that variation in horizontal crown area (within heights) was larger in complex stands than in simple stands, but vertical crown areas (between heights) varied less in complex stands. The study provides a basis for discriminating between canopy architectures and for quantifying the porosity of forest canopies.

  14. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  15. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky, is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs, two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007 and A. platanoides (2010 were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18% or A. saccharum (14% and 9%.

  16. Windthrow Dynamics in Boreal Ontario: A Simulation of the Vulnerability of Several Stand Types across a Range of Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Anyomi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Boreal North America, management approaches inspired by the variability in natural disturbances are expected to produce more resilient forests. Wind storms are recurrent within Boreal Ontario. The objective of this study was to simulate wind damage for common Boreal forest types for regular as well as extreme wind speeds. The ForestGALES_BC windthrow prediction model was used for these simulations. Input tree-level data were derived from permanent sample plot (PSP data provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. PSPs were assigned to one of nine stand types: Balsam fir-, Jack pine-, Black spruce-, and hardwood-dominated stands, and, Jack pine-, spruce-, conifer-, hardwood-, and Red and White pine-mixed species stands. Morphological and biomechanical parameters for the major tree species were obtained from the literature. At 5 m/s, predicted windthrow ranged from 0 to 20%, with damage increasing to 2 to 90% for winds of 20 m/s and to 10 to 100% for winds of 40 m/s. Windthrow varied by forest stand type, with lower vulnerability within hardwoods. This is the first study to provide such broad simulations of windthrow vulnerability data for Boreal North America, and we believe this will benefit policy decisions regarding risk management and forest planning.

  17. Science stand-up at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephanie McClellan

    2013-01-01

    Supported by host Helen Keen from BBC4’s "It is Rocket Science", six amateur performers from CERN (Sam Gregson, Alex Brown, Benjamin Frisch, Claire Lee, Hugo Day and Clara Nellist) were joined on stage by geek-pop sensation Jonny Berliner and comedians Pierre Novellie and Lieven Scheire for a night of science stand-up comedy.   Host Helen Keen starts off the comedy event. (Image: Piotr Traczyk). Like the genesis of most great things, the LHComedy event began as an idea. Sam Gregson, a PhD student at CERN, had been a regular at the Cambridge Bright Club. This public engagement event promotes scientists’ research through stand-up comedy. Sam thought, “If people came to watch Bright Club at Cambridge and enjoyed the research, why can’t we do it at the biggest scientific experiment in the world?” Sam’s idea gained momentum after being introduced to FameLab participants at CERN. Similar to Bright Club, FameLab is a com...

  18. Effects of ice storm damage on hardwood survival and growth in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Turcotte; Thomas R. Elliott; Mary Ann Fajvan; Yong-Lak Park; Daniel A. Snider; Patrick C. Tobin

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, an ice storm occurred across four Mid-Atlantic states. This study investigated the effects of the ice-storm damage on growth and mortality of five tree species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Quercus alba, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubra) from three forest stands in the Wayne National Forest in Ohio. We remeasured the same...

  19. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - I. Recently Cutover Natural Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    A 1988 USDA Forest Service report indicated that 22% (40 million ac) of the commercial timberland in the South was understocked (less than 60% stocking) with desirable tree species for timber production (USDA Forest Service 1988). The understocked stands are usually the result of past har-vesting practices, natural catastrophes, or regeneration fail-ures. Understocked...

  20. Transmission components of solar radiation in pine stands in relation to climatic and stand variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Muller

    1971-01-01

    In a new approach, transmission was studied by relating to stand biomass the ratio of incoming solar radiation beneath tree crowns to that within the atmosphere. Several assumptions were used to estimate analytically the various ways in which solar radiation penetrates through crowns of three pine species in northern California. Sunflecks accounted for much of the...

  1. Research on the residual stress of glass ceramic based on rotary ultrasonic drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lipeng; Jin, Yuzhu; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-10-01

    In the process of machining, the glass ceramic is easy to crack and damage, etc. And the residual stress in the machined surface may cause the crack to different extent in the later stage. Some may even affect the performance of the product. The residual stress of rotary ultrasonic drilling and mechanical processing is compared in different machining parameters (spindle speed, feed rate). The effects of processing parameters and methods are researched, in order to reduce the residual stress in the mechanical processing of glass ceramic, and provide guidance for the actual processing.

  2. Radiation damage of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1966-11-01

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method

  3. Seed production and quality of pinus durangensis mart., from seed areas and a seed stand in durango, mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V.B.; Ruiz, J.A.P.; Parra, A.C.; Zagoya, R.A.; Rodriguez, H.G

    2014-01-01

    Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development. (author)

  4. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  5. Damage by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.

    1961-01-12

    Photochemical air pollution in the Los Angeles and San Francisco bay areas of California causes damage to the foliage of many plants and reduces the growth of a variety of glasshouse-grown crops. Not only is commercial flower production adversely affected, but a wide variety of critically controlled plant experiments conducted by several research institutions also are hampered. Moderate to severe plant damage has been experienced during the past several years for all but a few weeks in the winter months in standard glasshouses at the University of California at Riverside. Plants in glasshouses can be protected from photochemical air pollution by passing all of the air entering the house through activated carbon filters. The phytotoxic products of the photochemical reactions are ozone, the recently described peroxyacetyl nitrite PAN and the oxidants, as yet unidentified, produced by ozone-olefin reactions. Although ethylene occurs in the photochemical air pollution complex and is damaging to a variety of plants, it is not removed by activated carbon. A combination of filter-cooler unit is described which filters phytotoxicants from the air in greenhouses.

  6. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  7. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  8. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  9. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  10. Standing variation in spatially growing populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Diana; Gralka, Matti; Kayser, Jona; Hallatschek, Oskar

    Patterns of genetic diversity not only reflect the evolutionary history of a species but they can also determine the evolutionary response to environmental change. For instance, the standing genetic diversity of a microbial population can be key to rescue in the face of an antibiotic attack. While genetic diversity is in general shaped by both demography and evolution, very little is understood when both factors matter, as e.g. for biofilms with pronounced spatial organization. Here, we quantitatively explore patterns of genetic diversity by using microbial colonies and well-mixed test tube populations as antipodal model systems with extreme and very little spatial structure, respectively. We find that Eden model simulations and KPZ theory can remarkably reproduce the genetic diversity in microbial colonies obtained via population sequencing. The excellent agreement allows to draw conclusions on the resilience of spatially-organized populations and to uncover new strategies to contain antibiotic resistance.

  11. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  12. Comparative investigation of damage performance on K9 and SiO2 under 1064-nm nanosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Wang, Fengrui; Zhang, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Xinda; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo

    2012-01-01

    Laser damage performance of K9 glass and fused silica glass were tested respectively at same experimental condition with 1064 nm nanosecond laser. The initial damage threshold (IDT), the damage growth threshold (DGT) and the damage growth laws of the two optics glass were investigated comparatively. The results show that the damage growth behavior of the two glasses are quite different, for example, the lower damage growth threshold and the higher damage growth coefficient for K9 glass, which can attribute to the difference of the material's damage morphology, optical absorption, residual stress near damage site between the two optics glass. The research is very important to choose transparent optical material applied in high power laser.

  13. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  14. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  15. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  16. Military Robotics and Collateral Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kott, Robert Douglass ;Alexander

    2004-01-01

    .... Such concepts raise important questions in terms of their impact on collateral damage. In a broader context, western warfare in general places a continuously growing emphasis on issues of collateral damage...

  17. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom...... compartment layout, in an attempt to determine the probability of exceeding the design requirements. Distributions for the extent of damage, such as damage length, height and width, are determined. Furthermore, attempts are made at identifying the governing grounding scenarios and deriving a formula...

