Sample records for residual speckle field

  1. Speckle fields in holographic interferometry (United States)

    Lockshin, Gennady R.; Kozel, Stanislav M.; Bielonuchkin, V. E.


    The objects which are investigated which are investigated with the help of the holographic interferometry methods as a rule scatter light diffusely, therefore the two-expositional hologram reconstructs the result of interference of the speckle-fields f ('4 and f() scattered by th object at the initial (1) and final (2) states.

  2. Enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa


    A technique for enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field (PDSF) and a spatial light modulator (SLM) is demonstrated experimentally. A smooth test wavefront impinges on a phase diffuser, forming a PDSF that is directed to a 4f setup. Two defocused speckle...... intensity measurements are recorded at the output plane corresponding to axially-propagated representations of the PDSF in the input plane. The speckle intensity measurements are then used in a conventional transport of intensity equation (TIE) to reconstruct directly the test wavefront. The PDSF in our...

  3. Run-and-tumble particles in speckle fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoluzzi, M; Di Leonardo, R; Angelani, L


    The random energy landscapes developed by speckle fields can be used to confine and manipulate a large number of micro-particles with a single laser beam. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the static and dynamic properties of an active suspension of swimming bacteria embedded into speckle patterns. Looking at the correlation of the density fluctuations and the equilibrium density profiles, we observe a crossover phenomenon when the forces exerted by the speckles are equal to the bacteria’s propulsion. (paper)

  4. Spatial Behaviour of Singularities in Fractal- and Gaussian Speckle Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Alexander P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.


    Peculiarities of the spatial behaviour of the dislocation lines resulting from scattering of coherent radiation from random and fractal rough surfaces are studied. The technique of optical correlation is proposed for diagnostics of phase singularities in a complex speckle field by comparing...

  5. Speckle photography applied to the density field of a flame (United States)

    Shu, J.-Z.; Li, J.-Y.


    An optical arrangement combining a set-up for taking speckle records with a shearing interferometer using a Wollaston prism is applied to the study of a fluctuating Bunsen burner flame. The simultaneous recording, in real time, of the interferogram facilitates the interpretation of the data field derived by the point-by-point analysis of the specklegram. The pattern of Young's fringes obtained by analysis of the specklegram at 16 different positions in the field of view is shown, displaying the random variation of the light deflection in the flame.

  6. Near-field to far-field characterization of speckle patterns generated by disordered nanomaterials. (United States)

    Parigi, Valentina; Perros, Elodie; Binard, Guillaume; Bourdillon, Céline; Maître, Agnès; Carminati, Rémi; Krachmalnicoff, Valentina; De Wilde, Yannick


    We study the intensity spatial correlation function of optical speckle patterns above a disordered dielectric medium in the multiple scattering regime. The intensity distributions are recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with sub-wavelength spatial resolution at variable distances from the surface in a range which spans continuously from the near-field (distance ≪ λ) to the far-field regime (distance ≫ λ). The non-universal behavior at sub-wavelength distances reveals the connection between the near-field speckle pattern and the internal structure of the medium.

  7. Speckle Interferometry (United States)

    Chiang, F. P.; Jin, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, N.

    Before the milestone work of Leedertz in 1970 coherent speckles generated from a laser illuminated object are considered noise to be eliminated or minimized. Leedertz shows that coherent speckles are actually information carriers. Since then the speckle technique has found many applications to fields of mechanics, metrology, nondestructive evaluation and material sciences. Speckles need not be coherent. Artificially created socalled white light speckles can also be used as information carriers. In this paper we present two recent developments of speckle technique with applications to micromechanics problems using SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy), to nondestructive evaluation of crevice corrosion and composite disbond and vibration of large structures using TADS (Time-Average Digital Specklegraphy).

  8. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I


    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. 3D shape measurement using deterministic phase retrieval and a partially developed speckle field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa


    Fourier domain. The local variations of the recorded speckle patterns and the defocus distance approximate the axial intensity derivative which, in turn, is required to recover the wavefront phase via the transport of intensity equation (TIE). The SLM setup reduces the speckle recording time and the TIE...... allows direct (i.e., non-iterative) calculation of the phase. The pre-requisite partially-developed speckle field in our technique facilitates high image contrast and significant axial intensity variation. Wavefront reconstruction for the 3D refractive test object used demonstrates the effectiveness...... of the technique....

  10. Simulations of multi-contrast x-ray imaging using near-field speckles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE, United Kingdom and Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Thibault, Pierre [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Herzen, Julia; Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zanette, Irene [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    X-ray dark-field and phase-contrast imaging using near-field speckles is a novel technique that overcomes limitations inherent in conventional absorption x-ray imaging, i.e. poor contrast for features with similar density. Speckle-based imaging yields a wealth of information with a simple setup tolerant to polychromatic and divergent beams, and simple data acquisition and analysis procedures. Here, we present a simulation software used to model the image formation with the speckle-based technique, and we compare simulated results on a phantom sample with experimental synchrotron data. Thorough simulation of a speckle-based imaging experiment will help for better understanding and optimising the technique itself.

  11. Study of microparticles' anomalous diffusion in active bath using speckle light fields (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Pince, Ercag; Sabareesh, Sabareesh K. P.; Volpe, Giorgio; Gigan, Sylvain; Volpe, Giovanni S.


    Particles undergoing a stochastic motion within a disordered medium is a ubiquitous physical and biological phenomenon. Examples can be given from organelles as molecular machines of cells performing physical tasks in a populated cytoplasm to human mobility in patchy environment at larger scales. Our recent results showed that it is possible to use the disordered landscape generated by speckle light fields to perform advanced manipulation tasks at the microscale. Here, we use speckle light fields to study the anomalous diffusion of micron size silica particles (5 μm) in the presence of active microswimmers. The microswimmers we used in the experiments are motile bacteria, Escherichia coli (E.coli). They constitute an active background constantly agitating passive silica particles within complex optical potentials. The speckle fields are generated by mode mixing inside a multimode optical fiber where a small amount of incident laser power (maximum power = 12 μW/μm2) is needed to obtain an effective random landscape pattern for the purpose of optical manipulation. We experimentally show how complex potentials contribute to the anomalous diffusion of silica particles undergoing collisions with swimming bacteria. We observed an enhanced diffusion of particles interacting with the active bath of E.coli inside speckle light fields: this effect can be tuned and controlled by varying the intensity and the statistical properties of the speckle pattern. Potentially, these results could be of interest for many technological applications, such as the manipulation of microparticles inside optically disordered media of biological interests.

  12. Quantitative X-ray dark-field and phase tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail:; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    X-ray dark-field contrast tomography can provide important supplementary information inside a sample to the conventional absorption tomography. Recently, the X-ray speckle based technique has been proposed to provide qualitative two-dimensional dark-field imaging with a simple experimental arrangement. In this letter, we deduce a relationship between the second moment of scattering angle distribution and cross-correlation degradation of speckle and establish a quantitative basis of X-ray dark-field tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique. In addition, the phase contrast images can be simultaneously retrieved permitting tomographic reconstruction, which yields enhanced contrast in weakly absorbing materials. Such complementary tomography technique can allow systematic investigation of complex samples containing both soft and hard materials.

  13. Point-wise and whole-field laser speckle intensity fluctuation measurements applied to botanical specimens (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Junlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Williams, Fred W.; Schmidt, Richard J.


    Based on multi-scattering speckle theory, the speckle fields generated by plant specimens irradiated by laser light have been studied using a pointwise method. In addition, a whole-field method has been developed with which entire botanical specimens may be studied. Results are reported from measurements made on tomato and apple fruits, orange peel, leaves of tobacco seedlings, leaves of shihu seedlings (a Chinese medicinal herb), soy-bean sprouts, and leaves from an unidentified trailing houseplant. Although differences where observed in the temporal fluctuations of speckles that could be ascribed to differences in age and vitality, the growing tip of the bean sprout and the shihu seedling both generated virtually stationary speckles such as were observed from boiled orange peel and from localised heat-damaged regions on apple fruit. Our results suggest that both the identity of the botanical specimen and the site at which measurements are taken are likely to critically affect the observation or otherwise of temporal fluctuations of laser speckles.

  14. Image Enhancement and Speckle Reduction of Full Polarimetric SAR Data by Gaussian Markov Random Field (United States)

    Mahdian, M.; Motagh, M.; Akbari, V.


    In recent years, the use of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data in different applications dramatically has been increased. In SAR imagery an interference phenomenon with random behavior exists which is called speckle noise. The interpretation of data encounters some troubles due to the presence of speckle which can be considered as a multiplicative noise affecting all coherent imaging systems. Indeed, speckle degrade radiometric resolution of PolSAR images, therefore it is needful to perform speckle filtering on the SAR data type. Markov Random Field (MRF) has proven to be a powerful method for drawing out eliciting contextual information from remotely sensed images. In the present paper, a probability density function (PDF), which is fitted well with the PolSAR data based on the goodness-of-fit test, is first obtained for the pixel-wise analysis. Then the contextual smoothing is achieved with the MRF method. This novel speckle reduction method combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual information for PolSAR data. These two parts of information are combined based on weighted summation of pixel-wise and contextual models. This approach not only preserves edge information in the images, but also improves signal-to-noise ratio of the results. The method maintains the mean value of original signal in the homogenous areas and preserves the edges of features in the heterogeneous regions. Experiments on real medium resolution ALOS data from Tehran, and also high resolution full polarimetric SAR data over the Oberpfaffenhofen test-site in Germany, demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm compared with well-known despeckling methods.

  15. Shape and deformation measurements of 3D objects using volume speckle field and phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, A; Chhaniwal, VK; Almoro, Percival


    Shape and deformation measurement of diffusely reflecting 3D objects are very important in many application areas, including quality control, nondestructive testing, and design. When rough objects are exposed to coherent beams, the scattered light produces speckle fields. A method to measure the ......-sized deformation induced on a metal sheet was obtained upon subtraction of the phase, corresponding to unloaded and loaded states. Results from computer simulations confirm the experiments. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America....

  16. Speckle interferometry (United States)

    Sirohi, Rajpal S.


    Illumination of a rough surface by a coherent monochromatic wave creates a grainy structure in space termed a speckle pattern. It was considered a special kind of noise and was the bane of holographers. However, its information-carrying property was soon discovered and the phenomenon was used for metrological applications. The realization that a speckle pattern carried information led to a new measurement technique known as speckle interferometry (SI). Although the speckle phenomenon in itself is a consequence of interference among numerous randomly dephased waves, a reference wave is required in SI. Further, it employs an imaging geometry. Initially SI was performed mostly by using silver emulsions as the recording media. The double-exposure specklegram was filtered to extract the desired information. Since SI can be configured so as to be sensitive to the in-plane displacement component, the out-of-plane displacement component or their derivatives, the interferograms corresponding to these were extracted from the specklegram for further analysis. Since the speckle size can be controlled by the F number of the imaging lens, it was soon realized that SI could be performed with electronic detection, thereby increasing its accuracy and speed of measurement. Furthermore, a phase-shifting technique can also be incorporated. This technique came to be known as electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It employed the same experimental configurations as SI. ESPI found many industrial applications as it supplements holographic interferometry. We present three examples covering diverse areas. In one application it has been used to measure residual stress in a blank recordable compact disk. In another application, microscopic ESPI has been used to study the influence of relative humidity on paint-coated figurines and also the effect of a conservation agent applied on top of this. The final application is to find the defects in pipes. These diverse applications

  17. Simulations of x-ray speckle-based dark-field and phase-contrast imaging with a polychromatic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Thibault, Pierre [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zanette, Irene [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    Following the first experimental demonstration of x-ray speckle-based multimodal imaging using a polychromatic beam [I. Zanette et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(25), 253903 (2014)], we present a simulation study on the effects of a polychromatic x-ray spectrum on the performance of this technique. We observe that the contrast of the near-field speckles is only mildly influenced by the bandwidth of the energy spectrum. Moreover, using a homogeneous object with simple geometry, we characterize the beam hardening artifacts in the reconstructed transmission and refraction angle images, and we describe how the beam hardening also affects the dark-field signal provided by speckle tracking. This study is particularly important for further implementations and developments of coherent speckle-based techniques at laboratory x-ray sources.

  18. Full-field illumination approach with multiple speckle for optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Poisson, Florian; Bossy, Emmanuel


    Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy (OR-PAE) allows going beyond the limited penetration depth of conventional optical-resolution photoacoustic systems. Recently, it has been shown that OR-PAE may be performed through minimally invasive multimode fibers, by raster scanning a focus spot with optical wavefront shaping [1]. Here we introduce for the first time an approach to perform OR-PAE through a multimode fiber with a full-field illumination approach. By using multiple known speckle patterns, we show that it is possible to obtain optical-diffraction limited photoacoustic images, with the same resolution as that obtained by raster scanning a focus spot, i.e that of the speckle grain size. The fluctuations patterns of the photoacoustic amplitude at each pixel in the sample plane with the series of multiple speckle illumination were used to encode each pixel. This approach with known speckle illumination requires an initial calibration stage, that consists in learn a set of fluctuation patterns pixel per pixel, which will encode patterns each pixel of the scanned area. A point-like absorber was scanned across the filed-of-view during the calibration stage to acquire the reference patterns. Image reconstruction may be carried out by cross-correlating the series of photoacoustic amplitude measured with the sample to the reference patterns obtained during the calibration stage. In this work, the approach above was carried out both theoretically with Monte-carlo simulations and experimentally through a multi-mode fiber with samples made of absorbing spheres. [1] Papadopoulos et al., " Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber", Appl. Phys. Lett., 102(21), 2013

  19. Superpositions of higher-order bessel beams and nondiffracting speckle fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dudley_d1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16165 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dudley_d1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Superpositions of higher...: ( )∑∞= −+= 0 )exp()()exp()(),( m mm imrSimrCr ϕϕϕτ . (1) In the case of generating a nondiffracting speckle field, the transmission function ),( ϕτ r is dependent on both the radius, r...

  20. Speckle phase near random surfaces (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Chuanfu; An, Guoqiang; Han, Yujing; Rong, Zhenyu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Meina


    Based on Kirchhoff approximation theory, the speckle phase near random surfaces with different roughness is numerically simulated. As expected, the properties of the speckle phase near the random surfaces are different from that in far field. In addition, as scattering distances and roughness increase, the average fluctuations of the speckle phase become larger. Unusually, the speckle phase is somewhat similar to the corresponding surface topography. We have performed experiments to verify the theoretical simulation results. Studies in this paper contribute to understanding the evolution of speckle phase near a random surface and provide a possible way to identify a random surface structure based on its speckle phase.

  1. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [], which is based......The geomagnetic field varies on a variety of time- and length scales, which are only rudimentary considered in most present field models. The part of the observed field that can not be explained by a given model, the model residuals, is often considered as an estimate of the data uncertainty (which...... on 5 years of Ørsted and CHAMP data, and includes secular variation and acceleration, as well as low-degree external (magnetospheric) and induced fields. The analysis is done in order to find the statistical behaviour of the space-time structure of the residuals, as a proxy for the data covariances...

  2. Residual stress field of ballised holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Man On; He, Zhimin


    Ballising, involving pushing a slightly over-sized ball made of hard material through a hole, is a kind of cold working process. Applying ballising process to fastener holes produces compressive residual stress on the edge of the holes, and therefore increases the fatigue life of the components or structures. Quantification of the residual stress field is critical to define and precede the ballising process. In this article, the ballised holes are modeled as cold-expanded holes. Elastic-perfectly plastic theory is employed to analyze the holes with cold expansion process. For theoretical simplification, an axially symmetrical thin plate with a cold expanded hole is assumed. The elasticplastic boundaries and residual stress distribution surrounding the cold expanded hole are derived. With the analysis, the residual stress field can be obtained together with actual cold expansion process in which only the diameters of hole before and after cold expansion need to be measured. As it is a non-destructive method, it provides a convenient way to estimate the elastic-plastic boundaries and residual stresses of cold worked holes. The approach is later extended to the case involving two cold-worked holes. A ballised hole is looked upon as a cold expanded hole and therefore is investigated by the approach. Specimens ballised with different interference levels are investigated. The effects of interference levels and specimen size on residual stresses are studied. The overall residual stresses of plates with two ballised holes are obtained by superposing the residual stresses induced on a single ballised hole. The effects of distance between the centers of the two holes with different interference levels on the residual stress field are revealed

  3. Nondestructive Testing of Residual Stress on the Welded Part of Butt-welded A36 Plates Using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongsuk Kim


    Full Text Available Most manufacturing processes, including welding, create residual stresses. Residual stresses can reduce material strength and cause fractures. For estimating the reliability and aging of a welded structure, residual stresses should be evaluated as precisely as possible. Optical techniques such as holographic interferometry, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI, Moire interferometry, and shearography are noncontact means of measuring residual stresses. Among optical techniques, ESPI is typically used as a nondestructive measurement technique of in-plane displacement, such as stress and strain, and out-of-plane displacement, such as vibration and bending. In this study, ESPI was used to measure the residual stress on the welded part of butt-welded American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM A36 specimens with CO2 welding. Four types of specimens, base metal specimen (BSP, tensile specimen including welded part (TSP, compression specimen including welded part (CSP, and annealed tensile specimen including welded part (ATSP, were tested. BSP was used to obtain the elastic modulus of a base metal. TSP and CSP were used to compare residual stresses under tensile and compressive loading conditions. ATSP was used to confirm the effect of heat treatment. Residual stresses on the welded parts of specimens were obtained from the phase map images obtained by ESPI. The results confirmed that residual stresses of welded parts can be measured by ESPI.

  4. Speckle suppression via sparse representation for wide-field imaging through turbid media. (United States)

    Jang, Hwanchol; Yoon, Changhyeong; Chung, Euiheon; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Heung-No


    Speckle suppression is one of the most important tasks in the image transmission through turbid media. Insufficient speckle suppression requires an additional procedure such as temporal ensemble averaging over multiple exposures. In this paper, we consider the image recovery process based on the so-called transmission matrix (TM) of turbid media for the image transmission through the media. We show that the speckle left unremoved in the TM-based image recovery can be suppressed effectively via sparse representation (SR). SR is a relatively new signal reconstruction framework which works well even for ill-conditioned problems. This is the first study to show the benefit of using the SR as compared to the phase conjugation (PC) a de facto standard method to date for TM-based imaging through turbid media including a live cell through tissue slice.

  5. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  6. State of the Art of X-ray Speckle-Based Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Zdora


    Full Text Available In the past few years, X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging have evolved to be invaluable tools for non-destructive sample visualisation, delivering information inaccessible by conventional absorption imaging. X-ray phase-sensing techniques are furthermore increasingly used for at-wavelength metrology and optics characterisation. One of the latest additions to the group of differential phase-contrast methods is the X-ray speckle-based technique. It has drawn significant attention due to its simple and flexible experimental arrangement, cost-effectiveness and multimodal character, amongst others. Since its first demonstration at highly brilliant synchrotron sources, the method has seen rapid development, including the translation to polychromatic laboratory sources and extension to higher-energy X-rays. Recently, different advanced acquisition schemes have been proposed to tackle some of the main limitations of previous implementations. Current applications of the speckle-based method range from optics characterisation and wavefront measurement to biomedical imaging and materials science. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the X-ray speckle-based technique. Its basic principles and different experimental implementations as well as the the latest advances and applications are illustrated. In the end, an outlook for anticipated future developments of this promising technique is given.

  7. Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics. (United States)

    Boas, David A; Dunn, Andrew K


    First introduced in the 1980s, laser speckle contrast imaging is a powerful tool for full-field imaging of blood flow. Recently laser speckle contrast imaging has gained increased attention, in part due to its rapid adoption for blood flow studies in the brain. We review the underlying physics of speckle contrast imaging and discuss recent developments to improve the quantitative accuracy of blood flow measures. We also review applications of laser speckle contrast imaging in neuroscience, dermatology and ophthalmology.

  8. Full-field displacement and strain measurement of small complex bony structures with digital speckle pattern interferometry and shearography (United States)

    Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris J. J.


    We have developed a simple digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) and shearography setup to measure the displacement and the corresponding strains of small complex bony structures. We choose both optical techniques because we want to obtain very small deformations (+/- 20 μm) of small objects (+/- 1cm). Furthermore full field and in situ measurements are preferred. We first use a Michelson DSPI arrangement with phase shifting. In this way we can obtain the out-of-plane displacements precisely. Second, shearography is introduced to measure the derivative of the out-ofplane displacement. In this way some intrinsic disadvantages of DSPI can be overcome. We have developed these setups to measure the out-of-plane deformations of (small) bird beaks when realistic external forces are applied. In this way, we have a full field validation measurement to which we can compare the outcome of realistic finite element models. The aim is to determine whether the shape, and not only the size, of the bird beaks are optimized to deal with the biting forces that a species encounters. This quantitative analysis will help biologists to investigate if beak morphology is adapted to feeding habits. Applying the method to the famous evolution model of the Darwin's finches will provide scientific proof of functional evolution. In this paper we will present both the DSPI and shearography setup, a comparison of the performance of both techniques on a simple deflection of a cantilever beam and the first results obtained on loaded bird beaks.

  9. Statistics of spatially integrated speckle intensity difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Yura, Harold


    We consider the statistics of the spatially integrated speckle intensity difference obtained from two separated finite collecting apertures. For fully developed speckle, closed-form analytic solutions for both the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function are derived h...... here for both arbitrary values of the mean number of speckles contained within an aperture and the degree of coherence of the optical field. Additionally, closed-form expressions are obtained for the corresponding nth statistical moments....

  10. Exploitation of the speckle field statistics as an aid to diagnosis of the acute irradiation cutaneous syndrome: comparison of biophysical and biological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, O.


    The objective of this research thesis is to demonstrate the possibility of using a non-invasive optical method for the in-vivo diagnosis and prognosis of the acute irradiation cutaneous syndrome. The author first describes the choice of an optical investigation method for application in dermatology. A conventional frequency analysis of the speckle field sampling is completed by a stochastic approach in order to extract parameters which characterize speckle patterns. An experimental protocol is then tested in order to better understand the parameter behaviour with respect to some physical properties of synthetic diffusing media. The author then reports the in-vivo application of this method to the acute irradiation cutaneous syndrome in the case of swine. Results obtained on several animals demonstrate the possibility of discrimination between irradiated areas of normal areas several weeks before the emergence of the first clinical signs. The author tries to understand the results obtained on a radiological burn comparing with histological results. A correlation appears between speckle parameters and histological analysis. Results are also compared with those obtained on other tested media

  11. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection (United States)

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.


    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  12. Superpositions of higher-order bessel beams and nondiffracting speckle fields - (SAIP 2009)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dudley_d2_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9714 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dudley_d2_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Superpositions of Higher... (1987). [4] P. A. Khilo, L. I. Kramoreva, and N. A. Khilo, “Optically controlled rotation of multibeam light field,” Proc. SPIE Vol. 4358, 250-253 (2001). Figure 1: (a): The experiment developed by Durnin[3] to generate a zero order Bessel beam...

  13. Full-field mapping of internal strain distribution in red sandstone specimen under compression using digital volumetric speckle photography and X-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Mao


    Full Text Available It is always desirable to know the interior deformation pattern when a rock is subjected to mechanical load. Few experimental techniques exist that can represent full-field three-dimensional (3D strain distribution inside a rock specimen. And yet it is crucial that this information is available for fully understanding the failure mechanism of rocks or other geomaterials. In this study, by using the newly developed digital volumetric speckle photography (DVSP technique in conjunction with X-ray computed tomography (CT and taking advantage of natural 3D speckles formed inside the rock due to material impurities and voids, we can probe the interior of a rock to map its deformation pattern under load and shed light on its failure mechanism. We apply this technique to the analysis of a red sandstone specimen under increasing uniaxial compressive load applied incrementally. The full-field 3D displacement fields are obtained in the specimen as a function of the load, from which both the volumetric and the deviatoric strain fields are calculated. Strain localization zones which lead to the eventual failure of the rock are identified. The results indicate that both shear and tension are contributing factors to the failure mechanism.

  14. Microscopy using randomized speckle illumination (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Shinde, Anant; Murukeshan, V. M.


    It is well known for structured illumination microscopy (SIM) that the lateral resolution by a factor of two beyond the classical diffraction limit is achieved using spatially structured illumination in wide-field fluorescence microscope. In the state of art SIM systems, grating patterns are generally generated by physical gratings or by spatial light modulators such as digital micro mirrors (DMD), liquid crystal displays (LCD). In this study, using a combination of LCD and ground glasses, size controlled randomized speckle patterns are generated as an illumination source for the microscope. Proof of concept of using speckle illumination in SIM configuration is tested by imaging fixed BPAE cells.

  15. Microarray analyzer based on wide field fluorescent microscopy with laser illumination and a device for speckle suppression (United States)

    Lysov, Yuri; Barsky, Victor; Urasov, Dmitriy; Urasov, Roman; Cherepanov, Alecksey; Mamaev, Dmitryi; Yegorov, Yegor; Chudinov, Alexander; Surzhikov, Sergey; Rubina, Alla; Smoldovskaya, Olga; Zasedatelev, Alexander


    A microarray analyzer was developed to obtain images and measure the fluorescence intensity of microarrays at three wavelengths from 380 nm to 850 nm. The analyzer contains lasers to excite fluorescence, barrier filters, optics to project images on an image detector, and a device for suppressing laser speckles on the microarray support. The speckle suppression device contains a fibre-optic bundle and a rotating mirror positioned in a way to change the distance between the bundle butt and mirror surface during each mirror revolution. The analyzer provides for measurements with accuracy within ± 5%. Obtaining images at several exposure times allowed a significant expansion in the range of measured fluorescence intensities. The analyzer is useful for high throughput analysis of the same type of microarrays. PMID:29188082

  16. Speckle photography applied to measure deformations of very large structures (United States)

    Conley, Edgar; Morgan, Chris K.


    Fundamental principles of mechanics have recently been brought to bear on problems concerning very large structures. Fields of study include tectonic plate motion, nuclear waste repository vault closure mechanisms, the flow of glacier and sea ice, and highway bridge damage assessment and residual life prediction. Quantitative observations, appropriate for formulating and verifying models, are still scarce however, so the need to adapt new methods of experimental mechanics is clear. Large dynamic systems often exist in environments subject to rapid change. Therefore, a simple field technique that incorporates short time scales and short gage lengths is required. Further, the measuring methods must yield displacements reliably, and under oft-times adverse field conditions. Fortunately, the advantages conferred by an experimental mechanics technique known as speckle photography nicely fulfill this rather stringent set of performance requirements. Speckle seemed to lend itself nicely to the application since it is robust and relatively inexpensive. Experiment requirements are minimal -- a camera, high resolution film, illumination, and an optically rough surface. Perhaps most important is speckle's distinct advantage over point-by-point methods: It maps the two dimensional displacement vectors of the whole field of interest. And finally, given the method's high spatial resolution, relatively short observation times are necessary. In this paper we discuss speckle, two variations of which were used to gage the deformation of a reinforced concrete bridge structure subjected to bending loads. The measurement technique proved to be easily applied, and yielded the location of the neutral axis self consistently. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using whole field techniques to detect and quantify surface strains of large structures under load.

  17. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H


    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  18. Residual magnetic field in rotary machines; Campo magnetico residual en maquinas rotatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez V, Esteban A; Apanco R, Marcelino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    The residual magnetism is a phenomenon in which the magnetic dipoles of a substance are oriented in a certain degree. On the other hand, when internal forces exist capable of aligning elementary magnetic dipoles of a material, a permanent magnet is obtained. Just as in a conductor or in a material, in the elements of a rotary electrical machine magnetic fields can be induced that produce a residual magnetism or magnetization. In the rotary electrical machines, the magnetization phenomenon causes serious problems, such as the generation of induced currents that propitiate the mechanical wear in bearings, collars, trunnions and inclusive in the shaft, by effects known as pitting, frosting and spark tracks, as well as erroneous readings in vibration and temperature sensors, that in some cases can cause the shut down of the machine. In this article are presented the general concepts on the residual magnetism in rotary electrical machines, the causes that originate it and the problems that arises, as well as the demagnetization of the components that have residual magnetic field. The results obtained by the area of Electrical Equipment of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas are revised, during the execution of activities related to the measurement and elimination of the residual magnetic field in rotary electrical machines. [Spanish] El magnetismo residual es un fenomeno en el que los dipolos magneticos de una sustancia se encuentran orientados en un grado determinado. Por otro lado, cuando existen fuerzas internas capaces de alinear los dipolos magneticos elementales de un material, se tiene un iman permanente. Al igual que en un conductor o un material, en los elementos de una maquina electrica rotatoria se pueden inducir campos magneticos que producen un magnetismo residual o magnetizacion. En las maquinas electricas rotatorias, el fenomeno de magnetizacion causa graves problemas, como la generacion de corrientes inducidas que propician el desgaste mecanico


    Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

  20. Applicability of quantitative optical imaging techniques for intraoperative perfusion diagnostics: a comparison of laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field microscopy, and optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Jansen, Sanne M.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; Dobbe, Iwan J. G. G.; Heeg, Erik; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Strackee, Simon D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.


    Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400 μm were constructed in a scattering phantom. Perfusion was simulated by pumping heparinized human whole blood at five velocities (0 to 20 mm/s). Vessel diameter and blood flow velocity were assessed with LSCI, OCT, and SDF. Quantification of vessel diameter was feasible with OCT and SDF. LSCI could only visualize the 400-μm vessel, perfusion units scaled nonlinearly with blood velocity. OCT could assess blood flow velocity in terms of inverse OCT speckle decorrelation time. SDF was not feasible to measure blood flow; however, for diluted blood the measurements were linear with the input velocity up to 1 mm/s. LSCI, OCT, and SDF were feasible to visualize blood flow. Validated blood flow velocity measurements intraoperatively in the desired parameter (mL·g-1) remain challenging.

  1. Measurement of residual stress fields in FHPP welding: a comparison between DSPI combined with hole-drilling and neutron diffraction (United States)

    Viotti, Matias R.; Albertazzi, Armando; Staron, Peter; Pisa, Marcelo


    This paper shows a portable device to measure mainly residual stress fields outside the optical bench. This system combines the traditional hole drilling technique with Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry. The novel feature of this device is the high degree of compaction since only one base supports simultaneously the measurement module and the hole-drilling device. The portable device allows the measurement of non-uniform residual stresses in accordance with the ASTM standard. In oil and gas offshore industries, alternative welding procedures among them, the friction hydro pillar processing (FHPP) is highlighted and nowadays is an important maintenance tool since it has the capability to produce structure repairs without risk of explosions. In this process a hole is drilled and filled with a consumable rod of the same material. The rod, which could be cylindrical or conical, is rotated and pressed against the hole, leading to frictional heating. In order to assess features about the residual stress distribution generated by the weld into the rod as well as into the base material around the rod, welded samples were evaluated by neutron diffraction and by the hole drilling technique having a comparison between them. For the hole drilling technique some layers were removed by using electrical discharge machining (EDM) after diffraction measurements in order to assess the bulk stress distribution. Results have shown a good agreement between techniques.

  2. X-ray speckle correlation interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, Rachel; Materlik, Gerhard


    Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry (SPCI) is a well-established technique in the visible-light regime for observing surface disturbances. Although not a direct imaging technique, SPCI gives full-field, high-resolution information about an object's motion. Since x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines with high coherent flux have allowed the observation of x-ray speckle, x-ray SPCI could provide a means to measure strains and other quasi-static motions in disordered systems. This paper therefore examines the feasibility of an x-ray speckle correlation interferometer

  3. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc


    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

  4. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira


    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  5. Speckle dynamics under ergodicity breaking (United States)

    Sdobnov, Anton; Bykov, Alexander; Molodij, Guillaume; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Jarvinen, Topias; Popov, Alexey; Kordas, Krisztian; Meglinski, Igor


    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a well-known and versatile approach for the non-invasive visualization of flows and microcirculation localized in turbid scattering media, including biological tissues. In most conventional implementations of LSCI the ergodic regime is typically assumed valid. However, most composite turbid scattering media, especially biological tissues, are non-ergodic, containing a mixture of dynamic and static centers of light scattering. In the current study, we examined the speckle contrast in different dynamic conditions with the aim of assessing limitations in the quantitative interpretation of speckle contrast images. Based on a simple phenomenological approach, we introduced a coefficient of speckle dynamics to quantitatively assess the ratio of the dynamic part of a scattering medium to the static one. The introduced coefficient allows one to distinguish real changes in motion from the mere appearance of static components in the field of view. As examples of systems with static/dynamic transitions, thawing and heating of Intralipid samples were studied by the LSCI approach.