  18. Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAHL, NEIL K.; MANDELL, JOHN F.; SAMBORSKY, DANIEL D.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of spectrum loading on lifetime and residual strength of a typical fiberglass laminate configuration used in wind turbine blade construction. Over 1100 tests have been run on laboratory specimens under a variety of load sequences. Repeated block loading at two or more load levels, either tensile-tensile, compressive-compressive, or reversing, as well as more random standard spectra have been studied. Data have been obtained for residual strength at various stages of the lifetime. Several lifetime prediction theories have been applied to the results. The repeated block loading data show lifetimes that are usually shorter than predicted by the most widely used linear damage accumulation theory, Miner's sum. Actual lifetimes are in the range of 10 to 20 percent of predicted lifetime in many cases. Linear and nonlinear residual strength models tend to fit the data better than Miner's sum, with the nonlinear providing a better fit of the two. Direct tests of residual strength at various fractions of the lifetime are consistent with the residual strength models. Load sequencing effects are found to be insignificant. The more a spectrum deviates from constant amplitude, the more sensitive predictions are to the damage law used. The nonlinear model provided improved correlation with test data for a modified standard wind turbine spectrum. When a single, relatively high load cycle was removed, all models provided similar, though somewhat non-conservative correlation with the experimental results. Predictions for the full spectrum, including tensile and compressive loads were slightly non-conservative relative to the experimental data, and accurately captured the trend with varying maximum load. The nonlinear residual strength based prediction with a power law S-N curve extrapolation provided the best fit to the data in most cases. The selection of the constant amplitude fatigue regression model becomes important at the lower stress, higher

  19. Liability for nuclear damage. An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The book deals with some of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on this experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed in Committee's work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world's public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states the engage their liability; conflict of interests between nuclear and non-nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussion no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structures of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issues, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author)

  20. The stand prototype of minimum power NRE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, A.I.; Grigorenko, L.N.; Mamontov, Yu.I.; Rachuk, V.S.; Stukalov, A.I.; Konyukhov, G.V.

    1995-01-01

    For ensuring of full-scale development of nuclear rocket engine (NRE) reactor was created stand prototype (reactor IRGIT?) The main differences of its are as follows: 1) Fasteners of technologies channels contents fuel assemblies in bottom are worked out the split. It is provides possibility a distance channels change without disassembly of reactor stand prototype from stand; 2) Cooling of the vessels, the moderator, the reflector and the barrel actuate is carried out by hydrogen; 3) The lower bottom modified for organization the hydrogen efflux in the form a reactor jet; 4) Radiation defence is introduced as part of stand prototype for ensuring of serviceability of stand accessories and tests routine service; 5) Each technology channels is provided of critical nozzle; 6) Control, regulation and defence of reactor has being carried out on stand system

  1. Stand model for upland forests of Southern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, D.L.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

    1978-06-01

    A forest stand growth and composition simulator (FORAR) was developed by modifying a stand growth model by Shugart and West (1977). FORAR is a functional stand model which used ecological parameters to relate individual tree growth to environment rather than using Markov probability matrices or differential equations to determine single tree or species replacement rates. FORAR simulated tree growth and species composition of upland forests of Union County, Ark., by considering 33 tree species on a /sup 1///sub 12/ ha circular plot.

  2. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, P.; Tome, M.

    2012-11-01

    One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

  3. Estimation of stand-level leaf area for boreal bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T

    2007-04-01

    Bryophytes dominate the carbon and nitrogen cycling of many poorly drained terrestrial ecosystems and are important in the vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon and water, yet few studies have estimated their leaf area at the stand scale. This study quantified the bryophyte-specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area index (LAI) in a group of different-aged boreal forest stands in well and poorly drained soils. Species-specific SLA (for three feather mosses, four Sphagnum spp. and Aulacomnium palustre mixed with Tomentypnum nitens) was assessed by determining the projected area using a flatbed scanner and cross-sectional geometry using a dissecting microscope. The hemisurface leaf area was computed as the product of SLA and live biomass and was scaled by coverage data collected at all stands. Pleurozium schreberi dominated the spatial coverage, biomass and leaf area in the well-drained stands, particularly the oldest, while S. fuscum and A. palustre were important in the poorly drained stands. Live moss biomass ranged from 47 to 230 g m(-2) in the well-drained stands dominated by feather mosses and from 102 to 228 g m(-2) in the poorly drained stands. Bryophyte SLA varied between 135 and 473 cm(2) g(-1), for A. palustre and S. capillifolium, respectively. SLA was strongly and significantly affected by bryophyte species, but did not vary between stands; in general, there was no significant difference between the SLA of non-Sphagnum mosses. Bryophyte LAI increased with stand age, peaking at 3.1 and 3.7 in the well and poorly drained stands, respectively; this represented approximately 40% of the overstory LAI in the well-drained stands and 100-1,000% in the poorly drained stands, underscoring the important role bryophytes play in the water and carbon budgets of these boreal forests.

  4. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  5. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  6. Radiation damage in graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, John Harry Walrond

    1965-01-01

    Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This

  7. Tokamak ARC damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage.

  8. Tokamak ARC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

  9. A review of experimental methods for determining residual creep life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.J.

    1977-11-01

    Experimental methods available for determining how much creep life remains at a particular time in the high temperature service of a component are reviewed. After a brief consideration of the limitations of stress rupture extrapolation techniques, the application of post-exposure creep testing is considered. Ways of assessing the effect of microstructural degradation on residual life are then reviewed. It is pointed out that while this type of work will be useful for certain materials, there are other materials in which 'mechanical damage' such as cavitation will be more important. Cavitation measurement techniques are therefore reviewed. The report ends with a brief consideration of the use of crack growth measurements in assessing the residual life of cracked components. (author)

  10. Quantification of time delay between damages caused by windstorms and by Ips typographus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Damages by wind and by European spruce bark beetle (I. typographus L. were compared on the basis of the reports about the occurrence of harmful forest agents for the period 1964−1991 across former regional state forest directorates. In the given period, the quantity of salvage logging (70 million m3 was more than five times that of sanitation felling (13 million m3. Damage intensity increased over the decades. Using a cross-correlation function between the time series, an increase in the abundance of I. typographus due to windfall was demonstrated with a delay of 1–3 years. Wind damage was also shown to arise as a result of disturbed stand stability after sanitation felling with a stochastic delay of 1−5 years. Thus, disturbance of static stability of forest stands may be considered as one of the main harmful consequences of bark beetle outbreaks for the near future. Consequences for forest management are discussed.

  11. Wildlife response to stand structure of deciduous woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Hodorff; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Raymond L. Linder

    1988-01-01

    Deciduous woodlands provide important habitat for wildlife but comprise Fraxinus pennsylvanica) woodlands in northwestern South Dakota. Closed-canopy stands were multilayered communities with dense...

  12. Flexible integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bigeng; Wu, Hao; Xin, Chenguang; Dai, Daoxin; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-14

    Silicon photonics has been developed successfully with a top-down fabrication technique to enable large-scale photonic integrated circuits with high reproducibility, but is limited intrinsically by the material capability for active or nonlinear applications. On the other hand, free-standing nanowires synthesized via a bottom-up growth present great material diversity and structural uniformity, but precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a great challenge. Here we report hybrid integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics with high flexibility by coupling free-standing nanowires onto target silicon waveguides that are simultaneously used for precise positioning. Coupling efficiency between a free-standing nanowire and a silicon waveguide is up to ~97% in the telecommunication band. A hybrid nonlinear-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a racetrack resonator for significantly enhanced optical modulation are experimentally demonstrated, as well as hybrid active-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides circuits for light generation. These results suggest an alternative approach to flexible multifunctional on-chip nanophotonic devices.Precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a challenge. Here, Chen et al. integrate free-standing nanowires into silicon waveguides and show all-optical modulation and light generation on silicon photonic chips.

  13. Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W

    1993-10-01

    A patient with a T12 spinal cord injury and intractable extensor spasms of the lower extremities participated in tilt table standing trial on 5 nonconsecutive days to determine if the intervention would affect his spasticity and spasms. Each day's standing trial was followed by an immediate reduction in lower extremity spasticity (measured using the modified Ashworth scale and pendulum testing). Standing was also accompanied by a reduction in spasms that lasted until the following morning. The reduction of spasms was particularly advantageous to the performance of car transfers. Tilt table standing merits further examination as a physical treatment of spasms that accompany central nervous system lesions.

  14. Aboveground net primary production decline with stand age: potential causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, S T; McMurtrie, R E; Murty, D

    1996-09-01

    Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) commonly reaches a maximum in young forest stands and decreases by 0-76% as stands mature. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for the decline are not well understood. Current hypotheses for declining ANPP with stand age include: (1) an altered balance between photosynthetic and respiring tissues, (2) decreasing soil nutrient availability, and (3) increasing stomatal limitation leading to reduced photosynthetic rates. Recent empirical and modeling studies reveal that mechanisms (2) and (3) are largely responsible for age-related decline in ANPP for forests in cold environments. Increasing respiratory costs appear to be relatively unimportant in explaining declining productivity in ageing stands.