  6. Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo


    In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on the statistical properties of polarization speckle, described by stochastic Stokes parameters fluctuating in space. Based on the Gaussian assumption for the random electric field components and polar-interferometer, we investigated theoretically...... and experimentally the statistics of Stokes parameters of polarization speckle, including probability density function of Stokes parameters with the spatial degree of polarization, autocorrelation of Stokes vector and statistics of spatial derivatives for Stokes parameters....

  7. Mean field annealing approach to large residual-statics estimation (United States)

    Cary, Peter W.; Upham, Warren


    We present a new method for solving the large residual-statics problem, called mean field annealing, which may be capable of overcoming some of the limitations of stochastic methods. Mean field annealing is a global-search method that is governed by a purely deterministic set of equations. The mean field annealing method approaches global optimization problems in a fundamentally different way from stochastic global-search methods. The mean field approach never samples individual trial solutions in model space. Instead, the mean field equations, which are solved at successively lower temperatures with a fixed-point method, involve solving for the probability distributions of each variable rather than solving for the variables themselves. The probability distribution of each variable is resolved separately by replacing all other variables that occur in the energy function by their expectation values.

  8. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc


    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  9. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Robert, E-mail: [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko [HZB Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kreutzbruck, Marc [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); IKT, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)


    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  10. New developments in NDT through electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S.; Murugesan, P; Mas, R.H.


    Full text: Optical holography and speckle interferometry are the emerging optical techniques that can be used for the measurements of microscopic parameters such as displacement, strain, stress and slope. These techniques are applied in various fields such as surface studies, non destructive testing, speckle metrology and steller interferometry. Even though many new NDT methods are available, the suitability for a specific application is based on the material property, nature of defects and sensitivity of detection. Difficulty in radiographic technique is that it fails in detecting tight cracks, planar defects and debonds. Microwave techniques has limited sensitivity for the defect detection and it is not suitable for the objects with metallic cases since the metals are perfect reflectors for the microwaves. Low modulus material attenuates the acoustic energy completely, making ultrasonic testing techniques not feasible. The recently evolved optoelectronic technique namely Electronic Speckle Pattern interferometry (ESPI) is a fast developing optical technique widely used for measuring displacement components, their derivatives, surface roughness, surface contours, shape and others. Due to non contact nature and high sensitivity, this technique has been used as a powerful on line inspection tool for non destructive pattern of materials in industrial environment. The salient feature of ESPI is its capability to display the correlation fringes in a real time on a monitor without the need of photographic processing or optical filtering. ESPI is an alternate non destructive technique suitable for propellant grains and other low modulus materials used in space vehicle systems. The optoelectronic technique can be used to detect cracks, voids and residual stresses etc.., in the components in the industrial environment. In the present investigation, speckle non destructive testing has been carried out on some selected low modulus materials used in space vehicles. The

  11. Neighborhood binary speckle pattern for deformation measurements insensitive to local illumination variation by digital image correlation. (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Yue


    Speckle pattern-based characteristics of digital image correlation (DIC) restrict its application in engineering fields and nonlaboratory environments, since serious decorrelation effect occurs due to localized sudden illumination variation. A simple and efficient speckle pattern adjusting and optimizing approach presented in this paper is aimed at providing a novel speckle pattern robust enough to resist local illumination variation. The new speckle pattern, called neighborhood binary speckle pattern, derived from original speckle pattern, is obtained by means of thresholding the pixels of a neighborhood at its central pixel value and considering the result as a binary number. The efficiency of the proposed speckle pattern is evaluated in six experimental scenarios. Experiment results indicate that the DIC measurements based on neighborhood binary speckle pattern are able to provide reliable and accurate results, even though local brightness and contrast of the deformed images have been seriously changed. It is expected that the new speckle pattern will have more potential value in engineering applications.

  12. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  13. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail:; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)


    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  14. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goikhman, Alexander; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Wojda, Pawel; Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor; Snigirev, Anatoly


    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy

  15. Dynamical properties of speckled speckles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hansen, Rene Skov


    the static diffuser and the plane of observation consist of an optical system that can be characterized by a complex-valued ABCD-matrix (e.g. simple and complex imaging systems, free space propagation in both the near-and far-field, and Fourier transform systems). The use of the complex ABCD-method means...

  16. Predictive hydrogeochemical modelling of bauxite residue sand in field conditions. (United States)

    Wissmeier, Laurin; Barry, David A; Phillips, Ian R


    The suitability of residue sand (the coarse fraction remaining from Bayer's process of bauxite refining) for constructing the surface cover of closed bauxite residue storage areas was investigated. Specifically, its properties as a medium for plant growth are of interest to ensure residue sand can support a sustainable ecosystem following site closure. The geochemical evolution of the residue sand under field conditions, its plant nutrient status and soil moisture retention were studied by integrated modelling of geochemical and hydrological processes. For the parameterization of mineral reactions, amounts and reaction kinetics of the mineral phases natron, calcite, tricalcium aluminate, sodalite, muscovite and analcime were derived from measured acid neutralization curves. The effective exchange capacity for ion adsorption was measured using three independent exchange methods. The geochemical model, which accounts for mineral reactions, cation exchange and activity corrected solution speciation, was formulated in the geochemical modelling framework PHREEQC, and partially validated in a saturated-flow column experiment. For the integration of variably saturated flow with multi-component solute transport in heterogeneous 2D domains, a coupling of PHREEQC with the multi-purpose finite-element solver COMSOL was established. The integrated hydrogeochemical model was applied to predict water availability and quality in a vertical flow lysimeter and a cover design for a storage facility using measured time series of rainfall and evaporation from southwest Western Australia. In both scenarios the sand was fertigated and gypsum-amended. Results show poor long-term retention of fertilizer ions and buffering of the pH around 10 for more than 5 y of leaching. It was concluded that fertigation, gypsum amendment and rainfall leaching alone were insufficient to render the geochemical conditions of residue sand suitable for optimal plant growth within the given timeframe. The

  17. Speckle Reduction in Projection Systems


    Riechert, Falko


    A speckle pattern is a quasi-random interference pattern which typically emerges when lasers are used as illumination sources in projection applications and which severely degrades the image quality. Since in most projection applications high speckle disturbance is not tolerable, speckle reduction is a major issue. This work gives an introduction into the theoretical description of speckle and investigates different practical methods for speckle reduction in laser projection systems.

  18. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.


    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  19. Stochastic mean-field theory: Method and application to the disordered Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperature and speckle disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissbort, Ulf; Hofstetter, Walter; Thomale, Ronny


    We discuss the stochastic mean-field theory (SMFT) method, which is a new approach for describing disordered Bose systems in the thermodynamic limit including localization and dimensional effects. We explicate the method in detail and apply it to the disordered Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperature, with on-site box disorder, as well as experimentally relevant unbounded speckle disorder. We find that disorder-induced condensation and re-entrant behavior at constant filling are only possible at low temperatures, beyond the reach of current experiments [M. Pasienski, D. McKay, M. White, and B. DeMarco, e-print arXiv:0908.1182]. Including off-diagonal hopping disorder as well, we investigate its effect on the phase diagram in addition to pure on-site disorder. To make connection to present experiments on a quantitative level, we also combine SMFT with an LDA approach and obtain the condensate fraction in the presence of an external trapping potential.

  20. Controlling the evolution of nondiffracting speckle by complex amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator to implement controlled ring-slit experiments for the generation of nondiffracting speckle fields. The structure of the nondiffracting speckle due to binary and continuous phase modulations...

  1. Impact of sugarcane field residue and mill bagasse on seed germination (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  2. Allelopathic impact of HoCP 96-540 field residue on seed germination (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  3. Multiple speckle illumination for optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging (United States)

    Poisson, Florian; Stasio, Nicolino; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri; Bossy, Emmanuel


    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy offers exquisite and specific contrast to optical absorption. Conventional approaches generally involves raster scanning a focused spot over the sample. Here, we demonstrate that a full-field illumination approach with multiple speckle illumination can also provide diffraction-limited optical-resolution photoacoustic images. Two different proof-of-concepts are demonstrated with micro-structured test samples. The first approach follows the principle of correlation/ghost imaging,1, 2 and is based on cross-correlating photoacoustic signals under multiple speckle illumination with known speckle patterns measured during a calibration step. The second approach is a speckle scanning microscopy technique, which adapts the technique proposed in fluorescence microscopy by Bertolotti and al.:3 in our work, spatially unresolved photoacoustic measurements are performed for various translations of unknown speckle patterns. A phase-retrieval algorithm is used to reconstruct the object from the knowledge of the modulus of its Fourier Transform yielded by the measurements. Because speckle patterns naturally appear in many various situations, including propagation through biological tissue or multi-mode fibers (for which focusing light is either very demanding if not impossible), speckle-illumination-based photoacoustic microscopy provides a powerful framework for the development of novel reconstruction approaches, well-suited to compressed sensing approaches.2

  4. Lagrangian speckle model and tissue-motion estimation--theory. (United States)

    Maurice, R L; Bertrand, M


    It is known that when a tissue is subjected to movements such as rotation, shearing, scaling, etc., changes in speckle patterns that result act as a noise source, often responsible for most of the displacement-estimate variance. From a modeling point of view, these changes can be thought of as resulting from two mechanisms: one is the motion of the speckles and the other, the alterations of their morphology. In this paper, we propose a new tissue-motion estimator to counteract these speckle decorrelation effects. The estimator is based on a Lagrangian description of the speckle motion. This description allows us to follow local characteristics of the speckle field as if they were a material property. This method leads to an analytical description of the decorrelation in a way which enables the derivation of an appropriate inverse filter for speckle restoration. The filter is appropriate for linear geometrical transformation of the scattering function (LT), i.e., a constant-strain region of interest (ROI). As the LT itself is a parameter of the filter, a tissue-motion estimator can be formulated as a nonlinear minimization problem, seeking the best match between the pre-tissue-motion image and a restored-speckle post-motion image. The method is tested, using simulated radio-frequency (RF) images of tissue undergoing axial shear.

  5. Speckle Image Reconstruction. (United States)


    the well-known close binary Capella and the resolved red supergiant Betelgeuse , (including a diffraction limited differential speckle image of the...current space object identification requirements, and the set of images of the red supergiant Betelgeuse . 2.1 Asteroid/Planetary Science Our work on... Betelgeuse with the measured point xource response superimposed for comparison. Figure 4 shows an example of a full two-dimensional reduction, this time

  6. Levels of pesticide residues in irrigation effluent from tomato fields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticide residues lindane, chlorpyrifos and endosulfan sulphate were detected in water from the spring source, within field and return channel of vegetable farms in Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania. Extraction of the pesticide residues were conducted by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method. The detection and concentrations of ...

  7. Speckle suppressing anisotropic diffusion filter for medical ultrasound images. (United States)

    Ovireddy, Saraniya; Muthusamy, Ezhilarasi


    Ultrasonography is often preferred over the other medical imaging modalities due to its noninvasive nature, cost-effectiveness, and portability. However, the resolution of the ultrasound image greatly depends upon the presence of speckle noise. Speckle noise generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic resolution of this imaging modality. In this paper, we propose a speckle suppressing anisotropic diffusion (SSAD) filter, to remove the speckle noise from B-Mode Ultrasound images. The performance of the SSAD filter is compared with the existing diffusion filters. The evaluation is based on their application to images simulated by Field II (developed by Jensen et al.). The algorithms were also tested for clinical ultrasound images of polycystic ovaries obtained from HDI 5000 Ultrasound Scanner. Performance evaluation was done by both numerical and functional parameters. The proposed filter yields better results in terms of greatest structural similarity index map (SSIM) of 0.95 and accuracy of 99.5.

  8. Alaska and Yukon magnetic compilation, residual total magnetic field (United States)

    Miles, W.; Saltus, Richard W.; Hayward, N.; Oneschuk, D.


    This map is a compilation of aeromagnetic surveys over Yukon and eastern Alaska. Aeromagnetic surveys measure the total intensity of the earth's magnetic field. The field was measured by a magnetometer aboard an aircraft flown in parallel lines spaced at 200 m to 10000 m across the map area. The magnetic field reflects magnetic properties of bedrock and provides qualitative and quantitative information used in geological mapping. Understanding the geology will help geologists map the area, assist mineral/hydrocarbon exploration activities, and provide useful information necessary for communities, aboriginal associations, and government to make land use decisions. This survey was flown to improve our knowledge of the area. It will support ongoing geological mapping and resource assessment.

  9. The implementation of laser speckle reduction based on MEMS two-dimensional scanning mirror (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Shen, Wenjiang; Wu, Shengli; Zhou, Peng; He, Jiahui; Yu, Huijun


    Laser speckle on the screen of laser display system is due to the strong coherence characteristic of laser. In order to eliminate the influence of the speckle on image quality, the method of laser speckle reduction based on MEMS two-dimensional scanning mirror is proposed in this paper. The experimental results show that the speckle contrast can be reduced to 3.7%, which meets the requirement of laser display. And this system could be used in laser display field and improve the display performance.

  10. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, unknown-manner changes in charge neutrality point (CNP) positioning were ascribed to humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exactmeans of humidity interacting with hydrophobicgraphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene ...

  11. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CNP positioning is generally observed at the drain-to-source current vs. gate voltage (IDS–Vbg) characteristics, and the humidity is seen as a contributing factor of ..... vertical lines and gate-voltage-generated field indicated by red lines are shown. As can be seen in figure 9c, the contact- metal-coated graphene regions are ...

  12. Tebuconazole and Azoxystrobin Residue Behaviors and Distribution in Field and Cooked Peanut. (United States)

    Hou, Fan; Teng, Peipei; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Wenzhuo


    Residue behaviors of tebuconazole and azoxystrobin in field condition and the variation of their residue levels during the boiling process were evaluated. The terminal residues of peanut kernels were determined by using a modified QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) by means of the optimization of the novel purification procedure with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe 3 O 4 -magnetic nanoparticle (Fe 3 O 4 -MNP) in the presence of an external magnetic field, and the terminal residues were all at trace level at harvest time. The residues in shells were detected as well to investigate the distribution in peanuts. Tebuconazole and azoxystrobin residue levels varied before/after boiling in kernels and shells to different degrees due to various factors, such as the modes of action and physicochemical properties of pesticides. The residues have been transferred from peanut into the infusion during boiling with the higher percentage of azoxystrobin as its lower logK ow . The processing factors (PFs) for tebuconazole and azoxystrobin after processing were <1, indicating that home cooking in this study could reduce the residue levels in peanut. Risk assessment showed there was no health risk for consumers.

  13. Chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and transfers during duck pellet feed processing. (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wei, Wei; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Qiang


    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agricultural crops (including food) and animal feeds in China, resulting in heavy contamination. Many studies have focused on the food-processing effects on chlorpyrifos removal, but sufficient information is not observed for feed-processing steps. Here, chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and its transfers in duck pellet feed-processing steps were evaluated. In field trials, the highest residues for rice grain, shelled corn, and soybean seed were 12.0, 0.605, and 0.220 mg/kg, respectively. Residues of all rice grain and about half of shelled corn exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China, and five soybean seeds exceeded the MRL of China. Chlorpyrifos residue was reduced 38.2% in brown rice after the raw rice grain was hulled. The residue in bran increased 71.2% after milling from brown rice. During the squashing step, the residue reduced 73.8% in soybean meal. The residues reduced significantly (23.7-36.8%) during the process of granulating for rice, maize, and soybean products. Comparatively, the grinding process showed only limited influence on chlorpyrifos removal (residues of duck pellet feeds produced from highly contaminated raw materials of this study were 1.01 mg/kg (maize-soybean feed) and 3.20 mg/kg (rice-soybean feed), which were much higher than the generally accepted value (>0.1 mg/kg) for animal feeding. Chlorpyrifos residues were removed significantly by processing steps of pellet feeds, but the residue of raw materials was the determining factor for the safety of duck feeding.

  14. A Note on the Inverse Reconstruction of Residual Fields in Surface Peened Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Faghidian

    Full Text Available Abstract A modified stress function approach is developed here to reconstruct induced stress, residual stress and eigenstrain fields from limited experimental measurements. The present approach is successfully applied to three experimental measurements set in surface peened plates with shallow shot peening affected zone. The well-rehearsed advantage of the proposed approach is that it not only minimizes the deviation of measurements from its approximations but also will result in an inverse solution satisfying a full range of continuum mechanics requirements. Also, the effect of component thickness as a geometric parameter influencing the residual stress state is comprehensively studied. A key finding of present study is that the plate thickness has no influence on the maximum magnitude of eigenstrain profile and compressive residual stresses within the shot peening affected zone while having a great influence on the magnitude of tensile residual stress and the gradient of linear residual stresses present in deeper regions.

  15. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor


    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  16. Metal Residue Deposition from Military Pyrotechnic Devices and Field Sampling Guidance (United States)


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA. Taylor. S. R. 1964. Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust . Geochimica et...Development Center Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, NH 03755 Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Metal Residue...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metal Residue Deposition from Military Pyrotechnic Devices and Field Sampling Guidance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Field kit and method for testing for the presence of gunshot residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacy, Philip J.; Walker, Pamela K.


    A field test kit for gunshot residue comprises a container having at least compartments separated by a barrier. A surface is tested by wiping it with a swab and placing the swab in a first compartment. The barrier is then breached, permitting reagent in the second compartment to flow onto the swab. The first compartment is transparent, and a color change will be observed if the reagent reacts with gunshot residue.

  18. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Screw dislocations of laser speckle fields in interferograms with a circular line structure (United States)

    Bobrov, B. D.


    Experimental results are used to show that circular interferograms are of interest in studies of screw dislocations of speckle-distorted laser beams because of a close correspondence between the symmetry of these interferograms and defects. The presence of dislocations transforms a system of the usual rings into a split network. Typical structure elements of such interferograms are right- and left-handed spirals connecting singular points of dislocations. Spiral fragments can be used in the diagnostics of dislocations regarded as independent defects. A method is suggested for the formation of highly directed optical beams with a low level of the usual aberrations, but with a complex phase surface topology. Screw dislocations are shown to be a natural analog of helical waves known in optics and capable of deliberate generation.

  19. Field desorption mass spectrometric analysis of organic compound residues in the environment. I--Organochlorine insecticides. (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Yamato, Y; Koga, M


    Field desorption mass spectrometry is applied to the positive identification of organochlorine insecticides and their related compounds residing in field soil environment. Additionally, standard field desorption mass spectra of these compounds are presented. Soil samples were collected in lettuce and spinach fields, and insecticides were extracted, cleaned up, and separated with thin-layer chromatography. Residue levels were measured by injecting the extract into a gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Residues of p,p'-DDT and dieldrin in field soil samples were clearly identified by field desorption mass spectrometry using the emitter dipping method. Moreover, mixed residues of these insecticides were simultaneously confirmed. However, residues of insecticides and their related compounds other than p,p'-DDT and dieldrin could not be characterized. All spectra of standard showed prominent [M].+, [M(35Cl(n-1), 37Cl)].+ and [M(35Cl(n-2, 37Cl2)].+ ions, and the [M(35Cl(n-1), 37Cl)].+ ion was the base peak in all spectra obtained.

  20. Speckle imaging of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, B.J. III


    Speckle imaging is a powerful tool for high resolution astronomy. Its application to the core regions of globular clusters produces high resolution stellar maps of the bright stars, but is unable to image the faint stars which are most reliable dynamical indicators. The limits on resolving these faint, extended objects are physical, not algorithmic, and cannot be overcome using speckle. High resolution maps may be useful for resolving multicomponent stellar systems in the cluster centers. 30 refs

  1. Decomposition of corn and soybean residues under field conditions and their role as inoculum source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Reis


    Full Text Available Necrotrophic parasites of above-ground plant parts survive saprophytically, between growing seasons in host crop residues. In an experiment conducted under field conditions, the time required in months for corn and soybean residues to be completely decomposed was quantified. Residues were laid on the soil surface to simulate no-till farming. Crop debris of the two plant species collected on the harvesting day cut into pieces of 5.0cm-long and a 200g mass was added to nylon mesh bags. At monthly intervals, bags were taken to the laboratory for weighing. Corn residues were decomposed within 37.0 months and those of soybean, within 34.5 months. Hw main necrotrophic fungi diagnosed in the corn residues were Colletotrichum gramicola, Diplodia spp. and Gibberella zeae, and those in soybeans residues were Cercospora kikuchii, Colletotrichum spp, Glomerella sp. and Phomopsis spp. Thus, those periods shoulb be observed in crop rotation aimed at to eliminating contaminated residues and, consequently, the inoculum from the cultivated area.

  2. The maximum possible stress intensity factor for a crack in an unknown residual stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coules, H.E.; Smith, D.J.


    Residual and thermal stress fields in engineering components can act on cracks and structural flaws, promoting or inhibiting fracture. However, these stresses are limited in magnitude by the ability of materials to sustain them elastically. As a consequence, the stress intensity factor which can be applied to a given defect by a self-equilibrating stress field is also limited. We propose a simple weight function method for determining the maximum stress intensity factor which can occur for a given crack or defect in a one-dimensional self-equilibrating stress field, i.e. an upper bound for the residual stress contribution to K I . This can be used for analysing structures containing defects and subject to residual stress without any information about the actual stress field which exists in the structure being analysed. A number of examples are given, including long radial cracks and fully-circumferential cracks in thick-walled hollow cylinders containing self-equilibrating stresses. - Highlights: • An upper limit to the contribution of residual stress to stress intensity factor. • The maximum K I for self-equilibrating stresses in several geometries is calculated. • A weight function method can determine this maximum for 1-dimensional stress fields. • Simple MATLAB scripts for calculating maximum K I provided as supplementary material.

  3. Bi-Metallic Composite Structures With Designed Internal Residual Stress Field (United States)

    Brice, Craig A.


    Shape memory alloys (SMA) have a unique ability to recover small amounts of plastic strain through a temperature induced phase change. For these materials, mechanical displacement can be accomplished by heating the structure to induce a phase change, through which some of the plastic strain previously introduced to the structure can be reversed. This paper introduces a concept whereby an SMA phase is incorporated into a conventional alloy matrix in a co-continuous reticulated arrangement forming a bi-metallic composite structure. Through memory activation of the mechanically constrained SMA phase, a controlled residual stress field is developed in the interior of the structure. The presented experimental data show that the memory activation of the SMA composite component significantly changes the residual stress distribution in the overall structure. Designing the structural arrangement of the two phases to produce a controlled residual stress field could be used to create structures that have much improved durability and damage tolerance properties.

  4. Residual magnetism in an MRI suite after field-rampdown: what are the issues and experiences? (United States)

    Sammet, Steffen; Koch, Regina Maria; Aguila, Francisco; Knopp, Michael Vinzenz


    To investigate residual magnetization at different locations in the MRI suite at several time points prior, during and after field-rampdown with the goal to determine if the MRI suites could be reused in a clinical environment after the field-rampdown of MR scanners of different field strengths. Residual magnetism was measured with two gaussmeters in the MRI suites of an 8 Tesla (T) and a 0.7T whole body magnet at several time points prior, during and after field-rampdown. Residual magnetism, in the MRI suite after controlled rampdown of an 8T superconducting magnet, was not significantly elevated compared with magnetic fields in the environment. Through 40 days, no significant changes in magnetism could be seen compared with initial measurements directly after rampdown, as both gaussmeters consistently measured. Similar findings were also observed after the quenched shutdown of a 0.7T system but a remanence was observed. A controlled rampdown of even an ultrahigh field MR system does not lead to retained magnetic contamination, while forced quenched rampdown of a mid-field system revealed temporary remanence. There is no need to degauss an MRI suite when an appropriate steel composition has been used in the iron shield. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Sugarcane field residue and bagasse allelopathic impact on vegetable seed germination (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the allelopathic impact of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) var. ‘HoCP 96-540’ field residue and sugarcane baga...

  6. Speckle Imaging of Binary Stars with Large-Format CCDs (United States)

    Horch, E.; Ninkov, Z.; Slawson, R. W.; van Altena, W. F.; Meyer, R. D.; Girard, T. M.


    In the past, bare (unintensified) CCDs have not been widely used in speckle imaging for two main reasons: 1) the readout rate of most scientific-grade CCDs is too slow to be able to observe at the high frame rates necessary to capture speckle patterns efficiently, and 2) the read noise of CCDs limits the detectability of fainter objects where it becomes difficult to distinguish between speckles and noise peaks in the image. These facts have led to the current supremacy of intensified imaging systems (such as intensified-CCDs) in this field, which can typically be read out at video rates or faster. We have developed a new approach that uses a large format CCD not only to detect the incident photons but also to record many speckle patterns before the chip is read out. This approach effectively uses the large area of the CCD as a physical ``memory cache'' of previous speckle data frames. The method is described, and binary star observations from the University of Toronto Southern Observatory 60-cm telescope and the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5-m telescope are presented. Plans for future observing and instrumentation improvements are also outlined.

  7. Laser speckle analysis of retinal vascular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y.; Postnov, Dmitry D.; Jacobsen, Jens Christian B.


    -field laser speckle imaging to evaluate vascular responses of the retinal network. Image segmentation and vessel recognition algorithms together with response mapping allow us to analyze diameter changes and blood flow responses in the intact retinal network upon systemic administration of the vasoconstrictor......Studies of vascular responses are usually performed on isolated vessels or on single vessels in vivo. This allows for precise measurements of diameter or blood flow. However, dynamical responses of the whole microvascular network are difficult to access experimentally. We suggest to use full...

  8. Multiple rotation assessment through isothetic fringes in speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Nestor


    The use of different pupils for storing each speckled image in speckle photography is employed to determine multiple in-plane rotations. The method consists of recording a four-exposure specklegram where the rotations are done between exposures. This specklegram is then optically processed in a whole field approach rendering isothetic fringes, which give detailed information about the multiple rotations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed arrangement permits the depiction of six isothetics in order to measure either six different angles or three nonparallel components for two local general in-plane displacements

  9. Estimating the variance and integral scale of the transmissivity field using head residual increments (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Silliman, S.E.


    A modification of previously published solutions regarding the spatial variation of hydraulic heads is discussed whereby the semivariogram of increments of head residuals (termed head residual increments HRIs) are related to the variance and integral scale of the transmissivity field. A first-order solution is developed for the case of a transmissivity field which is isotropic and whose second-order behavior can be characterized by an exponential covariance structure. The estimates of the variance ??(Y)/2 and the integral scale ?? of the log transmissivity field are then obtained via fitting a theoretical semivariogram for the HRI to its sample semivariogram. This approach is applied to head data sampled from a series of two-dimensional, simulated aquifers with isotropic, exponential covariance structures and varying degrees of heterogeneity (??(Y)/2 = 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0). The results show that this method provided reliable estimates for both ?? and ??(Y)/2 in aquifers with the value of ??(Y)/2 up to 2.0, but the errors in those estimates were higher for ??(Y)/2 equal to 5.0. It is also demonstrated through numerical experiments and theoretical arguments that the head residual increments will provide a sample semivariogram with a lower variance than will the use of the head residuals without calculation of increments.

  10. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for treating alkaline bauxite residue leachate: a 1-year field study. (United States)

    Higgins, Derek; Curtin, Teresa; Courtney, Ronan


    Increasing volumes of bauxite residues and their associated leachates represent a significant environmental challenge to the alumina industry. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential approach for leachate treatment, but there is limited data on field-scale applications. The research presented here provides preliminary evaluation of a purpose-built constructed wetland to buffer leachate from a bauxite residue disposal site in Ireland. Data collected over a 1-year period demonstrated that the pH of bauxite residue leachates could be effectively reduced from ca. pH 10.3 to 8.1 but was influenced by influent variability and temporal changes. The wetland was also effective in decreasing elemental loading, and sequential extractions suggested that the bulk of the sediment-bound metal inventory was in hard-to-leach phases. Elemental analysis of Phragmites australis showed that although vegetation displayed seasonal variation, no trace elements were at concentrations of concern.

  11. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.


    Recent research work on speckle patterns indicates a variation of the polarization state during propagation and its nonuniformly spatial distribution. The preliminary step for the investigation of this polarization speckle is the generation of the corresponding field. In this paper, a kind of spe...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  12. Dynamics of mature pea residue nitrogen turnover in unplanted soil under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.


    The dynamics of N-15-labelled mature, pea (Pisum sativum L.) residue turnover in soil were studied in two 3 yr experiments, using residue sizes of soil in the field. During the initial 10 days of decomposition there was a sharp decline in the amount of N-15 in organic...... in the biomass N, indicating that unlabelled soil N was immobilized in the biomass in the second experiment, despite the high residue N concentration. The total residual organic N-15 and the N-15 in the biomass declined with average decay constants of 0.44 and 0.65 yr-1, respectively, for the 10 d to 1 yr period...... mineralizable after 2 yr of decomposition, indicating that the remaining residue N-15 was present in rather recalcitrant soil organic matter. After 90 days of decomposition N-15 unaccounted for corresponded to 10% of the input, increasing to 20-30% after 2-3 yr of decomposition. The main part of the N...

  13. Tailoring speckles with Weibull intensity statistics (United States)

    Amaral, João P.; Fonseca, Eduardo J. S.; Jesus-Silva, Alcenisio J.


    We use a phase-only computer-generated hologram to encode both phase and amplitude of a power of Rayleigh speckles. This method allows us to generate speckles with enhanced and reduced contrast without any optimization process. We explore non-Rayleigh speckles and unveil, theoretically and experimentally, their first-order statistical properties. These speckles may find applications in syntheses of disordered optical potentials for cold atoms and colloidal particles, in speckle illumination imaging, and in wave interference studied through spatial intensity correlation.

  14. Modelling and experimental characterisation of a residual stress field in a ferritic compact tension specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenman, M.R.; Price, A.J.; Steuwer, A.; Chard-Tuckey, P.R.; Crocombe, A.


    The aim of the work is to elucidate the influence of plasticity behaviour on the residual stress field in a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel. To this end, we investigate two compressively pre-loaded compact tension (CT) specimens to generate a mechanical residual stress field. One specimen was subsequently pre-cracked by fatigue before both specimens were measured using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A fine grain size microstructure (∼5-10 μm grain size) allowed a small X-ray beam slit size and therefore gauge volume. The results provide an excellent data set for validation of finite element (FE) modelling predictions against which they have been compared. The results of both mechanical testing and modelling suggest that the use of a combined hardening model is needed to accurately predict the residual stress field present in the specimen after pre-loading. Some discrepancy between the modelled crack tip stress values and those found by X-ray diffraction remain which can be partly explained by volume averaging effects in the presence of very high stress/strain gradients.

  15. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry. (United States)

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P


    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%.