  15. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  16. Machine Arithmetic in Residual Classes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-03

    rsmainder/residue, as this ascape /-nsues from thp determination of system. It can be. zaalizpd ;n the presence of th- arithmetic urit, which wor~s in thz sys...modules Nj. Page 417. Proof. Proof ascaps /ensues directly from the theorem of Gauss. Actually/really, since according to condition (py, qj)-=-. then

  17. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  18. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  19. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  20. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  1. The experiences of mastery of stand-by energy demand; Les experiences de MDE stand by

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-07-01

    In the residential sector of the OECD countries, the electricity losses of domestic appliances in stand-by position represent 1.5% of the total electricity consumption. This study belongs to the SAVE project (pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy). Its aim is to observe the policies and experiments implemented by municipalities and municipal energy companies for the abatement of the electricity consumptions of stand-by origin. A working group consisting of the German Stadtwerke and some international partners have debated the possible actions and documents for an efficient information of the public. This document presents the brochures and local actions of this program. (J.S.)

  2. Stability of the face layer of sandwich beams with sub-interface damage in the foam core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Skvortsov, Vitaly; Shipsha, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of local indentation/impact damage on the bearing capacity of foam core sandwich beams subjected to edgewise compression. The considered damage is in a form of through-width zone of crushed core accompanied by a residual dent in the face sheet. It is shown that such

  3. H-/H∞ structural damage detection filter design using an iterative linear matrix inequality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B; Nagarajaiah, S

    2008-01-01

    The existence of damage in different members of a structure can be posed as a fault detection problem. It is also necessary to isolate structural members in which damage exists, which can be posed as a fault isolation problem. It is also important to detect the time instants of occurrence of the faults/damage. The structural damage detection filter developed in this paper is a model-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) observer suitable for detecting and isolating structural damage. In systems, possible faults, disturbances and noise are coupled together. When system disturbances and sensor noise cannot be decoupled from faults/damage, the detection filter needs to be designed to be robust to disturbances as well as sensitive to faults/damage. In this paper, a new H - /H ∞ and iterative linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique is developed and a new stabilizing FDI filter is proposed, which bounds the H ∞ norm of the transfer function from disturbances to the output residual and simultaneously does not degrade the component of the output residual due to damage. The reduced-order error dynamic system is adopted to form bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs), then an iterative LMI algorithm is developed to solve the BMIs. The numerical example and experimental verification demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can successfully detect and isolate structural damage in the presence of measurement noise

  4. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first...

  5. Residual dent in locally loaded foam core sandwich structures – Analysis and use for NDI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the residual denting in the face sheet and corresponding core damage in a locally loaded flat sandwich structure with foam core. The problem is analytically considered in the context of elastic bending of the face sheet accompanied by non-linear deformation of the crushed foam

  6. Residual orofacial complaints following Lyme neuroborreliosis: an unusual case of TMD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Veldhuis, E.; Lobbezoo, F.; te Veldhuis, A.; Visscher, C.; Naeije, M.; van Selms, M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with tick-borne Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) can present with a variety of symptoms, and frequently the oral and maxillofacial areas are affected. Even though treatment with antibiotics generally results in a remission of symptoms, patients with permanent nerve damage may show residual

  7. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  8. Assessment of Residual Strength Based on Estimated Temperature of Post-Heated RC Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yaqub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience shows that fire-damaged concrete structures both technically and economically can be reinstated after fire due to high fire resistance and high residual strength. The residual strength of fire-damaged concrete structural member depends on the peak temperature reached during fire, fire duration and the distribution of temperature within the structural member. The assessment of the residual strength of post-heated concrete structural members in a professional way is a prime factor to take a decision about the reinstatement or demolition of fire-damaged structure. This paper provides an easy and efficient approach to predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete columns based on the estimated temperature which may have occurred within the concrete cross-section during a fire. A finite element model was developed to evaluate the distribution of temperature within the cross-section of the reinforced concrete columns. Twelve reinforced concrete square columns were heated experimentally up to 500°C at 150°C/hour. A comparison of the experimental temperature values of the tested columns was made with the model results. A good agreement was found between the experimental and the finite model results. Based on the temperature distribution obtained from the finite element model, the residual strength of concrete and reinforcement could be evaluated by using the relationships for concrete, steel and temperature proposed by various researchers.

  9. Using a stand-level model to predict light absorption in stands with vertically and horizontally heterogeneous canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Forrester

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest ecosystem functioning is strongly influenced by the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR, and therefore, accurate predictions of APAR are critical for many process-based forest growth models. The Lambert-Beer law can be applied to estimate APAR for simple homogeneous canopies composed of one layer, one species, and no canopy gaps. However, the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies is rarely homogeneous. Detailed tree-level models can account for this heterogeneity but these often have high input and computational demands and work on finer temporal and spatial resolutions than required by stand-level growth models. The aim of this study was to test a stand-level light absorption model that can estimate APAR by individual species in mixed-species and multi-layered stands with any degree of canopy openness including open-grown trees to closed canopies. Methods The stand-level model was compared with a detailed tree-level model that has already been tested in mixed-species stands using empirical data. Both models were parameterised for five different forests, including a wide range of species compositions, species proportions, stand densities, crown architectures and canopy structures. Results The stand-level model performed well in all stands except in the stand where extinction coefficients were unusually variable and it appears unlikely that APAR could be predicted in such stands using (tree- or stand-level models that do not allow individuals of a given species to have different extinction coefficients, leaf-area density or analogous parameters. Conclusion This model is parameterised with species-specific information about extinction coefficients and mean crown length, diameter, height and leaf area. It could be used to examine light dynamics in complex canopies and in stand-level growth models.

  10. Hydrogen damage in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen damage has been studied in a wide variety of stainless steels. Both internal and external hydrogen damage were evaluated by ductility or J-integral under rising tensile loads and by fractography. Analysis of the data has emphasized the potential effects of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen damage. Strain-induced martensite was neither necessary nor sufficient for hydrogen damage in the alloys studied. Neither ductility loss nor fracture-mode change correlated generally with martensite formation. Alloy composition, particularly nickel and nitrogen contents, was the primary factor in resistance to hydrogen damage. Thermomechanical processing, however, could alter the degree of hydrogen damage in an alloy and was critical for optimizing resistance to hydrogen damage. 10 figures, 10 tables

  11. Effect of Stand-Off Distance on Impact Pressure of High Speed Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittiwong, Wuttichai; Seehanam, Wirapan; Pianthong, Kulachate; Matthujak, Anirut

    2010-06-01

    High speed liquid jets may be applied to jet cutting, drilling and cleaning. Recently, in the automotive industries, the spray injection pressure becomes higher and higher to enhance the fuel mixing for the improved combustion efficiency. However, the ultra high injection pressure may cause the damage to the nozzle and also the combustion chamber. In the medical application, the high speed liquid injection might be applied for the drug delivery through the skin where the needle is not required anymore. From the above mentioned application, the investigation on the impact pressure of the high speed liquid jet relative to the stand-off distant is significant. The high speed liquid jets are generated by the projectile impact driven method. The high speed projectile is launched by the horizontal single stage powder gun. The experimental study focuses on the stand-off between 1.5 cm to 6.0 cm, while the nozzle contains approximately 1.5cm3 of water in its cavity. The nozzle conical angles are 30° and 60° with the orifice diameter of 0.7 mm. The jet velocities are measured by laser beam interruptions method. The target material is the Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) which the impact pressure is measured by using a piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) film. From the experiments, the maximum water jet velocity of 2290 m/s can be obtained from the 30° conical angle nozzle. The maximum impact pressures of nozzle conical angle of 30° and 60° are 3.4 GPa and 2.6 GPa respectively, at stand-off distance 3 cm. However, at the stand-off distance more than 3 cm, the impact pressure significantly decreases, because of aerodynamic drag, jets core break-up, and atomization of the water.