  16. Temperature Field Prediction for Determining the Residual Stresses Under Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Livshits


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to non-stationary temperature field blanks from aluminum alloys during heat treatment. It consists of the introduction and two smaller paragraphs. In the introduction the author concerns the influence of residual stresses arising in the manufacturing process of details, on the strength of the whole aircraft construction and, consequently, on their technical and economic parameters, such as weight, reliability, efficiency, and cost. He also notes that the residual stresses appeared during the production of parts change their location, size and direction under the influence of the elastic deformations that occur during the exploitation of aircraft. Redistributed residual stresses may have a chaotic distribution that may cause overlap of these stresses on the stresses caused by the impact of workload of constructions and destruction or damage of aircraft components.The first paragraph is devoted to the existing methods and techniques for determining the residual stresses. The presented methods and techniques are analyzed to show the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The conclusion is drawn that the method to determine the residual stresses is necessary, its cost is less than those of existing ones, and an error does not exceed 10%.In the second section, the author divides the problem of determining the residual stresses into two parts, and describes the solution methods of the first one. The first problem is to define the temperature field of the work piece. The author uses a Fourier equation with the definition of initial and boundary conditions to describe a mathematical model of the heat cycle of work piece cooling. He draws special attention here to the fact that it is complicated to determine the heat transfer coefficient, which characterizes the process of cooling the work piece during hardening because of its dependence on a number of factors, such as changing temperature-dependent material properties of

  17. Revised Backbone-Virtual-Bond-Angle Potentials to Treat the l- and d-Amino Acid Residues in the Coarse-Grained United Residue (UNRES) Force Field. (United States)

    Sieradzan, Adam K; Niadzvedtski, Andrei; Scheraga, Harold A; Liwo, Adam


    Continuing our effort to introduce d-amino-acid residues in the united residue (UNRES) force field developed in our laboratory, in this work the C α ··· C α ··· C α backbone-virtual-bond-valence-angle (θ) potentials for systems containing d-amino-acid residues have been developed. The potentials were determined by integrating the combined energy surfaces of all possible triplets of terminally blocked glycine, alanine, and proline obtained with ab initio molecular quantum mechanics at the MP2/6-31G(d,p) level to calculate the corresponding potentials of mean force (PMFs). Subsequently, analytical expressions were fitted to the PMFs to give the virtual-bond-valence potentials to be used in UNRES. Alanine represented all types of amino-acid residues except glycine and proline. The blocking groups were either the N -acetyl and N ', N '-dimethyl or N -acetyl and pyrrolidyl group, depending on whether the residue next in sequence was an alanine-type or a proline residue. A total of 126 potentials (63 symmetry-unrelated potentials for each set of terminally blocking groups) were determined. Together with the torsional, double-torsional, and side-chain-rotamer potentials for polypeptide chains containing d-amino-acid residues determined in our earlier work (Sieradzan et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. , 2012 , 8, 4746), the new virtual-bond-angle (θ) potentials now constitute the complete set of physics-based potentials with which to run coarse-grained simulations of systems containing d-amino-acid residues. The ability of the extended UNRES force field to reproduce thermodynamics of polypeptide systems with d-amino-acid residues was tested by comparing the experimentally measured and the calculated free energies of helix formation of model KLALKLALxxLKLALKLA peptides, where x denotes any d- or l- amino-acid residue. The obtained results demonstrate that the UNRES force field with the new potentials reproduce the changes of free energies of helix formation upon d

  18. Proposal for field-based definition of soil bound pesticide residues. (United States)

    Boesten, J J T I


    The environmental significance of soil bound pesticide residues (SBPR) is potentially large because approximately one third of the applied mass of the pesticides in agriculture ends up as SBPR. At EU level, there is little regulatory guidance available on the environmental risk assessment of SBPR in spite of some 50 years of SBPR research. This lack of guidance is partially caused by the fact that the current definitions of SBPR are founded on non-extractability in soil in the laboratory whereas for the environmental risk assessment not the soil in the laboratory but the soil in the field is the system of interest. Therefore a definition of SBPR is proposed that is based on the field soil: a molecule (further called 'the mother molecule') is soil bound if a relevant part of this molecule has become part of the solid phase in the soil and if this relevant part will never be released again to the liquid phase in soil under relevant field conditions in the form of this mother molecule or in the form of another molecule that may possibly raise environmental or human toxicological concerns. This mother molecule may be the parent substance that is applied to the soil but it may also be a metabolite of this parent substance. A consequence of the definition is that the SBPR terminology becomes more precise because the mother molecule of the soil bound residue has to be specified. A further consequence is that very strong but reversible sorption of molecules such as paraquat is not considered soil-bound residue anymore (as may be demonstrated by a self-exchange extraction procedure). Furthermore, the definition requires that risk managers have to define what they consider as 'relevant field conditions' (e.g. include also changes of agricultural fields into forests?). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of laser interferometry for assessment of surface residual stress by determination of stress-free state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Dong Il; Lee, Nak Kyu; Choi, Tae Hoon; Na, Kyoung Hoan


    The total relaxed stress in annealing and the thermal strain/stress were obtained from the identification of the residual stress-free state using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI). The residual stress fields in case of both single and film/substrate systems were modeled using the thermo-elastic theory and the relationship between relaxed stresses and displacements. We mapped the surface residual stress fields on the indented bulk Cu and the 0.5 μm Au film by ESPI. In indented Cu, the normal and shear residual stress are distributed over -1.7 GPa to 700 MPa and -800 GPa to 600 MPa respectively around the indented point and in deposited Au film on Si wafer, the tensile residual stress is uniformly distributed on the Au film from 500 MPa to 800 MPa. Also we measured the residual stress by the X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) for the verification of above residual stress results by ESPI

  20. Synchronized renal blood flow dynamics mapped with wavelet analysis of laser speckle flowmetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey R; Marsh, Donald J; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik


    Full-field laser speckle microscopy provides real-time imaging of superficial blood flow rate. Here we apply continuous wavelet transform to time series of speckle-estimated blood flow from each pixel of the images to map synchronous patterns in instantaneous frequency and phase on the surface...... of rat kidneys. The regulatory mechanism in the renal microcirculation generates oscillations in arterial blood flow at several characteristic frequencies. Our approach to laser speckle image processing allows detection of frequency and phase entrainments, visualization of their patterns, and estimation...

  1. Generalized Residual Terrain Model and Its Application in Regional Gravity Field Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Yihao


    Full Text Available We studied the so-called non-harmonic problem in residual terrain model (RTM and compared the RTM corrections based on prisms and tesseroids. Moreover, we proposed the generalized RTM based on tesseroids, together with which the regional gravity field was modeled based on Poisson wavelets basis function by using heterogeneous gravity data sets. The results show that the RTM correction based on prism integral has a poor performance in mountainous regions, which may introduce errors with the magnitude of several mGal. Thus, we suggest using RTM based on tesseroids, which lead to a better approximation of the topography. Compared to original residual terrain model,the generalized one leads a better approximation of the regional gravity filed at the high-frequency part caused by local topographical variation.

  2. Dynamics, Residue and Risk Assessment of Nitenpyram in Rice and Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Xue-xia


    Full Text Available Residues dynamics, final residual levels and dietary intake risk of nitenpyram in rice and paddy field were investigated in three dif-ferent regions of China(Shandong, Henan and Anhui. A method was illustrated to detect nitenpyram residues in paddy, plant, brown rice, paddy water and soil. The residues in paddy and rice were extracted with methanol+phosphate buffer(0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0(60+40, adjust pH to 2.5, then cleaned up with solid phase extraction column and 0.22 μm filter membrane, and then analyzed by HPLC with an ul-traviolet detector at 260 nm. When spiked 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy plant and brown rice were 78.4%~94.7% and 84.0%~94.2%, respectively. The residues in paddy water and soil were extracted with phosphate buffer (0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0, when spiked 0.01, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy water and soil were 84.6%~98.0% and 93.7%~97.1%, respective-ly, which indicated this method match the requirement of the detection. Two years results showed that nitenpyram belongs to easily degraded pesticides, because all half-lives were below 1.4 d in rice plant, as well as below 4.2 d in paddy water. Final residual levels of nitenpyram in rice were all below 0.05 mg·kg-1,which was far below the Japanese maximum residue limit(0.5 mg·kg-1. The risk quotients (RQs were low for different populations in China, which indicated its low risk in rice. Therefore, the rice with nitenpyram applied, according to the recom-mend method, 45 g·hm-2 application once, with 21 days collection interval, was safe.

  3. Laser speckle velocimetry applied to Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo, M.P.; Yonte, T.; Quintanilla, M.; Saviron, J.M.


    An application of speckle velocimetry technique to Rayleigh-Benard convection is presented. A 5-mW He-Ne laser allows precise determination of the two-dimensional velocity flow field, up to several mm/sec. The digital techniques used to analyze automatically the multiexposed photographs and to generate velocity and vorticity fields are described. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported data. The ability of the technique to cover other experimental conditions is discussed. 14 references

  4. The Magnetic Nanoparticle Movement in Magnetic Fluid Characterized by the Laser Dynamic Speckle Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Wang


    Full Text Available A dual scanning laser speckle interferometry experiment was designed to observe the dynamic behavior of the magnetic fluid actuated by a magnetic field. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the dynamic speckle measurement, the phase delay scanning was used to compensate the additional phase variation which was caused by the transverse scanning. The correlation coefficients corresponding to the temporal dynamic speckle patterns within the same time interval scattering from the nanoparticles were calculated in the experiment on nanoscale magnetic clusters. In the experiment, the speckle of the magnetic nanoparticle fluid movement has been recorded by the lens unmounted CCD within the interferometry strips, although the speckle led to the distinguished annihilation of the light coherence. The results have showed that the nanoparticle fluid dynamic properties appeared synergistically in the fringe speckles. The analyses of the nanoparticle's relative speed and the speckle pattern moving amount in the fringes have proved the nanoparticle’s movement in a laminar flow in the experiment.

  5. Color digital holography using speckle illumination by means of a multi-mode fiber (United States)

    Funamizu, Hideki; Shimoma, Shohei; Aizu, Yoshihisa


    We present color digital holography using speckle illumination by means of a multi-mode fiber. In this technique, speckle fields emitted from the fiber are used as both a reference wave and a wavefront illuminating an object. For three wavelengths, the interference patterns of two coherent waves are recorded as digital holograms on a CCD camera. A speckle method is used for suppressing DC terms and reducing a twin image in an in-line color digital holography. The speckle fields are changed by vibrating the multi-mode fiber using a vibrator, and a number of holograms are acquired to average reconstructed images. The dependence of the averaged number of holograms on color quality of reconstructed images is evaluated by chromaticity coordinates and color differences in colorimetry.

  6. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: theory, instrumentation and applications. (United States)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Rege, Abhishek; Li, Nan; Thakor, Nitish V


    Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a wide field of view, non scanning optical technique for observing blood flow. Speckles are produced when coherent light scattered back from biological tissue is diffracted through the limiting aperture of focusing optics. Mobile scatterers cause the speckle pattern to blur; a model can be constructed by inversely relating the degree of blur, termed speckle contrast to the scatterer speed. In tissue, red blood cells are the main source of moving scatterers. Therefore, blood flow acts as a virtual contrast agent, outlining blood vessels. The spatial resolution (~10 μm) and temporal resolution (10 ms to 10 s) of LSCI can be tailored to the application. Restricted by the penetration depth of light, LSCI can only visualize superficial blood flow. Additionally, due to its non scanning nature, LSCI is unable to provide depth resolved images. The simple setup and non-dependence on exogenous contrast agents have made LSCI a popular tool for studying vascular structure and blood flow dynamics. We discuss the theory and practice of LSCI and critically analyze its merit in major areas of application such as retinal imaging, imaging of skin perfusion as well as imaging of neurophysiology.

  7. Speckle Interferometry. I. A Test on an Earth Orbital Satellite. (United States)


    16 3. Short Exposure Speckle Photos for Betelgeuse , Point Source, and Binary Star...another star, the supergiant star Betelgeuse . The resemblence of these photos to laser speckle photos has led to the process being called "speckle

  8. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those......We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  9. The evaluation of a new technology for gunshot residue (GSR) analysis in the field (United States)

    Hondrogiannis, Ellen; Andersen, Danielle; Miziolek, Andrzej W.


    There continues to be a need for improved technology to be used in theater to quickly and accurately identify the person who shot any weapon during a terrorist attack as well as to link a suspect to the actual weapon fired during a crime. Beyond this, in areas of conflict it would be desirable to have the capability to establish the source country for weaponry and ammunition. Gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is a reasonably well-studied technology area. Recent scientific publications have reported that the residues have a rich composition of both organic and inorganic compounds. For the purposes of identifying the manufacturer or country of origin for the ammunition, the inorganic components of GSR appear to be especially promising since their presence in the propellant and primer formulations are either specific to a given chemical formula, or they represent impurities in the manufacturing process that can be unique to a manufacturer or the source country for the chemicals used for propellants and primers. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technology has already demonstrated considerable capability for elemental fingerprinting, especially for inorganic/metallic components. A number of reports have demonstrated LIBS capability in forensics for matching materials such as inks, fabrics, paper, glass, and paint. This work describes the encouraging results of an initial study to assess a new commercial field-portable (battery operated) LIBS system for GSR analysis with gunshot residues having been collected from inside cartridge casings from 3 different ammunition manufacturers.

  10. Residues and Analysis of Degradation of Novel Fungicide Picoxystrobin in Cucumber and Soil Under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Yang


    Full Text Available The analytical method for the residues of picoxystrobin in cucumber vegetable and soil matrices was developed and the dissipation of picoxystrobin under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection(LODof picoxystrobin was 3.5×10 -11 g and the limit of quantifica-tion(LOQwas found to be 0.005 mg·kg -1 in cucumber and soil. At three different spiking levels(0.005, 0.05, 0.25 mg·kg -1, mean recoveries and relative standard deviation(RSDfrom fortified samples in five replicated experiments for each matrix were in the range of 68.61%-122.4% and 1.06%-17.2%, respectively. The results showed that the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Tianjin City were 5.71 d and 12.9 d, respectively, the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Shandong Province were 2.70 d and 10.3 d, respec-tively, and the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Jiangsu Province were 9.76 d and 14.9 d, respectively. The maximum residual concentration of picoxystrobin on the 5th day after the last application was 0.014 mg· kg -1, much lower than the Maximum Residue Limits(MRLsfor picoxystrobin in cucumber according to the standards of EU(0.05 mg·kg-1.

  11. Evolution of the scintillation index and the optical vortex density in speckle fields after removal of the least-squares phase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, M


    Full Text Available Knowledge of the behavior of stochastic optical fields can aid the understanding of the scintillation of light propagating through a turbulent medium. For this purpose, the authors perform a numerical investigation of the evolution...

  12. Methods for determination of mean speckle size in simulated speckle pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamarová, Ivana; Šmíd, Petr; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.


    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2014), 177-182 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12301S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : simulation * speckle * speckle pattern * mean speckle size * autocorrelation function Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2014

  13. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.


    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  14. Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.


    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

  15. A magnetically shielded room with ultra low residual field and gradient (United States)

    Altarev, I.; Babcock, E.; Beck, D.; Burghoff, M.; Chesnevskaya, S.; Chupp, T.; Degenkolb, S.; Fan, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Frei, A.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Knappe-Grüneberg, S.; Kuchler, F.; Lauer, T.; Link, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M.; McAndrew, J.; Niessen, B.; Paul, S.; Petzoldt, G.; Schläpfer, U.; Schnabel, A.; Sharma, S.; Singh, J.; Stoepler, R.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taubenheim, B.; Trahms, L.; Voigt, J.; Zechlau, T.


    A versatile and portable magnetically shielded room with a field of (700 ± 200) pT within a central volume of 1 m × 1 m × 1 m and a field gradient less than 300 pT/m, achieved without any external field stabilization or compensation, is described. This performance represents more than a hundredfold improvement of the state of the art for a two-layer magnetic shield and provides an environment suitable for a next generation of precision experiments in fundamental physics at low energies; in particular, searches for electric dipole moments of fundamental systems and tests of Lorentz-invariance based on spin-precession experiments. Studies of the residual fields and their sources enable improved design of future ultra-low gradient environments and experimental apparatus. This has implications for developments of magnetometry beyond the femto-Tesla scale in, for example, biomagnetism, geosciences, and security applications and in general low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements.

  16. A magnetically shielded room with ultra low residual field and gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarev, I.; Chesnevskaya, S.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Kuchler, F.; Lins, T.; Marino, M.; McAndrew, J.; Niessen, B.; Paul, S.; Petzoldt, G.; Singh, J.; Stoepler, R.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taubenheim, B. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Babcock, E. [Jülich Center for Neutron Science, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Beck, D.; Sharma, S. [Physics Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burghoff, M.; Fan, I. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Berlin, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); and others


    A versatile and portable magnetically shielded room with a field of (700 ± 200) pT within a central volume of 1 m × 1 m × 1 m and a field gradient less than 300 pT/m, achieved without any external field stabilization or compensation, is described. This performance represents more than a hundredfold improvement of the state of the art for a two-layer magnetic shield and provides an environment suitable for a next generation of precision experiments in fundamental physics at low energies; in particular, searches for electric dipole moments of fundamental systems and tests of Lorentz-invariance based on spin-precession experiments. Studies of the residual fields and their sources enable improved design of future ultra-low gradient environments and experimental apparatus. This has implications for developments of magnetometry beyond the femto-Tesla scale in, for example, biomagnetism, geosciences, and security applications and in general low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements.

  17. Estimated residual Magnetic Field acting on the Circulating Beam in the LHC Septum Magnets MSI and MSD - Shielding Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Gyr, Marcel


    Computation of the residual field inside the shielded vacuum chambers of the circulating beams that pass through the septum holes of the MSI and MSD magnets is very impractical because of the disproportionate effort involved in obtaining meaningful results. Therefore, a short model has been built to measure the order of magnitude of the residual field inside the LHC vacuum chambers. It is found, that a 0.9 mm thick µ-metal (or Permalloy$^{TM}$) shielding is sufficient to reduce the field, which is experienced by the circulating beam, below the level of the earth's field.

  18. Kinetics of diuron under aerobic condition and residue analysis in sugarcane under subtropical field conditions. (United States)

    Tandon, Shishir; Pant, Ravi


    The phenylureas group includes persistent herbicides which are major pollutants to soil and water. Dissipation kinetics of diuron in different soils under sugarcane field conditions was investigated. Diuron was extracted with acetone and florisil solid phase extraction clean-up and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV. Diuron persisted for more than 100 days and dissipation followed monophasic first-order kinetics. Persistence was more in sandy loam compared to silty clay loam soil. Half-life of diuron in silty clay loam soil was 22.57 and 32.37 days and in sandy loam was 28.35 and 43.93 days at 2 and 4 kg ha-1applications, respectively. Average recovery in soil, bagasse, leaf-straw and juice ranged from 75.95% to 84.20%, 80.15% to 89.35%, 77.46% to 86.19% and 81.88% to 92.68%, respectively. The quantitation limits for soil, bagasse, leaf-straw and juice were 0.01, 0.03, 0.04 μg g -1 and 0.008 μg mL -1 , respectively. Application of diuron inhibited growth of soil microbes initially but they recovered later. At harvest, diuron residues were below maximum residue limits in all samples. The study revealed that under subtropical conditions, diuron is safe for use in weed management and would not pose any residual/environmental problem and that sugarcane crop could be used safe for human/animal consumption.

  19. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  20. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  1. Availability of nitrogen in 15N-labelled mature pea residues to subsequent crops in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.


    The availability of N in N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues to subsequent autumn-sown or spring-sown crops was studied in two experiments in field microplots. The residues were incorporated in the soil in August or September. Winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and winter oilseed...... incorporation of the residues. At maturity, the pea residue N constituted soil did not significantly influence the amount of non-labelled soil (+ fertilizer) N accumulated by crops. The recovery of pea residue N in successive autumn-sown crops of barley......, oilseed rape and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was 14, 3 and 2% respectively; spring-sown barley, oilseed rape and wheat recovered only 6, 2 and 2% respectively. Similarly, the amount of non-labelled soil N accumulated was almost twice as high in autumn-sown crops as compared to spring-sown crops...

  2. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches (United States)

    Han, Yuling


    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  3. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches. (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar


    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  4. Dissipation and residue of clothianidin in granules and pesticide fertilizers used in cabbage and soil under field conditions. (United States)

    Zhang, P W; Wang, S Y; Huang, C L; Fu, J T; Huang, R L; Li, Z H; Zhang, Z X


    The single application of 0.5 % clothianidin granules, a novel formulation, was used to control pests in vegetables under a high dose. In this article, residues of clothianidin in cabbage and soil samples under field conditions from Guangzhou, Nanning, and Qianjiang were determined by HPLC. The terminal residues of clothianidin in cabbage were less than the limit of detection (clothianidin residual, clothianidin granules and fertilizers of chicken manure, urea, and organic fertilizer were mixed into different pesticide fertilizers through their normal field using dosage and evaluate residual influence of clothianidin in different formula. After analysis of variance of the effect factors, the effect of different pesticide types on half-life was not significant, but the effect of sample types was significant. Clothianidin granules and pesticide fertilizers could be safely applied in cabbage under a single high-dose administration.

  5. Silica phases in sinters and residues from geothermal fields of New Zealand (United States)

    Rodgers, K. A.; Browne, P. R. L.; Buddle, T. F.; Cook, K. L.; Greatrex, R. A.; Hampton, W. A.; Herdianita, N. R.; Holland, G. R.; Lynne, B. Y.; Martin, R.; Newton, Z.; Pastars, D.; Sannazarro, K. L.; Teece, C. I. A.


    Five silica phases are major components of silica sinters, deposited from both near-neutral pH alkali-chloride and acid-sulfate thermal waters, and of silica residues formed at the surface of geothermal fields in New Zealand. In all cases, the initial silica is noncrystalline opal-A deposited commonly as microspheres that possess an underlying nanospherical substructure, upon different substrate templets, including microbes living in hot springs. Deposition may also occur monomerically upon earlier deposited silica. Following microsphere growth through Ostwald ripening, silica remains mobile throughout the postdepositional history of the sinter/residue deposits, resulting in a range of textures. These include the continuing growth of microspheres, the development of secondary microspheres and silica coatings, phase transformations, a reduction in sinter porosity, dissolution features, and late-stage deposition of drusy quartz and opal-A. The sinter mass attempts to achieve thermodynamic equilibrium through stepwise phase transformations (maturation): opal-A crystallises to paracrystalline opal-CT±opal-C, which recrystallises to microcrystalline α-quartz+moganite. No intermediate silica phases are produced, but gradual changes occur among different opal-A or opal-CT/-C phases. The phase maturation produces changes in particle densities, silanol water, and in X-ray powder response of the different silica phases, although the rates of change can be perturbed by heating, weathering, and dissolution of the sinter/residue. The properties of opal-A change little in a sinter/residue mass within the first 10,000 years, but reductions occur in the densities, silanol water, and X-ray scattering bandwidth of older sinters where opal-A can persist for up to 100,000 years. Eventually, opal-A transforms to opal-CT when silanol water is reduced sufficiently for enough -Si-O-Si- linkages to produce a crude diffraction-like X-ray response. The transformation is aided by heat, as


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Isaeva


    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of speckle correlometry method with the spatial ring filtration of back scattered field with the usage of localized radiation source for the study of dynamic thermally activated processes in gel-like structures containing submicron particles and nanoparticles. Speckle-modulated images contain information about the processes taking place inside the investigated medium; therefore, they are effectively used in biomedicine and materials science. The transformation process from lysol to gel was considered in media based on technical gelatin dissolved in water with weight fraction equal to 0.28% containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles TiO2 (volume fraction of particles is equal to 0.1% and 0.01% and media based on food gelatin dissolved in water with weight fraction equal to 0.3% containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles TiO2 (volume fraction of particles is equal to 0.01% and 0.01%. The temperature of the medium during the structural transformation of "sol-gel" system was changed from 50 to 25°C. To estimate the experimentally obtained distribution of space-time intensity fluctuations of backscattered speckle fields, the correlation analysis and the formalism of Kolmogorov structure functions were used. The estimations of activation temperatures for the “sol-gel” transition process for technical and food gelatin were obtained. This approach can be successfully applied for the study of dynamic systems, for example, the demonstration of Brownian particle movements.

  7. Speckle filtering of medical ultrasonic images using wavelet and guided filter. (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Lin, Guangkuo; Wu, Lili; Cheng, Yun


    Speckle noise is an inherent yet ineffectual residual artifact in medical ultrasound images, which significantly degrades quality and restricts accuracy in automatic diagnostic techniques. Speckle reduction is therefore an important step prior to the analysis and processing of the ultrasound images. A new de-noising method based on an improved wavelet filter and guided filter is proposed in this paper. According to the characteristics of medical ultrasound images in the wavelet domain, an improved threshold function based on the universal wavelet threshold function is developed. The wavelet coefficients of speckle noise and noise-free signal are modeled as Rayleigh distribution and generalized Gaussian distribution respectively. The Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation is applied to obtain a new wavelet shrinkage algorithm. The coefficients of the low frequency sub-band in the wavelet domain are filtered by guided filter. The filtered image is then obtained by using the inverse wavelet transformation. Experiments with the comparison of the other seven de-speckling filters are conducted. The results show that the proposed method not only has a strong de-speckling ability, but also keeps the image details, such as the edge of a lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing Dislodgeable 2,4-D Residues across Athletic Field Turfgrass Species and Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Jeffries

    Full Text Available 2,4-dimethylamine salt (2,4-D is an herbicide commonly applied on athletic fields for broadleaf weed control that can dislodge from treated turfgrass. Dislodge potential is affected by numerous factors, including turfgrass canopy conditions. Building on previous research confirming herbicide-turfgrass dynamics can vary widely between species, field research was initiated in 2014 and 2015 in Raleigh, NC, USA to quantify dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from dormant hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis and hybrid bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., which are common athletic field playing surfaces in subtropical climates. Additionally, dislodgeable 2,4-D was compared at AM (7:00 eastern standard time and PM (14:00 sample timings within a day. Samples collected from perennial ryegrass consistently resulted in greater 2,4-D dislodgment immediately after application (9.4 to 9.9% of applied compared to dormant hybrid bermudagrass (2.3 to 2.9%, as well as at all AM compared to PM timings from 1 to 3 d after treatment (DAT; 0.4 to 6.3% compared to 0.1 to 0.8%. Dislodgeable 2,4-D did not differ across turfgrass species at PM sample collections, with ≤ 0.1% of the 2,4-D applied dislodged from 1 to 6 DAT, and 2,4-D detection did not occur at 12 and 24 DAT. In conclusion, dislodgeable 2,4-D from treated turfgrass can vary between species and over short time-scales within a day. This information should be taken into account in human exposure risk assessments, as well as by turfgrass managers and athletic field event coordinators to minimize 2,4-D exposure.

  9. Comparing Dislodgeable 2,4-D Residues across Athletic Field Turfgrass Species and Time (United States)

    Brosnan, James T.; Breeden, Gregory K.


    2,4-dimethylamine salt (2,4-D) is an herbicide commonly applied on athletic fields for broadleaf weed control that can dislodge from treated turfgrass. Dislodge potential is affected by numerous factors, including turfgrass canopy conditions. Building on previous research confirming herbicide-turfgrass dynamics can vary widely between species, field research was initiated in 2014 and 2015 in Raleigh, NC, USA to quantify dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from dormant hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) and hybrid bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which are common athletic field playing surfaces in subtropical climates. Additionally, dislodgeable 2,4-D was compared at AM (7:00 eastern standard time) and PM (14:00) sample timings within a day. Samples collected from perennial ryegrass consistently resulted in greater 2,4-D dislodgment immediately after application (9.4 to 9.9% of applied) compared to dormant hybrid bermudagrass (2.3 to 2.9%), as well as at all AM compared to PM timings from 1 to 3 d after treatment (DAT; 0.4 to 6.3% compared to 0.1 to 0.8%). Dislodgeable 2,4-D did not differ across turfgrass species at PM sample collections, with ≤ 0.1% of the 2,4-D applied dislodged from 1 to 6 DAT, and 2,4-D detection did not occur at 12 and 24 DAT. In conclusion, dislodgeable 2,4-D from treated turfgrass can vary between species and over short time-scales within a day. This information should be taken into account in human exposure risk assessments, as well as by turfgrass managers and athletic field event coordinators to minimize 2,4-D exposure. PMID:27936174

  10. Position control of ECRH launcher mirrors by laser speckle sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Poul K.; Bindslev, Henrik; Hansen, Rene Skov; Hanson, Steen G.


    The planned ECRH system for JET included several fixed and steerable mirrors some of which should have been fixed to the building structure and some to the JET vessel structure. A similar system may be anticipated for ITER and for other fusion devices in the future. In order to have high reproducibility of the ECRH beam direction, it is necessary to know the exact positions of the mirrors. This is not a trivial problem because of thermal expansion of the vessel structures and of the launcher itself and of its support structure, the mechanical load on mirrors and support structures, and the accessibility to the various mirrors. We suggest to use a combination of infrared diagnostic of beam spot positions and a new technique published recently, which is based on a non-contact laser speckle sensor for measuring one- and two-dimensional angular displacement. The method is based on Fourier transforming the scattered field from a single laser beam that illuminates the target. The angular distribution of the light field at the target is linearly mapped onto an array image sensor placed in the Fourier plane. Measuring the displacement of this so-called speckle pattern facilitates the determination of the mirror orientation. Transverse target movement can be measured by observing the speckle movement in the image plane of the object. No special surface treatment is required for surfaces having irregularities of the order of or larger than the wavelength of the incident light. For the JET ECRH launcher it is mainly for the last mirror pointing towards the plasma where the technique may be useful. This mirror has to be steerable in order to reflect the microwave beam in the correct direction towards the plasma. Maximum performance of the microwave heating requires that the beam hits this mirror at its centre and that the mirror is turned in the correct angle. Inaccuracies in the positioning of the pull rods for controlling the mirror turning and thermal effects makes it

  11. Energy balance of a corn residue-covered field during snowmelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.J.; Hatfield, J.L.; Prueger, J.H.; Logsdon, S.D.


    Transport of agricultural chemicals in runoff and recharge waters from snowmelt and soil thawing may represent a significant event in terms of annual contaminant loadings in temperate regions. Improved understanding of the melt dynamics of shallow snowpacks is necessary to fully assess the implications for water quality. The objective of this study was to measure the energy balance components of a corn (Zea mays L.) stubble field during the melting of its snowcover. Net radiation (Rn), soil (G), sensible (H), and latent (Q) best fluxes were measured in a field near Ames, Iowa, during the winter of 1994-1995. Energy consumed by melting including change in energy storage of the snowpack was determined as the residual of the measured energy balance. There was continuous snowcover at the field site for 71 days (maximum depth = 222 m) followed by an open period of 11 days before additional snowfall and a second melt period. The net radiation and snowmelt/energy storage change (S) terms dominated the energy balance during both measurement intervals. Peak daily sensible and latent best fluxes were below 100 W m(-2) on all days except the last day of the second melt period. There was good agreement between predicted and measured values of H and Q during the melting of an aged snow layer but poorer agreement during the melt of fresh snow. Both snowpacks melted rapidly and coincident changes in soil moisture storage were observed. Improved estimates of Q and H, especially for partially open surfaces, will require better characterization of the surface aerodynamic properties and spatially-representative surface temperature measurements

  12. White Light Optical Processing Of Speckle Interferograms (United States)

    Yu, F. T.; Ruterbusch, P. H.; Gerhart, G. R.


    A technique of white-light color encoding of misfocused speckle interferometric fringe patterns is presented. The encoding is performed in the spatial frequency plane with color filters. This technique allows the viewing of a multiset of encoded speckle interferograms simultaneously. Thus it may provide new informational interferometric aspects of the object under stress or vibration. The effect on the speckle fringe pattern due to the spatial filtering is briefly discussed and experimental demonstrations of color encoded fringe patterns are presented. Due to the simplicity and versatility of the processing technique, we feel that the technique may develop into a practical tool for strain, stress and vibrational measurement.

  13. Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

  14. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand (United States)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  15. Detection of pesticides residues in water samples from organic and conventional paddy fields of Ledang, Johor, Malaysia (United States)

    Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Ishak, Anizan; Nabhan, Khitam Jaber


    Pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Malaysia during the last few decades. Sixteen water samples, collected from paddy fields both organic and conventional, from Ledang, Johor, were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticide residues. GC-ECD instrument was used to identify and determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Pesticide residues were detected in conventional fields in the range about 0.036-0.508 µg/L higher than detected in organic fields about 0.015-0.428 µg/L. However the level of concentration of pesticide residues in water sample from both paddy fields are in the exceed limit for human consumption, according to European Economic Commission (EEC) (Directive 98/83/EC) at 0.1 µg/L for any pesticide or 0.5 µg/L for total pesticides. The results that the organic plot is still contaminated with pesticides although pesticides were not use at all in plot possibly from historical used as well as from airborne contamination.