  12. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  13. Spectroscopy of Single Free Standing Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M D; Hollars, C W; Huser, T; Jallow, N; Cochran, A; Bryant, R

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of quantum confined exciton states GaAs quantum wells with native surface states. Single molecule photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, developed by T. Huser at LLNL was used to probe the unique bare quantum wells in the free standing quantum well structure. The latter was developed by the M. D. Williams at Clark Atlanta University. The goals of the project during this budget cycle were to procure samples containing GaAs free standing QWs, identify suitable regions for PL analysis at Lawrence Livermore, analyze the structures at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The specific regions of interest on the sample structures were identified by scanning electron microscopy at Clark Atlanta prior to transport to LLNL. Previous attempts at other facilities using NSOM, cathodoluminescence, and conventional PL showed little luminescence activity at room temperature from the 200 (angstrom) thick wells. This suggested either excess recombination due to surface states in the quantum well region or insufficient absorption length for photoluminescence. The literature suggested that the effect of the defects could be eliminated by reducing the sample temperature below their associated activation energies. In our previous subcontract work with LLNL, a significant amount of effort was expended to modify the apparatus to allow low temperature measurements. The modifications were not successful and we concluded that in order to do the measurements at low temperature we would need to purchase a commercial optical cryostat to get reliable results. Ms. Rochelle Bryant worked during the summer as an intern at LLNL on the project under the supervision of C. Hollars and in collaboration with T. Huser and found that PL emission could be obtained at room temperature. This was a surprising result as the literature and our experience shows that there is no PL emission from GaAs at room temperature. We speculate that this is due to the small

  14. Effects of clear visual input and change in standing sequence on standing sway related to falls during night toilet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Kouji; Uchiyama, Junko; Ohnishi, Toshihiko; Ninomiya, Ishio; Masino, Yachiyo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to provide objective evidence that clear visual input and change in standing sequence can reduce fall risk related to night toilet use among hospitalized older patients. In hospitalized older patients, falls are likely to occur during night toileting needs. Using a stabilometer, we measured and compared maximal standing sway for 10 seconds immediately after standing with three visual input modes in two standing patterns, comparing healthy younger adults (n=22) and older patients (n=19). The three modes are no visual input (mode 1), vague (mode 2), and clear visual input (mode 3). Standing sequences A and B are defined as supine-to-standing and supine-to-sitting-to-standing, respectively. For a given visual mode, maximal moved distance was significantly greater for older patients than for younger adults with both standing patterns (Polder patients. A greater maximal moved distance score indicated a greater fall risk. It is important for nurses to train older patients to turn on the light and perform standing pattern B, when going to the bathroom at night. In addition, it is advisable to confirm the placement of distinct visual markers on the way to the bathroom. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Approaches to simulate impact damages on aeronautical composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, R. P. Lemanle; Garnier, C.; Pantalé, O.

    2018-02-01

    Impact damage is one of the most critical aggressions for composite structures in aeronautical applications. Consequences of a high/low velocity and high/low energy impacts are very important to investigate. It is usually admitted that the most critical configuration is the Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID), with impact energy of about 25 J, where some internal damages, invisible on the impacted surface of the specimen, drastically reduce the residual properties of the impacted material. In this work we highlight by the finite element simulation, the damage initiation and propagation process and the size of the defaults created by low velocity impact. Two approaches were developed: the first one is the layup technic and the second one is based on the cohesive element technic. Both technics show the plies damages by the Hashin's criteria. Moreover the second one gives the delamination damages with regards to the Benzeggah-Kenane criteria. The validation of these models is done by confrontation with some experimental results.

  16. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Dassios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography (IRT and acoustic emission (AE are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material’s performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  17. RECOVERY OF WHEAT RESIDUE NITROGEN 15 AND RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore 85 kg ha-1 N as labelled ammonium sulfate (9.764% atomic excess) was applied in a three-split application. Fertiliser N recovery by wheat in the first year was 33.1%. At harvest, 64.8% of fertiliser N was found in the 0 - 80 cm profile as residual fertiliser-derived N; 2.1% of the applied N could not be accounted for ...

  18. 2015 Occupant Protection Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Occupant Protection (OP) Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), NASA Headquarters, and NASA Research and Education Support Services on November 3, 2015 (list of participants is in Section VII of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads (OP Risk). The SRP agrees that the Gaps are relevant and appropriate to mitigate the injury risk. All the appropriate and relevant Tasks have been identified to fill the Gaps. Depending upon the findings, additional tasks may need to be identified or modified. Excellent progress has been made since the 2014 SRP meeting. Publications in peer-reviewed journals validate the scientific merit of the research findings. As detailed in this report, the SRP has specific comments, guidance, and information in the following areas: human finite element modeling, human vs. surrogate dynamic responses, chest injury risk curves, matched pair testing of Test device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) and Hybrid III, and disc herniation risk analysis.

  19. Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Snydstrup, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the electron beam test stand (EBTS) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory is to build a versatile device to develop technologies that are relevant for a high intensity electron beam ion source (EBIS) and to study the physics of ion confinement in a trap. The EBTS will have all the main attributes of EBIS: a 1-m-long, 5 T superconducting solenoid, electron gun, drift tube structure, electron collector, vacuum system, ion injection system, appropriate control, and instrumentation. Therefore it can be considered a short prototype of an EBIS for a relativistic heavy ion collider. The drift tube structure will be mounted in a vacuum tube inside a open-quotes warmclose quotes bore of a superconducting solenoid, it will be at room temperature, and its design will employ ultrahigh vacuum technology to reach the 10 -10 Torr level. The first gun to be tested will be a 10 A electron gun with high emission density and magnetic compression of the electron beam. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. RAMSES stands guard over the accelerator chain

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    RAMSES, the system that is used to monitor radiation at the LHC, CNGS, CTF3 and n-TOF facilities, will soon be installed at strategic points in the accelerator chain, replacing the older monitoring system ARCON. The replacement programme has already begun.   RAMSES (which stands for “Radiation Monitoring System for the Environment and Safety”) is designed to protect workers, the general public and the environment, both on the Organization’s site and in the surrounding areas. It is currently operational on all the LHC sites and at CTF3, CNGS and n-TOF, while the remaining sites are still equipped with the ARCON (Area CONtroller) system. Daniel Perrin, head of the Instrumentation and Logistics Section of the HSE Unit's Radiation Protection Group, explains: “ARCON was designed for the old LEP accelerator and dates back to the early 1980s, while RAMSES is a much more recent design intended specifically for the LHC. With 389 detectors distributed across 124 mea...

  1. Visual evoked responses during standing and walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Gramann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has been shaped both by our body structure and by its complex interactionswith its environment. Our cognition is thus inextricably linked to our own and others’ motorbehavior. To model brain activity associated with natural cognition, we propose recording theconcurrent brain dynamics and body movements of human subjects performing normal actions.Here we tested the feasibility of such a mobile brain/body (MoBI imaging approach byrecording high-density electroencephalographic (EEG activity and body movements of subjectsstanding or walking on a treadmill while performing a visual oddball response task. Independentcomponent analysis (ICA of the EEG data revealed visual event-related potentials (ERPs thatduring standing, slow walking, and fast walking did not differ across movement conditions,demonstrating the viability of recording brain activity accompanying cognitive processes duringwhole body movement. Non-invasive and relatively low-cost MoBI studies of normal, motivatedactions might improve understanding of interactions between brain and body dynamics leadingto more complete biological models of cognition.

  2. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  3. Litterfall and Nutrient Returns in Isolated Stands of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses litter production, concentrations and returns of nutrient elements with respect to seasons, so as to provide empirical information on nutrient flux by the isolated exotic stands of Terminalia. Litterfall samples were collected from the isolated stands of Terminalia catappa and adjoining native rainforest which ...

  4. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  5. Impact of Stand Management Practices on Beetle Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Insects are useful indicators of change within ecosystems because of their abundance, richness and functional importance. Stand management practices impact the insect community within a forest. Therefore, the objective of the project is to determine the impact of various stand management practices on the diversity of beetles within...

  6. Evaluation of three classifiers in mapping forest stand types using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three classifiers were examined for their suitability in mapping the different forest stand types in the area (maximum likelihood, spectral angle mapper and decision tree). The results showed that using maximum likelihood classifier and ASTER imagery, different forest stand types can be accurately mapped with an overall ...

  7. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stand-alone special services. 122.2 Section 122.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard...

  8. Stand structure and stocking control in Appalachian mixed hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith

    1976-01-01

    Uneven-aged management using a "q" technique for structure control is discussed for Appalachian mixed hardwoods. The success in attaining stand structure goals with periodic selection cuts was evaluated. Where these goals had not been reached, the authors speculated, on the basis of current stand conditions, whether they would be reached, and if so, when. For...

  9. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The leg vibrations of honeybees standing on a vibrating substrate were measured with laser Doppler vibrometry, both in freely standing bees and in bees attached to a holder. In both cases, no resonances were found. In the fixed bee preparation, the legs moved with approximately the same amplitude...

  10. Ampere hour method of sizing a stand alone photovoltaic system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are natural options for application in electrification of remote areas which are not served by the grid electricity supply system. An ampere-hour method of sizing a stand-alone PV system for application in any remote location has been presented. The design which is for both ac and dc ...

  11. Flooding effects on stand development in cypress-tupelo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Thomas J. Dean; Jim L. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inundation on growth of cypress (Taxodium spp.) and tupelo (Nyssa spp.) trees have been extensively researched, but conclusions are often complicated by attendant effects on stand development. Flooding affects development of cypress-tupelo stands by limiting seedling germination and survival, truncating species...

  12. The importance of spatial accuracy in characterizing stand types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the potential use of Landsat 7 ETM+ (15 and 30 m spatial resolutions) images to estimate forest stand attributes such as development stages, crown closure and stand types. The study evaluates the performance of spatial and image classification accuracies between Landsat images (15 and 30 m ...

  13. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  14. Alleviating inequality in climate policy costs: an integrated perspective on mitigation, damage and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cian, E.; Hof, A. F.; Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    Equity considerations play an important role in international climate negotiations. While policy analysis has often focused on equity as it relates to mitigation costs, there are large regional differences in adaptation costs and the level of residual damage. This paper illustrates the relevance of including adaptation and residual damage in equity considerations by determining how the allocation of emission allowances would change to counteract regional differences in total climate costs, defined as the costs of mitigation, adaptation, and residual damage. We compare emission levels resulting from a global carbon tax with two allocations of emission allowances under a global cap-and-trade system: one equating mitigation costs and one equating total climate costs as share of GDP. To account for uncertainties in both mitigation and adaptation, we use a model-comparison approach employing two alternative modeling frameworks with different damage, adaptation cost, and mitigation cost estimates, and look at two different climate goals. Despite the identified model uncertainties, we derive unambiguous results on the change in emission allowance allocation that could lessen the unequal distribution of adaptation costs and residual damages through the financial transfers associated with emission trading.

  15. C-130: Results of center wing residual strength and crack propagation test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.; Snider, H. L.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings which had experienced from approximately 4,000 to 13,000 hours of flight service and its associated fatigue damage were tested to destruction, seven in upbending and seven in downbending. Six wings were tested directly for static residual strength in the fatigue-damaged condition as received from field service. The other eight wings were tested in crack propagation cyclic testing at a prescribed stress level for a maximum of 10,000 cycles. Then the stress level was reduced and testing was continued up to a maximum of 20,000 total cycles. Cyclic testing was performed with constant-amplitude stresses at a stress ratio of +0.1. Maximum cyclic skin stresses were approximately 18,000 psi. At the conclusion of cyclic testing, a static test to destruction was conducted to determine the residual strength of each fatigue-damaged specimen.

  16. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  17. The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tian; Hedblom, Marcus; Emilsson, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    be achieved if indicators are derived from existing data. In this study, a model for classifying forest stand structures was developed and tested as an indicator of overall plant species diversity at stand level. The model combines four stand structure parameters: canopy coverage, age of canopy trees, tree...... species composition and canopy stratification. Using data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden and General Linear Mixed Model, plant species diversity (Shannon diversity index, SHDI) and composition (Sørensen-Dice index, SDI) were tested between 26 different stand structure types and nine...... soil classes. The results showed that mature stands with a stratified canopy had the highest plant species diversity across the soil classes, particularly if they comprised mixed coniferous and broadleaved species with a semi-open canopy. In contrast, young (...

  18. Computerized axial tomography in the detection of brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cala, L.A.; Mastaglia, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    The cranial computerized axial tomography (CAT) findings in groups of patients with epilepsy, migraine, hypertension, and other general medical disorders have been reviewed to assess the frequency and patterns of focal and diffuse brain damage. In addition to demonstrating focal lesions in a proportion of patients with seizures and in patients presenting with a stroke, the CAT scan showed a premature degree of cerebral atrophy in an appreciable proportion of patients with long-standing epilepsy, hypertension and diabetes, and in some patients with migraine, valvular and ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive airways disease, and chronic renal failure. The value of CAT as a means of screening for brain damage in groups of individuals at risk is discussed

  19. An anisotropic damage model for concrete structures under cyclic loading-uniaxial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuchuan; He, Yuming

    2017-05-01

    An anisotropic damage model is developed based on conventional rotating crack approach. It uses nonlinear unloading/linear reloading branches to model the hysteretic behavior of concrete. Two damage variables, determined by the ratio of accumulated dissipating energy to fracture energy, are introduced to represent the stiffness degradation in tension and compression. Three cyclic tests are simulated by this model and sensitivity analyses are conducted as well. The numerical responses calculated by the damage model are consistent with those obtained from the experiments. The numerical results reflect the nonlinear behavior observed in those tests, such as the damage-induced stiffness degradation, accumulation of residual deformation, energy dissipation caused by hysteretic behavior and stiffness recovery effect due to crack closure. Sensitivity analyses show that the damage exponents have significant influence on the computational accuracy. It is concluded that the anisotropic damage model is applicable to the nonlinear analyses of concrete structures subjected to cyclic loading.

  20. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  1. Investigation of the possibility of using residual heat reactor energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Yurin, V. E.; Bessonov, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    The largest contribution to the probable frequency of core damage is blackout events. The main component of the heat capacity at each reactor within a few minutes following a blackout is the heat resulting from the braking of beta-particles and the transfer of gamma-ray energy by the fission fragments and their decay products, which is known as the residual heat. The power of the residual heat changes gradually over a long period of time and for a VVER-1000 reactor is about 15–20 MW of thermal power over 72 hours. Current cooldown systems increase the cost of the basic nuclear power plants (NPP) funds without changing the amount of electricity generated. Such systems remain on standby, accelerating the aging of the equipment and accordingly reducing its reliability. The probability of system failure increases with the duration of idle time. Furthermore, the reactor residual heat energy is not used. A proposed system for cooling nuclear power plants involves the use of residual thermal power to supply the station’s own needs in emergency situations accompanied by a complete blackout. The thermal power of residual heat can be converted to electrical energy through an additional low power steam turbine. In normal mode, the additional steam turbine generates electricity, which makes it possible to ensure spare NPP and a return on the investment in the reservation system. In this work, experimental data obtained from a Balakovo NPP was analyzed to determine the admissibility of cooldown of the reactors through the 2nd circuit over a long time period, while maintaining high-level parameters for the steam generated by the steam generators.

  2. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  3. Isothermal Fatigue, Damage Accumulation, and Life Prediction of a Woven PMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the characterization of the fully reversed fatigue behavior exhibited by a carbon fiber/polyimide resin, woven laminate at room and elevated temperatures. Nondestructive video edge view microscopy and destructive sectioning techniques were used to study the microscopic damage mechanisms that evolved. The residual elastic stiffness was monitored and recorded throughout the fatigue life of the coupon. In addition, residual compressive strength tests were conducted on fatigue coupons with various degrees of damage as quantified by stiffness reduction. Experimental results indicated that the monotonic tensile properties were only minimally influenced by temperature, while the monotonic compressive and fully reversed fatigue properties displayed noticeable reductions due to the elevated temperature. The stiffness degradation, as a function of cycles, consisted of three stages; a short-lived high degradation period, a constant degradation rate segment composing the majority of the life, and a final stage demonstrating an increasing rate of degradation up to failure. Concerning the residual compressive strength tests at room and elevated temperatures, the elevated temperature coupons appeared much more sensitive to damage. At elevated temperatures, coupons experienced a much larger loss in compressive strength when compared to room temperature coupons with equivalent damage. The fatigue damage accumulation law proposed for the model incorporates a scalar representation for damage, but admits a multiaxial, anisotropic evolutionary law. The model predicts the current damage (as quantified by residual stiffness) and remnant life of a composite that has undergone a known load at temperature. The damage/life model is dependent on the applied multiaxial stress state as well as temperature. Comparisons between the model and data showed good predictive capabilities concerning stiffness degradation and cycles to failure.

  4. Desk-based workers' perspectives on using sit-stand workstations: a qualitative analysis of the Stand@Work study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Daley, M.; Srinivasan, A.; Dunn, S.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolonged sitting time has been identified as a health risk factor. Sit-stand workstations allow desk workers to alternate between sitting and standing throughout the working day, but not much is known about their acceptability and feasibility. Hence, the aim of this study was to

  5. Growth of site trees and stand structure in mixed stands of Pacific silver fir and western hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall D. Murray; Peggy C. Leonard

    1990-01-01

    Height and diameter growth of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) site trees, as well as overall stand structure on 0.15-acre plots, were analyzed in mixed stands 43 to 57 years old in breast height age at six locations in western Washington. These mixed...

  6. Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2011-01-01

    There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...