  16. Dynamic speckle analysis using multivariate techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Alonso, José M; Alda, Javier; Rabal, Héctor; Grumel, Eduardo; Trivi, Marcelo


    In this work we use principal components analysis to characterize dynamic speckle patterns. This analysis quantitatively identifies different dynamics that could be associated to physical phenomena occurring in the sample. We also found the contribution explained by each principal component, or by a group of them. The method analyzes the paint drying process over a hidden topography. It can be used for fast screening and identification of different dynamics in biological or industrial samples by means of dynamic speckle interferometry. (paper)

  17. Vegetation Detection in Stress of Moisture Shortage Based on Laser Speckle Recognition (United States)

    Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Tsukasa; Miki, Takashi

    This paper describes a new measuring method of plant vigor by using Laser speckle pattern. Furthermore, this proposes a practical application of this presented measurement system. The measuring instrument is consisted by a He-Ne Laser as the light source, and a set of optics, such as reflectors, a beam expander. The speckle pattern could be measured by a CCD camera through lenses. A Pothos (Epiremnum aureum) and Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) were used as the sample plant. Their intact leaves were measured the speckle pattern images. Visible but small vigor veins could be clearly observed in the images obtained by the speckle patterns. On the other hand, withered ones have shown different images. The relationship has been obtained between the feature of the images and the chlorophyll degradation. It would be expected that the symptom of plant against some stress could be detected by measuring the Laser speckle pattern. It could be used as the sensor of the field server system at every field monitoring site.

  18. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpies, S D; Light, R A; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S O; Clark, M; Somekh, M G


    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device

  19. Field Studies to Evaluate Potential Differences between Bt and non-Bt Corn Residue (United States)

    Some reports suggest that the genetically-modified Bt corn residue may have higher lignin content and that the residue may be more resistant to decomposition. If true, then there are implications for both farming practices, e.g., tillage and planting, as well as global carbon budgets. We conducted ...

  20. Color quality improvement of reconstructed images in color digital holography using speckle method and spectral estimation (United States)

    Funamizu, Hideki; Onodera, Yusei; Aizu, Yoshihisa


    In this study, we report color quality improvement of reconstructed images in color digital holography using the speckle method and the spectral estimation. In this technique, an object is illuminated by a speckle field and then an object wave is produced, while a plane wave is used as a reference wave. For three wavelengths, the interference patterns of two coherent waves are recorded as digital holograms on an image sensor. Speckle fields are changed by moving a ground glass plate in an in-plane direction, and a number of holograms are acquired to average the reconstructed images. After the averaging process of images reconstructed from multiple holograms, we use the Wiener estimation method for obtaining spectral transmittance curves in reconstructed images. The color reproducibility in this method is demonstrated and evaluated using a Macbeth color chart film and staining cells of onion.

  1. The possibilities laser and computer Speckle-holographic of the interferometer for study concentrated flow to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.V.; Lonin, Yu.F.; Kudryavtsev, V.I.; Poddubko, N.S.; Tolstolutskij, A.G.


    Proposed solution to the problem of measuring small energies can be carried out by creating a new measuring device based on the unique properties of speckle holography with modern developments in the field of video and computer equipment. The developed laser speckle computer holographic interferometer (LKSGI) is a rapid analysis instrument movements at the nanometer scale, and with it the energy level mJ with the spatial and temporal resolution.

  2. Study on residues of 14C-fenitrothion in model rice-fish ecosystem and field rice-fish ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongliang; Wang Huaxin; Guo Dazhi; Chen Zhiyu; wu Suqiong


    When equal amounts of the pesticide are applied, the extractable residues in brown rice (equivalent to 34.3 +- 1.9 μg/kg fenitrothion) and rice stems and leaves (20.9 +- 1.5 μg/kg) of the model rice-fish ecosystem are 10-15 times higher than those of the field rice-fish ecosystem (4.48 +- 0.13 μg/kg and 1.27 +- 0.34 μg/kg respectively). Residues in upper part of the soil (6.50 +- 0.1-8.10 +- 0.2 μg/kg) and lower part of the soil (1.30 +- 0.1-1.50 +- 0.1 μg/kg)of the model rice-fish ecosystem are 10-40 times higher than those of the field rice-fish ecosystem (0.17 +- 0.01 μg/kg). The extractable residues in paddy water of the model ecosystem (0.30 +- 0.01 μg/kg) are similar to that the the field ecosystem (0.20 +- 0.02 μg/kg). When the fenitrothion is sprayed on the rice plants, residues in brown rice, fish body, soil and paddy water are lower than those when the pesticide is sprayed on the surface of the soil

  3. Residual stress evaluation by Barkhausen signals with a magnetic field sensor for high efficiency electrical motors (United States)

    Tsuchida, Yuji; Enokizono, Masato


    The iron loss of industrial motors increases by residual stress during manufacturing processes. It is very important to make clear the distribution of the residual stress in the motor cores to reduce the iron loss in the motors. Barkhausen signals which occur on electrical steel sheets can be used for the evaluation of the residual stress because they are very sensitive to the material properties. Generally, a B-sensor is used to measure Barkhausen signals, however, we developed a new H-sensor to measure them and applied it into the stress evaluation. It is supposed that the Barkhausen signals by using a H-sensor can be much effective to the residual stress on the electrical steel sheets by referring our results regarding to the stress evaluations. We evaluated the tensile stress of the electrical steel sheets by measuring Barkhausen signals by using our developed H-sensor for high efficiency electrical motors.

  4. Optimized digital speckle patterns for digital image correlation by consideration of both accuracy and efficiency. (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; Xu, Xiangyang; He, Xiaoyuan


    The technique of digital image correlation (DIC), which has been widely used for noncontact deformation measurements in both the scientific and engineering fields, is greatly affected by the quality of speckle patterns in terms of its performance. This study was concerned with the optimization of the digital speckle pattern (DSP) for DIC in consideration of both the accuracy and efficiency. The root-mean-square error of the inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm and the average number of iterations were used as quality metrics. Moreover, the influence of subset sizes and the noise level of images, which are the basic parameters in the quality assessment formulations, were also considered. The simulated binary speckle patterns were first compared with the Gaussian speckle patterns and captured DSPs. Both the single-radius and multi-radius DSPs were optimized. Experimental tests and analyses were conducted to obtain the optimized and recommended DSP. The vector diagram of the optimized speckle pattern was also uploaded as reference.

  5. Learning a Dilated Residual Network for SAR Image Despeckling (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Li, Jie; Yang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaoshuang


    In this paper, to break the limit of the traditional linear models for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image despeckling, we propose a novel deep learning approach by learning a non-linear end-to-end mapping between the noisy and clean SAR images with a dilated residual network (SAR-DRN). SAR-DRN is based on dilated convolutions, which can both enlarge the receptive field and maintain the filter size and layer depth with a lightweight structure. In addition, skip connections and residual learning strategy are added to the despeckling model to maintain the image details and reduce the vanishing gradient problem. Compared with the traditional despeckling methods, the proposed method shows superior performance over the state-of-the-art methods on both quantitative and visual assessments, especially for strong speckle noise.

  6. Learning a Dilated Residual Network for SAR Image Despeckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, to break the limit of the traditional linear models for synthetic aperture radar (SAR image despeckling, we propose a novel deep learning approach by learning a non-linear end-to-end mapping between the noisy and clean SAR images with a dilated residual network (SAR-DRN. SAR-DRN is based on dilated convolutions, which can both enlarge the receptive field and maintain the filter size and layer depth with a lightweight structure. In addition, skip connections and a residual learning strategy are added to the despeckling model to maintain the image details and reduce the vanishing gradient problem. Compared with the traditional despeckling methods, the proposed method shows a superior performance over the state-of-the-art methods in both quantitative and visual assessments, especially for strong speckle noise.

  7. OCT Amplitude and Speckle Statistics of Discrete Random Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almasian, Mitra; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.


    Speckle, amplitude fluctuations in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, contains information on sub-resolution structural properties of the imaged sample. Speckle statistics could therefore be utilized in the characterization of biological tissues. However, a rigorous theoretical framework

  8. Quantization analysis of speckle intensity measurements for phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maallo, Anne Margarette S.; Almoro, Percival F.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    Speckle intensity measurements utilized for phase retrieval (PR) are sequentially taken with a digital camera, which introduces quantization error that diminishes the signal quality. Influences of quantization on the speckle intensity distribution and PR are investigated numerically and experimen...

  9. Effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field induced by laser shock processing on aluminum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la Cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro. 76130 (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Gomez-Rosas, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara. Lagos de Moreno Jal. (Mexico); Ocana, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Banderas, A. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la Cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro. 76130 (Mexico); Porro, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Morales, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)


    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field, which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto aluminum samples. Density of 2500 pulses/cm{sup 2} with infrared (1064 nm) radiation was used. The effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field using this LSP setup and this energy level is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the overlay makes the compressive residual stress profile move to the surface. This effect is explained on the basis of the vaporization of the coat layer suppressing thermal effects on the metallic substrate. The effect of coating the specimen surface before LSP treatment may have advantages on improving wear and contact fatigue properties of this aluminum alloy.

  10. Speckle technologies and measurement of retinal visual acuity in cataract patients (United States)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Bakutkin, Valery V.; Radchenko, Elena Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Akchurin, Alexander G.


    Special features of speckle-modulated laser fields arising at in vitro measurements of different types of human cataractous lenses have been investigated experimentally. Computer analysis of digital images has allowed for estimation of destruction of the spatial coherence of a laser beam scattered by a turbid lens. Applied speckle-technologies have permitted the range of retinal angular resolution to be estimated with the help of laser retinometer at the stage of preoperative cataract diagnosis. An extent of laser retinometry at measuring visual acu9ity in patients with any type of cataract, and an incorrectness of its estimation by means of opto types charts have been set up.

  11. Three-dimensional displacement measurement by fringe projection and speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Cerca, M.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.


    3D displacement fields are measured by the combination of two optical methods, fringe projection and speckle photography. The use of only one camera recording the necessary information implies that no calibration procedures are necessary as is the case in techniques based on stereoscopy. The out-of-plane displacement is measured by fringe projection whereas speckle photography yields the 2-D in-plane component. To show the feasibility of the technique, we analyze a detailed morphological spatio-temporal evolution of a model of the Earth's crust while subjected to compression forces. The results show that the combination of fringe projection and speckle photography is well suited for this type of studies

  12. Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress (United States)

    Vilensky, M. A.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Timoshina, P. A.; Kuznetsova, Jana V.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I. A.; Agafonov, Dmitry N.; Tuchin, Valerii V.


    The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

  13. In vivo lateral blood flow velocity measurement using speckle size estimation. (United States)

    Xu, Tiantian; Hozan, Mohsen; Bashford, Gregory R


    In previous studies, we proposed blood measurement using speckle size estimation, which estimates the lateral component of blood flow within a single image frame based on the observation that the speckle pattern corresponding to blood reflectors (typically red blood cells) stretches (i.e., is "smeared") if blood flow is in the same direction as the electronically controlled transducer line selection in a 2-D image. In this observational study, the clinical viability of ultrasound blood flow velocity measurement using speckle size estimation was investigated and compared with that of conventional spectral Doppler of carotid artery blood flow data collected from human patients in vivo. Ten patients (six male, four female) were recruited. Right carotid artery blood flow data were collected in an interleaved fashion (alternating Doppler and B-mode A-lines) with an Antares Ultrasound Imaging System and transferred to a PC via the Axius Ultrasound Research Interface. The scanning velocity was 77 cm/s, and a 4-s interval of flow data were collected from each subject to cover three to five complete cardiac cycles. Conventional spectral Doppler data were collected simultaneously to compare with estimates made by speckle size estimation. The results indicate that the peak systolic velocities measured with the two methods are comparable (within ±10%) if the scan velocity is greater than or equal to the flow velocity. When scan velocity is slower than peak systolic velocity, the speckle stretch method asymptotes to the scan velocity. Thus, the speckle stretch method is able to accurately measure pure lateral flow, which conventional Doppler cannot do. In addition, an initial comparison of the speckle size estimation and color Doppler methods with respect to computational complexity and data acquisition time indicated potential time savings in blood flow velocity estimation using speckle size estimation. Further studies are needed for calculation of the speckle stretch method

  14. Speckle perception and disturbance limit in laser based projectors (United States)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; Van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo


    We investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector. For this purpose, we equipped a movie theatre room with a prototype laser projector. A group of 186 participants was gathered to evaluate the speckle perception of several, short movie trailers in a subjective `Quality of Experience' experiment. This study is important as the introduction of lasers in projection systems has been hampered by the presence of speckle in projected images. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers' responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. As is also discussed in [Verschaffelt et al., Scientific Reports 5, art. nr. 14105, 2015] we find that, for moving images, the speckle becomes disturbing if the speckle contrast becomes larger than 6.9% for the red, 6.0% for the green, and 4.8% for the blue primary colors of the projector, whereas for still images the speckle detection threshold is about 3%. As we could not independently tune the speckle contrast of each of the primary colors, this speckle disturbance limit seems to be determined by the 6.9% speckle contrast of the red color as this primary color contains the largest amount of speckle. The speckle disturbance limit for movies thus turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain.

  15. Integration of speckle de-noising and image segmentation using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition to speckle suppres- sion, an ideal filter must preserve edges and texture information. In the literature, adaptive filters for speckle removal are preferred for this purpose, since most of the well-known speckle removal filters perform the calculation of the local observed mean along with normalized standard deviation.

  16. Integration of speckle de-noising and image segmentation using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aperture Radar (SAR) image because of its imperviousness to unfavourable weather conditions. However, they suffer from the speckle noise. Hence, the processing of SAR image is applied in two stages: speckle removal filters and image segmentation methods for flood mapping. The speckle noise has been reduced.

  17. Erratum to: Estimating the crop response to fertilizer nitrogen residues in long-continued field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Mattson, L


    to previous N input rates, the experimental design for testing needs to be examined. Experimental designs that suspend the customary N inputs, leaving the test crop unfertilized, ignore any interaction between the rate of N applied in the past and the rate applied in the test year. We estimated...... and N offtake when the residual effect originated from organic applications, but the interaction was not significant when mineral N fertilizer had been used in the past, making the residual effect of N applied in the past additive to the effect of N applied in the test year. The dry matter (DM) grain...

  18. Dynamic speckle study of microbial growth (United States)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Mulone, C.; Marcuzzi, P. A.; Budini, N.; Freyre, C.; Lopez, A. J.; Ramil, A.


    In this work we present a characterization of yeast dynamic speckle activity during growth in an isolated agar culture medium. We found that it is possible to detect the growth of the microorganisms even before they turn out to be visible. By observing the time evolution of the speckle activity at different regions of the culture medium we could extract a map of the growth process, which served to analyze how the yeast develops and spreads over the agar's medium. An interesting point of this study concerns with the influence of the laser light on the yeast growth rate. We have found that yeast finds hard to develop at regions with higher laser light illumination, although we used a synchronous system to capture the speckle pattern. The results obtained in this work would serve us as a starting point to fabricate a detector of growing microorganism colonies, with obvious interesting applications in diverse areas.

  19. How To Test Nontarget Effects of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Residues in Livestock Dung in the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochmann, R.; Blanckenhorn, W.U.; Bussière, L.; Eirkson, C.E.; Jensen, J.; Kryger, U.; Lahr, J.; Lumaret, J.P.; Römbke, J.; Wardhaugh, K.G.; Floate, K.D.


    To register veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) as parasiticides on pastured animals, legislation in the European Union requires an environmental risk assessment to test the potential nontarget effects of fecal residues on dung-dwelling organisms. Products with adverse effects in single-species

  20. Proposal for field-based definition of soil bound pesticide residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.


    The environmental significance of soil bound pesticide residues (SBPR) is potentially large because approximately one third of the applied mass of the pesticides in agriculture ends up as SBPR. At EU level, there is little regulatory guidance available on the environmental risk assessment of SBPR

  1. Residual stress fields in sol-gel-derived thin TiO2 layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, D.H.J.; Haas, M. de; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    This paper discusses the induction of residual stresses during the curing process of thin titania layers, which are derived using a sol-gel process. During this process, stresses may build up in the spinning stage, the drying stage, and the consolidation stage. The magnitude and character of these

  2. Simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in gherkin under field conditions. (United States)

    Paramasivam, Mariappan; Selvi, Chellamuthu; Deepa, Manthirachalam; Jayaprakash, Samiyannan A; Chandrasekaran, Subramanian


    A rapid, simple, and selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in gherkin and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg/kg for all three compounds. The method was validated using blank samples spiked at three levels and recoveries ranged from 83.5 to 103.8% with a relative standard deviation of 1.2 to 4.8%. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of a degradation study sample. The residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were found to dissipate following first-order kinetics with half-life ranging between 3.31-3.38 and 3.0-3.04 days, respectively, for two different dosages. Pesticide residues were below the European Union maximum residue level after seven days for trifloxystrobin (0.2 mg/kg) and ten days for tebuconazole (0.05 mg/kg), which suggested the use of this fungicide mixture to be safe to humans. These results can be utilized in formulating the spray schedule and safety evaluation on trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in gherkin crop. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Grain yield and crop N offtake in response to residual fertilizer N in long-term field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Mattsson, L.


    Organic inputs [e.g. animal manure (AM) and plant residues] contribute directly to the soil organic N pool, whereas mineral N fertilizer contributes indirectly by increasing the return of the crop residues and by microbial immobilization. To evaluate the residual effect of N treatments established...... in four long-term (>35 yr) field experiments, we measured the response of barley (grain yield and N offtake at crop maturity) to six rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) of mineral fertilizer N (Nnew) applied in subplots replacing the customary long-term plot treatments of fertilizer inputs (Nprev......). Rates of Nprev above 50-100 kg N/ha had no consistent effect on the soil N content, but this was up to 20% greater than that in unfertilized treatments. Long-term unfertilized plots should not be used as control to test the residual value of N in modern agriculture with large production potentials...

  4. Cardiac functional analysis by laser speckle interferometry (United States)

    Ramachandran, G.; Singh, M.

    The laser speckle interference pattern during movement of a rough surface is employed to measure the respective displacements. The purpose of this work is to apply this technique in the form of laser speckle displacement cardiography to analyse the displacement patterns during the I and II heart sounds. The recording is performed by illuminating the chest over the cardiac region by collimated laser beam controlled by an ECG operated electric shutter. By analysis the 3-D displacement patterns are obtained. A comparison shows that the displacement at the apex, right ventricle, aortic and mitral valvular regions are significantly higher during I sound than that of II sound.

  5. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M


    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  6. Perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED with infrared divergences regularized by residual gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawaki, Yuji; McCartor, Gary


    We construct a new perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED in which the inherent infrared divergences are regularized by residual gauge fields. For this purpose, we carry out our calculations in the coordinates x μ =(x + , x - , x 1 , x 2 ), where x + =x 0 sinθ + x 3 cosθ and x - = x 0 cosθ - x 3 sinθ. Here, A=A 0 cosθ + A 3 sinθ = n·A=0 is taken as the gauge fixing condition. We show in detail that, in perturbation theory, infrared divergences resulting from the residual gauge fields cancel infrared divergences resulting from the physical parts of the gauge field. As a result, we obtain the gauge field propagator proposed by Mandelstam and Leibbrandt. By taking the limit θ→π/4, we are able to construct a light-cone formulation that is free from infrared divergences. With that analysis complete, we next calculate the one-loop electron self-energy, something not previously done in the light-cone quantization and light-cone gauge. (author)

  7. In-situ measurements for assessment of residual radiation field on incore structural components of research reactor Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, P.B.; Varughese, A.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Mishra, S.G.; Prasad, S.K.; Vakharwala, K.J.


    In-situ radiation field measurements on in-core components of Cirus reactor were carried out during the refurbishing outage of the reactor. The data aided in characterization studies for evaluation of residual activity in the structural components of the reactor after four decades of its operation. The study led to the generation of a database which served as a primary input in decision making for various refurbishing activities related to in-core components of the reactor. The measurements also helped in dose budgeting during the refurbishing activities. The radiation field measurements were repeated in near identical conditions to asses the decay pattern of the residual activity. It was observed that the reduction of 35-40% in radiation field over a period of ∼-1200 days can be correlated to the half-life of radionuclides produced by neutron activation of structural components. This paper describes, in detail, the radiation field measurements carried out and the measurement technique employed for in-situ measurements in generating a reliable database for planning of the future decommissioning activities of the reactor. (author)

  8. A field study of radiation fog. The chemical composition of interstitial aerosol and droplet residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieray R.; Wieser, P.


    In order to investigate the discrimination of atmospheric trace components due to cloud or fog formation, the residues resulting from droplet evaporation are compared with particles of the interstitial aerosol. A counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), described e.g. by OGREN et al. (1985) is used to separate the fog droplets from both the gaseous and the particulate aerosol components. The fog droplets sampled evaporate in the airborne state and the residues are either collected on a nucleopore filter or by means of a five-stage cascade impactor on thin films. In addition, both the humidity originating from droplet evaporation and the number concentration of the droplet residues are measured. These data can be used to study the time dependence of the liquid water content, the number density and the volume equivalent diameter of the fog droplets sampled, respectively. Soot particles only appear in the fraction of the interstitial aerosol. They are not involved in the formation of the liquid phase. The average residence time and the transport of soot particles in the atmosphere are influenced by this fact. The relatively low average scavenged fraction of lead, potassium and zinc can be attributed to the observed enrichment of these elements in soot particles remaining in the interstitial aerosol. (orig./BBR) [de

  9. Utilization of ultrasonic tomography for the mapping of residual stress fields in thick metal sections. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, B.P.; Hufferd, D.E.


    It is well known that the velocity of sound propagation through a solid is altered when a stress is applied. The velocity change is small, and dependent upon the type of wave being propagated as well as the magnitude of the stress. Sensitivity is greatest to shear wave sound with the polarization vector parallel to the direction of stress. In this case, velocity changes as great as 0.6 percent were measured. Preliminary work is described aimed at evaluating computerized reconstruction of velocity fields from velocity profiles to map residual stress concentrations in thick metal sections. Experimental results with liquid and solid models are described. One could image velocity anomalies of 0.2 percent and estimate that 0.05 percent is technically feasible. It is concluded that this technique has great potential for finding and mapping residual stress in thick metal sections

  10. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang


    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  11. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang


    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  12. Speckle photo-electromotive force in Bi12SiO20: Effect of the speckle size (United States)

    Salazar, Ángel


    A study of the speckle photo-electromotive force (PEMF) in a photorefractive sensor of amplitudes of micro-oscillations is presented. The experimental behavior of the first harmonic of the photocurrent generated as a function of the average speckle diameter and the oscillation amplitude of the speckle pattern is analyzed for a sensor implemented with a Bi12SiO20 (BSO) crystal. For a given light intensity, a nearly constant value of the maximum amplitude of the first harmonic was experimentally observed for the range of speckle sizes considered. This experimental result and the linear dependence of the vibration amplitude yielding the maximum of the photocurrent as a function of the speckle diameter were appropriately described by the mathematical model considered. Results show the possibility of adequately selecting the speckle size to optimize the output of speckle PEMF-based sensors depending on the oscillation amplitude to be measured.

  13. Neonicotinoid insecticide residues in surface water and soil associated with commercial maize (corn) fields in southwestern Ontario. (United States)

    Schaafsma, Arthur; Limay-Rios, Victor; Baute, Tracey; Smith, Jocelyn; Xue, Yingen


    Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under scrutiny for their potential unintended effects on non-target organisms, particularly pollinators in agro-ecosystems. As part of a larger study of neonicotinoid residues associated with maize (corn) production, 76 water samples within or around the perimeter of 18 commercial maize fields and neighbouring apiaries were collected in 5 maize-producing counties of southwestern Ontario. Residues of clothianidin (mean = 2.28, max. = 43.60 ng/mL) and thiamethoxam (mean = 1.12, max. = 16.50 ng/mL) were detected in 100 and 98.7% of the water samples tested, respectively. The concentration of total neonicotinoid residues in water within maize fields increased six-fold during the first five weeks after planting, and returned to pre-plant levels seven weeks after planting. However, concentrations in water sampled from outside the fields were similar throughout the sampling period. Soil samples from the top 5 cm of the soil profile were also collected in these fields before and immediately following planting. The mean total neonicotinoid residue was 4.02 (range 0.07 to 20.30) ng/g, for samples taken before planting, and 9.94 (range 0.53 to 38.98) ng/g, for those taken immediately after planting. Two soil samples collected from within an conservation area contained detectable (0.03 and 0.11 ng/g) concentrations of clothianidin. Of three drifted snow samples taken, the drift stratum containing the most wind-scoured soil had 0.16 and 0.20 ng/mL mainly clothianidin in the melted snow. The concentration was at the limit of detection (0.02 ng/mL) taken across the entire vertical profile. With the exception of one sample, water samples tested had concentrations below those reported to have acute, chronic or sublethal effects to honey bees. Our results suggest that neonicotinoids may move off-target by wind erosion of contaminated soil. These results are informative to risk assessment models for other non-target species in maize agro-ecosytems.

  14. Neonicotinoid insecticide residues in surface water and soil associated with commercial maize (corn fields in southwestern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Schaafsma

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under scrutiny for their potential unintended effects on non-target organisms, particularly pollinators in agro-ecosystems. As part of a larger study of neonicotinoid residues associated with maize (corn production, 76 water samples within or around the perimeter of 18 commercial maize fields and neighbouring apiaries were collected in 5 maize-producing counties of southwestern Ontario. Residues of clothianidin (mean = 2.28, max. = 43.60 ng/mL and thiamethoxam (mean = 1.12, max. = 16.50 ng/mL were detected in 100 and 98.7% of the water samples tested, respectively. The concentration of total neonicotinoid residues in water within maize fields increased six-fold during the first five weeks after planting, and returned to pre-plant levels seven weeks after planting. However, concentrations in water sampled from outside the fields were similar throughout the sampling period. Soil samples from the top 5 cm of the soil profile were also collected in these fields before and immediately following planting. The mean total neonicotinoid residue was 4.02 (range 0.07 to 20.30 ng/g, for samples taken before planting, and 9.94 (range 0.53 to 38.98 ng/g, for those taken immediately after planting. Two soil samples collected from within an conservation area contained detectable (0.03 and 0.11 ng/g concentrations of clothianidin. Of three drifted snow samples taken, the drift stratum containing the most wind-scoured soil had 0.16 and 0.20 ng/mL mainly clothianidin in the melted snow. The concentration was at the limit of detection (0.02 ng/mL taken across the entire vertical profile. With the exception of one sample, water samples tested had concentrations below those reported to have acute, chronic or sublethal effects to honey bees. Our results suggest that neonicotinoids may move off-target by wind erosion of contaminated soil. These results are informative to risk assessment models for other non-target species in maize

  15. Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues in Surface Water and Soil Associated with Commercial Maize (Corn) Fields in Southwestern Ontario (United States)

    Schaafsma, Arthur; Limay-Rios, Victor; Baute, Tracey; Smith, Jocelyn; Xue, Yingen


    Neonicotinoid insecticides have come under scrutiny for their potential unintended effects on non-target organisms, particularly pollinators in agro-ecosystems. As part of a larger study of neonicotinoid residues associated with maize (corn) production, 76 water samples within or around the perimeter of 18 commercial maize fields and neighbouring apiaries were collected in 5 maize-producing counties of southwestern Ontario. Residues of clothianidin (mean = 2.28, max. = 43.60 ng/mL) and thiamethoxam (mean = 1.12, max. = 16.50 ng/mL) were detected in 100 and 98.7% of the water samples tested, respectively. The concentration of total neonicotinoid residues in water within maize fields increased six-fold during the first five weeks after planting, and returned to pre-plant levels seven weeks after planting. However, concentrations in water sampled from outside the fields were similar throughout the sampling period. Soil samples from the top 5 cm of the soil profile were also collected in these fields before and immediately following planting. The mean total neonicotinoid residue was 4.02 (range 0.07 to 20.30) ng/g, for samples taken before planting, and 9.94 (range 0.53 to 38.98) ng/g, for those taken immediately after planting. Two soil samples collected from within an conservation area contained detectable (0.03 and 0.11 ng/g) concentrations of clothianidin. Of three drifted snow samples taken, the drift stratum containing the most wind-scoured soil had 0.16 and 0.20 ng/mL mainly clothianidin in the melted snow. The concentration was at the limit of detection (0.02 ng/mL) taken across the entire vertical profile. With the exception of one sample, water samples tested had concentrations below those reported to have acute, chronic or sublethal effects to honey bees. Our results suggest that neonicotinoids may move off-target by wind erosion of contaminated soil. These results are informative to risk assessment models for other non-target species in maize agro

  16. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalied A.; Breeden, Gregory K.


    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure. PMID:26863005

  17. Variability of pesticide residues in cauliflower units collected from a field trial and market places in Greece. (United States)

    Prodhan, M D H; Papadakis, Emmanouil-N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia


    To estimate the variability of pesticide residue levels present in cauliflower units, a total of 142 samples were collected from a field trial of a cooperative farmer, and 120 samples were collected from different market places in Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected samples were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique, and the residues were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated by evaluating the accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The average recoveries for all the analytes, derived from the data of control samples fortified at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, ranged from 74 to 110% with a relative standard deviation of ≤8%. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was ≥0.997 for all the analytes using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOD values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and the LOQ was determined at 0.01 mg/kg for all the sought analytes. The matrix effect was found to be at a considerable level, especially for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, amounting to +90% and +145%, respectively. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) calculated for cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 2.38 and 2.32, respectively, while the average VF for the market basket samples was 5.11. In the market basket samples, residues of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, and indoxacarb were found at levels ≥LOQ and their respective VFs were 7.12, 5.67, 5.28, and 2.40.

  18. Thermo-mechanical toner transfer for high-quality digital image correlation speckle patterns (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Paolo; Zappa, Emanuele; Matta, Fabio; Sutton, Michael A.


    The accuracy and spatial resolution of full-field deformation measurements performed through digital image correlation are greatly affected by the frequency content of the speckle pattern, which can be effectively controlled using particles with well-defined and consistent shape, size and spacing. This paper introduces a novel toner-transfer technique to impress a well-defined and repeatable speckle pattern on plane and curved surfaces of metallic and cement composite specimens. The speckle pattern is numerically designed, printed on paper using a standard laser printer, and transferred onto the measurement surface via a thermo-mechanical process. The tuning procedure to compensate for the difference between designed and toner-transferred actual speckle size is presented. Based on this evidence, the applicability of the technique is discussed with respect to surface material, dimensions and geometry. Proof of concept of the proposed toner-transfer technique is then demonstrated for the case of a quenched and partitioned welded steel plate subjected to uniaxial tensile loading, and for an aluminum plate exposed to temperatures up to 70% of the melting point of aluminum and past the melting point of typical printer toner powder.

  19. NESSI and `Alopeke: Two new dual-channel speckle imaging instruments (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas J.


    NESSI and `Alopeke are two new speckle imagers built at NASA's Ames Research Center for community use at the WIYN and Gemini telescopes, respectively. The two instruments are functionally similar and include the capability for wide-field imaging in additional to speckle interferometry. The diffraction-limited imaging available through speckle effectively eliminates distortions due to the presence of Earth's atmosphere by `freezing out' changes in the atmosphere by taking extremely short exposures and combining the resultant speckles in Fourier space. This technique enables angular resolutions equal to the theoretical best possible for a given telescope, effectively giving space-based resolution from the ground. Our instruments provide the highest spatial resolution available today on any single aperture telescope.A primary role of these instruments is exoplanet validation for the Kepler, K2, TESS, and many RV programs. Contrast ratios of 6 or more magnitudes are easily obtained. The instrument uses two emCCD cameras providing simultaneous dual-color observations help to characterize detected companions. High resolution imaging enables the identification of blended binaries that contaminate many exoplanet detections, leading to incorrectly measured radii. In this way small, rocky systems, such as Kepler-186b and the TRAPPIST-1 planet family, may be validated and thus the detected planets radii are correctly measured.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Abramovich


    Full Text Available Speckle fields are widely used in optical diagnostics of biotissues and evaluation of the functional state of bioobjects. The speckle field is formed by laser radiation scattered from the object under study. It bears information about the average dimensions of the scatterers, the degree of surface roughness makes it possible to judge the structural and biophysical characteristics of individual tissue cells (particles, on the one hand, and the integral optical characteristics of the entire biological tissue. The aim of the study was – the determination of connections between the biophysical and structural characteristics of the biotissue and the light fields inside the biotissues.The model developed of the medium gives a direct relationship between the optical and biophysical parameters of the biotissue. Calculations were carried out using known solutions of the radiation transfer equation, taking into account the multilayer structure of the tissue, multiple scattering in the medium, and multiple reflection of irradiation between the layers.With the increase wavelength, the size of speckles formed by the non-scattered component (direct light of laser radiation increases by a factor of 2 from 400 to 800 μm in the stratum corneum and 5 times from 0.6 to 3 μm for the epidermis and from 0.27 to 1.4 μm to the dermis. Typical values of sizes of speckles formed by the diffraction component of laser radiation for the stratum corneum and epidermis range from 0.02 to 0.15 μm. For the dermis typical spot sizes are up to 0.03 μm. The speckle-spot size of the diffusion component in the dermis can vary from ±10 % at 400 nm and up to ±23 % for 800 nm when the volume concentration of blood capillaries changes. Characteristic dependencies are obtained and biophysical factors associated with the volume concentration of blood and the degree of it’s oxygenation that affect the contrast of the speckle structure in the dermis are discussed.The of speckles

  1. Influence of error sources in speckle interferometry using only two speckle patterns (United States)

    Arai, Yasuhiko


    Speckle interferometry is an important deformation measurement method for objects with rough surfaces. Recently, a fringe analysis method that uses only one speckle pattern before deformation and one after deformation was proposed. The measurement accuracy of this method is known to depend on experimental conditions. In this paper, the improvement of the measurement accuracy of this method is discussed in comparison with the advanced technologies of off-axis digital holography. It is highly effective to introduce the experiences of the advanced technologies of digital holography to speckle interferometry. However, it should also be considered that both technologies have different purposes. Because digital holography is basically a technology which records images, the influence of the quantity of deformation has never been discussed in digital holography in detail. In this study, the measurement accuracy of speckle interferometry is investigated through a precise comparison of the experimental results from both technologies. It was confirmed that the conditions for digital holography are not always suitable for improving the measurement accuracy of speckle interferometry.

  2. Returning Winter Cover Crop Residue Influences Soil Aggregation and Humic Substances under Double-cropped Rice Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Tang


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Residue management in cropping systems may improve soil quality. However, there are few studies on the effects of residue management on soil aggregation and carbon content in the humin (C-HUM, humic acid (C-HAF and fulvic acid (C-FAF fractions in South China. Therefore, the effects on soil aggregation and on the C-HUM, C-HAF, C-FAF from incorporating winter cover crop residues in a double-cropped rice (Oryza sativa L. system in South China fields were studied. The experiment has been conducted since winter 2004. Five winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Ry-R-R, rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Mv-R-R, rice-rice-potato (Po-R-R, rice-rice-rape (Ra-R-R and rice-rice with winter fallow (Fa-R-R. The results indicated that the organic C content in the paddy soil under the Ry-R-R, Mv-R-R, Po-R-R, and Ra-R-R systems was significantly higher than the content in the Fa-R-R system at the early rice and late rice maturity stages. The different sizes of aggregates under the five treatments showed similar trends. The Po-R-R systems had the highest percentage of soil aggregates in each size class and the Fa-R-R systems had the lowest percentage of soil aggregates in each size class in the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m soil depth at the early rice and late rice maturity stages. The C-HUM, C-HAF, and C-FAF increased through long-term application of winter cover crop residues. Statistical analysis showed that the C-HAF under the Ra-R-R systems was significantly higher than that in the Fa-R-R systems at the early rice and late rice maturity stages. The C-FAF and C-HUM under the Mv-R-R systems was significantly higher than the C-FAF and C-HUM in the Fa-R-R systems at the early rice and late rice maturity stages. As a result, the soil organic C content, the soil aggregates in each size class, and the C-HUM, C-HAF, and C-FAF increased from application of winter cover crop residues in double-cropped rice systems.

  3. Content Of 2,4-D-14C Herbicide Residue In Water And Soil Of Irrigated Rice Field System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairul, Sofnie M.; Djabir, Elida; Magdalena, Nelly


    The investigation of 2,4-D exp.-14C herbicide residue in water and soil of irrigated rice field system was carried out. Rice plant and weeds (Monochoria vaginalis Burn. F. Presl) were planted in 101 buckets using two kinds of soil condition, I.e. normal soil and 30 % above normal compact soil. After one week planting, the plants were sprayed with 1 u Ci of 2,4-D exp.-14C and 0,4 mg non labeled 2,4-D. The herbicide residue content was determined 0, 2, 4, 8 and 10 weeks after spraying with 2,4-D herbicide. The analysis was done using Combustion Biological Oxidizer merk Harvey ox-400, and counted with Liquid Scintillation Counter merk Beckman model LS-1801. The results indicates that the herbicide contents in water and soil decrease from the first spraying with herbicide until harvest herbicide Residue content in water after harvest was 0.87 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil normal condition, and 0.59 x 10 exp.-6 pm for the soil 30 % up normal condition, while herbicide content in soil was 1.54 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil normal condition and 1.48 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil 30 % up normal. 2,4-D herbicide residue content in rice after harvest was 0.27 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for normal soil condition and 0.25 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for the soil 30 % up normal. 2,4-D herbicide residue content in roots and leaves of weeds after harvest were respectively 0.29 x 10 exp.-6 ppm and 0.18 x 10 exp.-6 for normal soil condition, while for 30 % up normal soil were 0.25 x 10 exp.-5 ppm and 0.63 x 10 exp.-7 ppm. This result indicates that there is no effect pollution to surrounding area, because the herbicide content is still bellow the allowed detection limit, 0.05 ppm

  4. A direct recursive residue generation method: application to photoionization of hydrogen in static electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, H.O.; Goscinski, O.


    In studies of hydrogenic systems via the recursive residue generation method (RRGM) the major bottleneck is the matrix vector product HC, between the Hamiltonian matrix H and a Lanczos vector C. For highly excited states and/or strong perturbations the size of H grows fast leading to storage problems. By making use of direct methods, i.e. avoidance of explicit construction of large Hamiltonian matrices, such problems can be overcome. Utilizing the underlying analytical properties of the Laguerre basis e -λr L k 2l+2 (2λr) a direct RRGM (D-RRGM) for the unperturbed hydrogenic Hamiltonian is derived, changing the storage needs from scaling as N 2 to 4N where N is the number of radial functions for each factorized H o (l,m) block with the possibility of parallel processing. A further computational simplification is introduced by putting the expression for the photoionization (PI) cross section in the rational form conventionally used in the representation of density of states (DOS). This allows the construction of the PI cross section directly from the tridiagonal Lanczos matrix avoiding the explicit calculation of individual eigen values and eigenvectors. (Author)

  5. Effects of distance from center of a weld to fixed end on residual stress and stress intensity factor of a piping weld. Evaluation of SCC growth under residual stress field. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Numata, Masanori; Saito, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masahito


    The fixed conditions of butt welds between straight pipe and valve or pump in the actual piping system are different from those of straight pipes. However, the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor for evaluation of structural integrity of cracked piping was not clear. In this study, the finite element analyses were conducted by considering the differences in the distance from the center of weld to the fixed end L to clarify the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor. For the 600 A piping, the axial residual stress distribution was not affected by the distance L. Furthermore, the stress intensity factor of circumferential crack under the residual stress field with fixed condition could be estimated by using the existing simplified solution for piping. (author)

  6. Very low rate compression of speckled SAR imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, P.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ives, R.W. [Navy (United States)


    Synthetic aperture radars produce coherent, and speckled, high resolution images of the ground. Because modern systems can generate large amounts of imagery, there is substantial interest in applying image compression techniques to these products. In this paper, the authors examine the properties of speckled imagery relevant to the task of data compression. In particular, they demonstrate the advisability of compressing the speckle mean function rather than the literal image. The theory, methodology, and an example are presented.

  7. Superconductor ceramics behavior analyses during service by speckle metrology (United States)

    Recuero, S.; Andres, N.; Arroyo, M. P.; Lera, F.; Angurel, L. A.


    This paper shows the feasibility of applying speckle techniques as a non-destructive evaluation of the performance of ceramic high temperature superconducting materials. Firstly, Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been applied to test these materials during service, with the sample cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures, to detect where a hot spot will be generated. Surface degradation due to humidity has also been studied. Speckle Photography, whose optical setup is simpler, has been selected for this study.

  8. Speckle Tracking Imaging in Normal Stress Echocardiography. (United States)

    Leitman, Marina; Tyomkin, Vladimir; Peleg, Eli; Zyssman, Izhak; Rosenblatt, Simcha; Sucher, Edgar; Gercenshtein, Vered; Vered, Zvi


    Exercise stress echocardiography is a widely used modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with coronary artery disease. During the last decade, speckle tracking imaging has been used increasingly for accurate evaluation of cardiac function. This work aimed to assess speckle-tracking imaging parameters during nonischemic exercise stress echocardiography. During 2011 to 2014 we studied 46 patients without history of coronary artery disease, who completed exercise stress echocardiography protocol, had normal left ventricular function, a nonischemic response, and satisfactory image quality. These exams were analyzed with speckle-tracking imaging software at rest and at peak exercise. Peak strain and time-to-peak strain were measured at rest and after exercise. Clinical follow-up included a telephone contact 1 to 3 years after stress echo exam, confirming freedom from coronary events during this time. Global and regional peak strain increased following exercise. Time-to-peak global and regional strain and time-to-peak strain adjusted to the heart rate were significantly shorter in all segments after exercise. Rest-to-stress ratio of time-to-peak strain adjusted to the heart rate was 2.0 to 2.8. Global and regional peak strain rise during normal exercise echocardiography. Peak global and regional strain occur before or shortly after aortic valve closure at rest and after exercise, and the delay is more apparent at the basal segments. Time-to-peak strain normally shortens significantly during exercise; after adjustment to heart rate it shortens by a ratio of 2.0 to 2.8. These data may be useful for interpretation of future exercise stress speckle-tracking echocardiography studies. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Speckle Shearing Interferometry And Its Application (United States)

    Jingtang, Ke; Hongqing, Zhang; Yeling, He; Yanfu, Chang


    The paper deals with experiments made to verify the theory of bending of plates and related problems by method of speckle shearing interferometry, which is proved to be highly sensitive. Tests carried out on rubber products: (such as tires)and thin-walled containers have demonstrated the prospects of using image-shearing camera in nondestructive in-situ testing of industrial products, suggesting a potentiality still wider than that of holographic interferometry.

  10. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu


    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  11. Early detection and treatment of Speckled leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selviana Tampoma


    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is one of potentially malignant disorders that can be found on oral mucosa. Speckled leukoplakia is a rare type of leukoplakia with a very high risk of premalignant growth. Approximately 3 % of worldwide population has suffered from leukoplakia, 5-25% of which tend to be malignant leukoplakia. Purpose: This case report was aimed to discuss about early detection of speckled leukoplakia as one of potentially malignant disorders. Case: A 62 year old male patient came with chief complaint of bald and painful tongue since one month ago. The patient has a history of allergic reaction, hypertension, uric acid, and hepatitis B. He had been a heavy smoker since young until 10 years ago. Intra oral examination showed a firm, rough, non scrapable white plaque lesion with a size of 1 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by painful erosion with diffuse boundary. Case Management: Based on cytology examination, the patient was reffered to oncologist to get an excisional biopsy. Next, the patient succesfully underwent the excisional biopsy and came for control. The results showed the healing process of the lesion with a minimal complaint of bald tongue, especially when eating spicy or hot meal. To improve healing process, the patient then was given an antibacterial mouth rinse containing zinc and mulvitamin. Conclusion: Speckled leukoplakia could show high malignant transformation rate, therefore, early detection and treatment are necessary.

  12. Single-Use Sensor Strips for Reliable Field Analysis of Gunshot Residue (United States)


    determined in a single GSR assay. Wearable textile -based printed electrodes were also examined towards a ’Lab-on-Sleeve’ forensic field analysis. New...Example of the different cyclic square-wave stripping voltammetric signals obtained with “swiping” samples at a bare SPCE electrode . Score plot of the...A) The Forensic Finger exhibiting the three electrode surface screen-printed onto a flexible nitrile finger cot (bottom left inset), as well as a

  13. Methodology for the conception of speckle reduction elements in the case of short pulse illumination (United States)

    Lutz, Yves; Poyet, Jean-Michel


    One of the most efficient ways to decrease the speckle contrast in the field of laser illumination is to increase the spatial diversity of coherent laser sources. For very short laser pulses such as those required for flash laser imaging, the spatial diversity should take place instantaneously and no time averaging effect can be used. The spatial diversity is realized by sampling the laser beam into m beamlets with increased optical path length. This path length has to be greater than or equal to the coherence length of the laser beam. In this case, the beamlets are no longer able to create interferences which each other. According to the Goodman's theory of speckle reduction, the speckle contrast is then reduced by a factor of 1/√m. Unfortunately, in the case of multimode lasers, the number of uncorrelated beamlets is not infinite but is limited by a periodicity function resulting from the laser resonator length itself. The speckle reduction possibility is therefore limited and is directly linked to each laser source where the coherence length and cavity length are defined. In this work we present a methodology to determine experimentally the optical path length difference as well as the number of beamlets for de-speckling a laser source. An experimental realization is presented where both, coherence length and periodicity function are measured with a Michelson interferometer where only the speckle contrast of the two beams from each arm is analyzed. For the validation of the method, the chosen laser source is a single emitter 660 nm laser diode. Two cylindrical steppers made with diamond turned PMMA have been realized. Both elements yield interesting results with close values and in accordance with the theory of spatial diversity. The speckle contrast could be reduced from about 10% to a value close to 4%. These values confirm and validate the methodology presented in this work. Steppers can also be a promising solution for the reduction of interference fringes

  14. Speckle correlation technique to determine roughness in the dermatologic interval. (United States)

    Dalmases, F; Cibrián, R; Buendía, M; Romero, C; Salvador, R; Montilla, J


    A non-invasive method is proposed to determine human skin roughness. The technique is based on measurement of the correlation between two field distributions scattered by a metallised triafol (cellulose acetate foil) replica of the epidermal area to be analysed. The two speckle patterns are produced from the same rough surface illuminated by two coherent plane waves (He-Ne laser) under two slightly different angles. The accuracy of the method is highlighted by measurements made on a set of standard samples with roughnesses previously determined by mechanical profilometry. Analysis of the results indicates a precision of around 10%, and an applicability within the interest range of very rough surfaces in excess of 4-5 microns.

  15. Nephron blood flow dynamics measured by laser speckle contrast imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Pavlov, Alexey N


    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) has an important role in autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Because of the characteristics of signal transmission in the feedback loop, the TGF undergoes self-sustained oscillations in single-nephron blood flow, GFR, and tubular...... simultaneously. The interacting nephron fields are likely to be more extensive. We have turned to laser speckle contrast imaging to measure the blood flow dynamics of 50-100 nephrons simultaneously on the renal surface of anesthetized rats. We report the application of this method and describe analytic...... techniques for extracting the desired data and for examining them for evidence of nephron synchronization. Synchronized TGF oscillations were detected in pairs or triplets of nephrons. The amplitude and the frequency of the oscillations changed with time, as did the patterns of synchronization...

  16. Contrast-enhanced imaging of cerebral vasculature with laser speckle. (United States)

    Murari, K; Li, N; Rege, A; Jia, X; All, A; Thakor, N


    High-resolution cerebral vasculature imaging has applications ranging from intraoperative procedures to basic neuroscience research. Laser speckle, with spatial contrast processing, has recently been used to map cerebral blood flow. We present an application of the technique using temporal contrast processing to image cerebral vascular structures with a field of view a few millimeters across and approximately 20 microm resolution through a thinned skull. We validate the images using fluorescent imaging and demonstrate a factor of 2-4 enhancement in contrast-to-noise ratios over reflectance imaging using white or spectrally filtered green light. The contrast enhancement enables the perception of approximately 10%-30% more vascular structures without the introduction of any contrast agent.

  17. Strain dyssynchrony index determined by three-dimensional speckle area tracking can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onishi Tetsuari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported strain dyssynchrony index assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking strain, and a marker of both dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility, can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT. A newly developed three-dimensional (3-D speckle tracking system can quantify endocardial area change ratio (area strain, which coupled with the factors of both longitudinal and circumferential strain, from all 16 standard left ventricular (LV segments using complete 3-D pyramidal datasets. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that strain dyssynchrony index using area tracking (ASDI can quantify dyssynchrony and predict response to CRT. Methods We studied 14 heart failure patients with ejection fraction of 27 ± 7% (all≤35% and QRS duration of 172 ± 30 ms (all≥120 ms who underwent CRT. Echocardiography was performed before and 6-month after CRT. ASDI was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic area strain of LV endocardium obtained from 3-D speckle tracking imaging using 16 segments. Conventional dyssynchrony measures were assessed by interventricular mechanical delay, Yu Index, and two-dimensional radial dyssynchrony by speckle-tracking strain. Response was defined as a ≥15% decrease in LV end-systolic volume 6-month after CRT. Results ASDI ≥ 3.8% was the best predictor of response to CRT with a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 100% and area under the curve (AUC of 0.93 (p Conclusions ASDI can predict responders and LV reverse remodeling following CRT. This novel index using the 3-D speckle tracking system, which shows circumferential and longitudinal LV dyssynchrony and residual endocardial contractility, may thus have clinical significance for CRT patients.

  18. Noncontact speckle-based optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using magneto-optic effect (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev


    We experimentally verify a speckle-based technique for noncontact measurement of glucose concentration in the bloodstream. The final device is intended to be a single wristwatch-style device containing a laser, a camera, and an alternating current (ac) electromagnet generated by a solenoid. The experiments presented are performed in vitro as proof of the concept. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an ac magnetic field, it exhibits Faraday rotation, which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle pattern distributions. The temporal frequency resulting from the ac magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role, which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  19. Integration of instrumentation and processing software of a laser speckle contrast imaging system (United States)

    Carrick, Jacob J.

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has the potential to be a powerful tool in medicine, but more research in the field is required so it can be used properly. To help in the progression of Michigan Tech's research in the field, a graphical user interface (GUI) was designed in Matlab to control the instrumentation of the experiments as well as process the raw speckle images into contrast images while they are being acquired. The design of the system was successful and is currently being used by Michigan Tech's Biomedical Engineering department. This thesis describes the development of the LSCI GUI as well as offering a full introduction into the history, theory and applications of LSCI.

  20. Comparison of laboratory grating-based and speckle-tracking x-ray phase-contrast imaging (United States)

    Romell, J.; Zhou, T.; Zdora, M.; Sala, S.; Koch, F. J.; Hertz, H. M.; Burvall, A.


    Phase-contrast imaging with x-rays is a developing field for imaging weakly absorbing materials. In this work, two phase-contrast imaging methods, grating- and speckle-based imaging, that measure the derivative of the phase shift, have been implemented with a laboratory source and compared experimentally. It was found that for the same dose conditions, the speckle-tracking differential phase-contrast images have considerably higher contrast-to-noise ratio than the grating-based images, but at the cost of lower resolution. Grating-based imaging performs better in terms of resolution, but would require longer exposure times, mainly due to absorption in the grating interferometer.

  1. Residue levels of molinate in rice field soil: their effects on populations of aquatic flora and fauna under recycling and non-recycling practices in the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie


    A study to evaluate the effects of Molinate residue levels in rice field soil on populations of weed and aquatic fauna in the recycling and the non-recycling areas of Muda was carried out. Molinate residue levels in soil, Simpson Index of Diversity and Importance Value (IV) of weeds, and Sequential Comparison Index of aquatic fauna were measured. No marked variation between the recycled (B 111) and non-recycled (D 111) area was observed for the population parameters and residue levels measured. (Author)

  2. Angular displacement and deformation analyses using speckle-based wavefront sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Giancarlo, Pedrini; Arun, Anand


    Wavefronts incident on a random phase plate are reconstructed via phase retrieval utilizing axially displaced speckle intensity measurements and the wave propagation equation. Retrieved phases and phase subtraction facilitate the investigations of wavefronts from test objects before and after und...... thermal loading. The technique offers simple, high resolution, noncontact, and whole field evaluation of three-dimensional objects before and after undergoing rotation or deformation. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America...

  3. Speckle evolution with multiple steps of least-squares phase removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, M


    Full Text Available 84, 023846 (2011) Speckle evolution with multiple steps of least-squares phase removal Mingzhou Chen* and Chris Dainty Applied Optics, School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland Filippus S. Roux? National Laser...- arithmically with each step. The result is that the vortex density decreases according to a power law as a function of propagation distance. In some cases one or two vortex dipoles still remain in the final field. The separation distances between...

  4. Solid state properties of oligomers containing dithienothiophene or fluorene residues suitable for field effect transistor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porzio, William; Destri, Silvia; Giovanella, Umberto; Pasini, Mariacecilia; Marin, Luminita; Iosip, Mariana Dana; Campione, Marcello


    A series of three thiophene based oligomers has been extensively characterized. The chemical design has been addressed to obtain ionization potential (IP) and electronic affinity (EA) values matching the work function of commonly used electrode materials. Such IP and EA values were tested by cyclovoltammetry. In order to tune electron-donation and drawing strength the sequence of the molecule subunits in the oligomer has been varied. The thermal properties with particular reference to their stability during preparation and operation were checked by using differential scanning calorimetry, polarised light microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Prototypes of thin film field effect transistor, based on this series of oligomers have been electrically and structurally characterized. The long axes of the molecules are oriented nearly perpendicular to the gate insulator, in agreement with both highly sensitive X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. From powder diffraction data the structure of oligomer I was solved. A general relation is envisaged between charge mobility and packing closeness in the series. For the most promising molecule a study of mobility/temperature behaviour was performed yielding interesting results

  5. Residual effects of metal contamination on the soil quality: a field survey in central Portugal (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gerardo, Romeu


    Agriculture is an important source of income and employment. But depletion and degradation of land challenge to producing safe food and other agricultural products to sustain livelihoods and meet the needs of urban populations. When developing or expanding an agricultural area, it becomes essential to access the soil quality. Even if the present source of contamination is not observed, it is a worth subject to evaluate whether or not any negative effects of the post contamination still last. For this purpose, a field survey (2 ha) was carried: a zinc and lead mining site that was abandoned about 50 years ago was researched at Sanguinheiro (40°18'N and 8°21'W) in Central Portugal. The area is characterized by very steep slopes that are confining with a small stream. The obtained results show that (i) the Pb content in the site (165 mg/kg) is higher than that in the background (67.7 mg/kg); (ii) the Zn content of local vegetation (Eucalyptus globulus) in the post-mining site is 2.1 times that in the control site, and (iii) dead bare ground is observed in some parts of the site. There is a possibility that great amounts of Zn and Pb accumulate in tissues of local vegetation. Although mining activity ended 50 years ago, the contents of Pb and Zn in the sampled soil were comparatively high in the site with about a 75% slope. It is concluded that not only the present contamination but also the post-environmental stress should be assessed to properly develop an agricultural area in terms of securing agricultural products.

  6. Effect of focusing optics on X-ray speckle contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retsch, C. C.; Wang, Y.; Frigo, S. P.; McNulty, I.; Lurio, L. B.; Stephenson, G. B.


    The authors investigated the behavior of speckle contrast and size under various experimental conditions using 1.82 keV x-rays. In this paper, they report the comparison of two different setups for x-ray speckle experiments: one employing a focusing zone plate and one in which a pinhole selects the size of the coherent x-ray beam. They found a strong dependence of the speckle contrast and size on the type of setup. In general, the pinhole setup results in higher contrast but smaller speckle size. On the other hand the zone plate setup allows one to target much smaller areas of interest in the sample, down to submicron dimensions, and also to adjust the speckle size. The authors anticipate that these results will be useful in future time-correlation spectroscopy experiments

  7. Alternating minimization algorithm for speckle reduction with a shifting technique. (United States)

    Woo, Hyenkyun; Yun, Sangwoon


    Speckles (multiplicative noise) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) make it difficult to interpret the observed image. Due to the edge-preserving feature of total variation (TV), variational models with TV regularization have attracted much interest in reducing speckles. Algorithms based on the augmented Lagrangian function have been proposed to efficiently solve speckle-reduction variational models with TV regularization. However, these algorithms require inner iterations or inverses involving the Laplacian operator at each iteration. In this paper, we adapt Tseng's alternating minimization algorithm with a shifting technique to efficiently remove the speckle without any inner iterations or inverses involving the Laplacian operator. The proposed method is very simple and highly parallelizable; therefore, it is very efficient to despeckle huge-size SAR images. Numerical results show that our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms for speckle-reduction variational models with a TV regularizer in terms of central-processing-unit time.

  8. Speckle reduction in digital holography with resampling ring masks (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan


    One-shot digital holographic imaging has the advantages of high stability and low temporal cost. However, the reconstruction is affected by the speckle noise. Resampling ring-mask method in spectrum domain is proposed for speckle reduction. The useful spectrum of one hologram is divided into several sub-spectra by ring masks. In the reconstruction, angular spectrum transform is applied to guarantee the calculation accuracy which has no approximation. N reconstructed amplitude images are calculated from the corresponding sub-spectra. Thanks to speckle's random distribution, superimposing these N uncorrelated amplitude images would lead to a final reconstructed image with lower speckle noise. Normalized relative standard deviation values of the reconstructed image are used to evaluate the reduction of speckle. Effect of the method on the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is also quantitatively evaluated. Experimental and simulation results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Residual gas analysis of a cryostat vacuum chamber during the cool down of SST - 1 superconducting magnet field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P.; Joshi, K.S.; Thankey, P.L.; Pathan, F.S.; Raval, D.C.; Patel, R.J.; Pathak, H.A.


    One of the most important feature of Steady state Superconducting Tokamak -1 (SST-l) is the Nb-Ti superconducting magnet field coils. The coils will be kept in a high vacuum chamber (Cryostat) and liquid Helium will be flown through it to cool it down to its critical temperature of 4.5K. The coil along with its hydraulics has four types of joints (1) Stainless Steel (S.S.) to Copper (Cu) weld joints (2) S. S. to S. S. weld joints (3) Cu to Cu brazed joints and (4) G-10 to S. S. joints with Sti-cast as the binding material. The joints were leak tested with a Helium mass spectrometer leak detector in vacuum as well as in sniffer mode. However during the cool-down of the coil, these joints may develop leaks. This would deteriorate the vacuum inside the cryostat and coil cool-down would subsequently become more difficult. To study the effect of cooling on the vacuum condition of the Cryostat, a dummy Cryostat chamber was fabricated and a toroidal Field (TF) magnet was kept inside this chamber and cooled down to 4.5 K.A residual gas analyzer (RGA) was connected to the Cryostat chamber to study the behaviour of major gases inside this chamber with temperature. An analysis of the RGA data acquired during the coo-down has been presented in this chamber. (author)

  10. Real time laser speckle imaging monitoring vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Ruth; Vyacheslav, Kalchenko; Scherz, Avigdor


    Laser speckle imaging is a technique that has been developed to non-invasively monitor in vivo blood flow dynamics and vascular structure, at high spatial and temporal resolution. It can record the full-field spatio-temporal characteristics of microcirculation and has therefore, often been used to study the blood flow in tumors after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Yet, there is a paucity of reports on real-time laser speckle imaging (RTLSI) during PDT. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with WST11, a water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll derivative, achieves tumor ablation through rapid occlusion of the tumor vasculature followed by a cascade of events that actively kill the tumor cells. WST11-VTP has been already approved for treatment of early/intermediate prostate cancer at a certain drug dose, time and intensity of illumination. Application to other cancers may require different light dosage. However, incomplete vascular occlusion at lower light dose may result in cancer cell survival and tumor relapse while excessive light dose may lead to toxicity of nearby healthy tissues. Here we provide evidence for the feasibility of concomitant RTLSI of the blood flow dynamics in the tumor and surrounding normal tissues during and after WST11-VTP. Fast decrease in the blood flow is followed by partial mild reperfusion and a complete flow arrest within the tumor by the end of illumination. While the primary occlusion of the tumor feeding arteries and draining veins agrees with previous data published by our group, the late effects underscore the significance of light dose control to minimize normal tissue impairment. In conclusion- RTSLI application should allow to optimize VTP efficacy vs toxicity in both the preclinical and clinical arenas.

  11. Residential proximity to electromagnetic field sources and birth weight: Minimizing residual confounding using multiple imputation and propensity score matching. (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; Lee, Brian


    Studies have suggested that residential exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) from high voltage cables, overhead power lines, electricity substations or towers are associated with reduced birth weight and may be associated with adverse birth outcomes or even miscarriages. We previously conducted a study of 140,356 singleton live births between 2004 and 2008 in Northwest England, which suggested that close residential proximity (≤ 50 m) to ELF-EMF sources was associated with reduced average birth weight of 212 g (95%CI: -395 to -29 g) but not with statistically significant increased risks for other adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the cohort was limited by missing data for most potentially confounding variables including maternal smoking during pregnancy, which was only available for a small subgroup, while also residual confounding could not be excluded. This study, using the same cohort, was conducted to minimize the effects of these problems using multiple imputation to address missing data and propensity score matching to minimize residual confounding. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation using chained equations to generate five datasets. For each dataset 115 exposed women (residing ≤ 50 m from a residential ELF-EMF source) were propensity score matched to 1150 unexposed women. After doubly robust confounder adjustment, close proximity to a residential ELF-EMF source remained associated with a reduction in birth weight of -116 g (95% confidence interval: -224:-7 g). No effect was found for proximity ≤ 100 m compared to women living further away. These results indicate that although the effect size was about half of the effect previously reported, close maternal residential proximity to sources of ELF-EMF remained associated with suboptimal fetal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of natural convection by speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W.


    The principle of speckle photography can be applied to the measurement of density variations in fluids. A modification of existing experimental arrangements allows for the measurement of large values of the light deflection angles as they may occur in heat and mass transfer situations. The method is demonstrated for the case of a helium jet exhausting into still air and the natural convective flow along a heated plate. The obtained data are compared with results measured with classical optical interferometers, and good agreement is found. The advantages of the new technique over the classical optical methods are briefly discussed. 11 references

  13. Ten Years of Speckle Interferometry at SOAR (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei


    Since 2007, close binary and multiple stars are observed by speckle interferometry at the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope. The HRCam instrument, observing strategy and planning, data processing and calibration methods, developed and improved during ten years, are presented here in a concise way. Thousands of binary stars were measured with diffraction-limited resolution (29 mas at 540 nm wavelength) and a high accuracy reaching 1 mas; 200 new pairs or subsystems were discovered. To date, HRCam has performed over 11,000 observations with a high efficiency (up to 300 stars per night). An overview of the main results delivered by this instrument is given.

  14. Analysis of laser speckle patterns from fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    The trend in human-machine interface technology is heading towards optical solutions for tracking and movement detection. Especially, interactive touch screens and pads, in which the movement of the user’s fingertips is detected and tracked, are of great commercial interest. The applications range...... from mobile phones to laptops and PDA´s. However, the dynamics of scattered light from live tissue must be taken into account when designing optical sensor systems for tracking e.g. fingertips in touch-applications. Especially, when using coherent light sources, the statistics of the speckle...