  7. Structural damage detection by a new iterative regularization method and an improved sensitivity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezami, Alireza; Shariatmadar, Hashem; Sarmadi, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    A new sensitivity-based damage detection method is proposed to identify and estimate the location and severity of structural damage using incomplete noisy modal data. For these purposes, an improved sensitivity function of modal strain energy (MSE) based on Lagrange optimization problem is derived to adapt the initial sensitivity formulation of MSE to damage detection problem with the aid of new mathematical approaches. In the presence of incomplete noisy modal data, the sensitivity matrix is sparse, rectangular, and ill-conditioned, which leads to an ill-posed damage equation. To overcome this issue, a new regularization method named as Regularized Least Squares Minimal Residual (RLSMR) is proposed to solve the ill-posed damage equation. This method relies on Krylov subspace and exploits bidiagonalization and iterative algorithms to solve linear mathematical systems. For the majority of Krylov subspace methods, conventional direct methods for the determination of an optimal regularization parameter may not be proper. To cope with this limitation, a hybrid technique is introduced that depends on the residual of RLSMR method, the number of iterations, and the bidiagonalization algorithm. The accuracy and performance of the improved and proposed methods are numerically examined by a planner truss by incorporating incomplete noisy modal parameters and finite element modeling errors. A comparative study on the initial and improved sensitivity functions is conduced to investigate damage detectability of these sensitivity formulations. Furthermore, the accuracy and robustness of RLSMR method in detecting damage are compared with the well-known Tikhonov regularization method. Results show that the improved sensitivity of MSE is an efficient tool for using in the damage detection problem due to a high sensitivity to damage and reliable damage detectability in comparison with the initial sensitivity function. Additionally, it is observed that the RLSMR method with the aid

  8. Electron damage in organic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howitt, D.G.; Thomas, G.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage in three crystalline organic materials (l-valine, cytosine, copper phthalocyanine) have been investigated by electron microscopy. The degradation of these materials has been found to be consistent with a gradual collapse of their crystal structures brought about by ionization damage to the comprising molecules. It is inferred that the crystallinity of these materials is destroyed by ionizing radiation because the damaged molecules cannot be incorporated into the framework of their original structures. (author)

  9. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81

  10. Plant growth regulators to manipulate oat stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs are exogenously applied chemicals that alter plant metabolism, cell division, cell enlargement, growth and development by regulating plant hormones or other biological signals. For example, some PGRs regulate stem elongation by inhibiting biosynthesis of gibberellins or through releasing ethylene. PGR effects are widely studied and reported on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L., whereas there are only a few reports addressing oat (Avena sativa L.. This is likely to be a result of smaller acreage and lower intensity of oat management and production and hence a reduced need for stem shortening by PGRs. However, this is not the case for all cereal producing regions and there exists a need to understand the potential application of PGRs to oat production. This paper represents a review of the potential of PGRs to regulate stem elongation and other biological traits governing plant stand structure and yield components, with special emphasis on oat and its responses to PGRs. Yield improvement requires more heads per unit land area, more grains per head or heavier grains. Of these yield-determining parameters, the number of head bearing tillers and grain numbers per head, compared with grain weight, are more likely to be improved by PGR application. In the absence of lodging, PGR may reduce grain yield due to potential reduction in mean grain weight and/or grain number. Cultivation systems aiming at extensive yields with intensive use of inputs likely benefit from PGR applications more often compared with low or moderate input cultivation, for which cost effectiveness of PGRs is not frequently reached.;

  11. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  13. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  14. The experiences of MDE stand-by; Les experiences de MDE stand-by

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The control of the electric power demand (MDE) is a worrying subject for many countries. The consumption of the electrical equipment in stand-by, is evaluated at 20 TWh/year for the ternary and residential sectors in Germany and 5,3 in France. Taking into account the SAVE project (Pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy), this study aims to observe the policies and the experiences of local governments in terms of energy consumption reduction. (A.L.B.)

  15. Construction Progress of the F-1 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. North of the massive S-IC test stand, the F-1 Engine test stand was built. Designed to assist in the development of the F-1 Engine, the F-1 test stand is a vertical engine firing test stand, 239 feet in elevation and 4,600 square feet in area at the base. Capability was provided for static firing of 1.5 million pounds of thrust using liquid oxygen and kerosene. Like the S-IC stand, the foundation of the F-1 stand is keyed into the bedrock approximately 40 feet below grade. This photo shows

  16. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  17. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  18. Residual stresses measurement by neutron diffraction and theoretical estimation in a single weld bead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, John W.H.; Paradowska, Anna; Joshi, Suraj; Finlayson, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    Welding residual stresses are important in pressure vessel and structural applications. However, residual stress remains the single largest unknown in industrial damage situations. They are difficult to measure or theoretically estimate and are often significant when compared with the in-service stresses on which they superimpose. High residual stresses lead to loss of performance in corrosion, fatigue and fracture. In this research, a measurement of residual stress by the neutron diffraction technique is compared to an analysis of the same geometry by theoretical finite element procedures. The results indicate good agreement but scope for further understanding of the details of modelling the welding heat source, heat transfer and variation of material properties with temperature

  19. Effects of High Temperature on the Residual Performance of Portland Cement Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tolentino

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the "residual" performance of Portland cement concretes heat-treated at 600 °C after cooling down to room temperature. Concretes with characteristic compressive strength at 28 days of 45 MPa and of 60 MPa were studied. The heat-treatment was carried out without any imposed load. We measured the residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. The geometry of the structure was described by mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen sorption tests. We observed a decrease of residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, with the raise of heat-treatment temperature, as a result of heat-induced material degradation. The results also indicated that the microstructural damage increased steadily with increasing temperature. Based on the results of this experimental work we concluded that residual mechanical properties of concrete are dependent of their original non heat-treated values.

  20. Damage control productivity : an input damage abatement approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Carpentier, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the value of the marginal product of three different pesticides from different specifications of the production function. The specifications are the output damage abatement specification proposed by Lichtenberg and Zilberman, a general input damage abatement specification and a

  1. Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...

  2. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  3. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  4. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael; Gnaëpel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines.

  5. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  6. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. linked by α-(1- 4) glycosidic bonds into chains and chains. branch via α-(1- 6) linkage. Branching points are about every fourth residue – allows. glucose ...

  7. Ribonucleotide triggered DNA damage and RNA-DNA damage responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bret D; Williams, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that the transient contamination of DNA with ribonucleotides exceeds all other known types of DNA damage combined. The consequences of ribose incorporation into DNA, and the identity of protein factors operating in this RNA-DNA realm to protect genomic integrity from RNA-triggered events are emerging. Left unrepaired, the presence of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA impacts cellular proliferation and is associated with chromosome instability, gross chromosomal rearrangements, mutagenesis, and production of previously unrecognized forms of ribonucleotide-triggered DNA damage. Here, we highlight recent findings on the nature and structure of DNA damage arising from ribonucleotides in DNA, and the identification of cellular factors acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR) to counter RNA-triggered DNA damage.

  8. Treatment of anisotropic damage development within a scalar damage formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Munson, D. E.

    This paper is concerned with describing a damage mechanics formulation which provides for non-isotropic effects using a scalar damage variable. An investigation has been in progress for establishing the constitutive behavior of rock salt at long times and low to moderate confining pressures in relation to the possible use of excavated rooms in rock salt formations as repositories for nuclear waste. An important consideration is the effect of damage manifested principally by the formation of shear induced wing cracks which have a stress dependent orientation. The analytical formulation utilizes a scalar damage parameter, but is capable of indicating the non-isotropic dependence of inelastic straining on the stress state and the confining pressure. Also, the equations indicate the possibility of volumetric expansions leading to the onset of tertiary creep and eventually rupture if the damage variable reaches a critical value.