  15. A full-field residual stress estimation scheme for fitness-for-service assessment of pipe girth welds: Part II – A shell theory based implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Shaopin; Dong, Pingsha; Pei, Xianjun


    With the two key controlling parameters identified and their effectiveness demonstrated in Part I of this study series for constructing a continuous residual stress profile at weld region, a classical shell theory based model is proposed in this paper (Part II) for describing through-thickness residual stress distributions of both axial and hoop components at any axial location beyond weld region. The shell theory based model is analytically constructed through an assembly of two parts: One represents weld region and the other represents the remaining component section away from weld. The final assembly of the two parts leads to a closed form solution to both axial and hoop residual stress components as a function of axial distance from weld toe position. The effectiveness of the full-field residual stress estimation scheme is demonstrated by comparing with a series of finite element modeling results over a broad range of pipe weld geometries and welding conditions. The present development should provide a consistent and effective means for estimating through-thickness residual stress profile as a continuous function of pipe geometry, welding heat input, as well as material characteristics. - Highlights: • A shell theory based two-part assembly model is developed for generalizing residual stress distributions. • A full-field estimation of through-thickness residual stress profiles can be achieved. • The proposed estimation scheme offers both consistency and mechanics basis in residual stress profile generation. • An estimation scheme for welding-induced plastic zone size is proposed and validated. • The shell theory based estimation scheme can also provide a reasonable estimate on distortion in radial direction

  16. Observations of binary stars by speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, B.L.; Beckmann, G.K.; Scaddan, R.J.


    This is the second paper in a series describing observations of binary stars using the technique of speckle interferometry. Observations were made using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 1-m telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The classical Rayleigh diffraction limits are 0.050 arcsec for the 2.5-m telescope, 0.065 arcsec for the 1.9-m telescope and 0.125 arcsec for the 1-m telescope, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The results of 29 measurements of 26 objects are presented. The objects include long period spectroscopic binaries from the 6th Catalogue of Batten, close visual binary systems from the 3rd Catalogue of Finsen and Worley and variable stars. Nine of the objects have not been previously resolved by speckle interferometry. New members are detected in the systems β Cep, p Vel and iota UMa. (author)

  17. Characterization of Atherosclerotic Plaques by Laser Speckle Imaging (United States)

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bouma, Brett E.; Helg, Tina; Chan, Raymond; Halpern, Elkan; Chau, Alexandra; Minsky, Milan Singh; Motz, Jason T.; Houser, Stuart L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Background A method capable of determining atherosclerotic plaque composition and measuring plaque viscoelasticity can provide valuable insight into intrinsic features associated with plaque rupture and can enable the identification of high-risk lesions. In this article, we describe a new optical technique, laser speckle imaging (LSI), that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity. We evaluate the potential of LSI for characterizing atherosclerotic plaque. Methods and Results Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images were acquired from 118 aortic plaque specimens from 14 human cadavers under static and deforming conditions (0 to 200 μm/s). Temporal fluctuations in the speckle patterns were quantified by exponential fitting of the normalized cross-correlation of sequential frames in each image series of speckle patterns to obtain the exponential decay time constant, τ. The decorrelation time constants of thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA) (τ=47.5±19.2 ms) were significantly lower than those of other atherosclerotic lesions (P90%. Speckle decorrelation time constants demonstrated strong correlation with histological measurements of plaque collagen (R=0.73, P0.05). Conclusions The measurement of speckle decorrelation time constant from laser speckle images provides an index of plaque viscoelasticity and facilitates the characterization of plaque type. Our results demonstrate that LSI is a highly sensitive technique for characterizing plaque and identifying thin-cap fibroatheromas. PMID:16061738

  18. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida. (United States)

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C


    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water.

  19. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.


    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  20. A Comparison of Speckle Reduction Techniques in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Speckle noise is a multiplicative noise that degrades the visual evaluation in ultrasound imaging. In addition, it limits the efficient application of intelligent image processing algorithms, such as segmentation techniques. Thus, speckle noise reduction is considered an essential pre-processing step. The objective of this paper is to carry out a comparative evaluation of speckle filtering techniques, based on two image quality evaluation metrics, the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, and the Structural SIMilarity (SSIM index, and visual evaluation.

  1. White-Light Optical Processing Of Misfocused Speckle Interferograms (United States)

    Yu, F. T. S.; Ruterbusch, P. H.; Gheen, G.; Gerhard, Grant


    A technique of white-light color encoding of misfocused speckle interferometric fringe patterns is presented. The encoding is performed in the spatial frequency plane with color filters. This technique allows the viewing of a multiset of encoded speckle interferograms simultaneously. Thus, it may provide new informational interferometric aspects of the object under stress or vibration. The effect on the speckle fringe pattern due to the spatial filtering is briefly discussed, and experimental demonstrations of color encoded fringe patterns are presented. Due to the simplicity and versatility of the processing technique, we feel that the technique may develop into a practical tool for strain, stress, and vibrational measurement.

  2. Superresolution Imaging of Optical Vortices in a Speckle Pattern (United States)

    Pascucci, Marco; Tessier, Gilles; Emiliani, Valentina; Guillon, Marc


    We characterize, experimentally, the intensity minima of a polarized high numerical aperture optical speckle pattern and the topological charges of the associated optical vortices. The negative of a speckle pattern is imprinted in a uniform fluorescent sample by photobleaching. The remaining fluorescence is imaged with superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, which reveals subdiffraction fluorescence confinement at the center of optical vortices. The intensity statistics of saturated negative speckle patterns are predicted and measured. The charge of optical vortices is determined by controlling the handedness of circular polarization, and the creation or annihilation of a vortex pair along propagation is shown.

  3. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography (United States)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Destrempes, François; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Rémi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; Cloutier, Guy


    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence of an ‘acousto-electrical speckle’ in the Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography with spatial characteristics driven by the acoustic parameters but due to electrical impedance inhomogeneities instead of acoustic ones as is the case of ultrasound imaging.

  4. Effect of repeated pesticide applications on soil properties in cotton fields: II. Insecticide residues and impact on dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, K.; Singh, D.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Dhawan, A.K.; Dureja, P.


    Insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages post crop emergence in cotton fields and soil was sampled at regular intervals after each treatment. Soil was analysed for insecticide residues and activity of the enzymes dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Insecticide residues detected in the soil were in small quantities and they did not persist for long. Only endosulfan leached below 15 cm. Insecticides had only temporary effects on enzyme activities which disappeared either before the next insecticide treatment or by the end of the experimental period. (author)

  5. Laser speckle velocimetry for robot manufacturing (United States)

    Charrett, Thomas O. H.; Bandari, Yashwanth K.; Michel, Florent; Ding, Jialuo; Williams, Stewart W.; Tatam, Ralph P.


    A non-contact speckle correlation sensor for the measurement of robotic tool speed is presented for use in robotic manufacturing and is capable of measuring the in-plane relative velocities between a robot end-effector and the workpiece or other surface. The sensor performance was assessed in the laboratory with the sensor accuracies found to be better than 0:01 mm/s over a 70 mm/s velocity range. Finally an example of the sensors application to robotic manufacturing is presented where the sensor was applied to tool speed measurement for path planning in the wire and arc additive manufacturing process using a KUKA KR150 L110/2 industrial robot.

  6. Speckle interferometry of asteroids. I - 433 Eros (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Cocke, W. J.; Hege, E. K.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Lambert, J. V.


    Analytical expressions are derived for the semimajor and semiminor axes and orientation angle of the ellipse projected by a triaxial asteroid, and the results are applied speckle-interferometry observations of the 433 Eros asteroid. The expressions were calculated as functions of the dimensions and pole of the body and of the asterocentric position of the earth and the sun. On the basis of the analytical expressions, the dimensions of 433 Eros are obtained. The light curve from December 18, 1981 is compared to the dimensions to obtain a geometric albedo of 0.156 (+ or - 0.010). A series of two-dimensional power spectra and autocorrelation functions for 433 Eros show that it is spinning in space.

  7. Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection (United States)

    Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard


    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications.

  8. Evaluating platelet aggregation dynamics from laser speckle fluctuations. (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Tshikudi, Diane M; Nadkarni, Seemantini K


    Platelets are key to maintaining hemostasis and impaired platelet aggregation could lead to hemorrhage or thrombosis. We report a new approach that exploits laser speckle intensity fluctuations, emanated from a drop of platelet-rich-plasma (PRP), to profile aggregation. Speckle fluctuation rate is quantified by the speckle intensity autocorrelation, g 2 (t) , from which the aggregate size is deduced. We first apply this approach to evaluate polystyrene bead aggregation, triggered by salt. Next, we assess dose-dependent platelet aggregation and inhibition in human PRP spiked with adenosine diphosphate and clopidogrel. Additional spatio-temporal speckle analyses yield 2-dimensional maps of particle displacements to visualize platelet aggregate foci within minutes and quantify aggregation dynamics. These findings demonstrate the unique opportunity for assessing platelet health within minutes for diagnosing bleeding disorders and monitoring anti-platelet therapies.

  9. Assessment of Fevicol (adhesive Drying Process through Dynamic Speckle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Ansari


    Full Text Available Dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle analysis is a useful measurement tool to analyze micro-motion on a sample surface via temporal statistics based on a sequence of speckle images. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of dynamic speckles as an alternative tool to monitoring Fevicol drying process. Experimental demonstration of intensity-based algorithm to monitor Fevicol drying process is reported. The experiment was explored with the technique called Inertia Moment of co-occurrence matrix. The results allowed verifying the drying process and it was possible to observe different activity stages during the drying process. Statistical Tukey test at 5% significance level allowed differentiating different stages of drying. In conclusion, speckle activity, measured by the Inertia Moment, can be used to monitor drying processes of the Fevicol.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Nikiforov


    Full Text Available Speckle-tracking echocardiography is promising modern technique for evaluation of structural and functional changes in the myocardium. It evaluates the indicator of global longitudinal myocardial deformation, which is more sensitive than ejection fraction to early changes of left ventricular contractility. The diagnostic capabilities of speckle tracking echocardiography are reflected in clinical recommendations and consensus statements of European Society of Cardiology (ESC, European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE. The aim of this paper is describe basic principles of speckle tracking echocardiography and clinical applications of this new technology. Attention is paid to the use of speckle tracking echocardiography in such heart pathologies as heart failure, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and amyloidosis of the heart, valvular heart disease, constrictive pericarditis and cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity.

  11. Assessing blood coagulation status with laser speckle rheology (United States)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.


    We have developed and investigated a novel optical approach, Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR), to evaluate a patient’s coagulation status by measuring the viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation. In LSR, a blood sample is illuminated with laser light and temporal speckle intensity fluctuations are measured using a high-speed CMOS camera. During blood coagulation, changes in the viscoelastic properties of the clot restrict Brownian displacements of light scattering centers within the sample, altering the rate of speckle intensity fluctuations. As a result, blood coagulation status can be measured by relating the time scale of speckle intensity fluctuations with clinically relevant coagulation metrics including clotting time and fibrinogen content. Our results report a close correlation between coagulation metrics measured using LSR and conventional coagulation results of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and functional fibrinogen levels, creating the unique opportunity to evaluate a patient’s coagulation status in real-time at the point of care. PMID:24688816

  12. Separated Component-Based Restoration of Speckled SAR Images (United States)


    systems such as SAR, holography , ultra- sound, and synthetic aperture sonar suffer from a multiplicative noise known as speckle [1]. Speckle appears when...Award from the Office of Technology Commercialization, and an Outstanding GEMSTONE Mentor Award from the Honors College. He received the Outstanding...and Technology (University of London), London, England, in 1980 and 1984, respectively. From October 1984 to December 1984 he worked for IBM (UK) as a

  13. Characterization of blood flow rate in dental pulp by speckle patterns of backscattered light from an in vivo tooth (United States)

    Dick, Sergey K.; Chistyakova, Galina G.; Terekh, Alex S.; Smirnov, Alex V.; Salimi Zadeh, Mehrnush M.; Barun, Vladimir V.


    Experimental data on the hemodynamics of dental pulp at different stages of caries treatment are given. Observations of speckle patterns in backscattered laser light are used as a measurement method to qualitatively characterize changes in blood flow rate through the dental pulp. The measurements were made by the author-designed experimental setup. Theoretical estimations showed that stationary reflected light from an in vivo tooth contains a negligibly small information body on changes in the pulpal blood flow due to the shadowing of the pulp by optically thick enamel and dentin. Therefore, the temporal variations in the speckle patterns are the only possible way that can provide monitoring of blood conditions in the pulp by using backscattered light. Various statistical characteristics of the random reflected light fields are studied as indicators of blood flow rate changes. There were selected five statistical parameters of backscattered speckle images that give self-consistent data on these changes. The parameters include four combinations of integrals of the Fourier transforms of the observed temporal variations as well as the speckle image contrast. The selected parameters are shown to qualitatively agree with general considerations on the effects of reduced or increased blood flow rates on the selected integral quantities.

  14. Laser speckle imaging of atherosclerotic plaques through optical fiber bundles (United States)

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bouma, Brett E.; Yelin, Dvir; Gulati, Amneet; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Laser speckle imaging (LSI), a new technique that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity, has been investigated recently to characterize atherosclerotic plaques. These prior studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of LSI for detecting high-risk plaques and were conducted ex vivo. To conduct intracoronary LSI in vivo, the laser speckle pattern must be transmitted from the coronary wall to the image detector in the presence of cardiac motion. Small-diameter, flexible optical fiber bundles, similar to those used in coronary angioscopy, may be incorporated into an intravascular catheter for this purpose. A key challenge is that laser speckle is influenced by inter-fiber leakage of light, which may be exacerbated during bundle motion. In this study, we tested the capability of optical fiber bundles to transmit laser speckle patterns obtained from atherosclerotic plaques and evaluated the influence of motion on the diagnostic accuracy of fiber bundle-based LSI. Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images of aortic plaques were obtained while cyclically moving the flexible length of the bundle to mimic coronary motion. Our results show that leached fiber bundles may reliably transmit laser speckle images in the presence of cardiac motion, providing a viable option to conduct intracoronary LSI. PMID:19021396

  15. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.


    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  16. Neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soil dust and associated parent soil in fields with a history of seed treatment use on crops in southwestern Ontario. (United States)

    Limay-Rios, Victor; Forero, Luis Gabriel; Xue, Yingen; Smith, Jocelyn; Baute, Tracey; Schaafsma, Arthur


    Using neonicotinoid insecticides as seed treatments is a common practice in field crop production. Exposure of nontarget organisms to neonicotinoids present in various environmental matrices is debated. In the present study, concentrations of neonicotinoid residues were measured in the top 5 cm of soil and overlying soil surface dust before planting in 25 commercial fields with a history of neonicotinoid seed treatment use in southwestern Ontario in 2013 and 2014 using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The mean total concentrations were 3.05 ng/g and 47.84 ng/g in 2013 and 5.59 ng/g and 71.17 ng/g in 2014 for parent soil and soil surface dust, respectively. When surface and parent soil residues were compared the mean concentration in surface dust was 15.6-fold and 12.7-fold higher than that in parent soil in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Pooled over years, the surface dust to parent soil ratio was 13.7, with mean concentrations of 4.36 ng/g and 59.86 ng/g for parent soil and surface dust, respectively. The present study's results will contribute important knowledge about the role these residues may play in the overall risk assessment currently under way for the source, transport, and impact of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in a maize ecosystem. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Prosthetic clone and natural human tooth comparison by speckle interferometry (United States)

    Slangen, Pierre; Corn, Stephane; Fages, Michel; Raynal, Jacques; Cuisinier, Frederic J. G.


    transducers to perform "4-buckets" phase shifting leading to phase variations during the compression test. In-plane displacement fields from speckle interferometry already showed very interesting data concerning the mechanical behaviour of teeth: the dentine-enamel junction (DEJ) and the glue junction have been shown including their interfacing function. Mechanical action of the tooth surrounding medium will also be discussed.

  18. Exploiting the speckle-correlation scattering matrix for a compact reference-free holographic image sensor. (United States)

    Lee, KyeoReh; Park, YongKeun


    The word 'holography' means a drawing that contains all of the information for light-both amplitude and wavefront. However, because of the insufficient bandwidth of current electronics, the direct measurement of the wavefront of light has not yet been achieved. Though reference-field-assisted interferometric methods have been utilized in numerous applications, introducing a reference field raises several fundamental and practical issues. Here we demonstrate a reference-free holographic image sensor. To achieve this, we propose a speckle-correlation scattering matrix approach; light-field information passing through a thin disordered layer is recorded and retrieved from a single-shot recording of speckle intensity patterns. Self-interference via diffusive scattering enables access to impinging light-field information, when light transport in the diffusive layer is precisely calibrated. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate direct holographic measurements of three-dimensional optical fields using a compact device consisting of a regular image sensor and a diffusor.

  19. Field evaluation of N2 fixation by mung bean in the Philippines, and residual effects on maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, C.M.; Rivera, F.G.; Hautea, R.A.; Del Rosario, E.


    Seventeen genotypes of mung bean (Vigna radiata) were screened for growth, yield, and symbiotic N 2 fixation during the late-dry (March-May) and early-dry (October-December) seasons of 1992 at the University of the Philippines at Los Banos (UPLB). The 15 N-dilution method was used to determine amounts of N fixed. Soil mineral N availability was higher (average 22 kg N/ha) in the late- than in the early-dry season (9.2 kg N/ha), and, possibly in consequence, vegetative growth was better in the late- than in the early-dry season; however, in contrast, seed yields were better in the latter. Cultivar Pagasa 5 had the highest value (52 kg N/ha) for fixed N in the late-dry season, whereas PAEC 3 had the highest value (70 kg N/ha) in the early-dry season; Accession 2041 had the lowest values in both seasons (33 and 26 kg N/ha, respectively). Genetic variability, albeit slight, was observed for total N fixed, but not for percent N derived from fixation (%Ndfa). Further field work at UPLB and at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Quezon City, investigated five mung genotypes, including three from the previous trials, for yield N 2 fixation and residual effects on subsequent maize (Zea mays). Estimates for %Ndfa and for amounts of N fixed ranged from 64 to 87% and 43 to 85 kg N/ha, respectively, at PNRI, and from 37 to 72% and 21 to 85 kg N/ha, respectively, at UPLB. The highest mung-bean seed yields obtained were 1.99 t/ha at PNRI and 0.86 t/ha at UPLB in the two locations. When maize was planted after mung, dry matter, seed yields and total N were consistently higher than when planted after maize or cotton, although most of the differences fell short of statistical significance. The data are discussed in terms of genetic diversity for yield and N 2 fixation in these soils, and potential to exploit mung-fixed N to improve cereal yields

  20. Characterization of carbofuran bound residues and the effect of ageing on their distribution and bioavailability in the soil of a sugar beet field in north-western Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benicha


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate distribution, fractionation, bioavailability and remobilization characteristics of bound soil-aged carbofuran and the effect of ageing in clay soil in a typical field of sugar beet at Loukkos in northwest Morocco. Results indicate that initially there were high levels of bound residues (BR in the humin fraction, which decreased with incubation time and ageing of the BR. While in the fulvic and humic acid fractions, the amount of BR increased with the ageing of the BR and occurred predominantly (60% in the fulvic acid fraction. The possibility of the mineralization and release of BR with ageing was studied using fresh soil and an incubation period of 90 days. The results indicate that the ageing of the residues have a great influence on the remobilization and mineralization rates of carbofuran BR; 9.45 to 14.90% of the total BR was released as extractable residues, and 1.95 to 4.15% was mineralized depending on the age of the residues in soil and the soil-aged carbofuran BR. The incorporation of the residues in the humin fraction is considered to be a threat to the environment. On the other hand, the clear prevalence of residues in the fulvic and humic acid fractions, may have an important effect on their bioavailability and movement in soil. Moreover, the re-extractability of BR could pose a potential environmental risk. Consequently, the BR remobilized must be taken into account when assessing for registration processes the environmental risk of pesticides persisting in soils.

  1. Non-contact measurement of ocular microtremor using laser speckle (United States)

    Kenny, E.; Coakley, D.; Boyle, G.


    The human eye moves continuously even while it appears to be at rest. The involuntary eye movements causing this motion are called fixational eye movements. Ocular Microtremor (OMT) is the smallest (150 - 2500nm amplitude) and fastest (~ 80Hz) of these eye movements. OMT has been proven to provide useful clinical information regarding depth of consciousness and neurological disorders. Most quantitative clinical investigations of OMT have been carried out using an eye-contacting piezoelectric probe. However, this measurement procedure suffers from a number of disadvantages which limit the potential of the technique in the clinical environment. The need for eye contact requires the eye to be anaesthetised and not all subjects can tolerate the procedure. A promising alternative to the piezoelectric technique is speckle metrology. A speckle correlation instrument for measuring OMT was first described by Al-Kalbani et al. The approach presented in this paper is a non contact measurement technique implementing laser speckle correlation and using a highly light sensitive video camera operating at 500Hz. The OMT measurement technique in this paper was investigated using a human subject and an eye movement simulator. Using this system, measurement of speckle on the eye takes only a few minutes, no eye drops are necessary and no discomfort is caused to the subject. The paper describes the preliminary results of capturing speckle from the simulator and from the human eye in-vivo at eye safe laser powers. The effects of tear flow, biospeckle and speckle shifting by larger eye movements on the displacement information carried by the speckle are also discussed.

  2. Miniaturization of speckle interferometry for rapid strain analysis (United States)

    Wegner, Ronny; Ettemeyer, Andreas


    Today's industry demands high-performance components meeting toughest mechanical features and ultimate safety standards. Especially in automotive and aircraft industry the development focuses on tailor-made design and solutions according to customer specifications. To reconcile economy, light-weight construction has become a key issue. Many companies are looking for new advanced strain/stress analysis techniques to improve cost efficiency and the limitations of classical methods. Detection of weak points and fatigue tests are carried out mainly with strain gauges which need careful application and experience. ESPI (electronic speckle pattern interferometry) allows a rapid, full field and 3D-measurement without contact. This paper presents the principle and application of a new miniaturized laser optical sensor combining contour and deformation measurement. In its basic employment ESPI is an interferometric method measuring deformations at modern working materials with high accuracy. Here also a module for contouring was developed and integrated into a single interferometer. Therefore even at complex components it is possible to measure and display strain-fields and -gradients with respect to the underlying contour. The new sensor is a unique device for flexible strain-analysis at welded-materials, extrusions, engines, car-bodies, etc. Without preparation and due to the full field and 3D- measurement 'hot spots' are shown, reducing the testing procedure and increasing the reliability of the complex component testing significantly. In this paper the recent development of a miniaturized ESPI-interferometer for strain and stress measurement is described. Advanced features according to classical techniques are specified and new applications in material and component testing are presented.

  3. Speckle noise suppression using a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A L; Andreeva, T B; Kompanets, I N [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zalyapin, N V [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation)


    We have studied the method for suppressing speckle noise in patterns produced by a laser based on a fast-response electro-optical cell with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) in which helicoid is absent, i.e., compensated for. The character of smectic layer deformation in an electric field is considered along with the mechanism of spatially inhomogeneous phase modulation of a laser beam passing through the cell which is accompanied by the destruction of phase relations in the beam. Advantages of a helix-free FLC cell are pointed out as compared to helical crystal cells studied previously. (liquid crystal devices)

  4. Speckle-based off-axis holographic detection for non-contact photoacoustic tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buj C.


    Full Text Available A very fast innovative holographic off-axis non-contact detection method for Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT is introduced. It overcomes the main problems of most state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging approaches that are long acquisition times and the requirement of acoustic contact. In order to increase the acquisition speed significantly, the surface displacements of the object, caused by the photoacoustic pressure waves, are measured interferometrically in two dimensions. Phase alterations in the observed speckle field are used to identify changes in the object’s topography. A sampling rate of up to 80 MHz is feasible, which reduces the occurrence of motion artefacts.

  5. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing. (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R


    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  6. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2014 (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mendez, Rene A.; Horch, Elliott P.


    The results of speckle interferometric observations at the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) telescope in 2014 are given. A total of 1641 observations were taken, yielding 1636 measurements of 1218 resolved binary and multiple stars and 577 non-resolutions of 441 targets. We resolved for the first time 56 pairs, including some nearby astrometric or spectroscopic binaries and ten new subsystems in previously known visual binaries. The calibration of the data is checked by linear fits to the positions of 41 wide binaries observed at SOAR over several seasons. The typical calibration accuracy is 0.°1 in angle and 0.3% in pixel scale, while the measurement errors are on the order of 3 mas. The new data are used here to compute 194 binary star orbits, 148 of which are improvements on previous orbital solutions and 46 are first-time orbits. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  7. Laser speckle decorrelation for fingerprint acquisition (United States)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo


    Biometry is gaining popularity as a physical security approach in situations where a high level of security is necessary. Currently, biometric solutions are embedded in a very large and heterogeneous group of applications. One of the most sensible is for airport security access to boarding gates. More airports are introducing biometric solutions based on face, fingerprint or iris recognition for passenger identification. In particular, fingerprints are the most widely used biometric, and they are mandatorily included in electronic identification documents. One important issue, which is difficult to address in traditional fingerprint acquisition systems, is preventing contact between subsequent users; sebum, which can be a potential vector for contagious diseases. Currently, non-contact devices are used to overcome this problem. In this paper, a new contact device based on laser speckle decorrelation is presented. Our system has the advantage of being compact and low-cost compared with an actual contactless system, allowing enhancement of the sebum pattern imaging contrast in a simple and low-cost way. Furthermore, it avoids the spreading of contagious diseases.

  8. Laser speckle decorrelation for fingerprint acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo


    Biometry is gaining popularity as a physical security approach in situations where a high level of security is necessary. Currently, biometric solutions are embedded in a very large and heterogeneous group of applications. One of the most sensible is for airport security access to boarding gates. More airports are introducing biometric solutions based on face, fingerprint or iris recognition for passenger identification. In particular, fingerprints are the most widely used biometric, and they are mandatorily included in electronic identification documents. One important issue, which is difficult to address in traditional fingerprint acquisition systems, is preventing contact between subsequent users; sebum, which can be a potential vector for contagious diseases. Currently, non-contact devices are used to overcome this problem. In this paper, a new contact device based on laser speckle decorrelation is presented. Our system has the advantage of being compact and low-cost compared with an actual contactless system, allowing enhancement of the sebum pattern imaging contrast in a simple and low-cost way. Furthermore, it avoids the spreading of contagious diseases. (paper)

  9. Design of a two-well field test to determine in-situ residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 in a deep saline aquifer (United States)

    Fagerlund, F.; Niemi, A.; Bensabat, J.; Shtivelman, V.


    CO2 trapping as immobile residual phase and by dissolution to brine are critical processes for CO2 storage security and reservoir capacity in many geological settings in consideration for geological CO2 storage. While laboratory and numerical modelling studies have provided valuable information on the topic, further field testing is critical to improve understanding of how the CO2 trapping will take place in-situ and to assess the relative importance of the different trapping mechanisms at field sites for geological storage. Given the challenge to measure fluid flow and trapping processes in kilometre-deep reservoirs with few boreholes and limited knowledge of the spatial distribution of geological parameters, the design of field tests that can accurately quantify the CO2 trapping is also challenging. Using modelling applied to the EU MUSTANG project's field testing site at Heletz, Israel, this study investigates how a two-well dipole test configuration can be used to study migration and trapping of CO2 in-situ under influence of geological heterogeneity between two boreholes. A two-well dipole test sequence for quantifying both residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 in situ is presented. The test uses a relatively small amount of injected CO2 which is monitored by a combination of hydraulic, thermal and tracer measurement techniques. Hydraulic and thermal tests are shown to be sensitive to CO2 saturation and residual trapping. Furthermore we present a novel tracer technique, employing a non-water-soluble tracer in the CO2 phase, which is used to quantify the effective in-situ dissolution rate. Our modelling results show that the combination of these measurements in the two-well dipole configuration together with a mass balance of injected and abstracted fluids constitute an effective tool for characterization of in-situ trapping of geologically stored CO2 at the field scale.

  10. The use of digital speckle radiography to study the ballistic deformation of a polymer bonded sugar (an explosive simulant)


    Prentice, H.J.; Proud, W.G.; Walley, S.M.; Field, J.E.


    Abstract This paper reports an initial study into the benefits of determining two-dimensional flow fields for low velocity impact on a small-scale model of explosive reactive armour (ERA) using digital speckle radiography (DSR). The model system consisted of a polymer-bonded sugar (PBS) (otherwise known as a sugarmock) confined between two mild steel plates. The DSR technique relies upon creating a layer within the specimen that is seeded with lead particles. So although radiograph...

  11. Deformation measurements of materials at low temperatures using laser speckle photography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumio Nakahara; Yukihide Maeda; Kazunori Matsumura; Shigeyoshi Hisada; Takeyoshi Fujita; Kiyoshi Sugihara


    The authors observed deformations of several materials during cooling down process from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature using the laser speckle photography method. The in-plane displacements were measured by the image plane speckle photography and the out-of-plane displacement gradients by the defocused speckle photography. The results of measurements of in-plane displacement are compared with those of FEM analysis. The applicability of laser speckle photography method to cryogenic engineering are also discussed

  12. Assessing White Wine Viscosity Variation Using Polarized Laser Speckle: A Promising Alternative to Wine Sensory Analysis


    Abou Nader, Christelle; Loutfi, Hadi; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Lteif, Roger; Abboud, Marie


    In this paper, we report measurements of wine viscosity, correlated to polarized laser speckle results. Experiments were performed on white wine samples produced with a single grape variety. Effects of the wine making cellar, the grape variety, and the vintage on wine Brix degree, alcohol content, viscosity, and speckle parameters are considered. We show that speckle parameters, namely, spatial contrast and speckle decorrelation time, as well as the inertia moment extracted from the temporal ...

  13. Drug packaging security by means of white-light speckle (United States)

    Cozzella, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Carla; Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe


    Protecting pharmaceutical products against counterfeiting or the fraudulent importation of donated and discounted drugs will remain a permanent challenge in light of the increased frequency of counterfeiting. The increasing complexity of the supply chain in today's global economy complicates certification of each individual supply source. This complexity is a key factor in the rapid increase of counterfeiting attacks, including those in countries where the supply chains are well established and trustworthy. In this article, an innovative solution based on the white-light speckle theory (visible speckle obtained as ultraviolet fluorescence) is applied to an ultraviolet source, which allows drug packages to be linked with a barcode. The basis of the proposed method is the biometric paradigm, applied to nonliving matter, which requires the identification of a unique distinctive matter characteristic for the unique identification of the related object. The identified characteristic is not an inherent characteristic of the object itself; instead, a white-light speckle pattern will be artificially added. This speckle pattern becomes a sort of fingerprint for the drug package. Starting from this pattern, drug packages can be authenticated by a biometric-like approach. This paper presents a concise review of pharmaceutical product anti-counterfeiting and introduces our white-light speckle method.

  14. Analysis of strawberry ripening by dynamic speckle measurements (United States)

    Mulone, C.; Budini, N.; Vincitorio, F. M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil Rego, A.


    This work seeks to determine the age of a fruit from observation of its dynamic speckle pattern. A mobile speckle pattern originates on the fruit's surface due to the interference of the wavefronts reflected from moving scatterers. For this work we analyzed two series of photographs of a strawberry speckle pattern, at different stages of ripening, acquired with a CMOS camera. The first day, we took ten photographs at an interval of one second. The same procedure was repeated the next day. From each series of images we extracted several statistical descriptors of pixel-to-pixel gray level variation during the observation time. By comparing these values from the first to the second day we noticed a diminution of the speckle activity. This decay demonstrated that after only one day the ripening process of the strawberry can be detected by dynamic speckle pattern analysis. For this study we employed a simple new algorithm to process the data obtained from the photographs. This algorithm allows defining a global mobility index that indicates the evolution of the fruit's ripening.

  15. Speckle reduction methods in laser-based picture projectors (United States)

    Akram, M. Nadeem; Chen, Xuyuan


    Laser sources have been promised for many years to be better light sources as compared to traditional lamps or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for projectors, which enable projectors having wide colour gamut for vivid image, super brightness and high contrast for the best picture quality, long lifetime for maintain free operation, mercury free, and low power consumption for green environment. A major technology obstacle in using lasers for projection has been the speckle noise caused by to the coherent nature of the lasers. For speckle reduction, current state of the art solutions apply moving parts with large physical space demand. Solutions beyond the state of the art need to be developed such as integrated optical components, hybrid MOEMS devices, and active phase modulators for compact speckle reduction. In this article, major methods reported in the literature for the speckle reduction in laser projectors are presented and explained. With the advancement in semiconductor lasers with largely reduced cost for the red, green and the blue primary colours, and the developed methods for their speckle reduction, it is hoped that the lasers will be widely utilized in different projector applications in the near future.

  16. Identification of a chemical inhibitor for nuclear speckle formation: Implications for the function of nuclear speckles in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, Yutaro; Matsuo, Yota; Mihara, Yuki; Yagi, Hiroaki; Shigaki-Miyamoto, Kaya; Toyota, Syukichi; Azuma, Yuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Igarashi, Masayuki [Laboratory of Disease Biology, Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan); Tani, Tokio, E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)


    Highlights: • We identified tubercidin as a compound inducing aberrant formation of the speckles. • Tubercidin causes delocalization of poly (A){sup +}RNAs from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin induces dispersion of splicing factors from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin affects alternative pre-mRNA splicing. • Nuclear speckles play a role in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. - Abstract: Nuclear speckles are subnuclear structures enriched with RNA processing factors and poly (A){sup +} RNAs comprising mRNAs and poly (A){sup +} non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Nuclear speckles are thought to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, such as pre-mRNA splicing. By screening 3585 culture extracts of actinomycetes with in situ hybridization using an oligo dT probe, we identified tubercidin, an analogue of adenosine, as an inhibitor of speckle formation, which induces the delocalization of poly (A){sup +} RNA and dispersion of splicing factor SRSF1/SF2 from nuclear speckles in HeLa cells. Treatment with tubercidin also decreased steady-state MALAT1 long ncRNA, thought to be involved in the retention of SRSF1/SF2 in nuclear speckles. In addition, we found that tubercidin treatment promoted exon skipping in the alternative splicing of Clk1 pre-mRNA. These results suggest that nuclear speckles play a role in modulating the concentration of splicing factors in the nucleoplasm to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

  17. Optical Processing of Speckle Images with Bacteriorhodopsin for Pattern Recognition (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)


    Logarithmic processing of images with multiplicative noise characteristics can be utilized to transform the image into one with an additive noise distribution. This simplifies subsequent image processing steps for applications such as image restoration or correlation for pattern recognition. One particularly common form of multiplicative noise is speckle, for which the logarithmic operation not only produces additive noise, but also makes it of constant variance (signal-independent). We examine the optical transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin films here and find them well suited to implement such a pointwise logarithmic transformation optically in a parallel fashion. We present experimental results of the optical conversion of speckle images into transformed images with additive, signal-independent noise statistics using the real-time photochromic properties of bacteriorhodopsin. We provide an example of improved correlation performance in terms of correlation peak signal-to-noise for such a transformed speckle image.

  18. DMD based digital speckle illumination for high resolution imaging (United States)

    Shinde, Anant; Mishra, Ayush; Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Murukeshan, V. M.


    Spatially non-uniform illumination patterns have shown significant potential to improve the imaging. Recent developments in the patterned illumination microscopy have demonstrated that the use of an optical speckle as an illumination pattern significantly improves the imaging resolution at the same time reducing the computational overheads. We present a DMD based method for generation of digital speckle pattern. The generated digital speckle and uniform white light illumination are used as two illuminations to acquire images. The image reconstruction algorithm for blind structured illumination microscopy is used to get the high resolution image. Our approach does not require any calibration step or stringent control of the illumination, and dramatically simplifies the experimental set-up.

  19. Color speckle measurement errors using system with XYZ filters (United States)

    Kinoshita, Junichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kuroda, Kazuo


    Measurement errors of color speckle are analyzed for a measurement system equipped with revolving XYZ filters and a 2D sensor. One of the errors is caused by the filter characteristics unfitted to the ideal color matching functions. The other is caused by uncorrelations among the optical paths via the XYZ filters. The unfitted color speckle errors of all the pixel data can be easily calibrated by conversion between the measured BGR chromaticity triangle and the true triangle obtained by the BGR wavelength measurements. For the uncorrelated errors, the measured BGR chromaticity values spread over around the true values. As a result, it would be more complicated to calibrate the uncorrelated errors, repeating the triangular conversion pixel by pixel. Color speckle and its errors greatly affect also chromaticity measurements and image quality of displays using coherent light sources.

  20. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations. (United States)

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik


    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  1. Accuracy of high-field intraoperative MRI in the detectability of residual tumor in glioma grade IV resections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Mager, Ann-Kathrin [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Radiology/Neurologie; Goetz, Claudia; Kremer, Paul [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Detsch, Oliver [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Theisgen, Hannah-Katharina [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Friese, Michael; Gottschalk, Joachim [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology and Neuropathology; Schwindt, Wolfram [Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology


    To assess the sensitivity/specificity of tumor detection by T1 contrast enhancement in intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) in comparison to histopathological assessment as the gold standard in patients receiving surgical resection of grade IV glioblastoma. 68 patients with a primary or a recurrent glioblastoma scheduled for surgery including fluorescence guidance and neuronavigation were included (mean age: 59 years, 26 female, 42 male patients). The ioMRI after the first resection included transverse FLAIR, DWI, T2-FFE and T1 - 3 d FFE ± GD-DPTA. The second resection was performed whenever residual contrast-enhancing tissue was detected on ioMRI. Resected tissue samples were histopathologically evaluated (gold standard). Additionally, we evaluated the early postoperative MRI scan acquired within 48 h post-OP for remaining enhancing tissue and compared them with the ioMRI scan. In 43 patients ioMRI indicated residual tumorous tissue, which could be confirmed in the histological specimens of the second resection. In 16 (4 with recurrent, 12 with primary glioblastoma) cases, ioMRI revealed truly negative results without residual tumor and follow-up MRI confirmed complete resection. In 7 cases (3 with recurrent, 4 with primary glioblastoma) ioMRI revealed a suspicious result without tumorous tissue in the histopathological workup. In 2 (1 for each group) patients, residual tumorous tissue was detected in spite of negative ioMRI. IoMRI had a sensitivity of 95 % (94 % recurrent and 96 % for primary glioblastoma) and a specificity of 69.5 % (57 % and 75 %, respectively). The positive predictive value was 86 % (84 % for recurrent and 87 % for primary glioblastoma), and the negative predictive value was 88 % (80 % and 92 %, respectively). ioMRI is effective for detecting remaining tumorous tissue after glioma resection. However, scars and leakage of contrast agent can be misleading and limit specificity. Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) presents with a high sensitivity for residual

  2. Trapping induced nonlinear behavior of backward stimulated Raman scattering in multi-speckled laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Bowers, K. J.; Bergen, B.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Hinkel, D. E.; Langdon, A. B.; Michel, P.


    In inertial confinement fusion experiments, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) occurs when electron density fluctuations are amplified resonantly by the incident laser beams and scattered light. These beams comprise several thousands of individual laser speckles. We have found in single-speckle studies that electron trapping lowers the threshold intensity for SRS onset to a value below that from linear theory and enhances scattering. The trapping-induced plasma-wave frequency shift leads to wave-front bowing and filamentation processes that saturate SRS and limit scattering within a speckle. With large-scale simulations, we have now examined how laser speckles interact with one another through three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of two interacting speckles and 2D PIC simulations of ensembles of laser speckles (hundreds of speckles). Our work shows that kinetic trapping physics also governs the onset and saturation of SRS in ensembles of speckles. Speckles interact in a manner that is nonlinear and nonlocal: An intense speckle can destabilize its neighbors through transport of hot electrons and SRS waves, resulting in enhanced emission of particles and waves that, in turn, act upon the original speckle. In this manner, speckles below threshold when in isolation can be above the threshold in multi-speckled beams under conditions for laser-driven fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and ensembles of speckles are thus found to collectively lower the SRS onset threshold. Simulations of the hohlraum interior where laser beams overlap show that multi-speckled laser beams at low average intensity (a few times 10 14 W/cm 2 ) have correspondingly lower thresholds for enhanced SRS and that the sub-ps bursts of SRS saturate through trapping induced nonlinearities. Because of electron trapping effects, SRS reflectivity grows slowly with average laser intensity. While SRS reflectivity saturates under NIF conditions, SRS hot electron

  3. Speckle Suppression in Ultrasonic Images Based on Undecimated Wavelets (United States)

    Argenti, Fabrizio; Torricelli, Gionatan


    An original method to denoise ultrasonic images affected by speckle is presented. Speckle is modeled as a signal-dependent noise corrupting the image. Noise reduction is approached as a Wiener-like filtering performed in a shift-invariant wavelet domain by means of an adaptive rescaling of the coefficients of an undecimated octave decomposition. The scaling factor of each coefficient is calculated from local statistics of the degraded image, the parameters of the noise model, and the wavelet filters. Experimental results demonstrate that excellent background smoothing as well as preservation of edge sharpness and fine details can be obtained.

  4. Speckle Interferometry with the OCA Kuhn 22" Telescope (United States)

    Wasson, Rick


    Speckle interferometry measurements of double stars were made in 2015 and 2016, using the Kuhn 22-inch classical Cassegrain telescope of the Orange County Astronomers, a Point Grey Blackfly CMOS camera, and three interference filters. 272 observations are reported for 177 systems, with separations ranging from 0.29" to 2.9". Data reduction was by means of the REDUC and Speckle Tool Box programs. Equipment, observing procedures, calibration, data reduction, and analysis are described, and unusual results for 11 stars are discussed in detail.

  5. Mutual Information between Reflected and Transmitted Speckle Images (United States)

    Fayard, N.; Goetschy, A.; Pierrat, R.; Carminati, R.


    We study theoretically the mutual information between reflected and transmitted speckle patterns produced by wave scattering from disordered media. The mutual information between the two speckle images recorded on an array of N detection points (pixels) takes the form of long-range intensity correlation loops that we evaluate explicitly as a function of the disorder strength and the Thouless number g . Our analysis, supported by extensive numerical simulations, reveals a competing effect of cross-sample and surface spatial correlations. An optimal distance between pixels is proven to exist that enhances the mutual information by a factor N g compared to the single-pixel scenario.

  6. Study of photo activation reaction of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites through dynamic laser speckle (United States)

    Salas, Marianne; Yebra, Ana; Pozo, Antonio M.; Lucena, Cristina; Pérez, María. M.


    The objective of this study was to characterize the photo activation reaction of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites and to compare this reaction between commercial nanocomposite by dynamic laser speckle patterns. One commercial nanocomposite and two experimental graphene nanocomposites were used. LED curing unit was used to produce the photo activation reaction and the speckle patterns were generated by the incident light from the laser diode. These patterns were captured with the CMOS camera; later the speckle correlation was calculated. The photo activation process originates different speckle patterns between the commercial and the experimental graphene nanocomposites; having this less speckle activity.

  7. Evaluating the suitability of Hydrobia ulvae as a test species for sediment metal toxicity testing applying a tissue residue approach to metal mixtures in laboratory and field exposures. (United States)

    Campana, Olivia; Rodríguez, Antonio; Blasco, Julián


    A major weakness in evaluating the suitability of a biomonitor organism is the poor ability to predict the variability of the bioavailability of metals from measured environmental concentrations. In this study, the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae was used to evaluate its suitability as a test organism for assessing sediment metal toxicity. Toxicity tests were run with sediments spiked with copper, cadmium and zinc applied both as single metal and as a mixture to investigate toxicological interactions evaluating different lethal and sublethal effects. Dose-response relationships were constructed based both on tissue residue approach and particulate metal concentrations. Because metal-spiked sediments used in routine toxicity tests often do not exhibit the same adsorption/desorption kinetics as the natural sediments, the laboratory results were compared to 10-d bioassays conducted with natural field sediments collected from the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain). Highly significant correlations between tissue residue concentrations and particulate metal concentrations were found for all metal-spiked or field-collected and demonstrated that: (i) H. ulvae readily accumulated copper and cadmium in response to contamination and (ii) dietary uptake was determined to be the most significant route of metal exposure. The comparison of the modeled tissue residue-response curve developed from the mixture tests was in good agreement with the results from the bioassay conducted with field sediments and strongly demonstrated that H. ulvae is also a suitable test organism for assessing copper sediment toxicity. In contrast, the dose-response curve expressed as a function of total particulate metal concentrations would fail in predicting effect, erroneously assessing higher metal toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dedicated hardware processor and corresponding system-on-chip design for real-time laser speckle imaging. (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Jia; Wang, Yaru; He, Heng; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Fangyuan; Deng, Jialiang; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming


    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a noninvasive and full-field optical imaging technique which produces two-dimensional blood flow maps of tissues from the raw laser speckle images captured by a CCD camera without scanning. We present a hardware-friendly algorithm for the real-time processing of laser speckle imaging. The algorithm is developed and optimized specifically for LSI processing in the field programmable gate array (FPGA). Based on this algorithm, we designed a dedicated hardware processor for real-time LSI in FPGA. The pipeline processing scheme and parallel computing architecture are introduced into the design of this LSI hardware processor. When the LSI hardware processor is implemented in the FPGA running at the maximum frequency of 130 MHz, up to 85 raw images with the resolution of 640×480 pixels can be processed per second. Meanwhile, we also present a system on chip (SOC) solution for LSI processing by integrating the CCD controller, memory controller, LSI hardware processor, and LCD display controller into a single FPGA chip. This SOC solution also can be used to produce an application specific integrated circuit for LSI processing.

  9. Persistence of 14C-labeled atrazine and its residues in a field lysimeter soil after 22 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonowski, Nicolai D.; Koeppchen, Stephan; Hofmann, Diana; Schaeffer, Andreas; Burauel, Peter


    Twenty-two years after the last application of ring- 14 C-labeled atrazine at customary rate (1.7 kg ha -1 ) on an agriculturally used outdoor lysimeter, atrazine is still detectable by means of accelerated solvent extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis. Extractions of the 0-10 cm soil layer yielded 60% of the residual 14 C-activity. The extracts contained atrazine (1.0 μg kg -1 ) and 2-hydroxy-atrazine (42.5 μg kg -1 ). Extractions of the material of the lowest layer 55-60 cm consisting of fine gravel yielded 93% of residual 14 C-activity, of which 3.4 μg kg -1 was detected as atrazine and 17.7 μg kg -1 was 2-hydroxy-atrazine. The detection of atrazine in the lowest layer was of almost four times higher mass than in the upper soil layer. These findings highlight the fact that atrazine is unexpectedly persistent in soil. The overall persistence of atrazine in the environment might represent a potential risk for successive groundwater contamination by leaching even after 22 years of environmental exposure. - Atrazine and its metabolite 2-hydroxy-atrazine are still present in soil after long-term aging.

  10. Assessing White Wine Viscosity Variation Using Polarized Laser Speckle: A Promising Alternative to Wine Sensory Analysis. (United States)

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Loutfi, Hadi; Pellen, Fabrice; Jeune, Bernard Le; Le Brun, Guy; Lteif, Roger; Abboud, Marie


    In this paper, we report measurements of wine viscosity, correlated to polarized laser speckle results. Experiments were performed on white wine samples produced with a single grape variety. Effects of the wine making cellar, the grape variety, and the vintage on wine Brix degree, alcohol content, viscosity, and speckle parameters are considered. We show that speckle parameters, namely, spatial contrast and speckle decorrelation time, as well as the inertia moment extracted from the temporal history speckle pattern, are mainly affected by the alcohol and sugar content and hence the wine viscosity. Principal component analysis revealed a high correlation between laser speckle results on the one hand and viscosity and Brix degree values on the other. As speckle analysis proved to be an efficient method of measuring the variation of the viscosity of white mono-variety wine, one can therefore consider it as an alternative method to wine sensory analysis.

  11. Three-dimensional speckle-noise reduction by using computational integral imaging and statistical point estimator (United States)

    Moon, Inkyu


    In this paper we overview a method which can remove speckle noises to exist in coherent imaging systems. Integral imaging (II) system under coherent illumination records the elemental image set with speckle noise patterns of a threedimensional (3D) object. The computational geometrical ray propagation and statistical point estimation algorithms are applied to the elemental image set in order to reconstruct the speckle reduced 3D integral imaging. As performance metrics, the SNR and speckle index are calculated. The results are used to compare the speckle reduced 3D image reconstructed by the presented method with the coherent image having speckle patterns. It is shown in experiments that the presented method can three dimensionally reduce the speckle noise in the 3D object reconstruction.

  12. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim


    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  13. Thermoregulation under semi-natural conditions in speckled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recorded body temperature (Tb) in speckled mousebirds (Colius striatus) under semi-natural conditions in outdoor aviaries, and examined interactions between behavioural and metabolic thermoregulation by experimentally manipulating food availability and communal roosting behaviour. When food was available ad ...

  14. Laser speckle reduction based on compressive sensing and edge detection (United States)

    Wen, Dong-hai; Jiang, Yue-song; Hua, Hou-qiang; Yu, Rong; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Yan-zhong


    Polarization active imager technology obtains images encoded by parameters different than just the reflectivity and therefore provides new information on the image. So polarization active imager systems represent a very powerful observation tool. However, automatic interpretation of the information contained in the reflected intensity of the polarization active image data is extremely difficult because of the speckle phenomenon. An approach for speckle reduction of polarization active image based on the concepts of compressive sensing (CS) theory and edge detection. First, A Canny operator is first utilized to detect and remove edges from the polarization active image. Then, a dictionary learning algorithm which is applied to sparse image representation. The dictionary learning problem is expressed as a box-constrained quadratic program and a fast projected gradient method is introduced to solve it. The Gradient Projection for Square Reconstruction (GPSR) algorithm for solving bound constrained quadratic programming to reduce the speckle noise in the polarization active images. The block-matching 3-D (BM3D) algorithm is used to reduce speckle nosie, it works in two steps: The first one uses hard thresholding to build a relatively clean image for estimating statistics, while the second one performs the actual denoising through empirical Wiener filtering in the transform domain. Finally, the removed edges are added to the reconstructed image. Experimental results show that the visual quality and evaluation indexes outperform the other methods with no edge preservation. The proposed algorithm effectively realizes both despeckling and edge preservation and reaches the state-of-the-art performance.

  15. Spatial blurring in laser speckle imaging in inhomogeneous turbid media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitomir, Luka; Sprakel, Joris; Gucht, Van Der Jasper


    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) has developed into a versatile tool to image dynamical processes in turbid media, such as subcutaneous blood perfusion and heterogeneous dynamics in soft materials. Spatially resolved information about local dynamics is obtained by measuring time-dependent correlation

  16. Pointwise intensity-based dynamic speckle analysis with binary patterns (United States)

    Stoykova, Elena; Mateev, Georgy; Nazarova, Dimana; Berberova, Nataliya; Ivanov, Branimir


    Non-destructive detection of physical or biological activity through statistical processing of speckle patterns on the surface of diffusely reflecting objects is an area of active research. A lot of pointwise intensity-based algorithms have been proposed over the recent years. Efficiency of these algorithms is deteriorated by the signal-dependent speckle data, non-uniform illumination or varying reflectivity across the object, especially when the number of the acquired speckle patterns is limited. Pointwise processing of a sequence of 2D images is also time-consuming. In this paper, we propose to transform the acquired speckle images into binary patterns by using for a sign threshold the mean intensity value estimated at each spatial point from the temporal sequence of intensities at this point. Activity is characterized by the 2D distribution of a temporal polar correlation function estimated at a given time lag from the binary patterns. Processing of synthetic and experimental data confirmed that the algorithm provided correct activity determination with the same accuracy as the temporal normalized correlation function. It is efficient without the necessity to apply normalization at non-uniform distribution of intensity in the illuminating laser beam and offers acceleration of computation.

  17. A method to transfer speckle patterns for digital image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenning; He, Xiaoyuan; Quan, Chenggen; Zhu, Feipeng


    A simple and repeatable speckle creation method based on water transfer printing (WTP) is proposed to reduce artificial measurement error for digital image correlation (DIC). This technique requires water, brush, and a piece of transfer paper that is made of prefabricated decal paper, a protected sheet, and printed speckle patterns. The speckle patterns are generated and optimized via computer simulations, and then printed on the decal paper. During the experiments, operators can moisten the basement with water and the brush, so that digital patterns can be simply transferred to the carriers’ surfaces. Tensile experiments with an extended three-dimensional (3D) DIC system are performed to test and verify the validity of WTP patterns. It is shown that by comparing with a strain gage, the strain error is less than 50με in a uniform tensile test. From five carbon steel tensile experiments, Lüders bands in both WTP patterns and spray paint patterns are demonstrated to propagate symmetrically. In the necking part where the strain is up to 66%, WTP patterns are proved to adhere to the specimens well. Hence, WTP patterns are capable of maintaining coherence and adherence to the specimen surface. The transfer paper, working as the role of strain gage in the electrometric method, will contribute to speckle creation. (paper)

  18. Simultaneous laser speckle imaging and positron emission tomography (United States)

    Gramer, M.; Feuerstein, D.; Backes, H.; Takagaki, M.; Kumagai, T.; Graf, R.


    Complex biological systems often require measurements of multiple parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. Multimodal approaches and the combination of methods are therefore a powerful tool to address such scientific questions. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an optical method that monitors dynamic changes in cortical blood flow (CBF) with high temporal resolution. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for quantitative imaging of physiological processes and is a gold standard method to determine absolute cerebral blood flow. We developed a setup that allows simultaneous measurement with both modalities. Here, we simultaneously measured CBF with PET and LSI in rats and analyzed how the correlation of PET and LSI is modified when (1) different methods are used for the calculation of speckle inverse correlation time (ICT), (2) speckle data is acquired through thinned or craniectomized skull, (3) influence of surface vessels is removed from the speckle data. For the latter, a method for automated vessel segmentation from LSI data was developed. We obtained the best correlation (R² = 0.890, pICT. Thus, LSI provides CBF in absolute units at high temporal resolution.

  19. Powertrain engineering using holographic/electronic speckle pattern interferometry (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Marchi, Mitchell M.; Allen, Thomas E.


    Novel applications of computer aided holographic interferometry and electronic speckle pattern interferometry in automotive powertrain engineering are presented. Four applications are described: engine manifold/cylinder head interface deformation measurement, engine camcover strain analysis, throttle bore deformation measurement, and alternator modal characterization.

  20. An Exchange of Views on "The Great Speckled Bird." (United States)

    Waugh, Dexter; Cornbleth, Catherine


    Responds to critical commentary about the authors' article, "The Great Speckled Bird" (1993), which addressed educational policymaking within a social context characterized by multicultural backlash. The authors point to their critics' attempts to deflect from the article's main focus, how these educational policies came to be, by…

  1. 3-color photometry of a sunspot using speckle masking techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehr, E.; Sütterlin, P.


    A three-colour photometry is used to deduce the temperature of sunspot fine-structures. Using the Speckle-Masking method for image restoration, the resulting images (one per colour and burst) have a spatial resolution only limited by the telescope's aperture, i.e. 95km (blue), 145 km (red) and

  2. Scattering property based contextual PolSAR speckle filter (United States)

    Mullissa, Adugna G.; Tolpekin, Valentyn; Stein, Alfred


    Reliability of the scattering model based polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) speckle filter depends upon the accurate decomposition and classification of the scattering mechanisms. This paper presents an improved scattering property based contextual speckle filter based upon an iterative classification of the scattering mechanisms. It applies a Cloude-Pottier eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition and a fuzzy H/α classification to determine the scattering mechanisms on a pre-estimate of the coherency matrix. The H/α classification identifies pixels with homogeneous scattering properties. A coarse pixel selection rule groups pixels that are either single bounce, double bounce or volume scatterers. A fine pixel selection rule is applied to pixels within each canonical scattering mechanism. We filter the PolSAR data and depending on the type of image scene (urban or rural) use either the coarse or fine pixel selection rule. Iterative refinement of the Wishart H/α classification reduces the speckle in the PolSAR data. Effectiveness of this new filter is demonstrated by using both simulated and real PolSAR data. It is compared with the refined Lee filter, the scattering model based filter and the non-local means filter. The study concludes that the proposed filter compares favorably with other polarimetric speckle filters in preserving polarimetric information, point scatterers and subtle features in PolSAR data.

  3. The POKEMON Speckle Survey of Nearby M-Dwarfs (United States)

    van Belle, Gerard; von Braun, Kaspar; Horch, Elliott; Clark, Catherine; DSSI Speckle Team


    The POKEMON (Pervasive Overview of Kompanions of Every M-dwarf in Our Neighborhood) survey of nearby M-dwarfs intends to inspect, at diffraction-limited resolution, every low-mass star out to 15pc, along with selected additional objects to 25pc. The primary emphasis of the survey is detection of low-mass companions to these M-dwarfs for refinement of the low-mass star multiplicity rate. The resultant catalog of M-dwarf companions will also guide immediate refinement of transit planet detection results from surveys such as TESS. POKEMON is using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) speckle camera, along with the NN-Explore Exoplanet Stellar Speckle Imager (NESSI) speckle imager on 3.5-m WIYN; the survey takes advantage of the extremely rapid observing cadence rates possible with WIYN and (especially) DCT. The current status and preliminary results from the first 20+ nights of observing will be presented. Gotta observe them all!

  4. Residual effects of monoammonium phosphate, gypsum and elemental sulfur on cadmium phytoavailability and translocation from soil to wheat in an effluent irrigated field. (United States)

    Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Rehman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Maqsood, Muhammad Aamer; Khalid, Hinnan; Rinklebe, Jörg; Ok, Yong Sik


    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is one of the major threats to food security. The application of inorganic amendments such as mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), gypsum and elemental sulfur (S) could alleviate the negative effects of Cd in crops. However, their long-term residual effects on decreasing Cd uptake in latter crops remain unclear. A field that had previously been applied with treatments including control and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% by weight of each MAP, gypsum and S, and grown with wheat and rice and thereafter wheat in the rotation was selected for this study. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the same field as the third crop without further application of amendments to evaluate the residual effects of the amendments on Cd uptake by wheat. Plants were harvested at maturity and grain, and straw yield along with Cd concentration in soil, straw, and grains was determined. The addition of MAP and gypsum significantly increased wheat growth and yield and decreased Cd accumulation in straw and grains compared to control while the reverse was found in S application. Both MAP and gypsum decreased AB-DTPA extractable Cd in soil while S increased the bioavailable Cd in soil. Both MAP and gypsum increased the Cd immobilization in the soil and S decreased Cd immobilization in a dose-additive manner. We conclude that MAP and gypsum had a significant residual effect on decreasing Cd uptake in wheat. The cost-benefit ratio revealed that gypsum is an effective amendment for decreasing Cd concentration in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual magnetic stray field in ITER building and field perturbation on the plasma due to ferromagnetic iron components outside the vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Marin, A.; Lucca, F.; Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G.


    The present work evaluates, using 3D finite element (FE) electromagnetic (EM) analyses, the poloidal field coil (PFC) stray field reduction inside and outside the main ITER building due to the presence of ferromagnetic content in the concrete and other iron components outside the vessel (mainly the huge iron boxes of the NBI - neutral beam injector - and the iron doors at the end of the port corridors). To perform these analyses a 360 deg. 3D EM model of the ITER building has been developed, named electromagnetic model of the building complex (EMMOBC), which includes the poloidal field coils, the plasma, a coarse model of the two heating and current drive (H and CD) NBIs, the coils of the NBI active magnetic field reduction system, and all the main building components that could include ferromagnetic materials. The plasma scenarios at the start of flat-top (SOF) and at the end of burning (EOB) have been considered. The effect on the stray field on the NBI due to the presence of the active (AMFRS) and passive (PMFRS) magnetic field reduction system of the near NBI and of the others iron component in the building has been evaluated, using EMMOBC that include the coarse model of the two NBIs. The coil currents of the AMFRS in the H and CD NBI have been optimized for the stray field coming from the SOF and EOB plasma scenarios at plasma current of 15 MA. The stray field at SOF and EOB, including the effects of the ferromagnetic iron content (outside the vessel), has been evaluated inside and outside the main ITER building using the EMMOBC. Finally the field perturbation produced on the plasma q = 2 surface has been evaluated.

  6. Method for aortic wall strain measurement with three-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking and fitted finite element analysis. (United States)

    Karatolios, Konstantinos; Wittek, Andreas; Nwe, Thet Htar; Bihari, Peter; Shelke, Amit; Josef, Dennis; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Geks, Josef; Maisch, Bernhard; Blase, Christopher; Moosdorf, Rainer; Vogt, Sebastian


    Aortic wall strains are indicators of biomechanical changes of the aorta due to aging or progressing pathologies such as aortic aneurysm. We investigated the potential of time-resolved three-dimensional ultrasonography coupled with speckle-tracking algorithms and finite element analysis as a novel method for noninvasive in vivo assessment of aortic wall strain. Three-dimensional volume datasets of 6 subjects without cardiovascular risk factors and 2 abdominal aortic aneurysms were acquired with a commercial real time three-dimensional echocardiography system. Longitudinal and circumferential strains were computed offline with high spatial resolution using a customized commercial speckle-tracking software and finite element analysis. Indices for spatial heterogeneity and systolic dyssynchrony were determined for healthy abdominal aortas and abdominal aneurysms. All examined aortic wall segments exhibited considerable heterogenous in-plane strain distributions. Higher spatial resolution of strain imaging resulted in the detection of significantly higher local peak strains (p ≤ 0.01). In comparison with healthy abdominal aortas, aneurysms showed reduced mean strains and increased spatial heterogeneity and more pronounced temporal dyssynchrony as well as delayed systole. Three-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking enables the analysis of spatially highly resolved strain fields of the aortic wall and offers the potential to detect local aortic wall motion deformations and abnormalities. These data allow the definition of new indices by which the different biomechanical properties of healthy aortas and aortic aneurysms can be characterized. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization (United States)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.


    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  8. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K [University of Washington, Department of Bioengineering, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)


    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  9. Speckle reduction using deformable mirrors with diffusers in a laser pico-projector. (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-An; Pan, Jui-Wen; Yang, Zu-Po


    We propose a design for speckle reduction in a laser pico-projector adopting diffusers and deformable mirrors. This research focuses on speckle noise suppression by changing the angle of divergence of the diffuser. Moreover, the speckle contrast value can be further reduced by the addition of a deformable mirror. The speckle reduction ability obtained using diffusers with different divergence angles is compared. Three types of diffuser designs are compared in the experiments. For Type 1 which uses a circular symmetric diffuser the speckle contrast value can be decreased to 0.0264. For Type 2, the speckle contrast value can be reduced to 0.0267 because of the inclusion of an elliptical distribution diffuser. With Type 3 which includes a combination of the circular distribution diffuser and elliptical distribution diffuser, the speckle contrast value can be reduced to 0.0236. For all three types, the speckle contrast value is lower than 0.05. Under this speckle value, the speckle phenomenon is invisible to the human eye.