  9. Isotope enrichment effect of gaseous mixtures in standing sound vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knesebeck, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    When standing acoustic waves are excited in a tube containing a mixture of two gases, a partial zonal fractioning of the components arises as consequence of mass transport by diffusion, driven by the thermal and pressure gradients which are associeted with the standing waves. This effect is present in each zone corresponding to a quarter wavelength, with the heavier component becoming enriched at the nodes fo the standing waves and deplected at the crests. The magnitude of the enrichment in one of the components of a binary gas mixture is given by Δω=ap 2 /lambda [b + (1-bω)] 2 . Where ω is the mass concentration of the component in the mixture, a and b are parameters which are related to molecular proprieties of the gases, p is the relative pressure amplitude of the standing wave and lambda is its wavelength. For a natural mixture of uranium hexafluorate, with 0.715% of the uranium isotope 340 an enrichment of about 2 x 10 -6 % in the concentration of this isotope is theorecticaly attainable per stage consisting of a quarter wavelenght, when a standing acoustical wave of relative pressure amplitude of 0,2 and wavelenght of 20 cm is used. Since standing acoustical waves are easely excited in gas columns, an isotope enrichment plant made of a cascade of tubes in which standing waves are excited, is presumably feasible with relatively low investment and operation costs. (Author) [pt

  10. Visual method for detecting critical damage in railway contact strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judek, S.; Skibicki, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of power in the electric traction is vital for the safety of this important transport system. For this purpose, monitoring and diagnostics of the technical condition of the vehicle’s power supply elements are becoming increasingly common. This paper presents a new visual method for detecting contact strip damage, based on measurement and analysis of the movement of the overhead contact line (OCL) wire. A measurement system configuration with a 2D camera was proposed. The experimental method has shown that contact strips damage can be detected by transverse displacement signal analysis. It has been proven that the velocity signal numerically established on that basis has a comparable level in the case of identical damage, regardless of its location on the surface of the contact strip. The proposed method belongs to the group of contact-less measurements, so it does not require interference with the structure of the catenary network nor the mounting of sensors in its vicinity. Measurement of displacements of the contact wire in 2D space makes it possible to combine the functions of existing diagnostic stands assessing the correctness of the mean contact force control adjustment of the current collector with the elements of the contact strip diagnostics, which involves detecting their damage which may result in overhead contact line rupture.

  11. Stand for testing the electrical race car engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, M.; Franiasz, J.; Mierzwa, P.; Wylenzek, D.

    2015-11-01

    An engine test stand created especially for research of electrical race car is described in the paper. The car is an aim of Silesian Greenpower project whose participants build and test electrical vehicles to take part in international races in Great Britain. The engine test stand is used to test and measure the characteristics of vehicles and their engines. It has been designed particularly to test the electric cars engineered by students of Silesian Greenpower project. The article contains a description how the test stand works and shows its versatility in many areas. The paper presents both construction of the test stand, control system and sample results of conducted research. The engine test stand was designed and modified using PLM Siemens NX 8.5. The construction of the test stand is highly modular, which means it can be used both for testing the vehicle itself or for tests without the vehicle. The test stand has its own wheel, motor, powertrain and braking system with second engine. Such solution enables verifying various concepts without changing the construction of the vehicle. The control system and measurement system are realized by enabling National Instruments product myRIO (RIO - Reconfigurable Input/Output). This controller in combination with powerful LabVIEW environment performs as an advanced tool to control torque and speed simultaneously. It is crucial as far as the test stand is equipped in two motors - the one being tested and the braking one. The feedback loop is realized by an optical encoder cooperating with the rotor mounted on the wheel. The results of tests are shown live on the screen both as a chart and as single values. After performing several tests there is a report generated. The engine test stand is widely used during process of the Silesian Greenpower vehicle design. Its versatility enables powertrain testing, wheels and tires tests, thermal analysis and more.

  12. Seed Quality in Five Jack Pine Stands in North Central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Jeffers

    1985-01-01

    Hundred-seed weights from 15 trees in each stand averaged 330 mg; 100-seed weights differed significantly among trees within stands and among stands. Germination of filled seed averaged 95 percent; germination differed significantly among trees within stands, but not among stands. Detailed seed records should be kept for all seed orchards.

  13. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    in children with orthopedic disabilities undergoing surgical procedures. Recent technology provides extremely usable sway analysis of balance parameters but a normal material for the standing balance of healthy children is lacking. Purpose/Aim of Study First, to assess standing balance in healthy Danish...... compared to open eyes (p=0,0000) and this difference was strongest in the lower grades. Girls had a significantly better balance than boys with open and closed eyes especially in the higher grades. Conclusions In this study we measured the effect of BMI, age, gender and visual information on standing...

  14. Performing Arabness in Arab American Stand-up Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad Selim Yasser

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the dramatic art of stand-up comedy. It locates Arab American stand-up comedy within a broader American humorous tradition and investigates the way Arab American performers use this art to negotiate and (re)construct their identity. The main question in this article is the way Arab American stand-up comedians define their relationship to the Arab and the western worlds in the process of establishing their Arab American identity. Three humor theories - the relief theory...

  15. A six-component force/moment sensor calibration stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlow, Edward G. W.; Kovacevic, Nebojsa

    1990-06-01

    A compact portable stand for calibration of multicomponent internal balances is described. The stand is designed to control/eliminate misalignments between load trains and the balance being calibrated; it generates forces and moments with pneumatic cylinders for all but rolling moment, which is applied with conventional weights. Load application control is discussed, and performance is analyzed. It is noted that the calibration stand has the ability to sense off-axis loads resulting from distortion/deflections due to the primary loading. Having sensed these off-axis loads, the system can be adjusted to minimize or eliminate them while retaining correct alignment of the primary load with the balance.

  16. 2014 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Radiation Program Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 21, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated Research Plan for the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure (Degen Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS Risk), the Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (ARS Risk), and the Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis (Cancer Risk). The SRP thought the teleconference was very informative and that the Space Radiation Program Element did a great job of outlining where the Element is with respect to our state of knowledge on the risks of carcinogenesis, central nervous system effects, and the risk of cardiovascular disease and other degenerative tissue effects from exposure to space radiation. The SRP was impressed with the quality of research that is being conducted and the progress the Space Radiation Program Element has made in the past year. While much work has been done, the SRP had a few remaining questions regarding the broad applicability of these findings to a manned deep space mission (in terms of cognitive function, the paradigms were still hippocampal based and also using Alzheimer disease models). The SRP believes that NASA should consider developing an approach to follow astronauts long-term (beyond retirement) for potential side-effects/risks of space exposure that may be unknown. Radiation toxicities often occur decades after exposure, and potential consequences would be missed if intensified exams stop after retirement of the astronauts. In addition, while cancer is one

  17. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  18. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  19. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  20. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  1. Residual replacement strategies for Krylov subspace iterative methods for the convergence of true residuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H.A. van der; Ye, Q.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a strategy is proposed for alternative computations of the residual vectors in Krylov subspace methods, which improves the agreement of the computed residuals and the true residuals to the level of O(u)kAkkxk. Building on earlier ideas on residual replacement and on insights in

  2. Residual stress measurements of welded stainless steel 304 plate using the HANARO residual stress instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, M. K.; Lee, C. H.; Em, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    In order to nondestructively measure in-depth residual stress distribution of the metallic materials, it is unique method to use neutron diffraction. In this paper the principles of residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction is described. The residual stress distribution of welded strainless steeel 304 plate using te HANARO residual stress instrument is also described

  3. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... residues and ethylamine distillation residues. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  4. Residual coal exploitation and its impact on sustainable development of the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Feng, Guorui; Zhang, Min; Ren, Hongrui; Bai, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxia; Jiang, Haina; Kang, Lixun

    2016-01-01

    Although China owns large coal reserves, it now faces the problem of depletion of its coal resources in advance. The coal-based energy mix in China will not change in the short term, and a means of delaying the coal resources depletion is therefore urgently required. The residual coal was exploited first with a lower recovery percentage and was evaluated as commercially valuable damaged coal. This approach is in comparison to past evaluations when the residual coal was allocated as exploitation losses. Coal recovery rates, the calculation method of residual coal reserves and statistics of its mines in China were given. On this basis, a discussion concerning the impacts on the delay of China's coal depletion, development of coal exploitation and sustainable developments, as well as technologies and relevant policies, were presented. It is considered that the exploitation of residual coal can effectively delay China's coal depletion, inhibit the construction of new mines, redress the imbalance between supply and demand of coal in eastern China, improve the mining area environment and guarantee social stability. The Chinese government supports the exploitation technologies of residual coal. Hence, exploiting residual coal is of considerable importance in sustainable development of the coal industry in China. - Highlights: •Pay attention to residual coal under changing energy-mix environment in China. •Estimate residual coal reserves and investigate its exploitation mines. •Discuss impacts of residual coal exploitation on delay of coal depletion in China. •Discuss impacts on coal mining industry and residual coal exploitation technology. •Give corresponding policy prescriptions.

  5. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  6. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N...... and denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  7. Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of

  8. Analysis of Residual DSBs in Ataxia-Telangiectasia Lymphoblast Cells Initiating Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Anglada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the relationship between accumulation of residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and cell death, we have used a control and an ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated defective cell line, as Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT cells tend to accumulate residual DSBs at long times after damage infliction. After irradiation, AT cells showed checkpoint impairment and a fraction of cells displayed an abnormal centrosome number and tetraploid DNA content, and this fraction increased along with apoptosis rates. At all times analyzed, AT cells displayed a significantly higher rate of radiation-induced apoptosis than normal cells. Besides apoptosis, 70–85% of the AT viable cells (TUNEL-negative carried ≥10 γH2AX foci/cell, while only 12–27% of normal cells did. The fraction of AT and normal cells undergoing early and late apoptosis were isolated by flow cytometry and residual DSBs were concretely scored in these populations. Half of the γH2AX-positive AT cells undergoing early apoptosis carried ≥10 γH2AX foci/cell and this fraction increased to 75% in late apoptosis. The results suggest that retention of DNA damage-induced γH2AX foci is an indicative of lethal DNA damage, as cells undergoing apoptosis are those accumulating more DSBs. Scoring of residual γH2AX foci might function as a predictive tool to assess radiation-induced apoptosis.

  9. Local-scale patterns of genetic variability, outcrossing, and spatial structure in natural stands of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Bomblies

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As Arabidopsis thaliana is increasingly employed in evolutionary and ecological studies, it is essential to understand patterns of natural genetic variation and the forces that shape them. Previous work focusing mostly on global and regional scales has demonstrated the importance of historical events such as long-distance migration and colonization. Far less is known about the role of contemporary factors or environmental heterogeneity in generating diversity patterns at local scales. We sampled 1,005 individuals from 77 closely spaced stands in diverse settings around Tübingen, Germany. A set of 436 SNP markers was used to characterize genome-wide patterns of relatedness and recombination. Neighboring genotypes often shared mosaic blocks of alternating marker identity and divergence. We detected recent outcrossing as well as stretches of residual heterozygosity in largely homozygous recombinants. As has been observed for several other selfing species, there was considerable heterogeneity among sites in diversity and outcrossing, with rural stands exhibiting greater diversity and heterozygosity than urban stands. Fine-scale spatial structure was evident as well. Within stands, spatial structure correlated negatively with observed heterozygosity, suggesting that the high homozygosity of natural A. thaliana may be partially attributable to nearest-neighbor mating of related individuals. The large number of markers and extensive local sampling employed here afforded unusual power to characterize local genetic patterns. Contemporary processes such as ongoing outcrossing play an important role in determining distribution of genetic diversity at this scale. Local "outcrossing hotspots" appear to reshuffle genetic information at surprising rates, while other stands contribute comparatively little. Our findings have important implications for sampling and interpreting diversity among A. thaliana accessions.

  10. Biochemical suitability of crop residues for cellulosic ethanol: disincentives to nitrogen fertilization in corn agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Morgan E; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Snapp, Sieglinde; McSwiney, Claire P; Baldock, Jeffrey A

    2011-03-01

    Concerns about energy security and climate change have increased biofuel demand, particularly ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks (e.g., food crop residues). A central challenge to cropping for cellulosic ethanol is the potential environmental damage from increased fertilizer use. Previous analyses have assumed that cropping for carbohydrate in residue will require the same amount of fertilizer as cropping for grain. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that increases in biomass in response to fertilization are not uniform across biochemical classes (carbohydrate, protein, lipid, lignin) or tissues (leaf and stem, grain, reproductive support). Although corn grain responds vigorously and nonlinearly, corn residue shows only modest increases in carbohydrate yields in response to high levels of fertilization (25% increase with 202 kg N ha(-1)). Lignin yields in the residue increased almost twice as much as carbohydrate yields in response to nitrogen, implying that residue feedstock quality declines as more fertilizer is applied. Fertilization also increases the decomposability of corn residue, implying that soil carbon sequestration becomes less efficient with increased fertilizer. Our results suggest that even when corn is grown for grain, benefits of fertilization decline rapidly after the ecosystem's N demands are met. Heavy application of fertilizer yields minimal grain benefits and almost no benefits in residue carbohydrates, while degrading the cellulosic ethanol feedstock quality and soil carbon sequestration capacity.

  11. Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Amist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1 and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2. Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue.

  12. Damage growth in aerospace composites

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel methods for the simulation of damage evolution in aerospace composites that will assist in predicting damage onset and growth and thus foster less conservative designs which realize the promised economic benefits of composite materials. The presented integrated numerical/experimental methodologies are capable of taking into account the presence of damage and its evolution in composite structures from the early phases of the design (conceptual design) through to the detailed finite element method analysis and verification phase. The book is based on the GARTEUR Research Project AG-32, which ran from 2007 to 2012, and documents the main results of that project. In addition, the state of the art in European projects on damage evolution in composites is reviewed. While the high specific strength and stiffness of composite materials make them suitable for aerospace structures, their sensitivity to damage means that designing with composites is a challenging task. The new approaches describ...

  13. Photorepair of UV damage to DNA: purification and properties of DNA photolyase (the DNA-photoreactivating enzyme). Progress report, August 1, 1975--July 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werbin, H.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: separation of photolyase subunits by sucrose gradient sedimentation; determination of whether fluorescent material is the chromophore for photolyase; studies on tryptophane and lysine residues to determine whether these are involved in the binding and photolytic steps; nmr spectrum of activator of photolyase; damage to pea chromatin by solar near uv and repair of damage; tryptophan residues in yeast DNA photolyase; photolyase in pea seedlings; and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of purified activator

  14. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in the neurodegenerative process. • The mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable to oxidative attack than the nuclear DNA. • Cytogenetic damage has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease patients. • The question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still open. • Increasing evidence links DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena. - Abstract: Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease

  15. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppedè, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.coppede@med.unipi.it; Migliore, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.migliore@med.unipi.it

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in the neurodegenerative process. • The mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable to oxidative attack than the nuclear DNA. • Cytogenetic damage has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease patients. • The question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still open. • Increasing evidence links DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena. - Abstract: Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease

  16. Fate of residual canopy trees following harvesting to underplant longleaf pine seedlings in loblolly pine stands in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Robert N. Addington

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, reports of forest health problems have concerned scientists and forest managers in loblolly pine forests of the southeastern United States. Several interacting factors likely contribute to observed reductions in loblolly pine health, including low resource availability on many upland sites that were once dominated by longleaf pine. Currently...

  17. Residual Effects of Forestry Herbicides on Floristic Diversity, Stand Structute, and Composition Eleven years after Site Preparation Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Robert S. Boyd; M. Boyd Edwards

    1993-01-01

    The global conservation of biodiversity will require efforts at multiple levels to be successful. Because herbicides are applied annually to 100,000's of hectares of forest lands in the Southeastern Region, U.S.A, it is crucial we know their short-term and long-term impacts on forest biodivetsity, structure, and composition. It is recognized that effective...

  18. Detection of Energetic Materials and Explosive Residues With Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: 2: Stand-off Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    single Quantel Brilliant B laser (1064 nm, 10 Hz, 850 mJ, 6 ns pulse width) is shifted to 1.54 μm with the use of a CH4/Ar-filled Raman cell...depositing oil from the surface of the skin in a fingerprint pattern). The lid from a food container was used for the white Type V (polypropylene...dust samples were classified as dust rather than RDX [probable false negatives].) PLS-DA is a multivariate inverse least squares discrimination

  19. Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neauport, J; Cormont, P; Legros, P; Ambard, C; Destribats, J

    2009-03-02

    We report an experimental investigation of fluorescence confocal microscopy as a tool to measure subsurface damage on grinded fused silica optics. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was performed with an excitation at the wavelength of 405 nm on fixed abrasive diamond grinded fused silica samples. We detail the measured fluorescence spectrums and compare them to those of oil based coolants and grinding slurries. We evidence that oil based coolant used in diamond grinding induces a fluorescence that marks the subsurface damages and eases its observation. Such residual traces might also be involved in the laser damage process.

  20. Monitoring antibiotic residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Next to the beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine, streptomycin is one of the mostly used antibiotics. High concentration of streptomycin could lead to ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Low concentration – as found in food – may cause allergies, destroy the intestinal flora and favor immunity to some pathogenic microorganisms. In 1948 chlortetracycline was isolated by Duggan as a metabolite and this was the first antibiotic substance of the group of tetracyclines. In the present paper there are presented the monitoring of the antibiotic residues in honey from Timis County. The residues of tetracycline and streptomycin in honey were determined by the method ELISA – a quantitative method of detection. The microtitre wells are coated with tetracycline and anti-streptomycin antibodies. Free antibiotic and immobilized antibiotic compete with the added antibiotic antibody (competitive immunoassay reaction. Any unbound antibody is then removed in a washing step. Bound conjugate enzymes convert the colorless chromogen into a blue product. The addition ofthe stop reagent leads to a color change from blue to yellow. The measurement is made photometrically at 450 nm. The absorption is inversely proportional to the antibiotic concentration in the sample.