  10. Understanding the exposure-time effect on speckle contrast measurements for laser displays (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Kubota, Shigeo


    To evaluate the influence of exposure time on speckle noise for laser displays, speckle contrast measurement method was developed observable at a human eye response time using a high-sensitivity camera which has a signal multiplying function. The nonlinearity of camera light sensitivity was calibrated to measure accurate speckle contrasts, and the measuring lower limit noise of speckle contrast was improved by applying spatial-frequency low pass filter to the captured images. Three commercially available laser displays were measured over a wide range of exposure times from tens of milliseconds to several seconds without adjusting the brightness of laser displays. The speckle contrast of raster-scanned mobile projector without any speckle-reduction device was nearly constant over various exposure times. On the contrary to this, in full-frame projection type laser displays equipped with a temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, some of their speckle contrasts close to the lower limits noise were slightly increased at the shorter exposure time due to the noise. As a result, the exposure-time effect of speckle contrast could not be observed in our measurements, although it is more reasonable to think that the speckle contrasts of laser displays, which are equipped with the temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, are dependent on the exposure time. This discrepancy may be attributed to the underestimation of temporal averaging factor. We expected that this method is useful for evaluating various laser displays and clarify the relationship between the speckle noise and the exposure time for a further verification of speckle reduction.

  11. Measuring object shape by using in-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometry with divergent illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra-Michel, Jorge; Martínez, Amalia; Rayas, J A; Anguiano-Morales, Marcelino


    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry is a useful technique for displacement, deformation and contouring measurements. Traditionally, for contouring measurements, collimated illumination with a constant sensitivity vector is used, and the surface area analysis is limited to the illuminated area. In some industrial applications, large surfaces require to be analyzed in restricted space conditions. Considering this situation, an optical system with divergent illumination for whole-field measurements can be used. It is known that displacement fields and the optical phase are related by the sensitivity vector. Therefore, to compute the sensitivity vector, illumination position and superficial shape need to be considered, a condition that becomes an impediment for surface contouring if the superficial shape is unknown. In this work, a simple iterative algorithm based on the Gauss–Seidel technique is presented to compute contouring measurements. Contouring measurements from both ESPI and a coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) are compared. In addition, a measurement comparison considering supposed collimated and divergent illumination is presented

  12. Permutation entropy based speckle analysis in metal cutting (United States)

    Nair, Usha; Krishna, Bindu M.; Namboothiri, V. N. N.; Nampoori, V. P. N.


    Machine tool chatter is an unfavorable phenomenon during metal cutting, which results in heavy vibration of cutting tool. With increase in depth of cut the cutting regime changes from chatter- free cutting to one with chatter. In this paper, we propose the use of permutation entropy (PE), a conceptually simple and computationally fast measure to detect the onset of chatter from the time series generated using laser speckle pattern recorded using Charge Couple Device (CCD) camera. Laser speckle is an interference pattern produced by light reflected or scattered from different parts of the illuminated surface. It is the superposition of many wave fronts with random phases, scattered from different parts of the rough surface. If a speckle pattern is produced by coherent light incident on a rough surface, then surely the speckle pattern, or at least the statistics of the speckle pattern, must depend upon the detailed surface properties. Therefore we propose PE as an ideal measure, which can efficiently distinguish regular and complex nature of any signal, to extract information about the roughness of the reflecting surface. In the present study two work pieces, one taper cut and one step cut are machined to form cylindrical pieces, by continuously varying the depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases the surface finish is expected to deteriorate, mainly due to the onset of chatter vibrations. To analyze the surface texture characteristics, the speckle pattern is obtained by illuminating this curved surface using a collimated laser beam (5mW Diode Laser at 676nm wavelength.). The laser beam is made to incident obliquely to the curved surface of the work piece, and the speckle pattern is recorded using a CCD camera. The beam is scanned along the axis of the work-piece and the speckle pattern is recorded at different regions at constant intervals. A time series is generated from the speckle data and analyzed using PE. Permutation entropy is a complexity measure suitable

  13. Impact of transducer frequency setting on speckle tracking measures. (United States)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Køber, Lars; Højberg, Søren; Haugan, Ketil; Jensen, Jan Skov; Biering-Sørensen, Tor


    Speckle tracking echocardiography is an emerging technique, which is currently being included in clinical guidelines. We sought to investigate the impact of transducer frequency settings on speckle tracking derived measures. The study comprised of 22 subjects prospectively enrolled for a randomized controlled trial (LOOP-study, Patients were above 70 years of age with increased risk of stroke, and had an echocardiogram performed, which included focused images of the left ventricle. Focused images were obtained with the transducer frequency set at both 1.7/3.3 and 1.5/3.0 MHz. The images were obtained immediately after each other at the exact same position for the two settings. Speckle tracking was performed in three apical projections, allowing for acquisition of layered global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rate measures. Concordance between the frequency settings was tested for endo-, mid-, and epicardial GLS and strain rates by coefficients of variation, bias coefficients and visually displayed by Bland-Altman plots. Bland-Altman plots did not reveal any significant over- or underestimation of any speckle tracking measure. Bias coefficients showed that none of the measurements differed significantly between the two settings (bias for GLS endo  = - 0.07 ± 2.94, p = 0.91; GLS mid  = 0.02 ± 2.70, p = 0.98, GLS epi  = 0.07 ± 2.53, p = 0.90). Coefficients of variation were as follows: GLS endo  = 15.11%, GLS mid  = 15.28%, GLS epi  = 17.26%, systolic strain rate = 15.66%, early diastolic strain rate = 38.46%, late diastolic strain rate = 11%. Changing between transducer frequency settings does not systematically derange speckle tracking measures. One can safely reduce the transducer frequency without compromising the validity of speckle tracking derived measures.

  14. Non-Destructive Detection of Wire Rope Discontinuities from Residual Magnetic Field Images Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Compressed Sensing. (United States)

    Zhang, Juwei; Tan, Xiaojiang; Zheng, Pengbo


    Electromagnetic methods are commonly employed to detect wire rope discontinuities. However, determining the residual strength of wire rope based on the quantitative recognition of discontinuities remains problematic. We have designed a prototype device based on the residual magnetic field (RMF) of ferromagnetic materials, which overcomes the disadvantages associated with in-service inspections, such as large volume, inconvenient operation, low precision, and poor portability by providing a relatively small and lightweight device with improved detection precision. A novel filtering system consisting of the Hilbert-Huang transform and compressed sensing wavelet filtering is presented. Digital image processing was applied to achieve the localization and segmentation of defect RMF images. The statistical texture and invariant moment characteristics of the defect images were extracted as the input of a radial basis function neural network. Experimental results show that the RMF device can detect defects in various types of wire rope and prolong the service life of test equipment by reducing the friction between the detection device and the wire rope by accommodating a high lift-off distance.

  15. Non-Destructive Detection of Wire Rope Discontinuities from Residual Magnetic Field Images Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwei Zhang


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic methods are commonly employed to detect wire rope discontinuities. However, determining the residual strength of wire rope based on the quantitative recognition of discontinuities remains problematic. We have designed a prototype device based on the residual magnetic field (RMF of ferromagnetic materials, which overcomes the disadvantages associated with in-service inspections, such as large volume, inconvenient operation, low precision, and poor portability by providing a relatively small and lightweight device with improved detection precision. A novel filtering system consisting of the Hilbert-Huang transform and compressed sensing wavelet filtering is presented. Digital image processing was applied to achieve the localization and segmentation of defect RMF images. The statistical texture and invariant moment characteristics of the defect images were extracted as the input of a radial basis function neural network. Experimental results show that the RMF device can detect defects in various types of wire rope and prolong the service life of test equipment by reducing the friction between the detection device and the wire rope by accommodating a high lift-off distance.

  16. Numerical Evaluation of Temperature Field and Residual Stresses in an API 5L X80 Steel Welded Joint Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson A. Da Nóbrega


    Full Text Available Metallic materials undergo many metallurgical changes when subjected to welding thermal cycles, and these changes have a considerable influence on the thermo-mechanical properties of welded structures. One method for evaluating the welding thermal cycle variables, while still in the project phase, would be simulation using computational methods. This paper presents an evaluation of the temperature field and residual stresses in a multipass weld of API 5L X80 steel, which is extensively used in oil and gas industry, using the Finite Element Method (FEM. In the simulation, the following complex phenomena were considered: the variation in physical and mechanical properties of the material as a function of the temperature, welding speed and convection and radiation mechanisms. Additionally, in order to characterize a multipass weld using the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process for the root pass and the Shielded Metal Arc Welding process for the filling passes, the analytical heat source proposed by Goldak and Chakravarti was used. In addition, we were able to analyze the influence of the mesh refinement in the simulation results. The findings indicated a significant variation of about 50% in the peak temperature values. Furthermore, changes were observed in terms of the level and profile of the welded joint residual stresses when more than one welding pass was considered.

  17. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings (United States)

    Pechersky, Martin J.


    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  18. Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans (United States)

    Liba, Orly; Lew, Matthew D.; Sorelle, Elliott D.; Dutta, Rebecca; Sen, Debasish; Moshfeghi, Darius M.; Chu, Steven; de La Zerda, Adam


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful biomedical imaging technology that relies on the coherent detection of backscattered light to image tissue morphology in vivo. As a consequence, OCT is susceptible to coherent noise (speckle noise), which imposes significant limitations on its diagnostic capabilities. Here we show speckle-modulating OCT (SM-OCT), a method based purely on light manipulation that virtually eliminates speckle noise originating from a sample. SM-OCT accomplishes this by creating and averaging an unlimited number of scans with uncorrelated speckle patterns without compromising spatial resolution. Using SM-OCT, we reveal small structures in the tissues of living animals, such as the inner stromal structure of a live mouse cornea, the fine structures inside the mouse pinna, and sweat ducts and Meissner's corpuscle in the human fingertip skin--features that are otherwise obscured by speckle noise when using conventional OCT or OCT with current state of the art speckle reduction methods.

  19. A novel method for repeatedly generating speckle patterns used in digital image correlation (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Sweedy, Ahmed; Gitzhofer, François; Baroud, Gamal


    Speckle patterns play a key role in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurement, and generating an optimal speckle pattern has been the goal for decades now. The usual method of generating a speckle pattern is by manually spraying the paint on the specimen. However, this makes it difficult to reproduce the optimal pattern for maintaining identical testing conditions and achieving consistent DIC results. This study proposed and evaluated a novel method using an atomization system to repeatedly generate speckle patterns. To verify the repeatability of the speckle patterns generated by this system, simulation and experimental studies were systematically performed. The results from both studies showed that the speckle patterns and, accordingly, the DIC measurements become highly accurate and repeatable using the proposed atomization system.

  20. Spiking cortical model-based nonlocal means method for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Li, Liu; Zhu, Fei; Hou, Wenguang; Chen, Xinjian


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images are usually degraded by significant speckle noise, which will strongly hamper their quantitative analysis. However, speckle noise reduction in OCT images is particularly challenging because of the difficulty in differentiating between noise and the information components of the speckle pattern. To address this problem, the spiking cortical model (SCM)-based nonlocal means method is presented. The proposed method explores self-similarities of OCT images based on rotation-invariant features of image patches extracted by SCM and then restores the speckled images by averaging the similar patches. This method can provide sufficient speckle reduction while preserving image details very well due to its effectiveness in finding reliable similar patches under high speckle noise contamination. When applied to the retinal OCT image, this method provides signal-to-noise ratio improvements of >16 dB with a small 5.4% loss of similarity.

  1. Field Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols Emitted by Undersampled Combustion Sources Including Wood and Dung Cooking Fires, Garbage and Crop Residue Burning, and Indonesian Peat Fires (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Jayarathne, T. S.; Goetz, D.; Simpson, I. J.; Selimovic, V.; Bhave, P.; Blake, D. R.; Cochrane, M. A.; Ryan, K. C.; Putra, E. I.; Saharjo, B.; Stone, E. A.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Yokelson, R. J.


    Field measurements were conducted in Nepal and in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan to improve characterization of trace gases and aerosols emitted by undersampled combustion sources. The sources targeted included cooking with a variety of stoves, garbage burning, crop residue burning, and authentic peat fires. Trace gas and aerosol emissions were studied using a land-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870nm), and filter samples that were analyzed off-line. These measurements were used to calculate fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for up to 90 gases, PM2.5, and PM2.5 constituents. The aerosol optical data measured included EFs for the scattering and absorption coefficients, the single scattering albedo (at 870 and 405 nm), as well as the absorption Ångström exponent. The emissions varied significantly by source, although light absorption by both brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) was important for all non-peat sources. For authentic peat combustion, the emissions of BC were negligible and absorption was dominated by organic aerosol. The field results from peat burning were in reasonable agreement with recent lab measurements of smoldering Kalimantan peat and compare well to the limited data available from other field studies. The EFs can be used with estimates of fuel consumption to improve regional emissions inventories and assessments of the climate and health impacts of these undersampled sources.

  2. Analysis of error functions in speckle shearing interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah


    Electronic Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (ESPSI) or shearography has successfully been used in NDT for slope (∂w/ (∂x and / or (∂w/ (∂y) measurement while strain measurement (∂u/ ∂x, ∂v/ ∂y, ∂u/ ∂y and (∂v/ (∂x) is still under investigation. This method is well accepted in industrial applications especially in the aerospace industry. Demand of this method is increasing due to complexity of the test materials and objects. ESPSI has successfully performed in NDT only for qualitative measurement whilst quantitative measurement is the current aim of many manufacturers. Industrial use of such equipment is being completed without considering the errors arising from numerous sources, including wavefront divergence. The majority of commercial systems are operated with diverging object illumination wave fronts without considering the curvature of the object illumination wavefront or the object geometry, when calculating the interferometer fringe function and quantifying data. This thesis reports the novel approach in quantified maximum phase change difference analysis for derivative out-of-plane (OOP) and in-plane (IP) cases that propagate from the divergent illumination wavefront compared to collimated illumination. The theoretical of maximum phase difference is formulated by means of three dependent variables, these being the object distance, illuminated diameter, center of illuminated area and camera distance and illumination angle. The relative maximum phase change difference that may contributed to the error in the measurement analysis in this scope of research is defined by the difference of maximum phase difference value measured by divergent illumination wavefront relative to the maximum phase difference value of collimated illumination wavefront, taken at the edge of illuminated area. Experimental validation using test objects for derivative out-of-plane and derivative in-plane deformation, using a single illumination wavefront

  3. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.


    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  4. Optical design of the comet Shoemaker-Levy speckle camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    An optical design is presented in which the Lick 3 meter telescope and a bare CCD speckle camera system was used to image the collision sites of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet with the Planet Jupiter. The brief overview includes of the optical constraints and system layout. The choice of a Risley prism combination to compensate for the time dependent atmospheric chromatic changes are described. Plate scale and signal-to-noise ratio curves resulting from imaging reference stars are compared with theory. Comparisons between un-corrected and reconstructed images of Jupiter`s impact sites. The results confirm that speckle imaging techniques can be used over an extended time period to provide a method to image large extended objects.

  5. Dynamic speckle image segmentation using self-organizing maps (United States)

    Pra, Ana L. Dai; Meschino, Gustavo J.; Guzmán, Marcelo N.; Scandurra, Adriana G.; González, Mariela A.; Weber, Christian; Trivi, Marcelo; Rabal, Héctor; Passoni, Lucía I.


    The aim of this work is to build a computational model able to automatically identify, after training, dynamic speckle pattern regions with similar properties. The process is carried out using a set of descriptors applied to the intensity variations with time in every pixel of a speckle image sequence. An image obtained by projecting a self-organized map is converted into regions of similar activity that can be easily distinguished. We propose a general procedure that could be applied to numerous situations. As examples we show different situations: (a) an activity test in a simplified situation; (b) a non-biological example and (c) biological active specimens. The results obtained are encouraging; they significantly improve upon those obtained using a single descriptor and will eventually permit automatic quantitative assessment.

  6. Separated Component-Based Restoration of Speckled SAR Images (United States)


    TYPE New Reprint 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...radar. I. INTRODUCTION COHERENT imaging systems such as synthetic aper -ture radar (SAR), holography, ultrasound, and synthetic aperture sonar suffer...noise variance by a factor of L. However, this often results in the reduction of the spatial resolution. Other types of speckle reduction methods are

  7. Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector. [Precision Analog Photon Address (United States)

    Papaliolios, C.; Nisenson, P.; Ebstein, S.


    A new 2-D photon-counting camera, the PAPA (precision analog photon address) detector has been built, tested, and used successfully for the acquisition of speckle imaging data. The camera has 512 x 512 pixels and operates at count rates of at least 200,000/sec. In this paper, technical details on the camera are presented and some of the laboratory and astronomical results are included which demonstrate the detector's capabilities.

  8. Analysis of the speckle properties in a laser projection system based on a human eye model. (United States)

    Cui, Zhe; Wang, Anting; Ma, Qianli; Ming, Hai


    In this paper, the properties of the speckle that is observed by humans in laser projection systems are theoretically analyzed. The speckle pattern on the fovea of the human retina is numerically simulated by introducing a chromatic human eye model. The results show that the speckle contrast experienced by humans is affected by the light intensity of the projected images and the wavelength of the laser source when considering the paracentral vision. Furthermore, the image quality is also affected by these two parameters. We believe that these results are useful for evaluating the speckle noise in laser projection systems.

  9. Speckle-free digital holographic recording of a diffusely reflecting object. (United States)

    Kim, You Seok; Kim, Taegeun; Woo, Sung Soo; Kang, Hoonjong; Poon, Ting-Chung; Zhou, Changhe


    We demonstrate holographic recording without speckle noise using the digital holographic technique called optical scanning holography (OSH). First, we record a complex hologram of a diffusely reflecting (DR) object using OSH. The incoherent mode of OSH makes it possible to record the complex hologram without speckle noise. Second, we convert the complex hologram to an off-axis real hologram digitally and finally we reconstruct the real hologram using an amplitude-only spatial light modulator (SLM) without twin-image noise and speckle noise. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time demonstrating digital holographic recording of a DR object without speckle noise.

  10. Setup for studying speckle noise of spectroradiometer diffusers in Earth observation applications (United States)

    Vaskuri, Anna; Greenwell, Claire; Woolliams, Emma


    Diffusers in in-orbit spectroradiometers cause speckle under partially coherent solar radiation. A speckle pattern entering a spectroradiometer through a small slit creates systematic spectral deviations in measured spectra. We have developed a setup to characterise the spatial speckle of diffusers and the related spectral features. The decorrelation angles measured at 532 nm for Spectralon, Diffusil, and Heraeus diffusers were 0.021°, 0.014°, and 0.005° respectively. This information can be used for compensating speckle-related spectral features from the radiometric satellite measurements by averaging over multiple decorrelated spectra.

  11. Speckle reduction of reconstructions of digital holograms using three dimensional filtering (United States)

    Maycock, Jonathan; McDonald, John B.; Hennelly, Bryan M.


    We report on a new digital signal processing technique that reduces speckle in reconstructions of digital holograms. This is achieved by convolving the three dimensional intensity pattern (the intensity of the propagated DH at a series of different distances) with a 3D point spread function in all three dimensions (x,y,z). It is based on the fact that the addition of different independent speckle images on an intensity basis reduces the speckle content. We provide quantitative results in terms of speckle index and resolution, and show that filtering in the z direction has the added benefit of an increase in the depth of focus of the digital hologram reconstruction.

  12. The hatching results of indigenous Hungarian speckled hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Benk


    Full Text Available In the pilot farm of Szeged University Faculty of Agriculture we keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the naked-neck type since 1977. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavor to find the best way for the production-purpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the hatching results of both type of speckled hens, during more than 20 generations.

  13. Impact of transducer frequency setting on speckle tracking measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Køber, Lars


    Speckle tracking echocardiography is an emerging technique, which is currently being included in clinical guidelines. We sought to investigate the impact of transducer frequency settings on speckle tracking derived measures. The study comprised of 22 subjects prospectively enrolled for a randomized.......5/3.0 MHz. The images were obtained immediately after each other at the exact same position for the two settings. Speckle tracking was performed in three apical projections, allowing for acquisition of layered global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rate measures. Concordance between the frequency...... that none of the measurements differed significantly between the two settings (bias for GLSendo = - 0.07 ± 2.94, p = 0.91; GLSmid = 0.02 ± 2.70, p = 0.98, GLSepi = 0.07 ± 2.53, p = 0.90). Coefficients of variation were as follows: GLSendo = 15.11%, GLSmid = 15.28%, GLSepi = 17.26%, systolic strain rate = 15...

  14. Gold-Speckled Multimodal Nanoparticles for Noninvasive Bioimaging (United States)


    In this report the synthesis, characterization, and functional evaluation of a multimodal nanoparticulate contrast agent for noninvasive imaging through both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is presented. The nanoparticles described herein enable high resolution and highly sensitive three-dimensional diagnostic imaging through the synergistic coupling of MRI and PAT capabilities. Gadolinium (Gd)-doped gold-speckled silica (GSS) nanoparticles, ranging from 50 to 200 nm, have been prepared in a simple one-pot synthesis using nonionic microemulsions. The photoacoustic signal is generated from a nonuniform, discontinuous gold nanodomains speckled across the silica surface, whereas the MR contrast is provided through Gd incorporated in the silica matrix. The presence of a discontinuous speckled surface, as opposed to a continuous gold shell, allows sufficient bulk water exchange with the Gd ions to generate a strong MR contrast. The dual imaging capabilities of the particles have been demonstrated through in silicio and in vitro methods. The described particles also have the capacity for therapeutic applications including the thermal ablation of tumors through the absorption of irradiated light. PMID:19466201

  15. Twinkle Twinkle Little Star - Speckle Imaging for Exoplanet Characterization (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Scott, Nic; Horch, Elliott


    The NASA K2 mission is finding many high-value exoplanets and world-wide follow-up is ensuing. The NASA TESS mission will soon be launched, requiring additional ground-based observations as well. As a part of the NASA-NSFNN-EXPLORE program to enable exoplanet research, our group is building two new speckle interferometry cameras for the Kitt Peak WIYN 3.5-m telescope and the Gemini-N 8-m telescope. Modeled after the successful DSSI visitor instrument that has been used at these telescopes for many years, speckle observations provide the highest resolution images available today from any ground- or space-based single telescope. They are the premier method through which small, rocky exoplanets can be validated. Available for public use in early 2017, WIYNSPKL and GEMSPKL will obtain simultaneous images in two filters with fast EMCCD readout, "speckle" and “wide-field” imaging modes, and user support for proposal writing, observing, and data reduction. We describe the new cameras, their design, and their benefits for exoplanet follow-up, characterization, and validation. Funding for this project comes from the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and NASA HQ.

  16. Speckle imaging with the SOAR and the very large telescopes (United States)

    Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Girard, Julien H.; Montagnier, Guillaume


    Astronomical speckle imaging is a well established technique for obtaining diffraction limited images of binary and multiple stars, low contrast solar features and nearby extended objects such as comets and solar system planets, with large ground-based telescopes. We have developed a speckle masking code to reconstruct images of such objects from the corresponding specklegrams. This code uses speckle interferometry for estimating the Fourier amplitudes and bispectrum for estimating the Fourier phases. In this paper, we discuss a few technical issues such as: What is the photometric and astrometric accuracy that can be achieved with this code? What is the closest separation between the components of a binary star that can be clearly resolved with sufficient signal to noise ratio with this code? What is the maximum dynamic range? What kind of calibration schemes can be used in the absence of a bright calibrator close to the object of interest? We address these questions based on computer simulations. We present a few sample reconstructions from the real data obtained from the SOAR telescope. We also present the details of a technical feasibility study carried out with NACO-cube mode at the VLT.

  17. New magnetic-field-based weighted-residual quasi-static finite element scheme for modeling bulk magnetostriction (United States)

    Kannan, Kidambi S.; Dasgupta, Abhijit


    Deformation control of smart structures and damage detection in smart composites by magneto-mechanical tagging are just a few of the increasing number of applications of polydomain, polycrystalline magnetostrictive materials that are currently being researched. Robust computational models of bulk magnetostriction will be of great assistance to designers of smart structures for optimization of performance and development of control strategies. This paper discusses the limitations of existing tools, and reports on the work of the authors in developing a 3D nonlinear continuum finite element scheme for magnetostrictive structures, based on an appropriate Galerkin variational principle and incremental constitutive relations. The unique problems posed by the form of the equations governing magneto-mechanical interactions as well as their impact on the proper choice of variational and finite element discretization schemes are discussed. An adaptation of vectorial edge functions for interpolation of magnetic field in hexahedral elements is outlined. The differences between the proposed finite element scheme and available formations are also discussed in this paper. Computational results obtained from the newly proposed scheme will be presented in a future paper.

  18. Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: A field evaluation (United States)

    Nason, Peter; Johnson, Raymond H.; Neuschutz, Clara; Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Bjorn


    Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2 m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6 m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3 m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation.

  19. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Deformation Measurements Using Stereoscopic Imaging and Digital Speckle Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, H. J.; Proud, W. G.


    A technique has been developed to determine experimentally the three-dimensional displacement field on the rear surface of a dynamically deforming plate. The technique combines speckle analysis with stereoscopy, using a modified angular-lens method: this incorporates split-frame photography and a simple method by which the effective lens separation can be adjusted and calibrated in situ. Whilst several analytical models exist to predict deformation in extended or semi-infinite targets, the non-trivial nature of the wave interactions complicates the generation and development of analytical models for targets of finite depth. By interrogating specimens experimentally to acquire three-dimensional strain data points, both analytical and numerical model predictions can be verified more rigorously. The technique is applied to the quasi-static deformation of a rubber sheet and dynamically to Mild Steel sheets of various thicknesses

  20. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Francois, Manuel [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Vial-Edwards, Cristian [Departemento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 6904411 Santiago (Chile); Montay, Guillaume [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Daniel, Laurent [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Lu, Jian [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)


    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force ({epsilon} {sup t} {approx_equal} 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements.

  1. Measurement of simple shear strain with a uniaxial speckle strain meter; Laser speckle yugamikei wo mochiita sendan yugami no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    Elastic and viscoelastic shear strains induced in test specimens with double-shear geometry are measured by extending the conventional uniaxial speckle extensometry. The test results for soda-lime glass give excellent agreements with the shear modulus G at room temperature and the shear viscosity {eta} reported in the literature at temperatures from 530 to 555degC. The G and {eta} values are also in agreement with those measured by a strain-gage foil and by an electro-optical extensometer, respectively. This agreement confirms that the proposed technique and analysis for the measurement of shear strain with a uniaxial laser speckle strain meter are not only applicable for characterizing the mechanical properties of brittle materials in a small scale deformation, but also provide a powerful tool for studying the high-temperature deformation and flow of engineering materials in a large scale deformation. The issue of affine transformation of polycrystalline materials with local heterogeneity and anisotropy is also discussed by comparing the test results of speckle and electro-optical extensometries. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Decomposition rates and residue-colonizing microbial communities of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein Cry3Bb-expressing (Bt) and non-Bt corn hybrids in the field. (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Serohijos, Raquel C; Devare, Medha; Thies, Janice E


    Despite the rapid adoption of crops expressing the insecticidal Cry protein(s) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), public concern continues to mount over the potential environmental impacts. Reduced residue decomposition rates and increased tissue lignin concentrations reported for some Bt corn hybrids have been highlighted recently as they may influence soil carbon dynamics. We assessed the effects of MON863 Bt corn, producing the Cry3Bb protein against the corn rootworm complex, on these aspects and associated decomposer communities by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Litterbags containing cobs, roots, or stalks plus leaves from Bt and unmodified corn with (non-Bt+I) or without (non-Bt) insecticide applied were placed on the soil surface and at a 10-cm depth in field plots planted with these crop treatments. The litterbags were recovered and analyzed after 3.5, 15.5, and 25 months. No significant effect of treatment (Bt, non-Bt, and non-Bt+I) was observed on initial tissue lignin concentrations, litter decomposition rate, or bacterial decomposer communities. The effect of treatment on fungal decomposer communities was minor, with only 1 of 16 comparisons yielding separation by treatment. Environmental factors (litterbag recovery year, litterbag placement, and plot history) led to significant differences for most measured variables. Combined, these results indicate that the differences detected were driven primarily by environmental factors rather than by any differences between the corn hybrids or the use of tefluthrin. We conclude that the Cry3Bb corn tested in this study is unlikely to affect carbon residence time or turnover in soils receiving these crop residues.

  3. Development of a speckle-based portable device for in situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors. (United States)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal


    A portable device for in situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors based on the near-field speckle scanning technique has been developed. Ultra-high angular sensitivity is achieved by scanning a piece of abrasive paper or filter membrane in the X-ray beam. In addition to the compact setup and ease of implementation, a user-friendly graphical user interface has been developed to ensure that optimizing active X-ray mirrors is simple and fast. The functionality and feasibility of this device have been demonstrated by characterizing and optimizing X-ray mirrors.

  4. Evaluation of digital image correlation techniques using realistic ground truth speckle images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofaru, C; Philips, W; Van Paepegem, W


    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been acknowledged and widely used in recent years in the field of experimental mechanics as a contactless method for determining full field displacements and strains. Even though several sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms have been proposed in the literature, little is known about their accuracy and limitations in reproducing complex underlying motion fields occurring in real mechanical tests. This paper presents a new method for evaluating sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms using ground truth speckle images that are realistically warped using artificial motion fields that were obtained following two distinct approaches: in the first, the horizontal and vertical displacement fields are created according to theoretical formulas for the given type of experiment while the second approach constructs the displacements through radial basis function interpolation starting from real DIC results. The method is applied in the evaluation of five DIC algorithms with results indicating that the gradient-based DIC methods generally have a quality advantage when using small sized blocks and are a better choice for calculating very small displacements and strains. The Newton–Raphson is the overall best performing method with a notable quality advantage when large block sizes are employed and in experiments where large strain fields are of interest

  5. Speckle Interferometry with the McMath-Pierce East Auxiliary Telescope (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Douglass, David; Prause, Lori; Genet, Russell


    Engineering runs and tests on the McMath-Pierce 0.8 meter East Auxiliary telescope successfully configured the telescope for speckle interferometry observations of close visual double stars. This paper reports the procedure and results of the speckle analysis of four double stars.

  6. Visual based laser speckle pattern recognition method for structural health monitoring (United States)

    Park, Kyeongtaek; Torbol, Marco


    This study performed the system identification of a target structure by analyzing the laser speckle pattern taken by a camera. The laser speckle pattern is generated by the diffuse reflection of the laser beam on a rough surface of the target structure. The camera, equipped with a red filter, records the scattered speckle particles of the laser light in real time and the raw speckle image of the pixel data is fed to the graphic processing unit (GPU) in the system. The algorithm for laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) computes: the laser speckle contrast images and the laser speckle flow images. The k-mean clustering algorithm is used to classify the pixels in each frame and the clusters' centroids, which function as virtual sensors, track the displacement between different frames in time domain. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the frequency domain decomposition (FDD) compute the modal properties of the structure: natural frequencies and damping ratios. This study takes advantage of the large scale computational capability of GPU. The algorithm is written in Compute Unifies Device Architecture (CUDA C) that allows the processing of speckle images in real time.

  7. Spatial filtering velocimetry of objective speckles for measuring out-of-plane motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, H. T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    This paper analyzes the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the distance between the object and the observation plane continuously changes. With the purpose of applying optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics, in order to measure out-of-plane motion in real time...

  8. Tandem-pulsed acousto-optics: an analytical framework of modulated high-contrast speckle patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, Steffen; Steenbergen, Wiendelt


    Recently we presented acousto-optic (AO) probing of scattering media using addition or subtraction of speckle patterns due to tandem nanosecond pulses. Here we present a theoretical framework for ideal (polarized, noise-free) speckle patterns with unity contrast that links ultrasound-induced optical

  9. Predicting Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in Cerebrovascular Ischemia Using Tissue Doppler Imaging and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Møgelvang, Rasmus


    , tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking. TDI was performed to acquire myocardial peak velocities during systole/ventricular contraction (global s'), early diastole/ventricular filling (global e'), and late diastole/atrial contraction (global a'). Speckle tracking was performed for myocardial...

  10. Influence of cover crops and crop residue treatment on soil organic carbon stocks evaluated in Swedish long-term field experiments (United States)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils are strongly controlled by management. In this study we quantified the effect of cover crops and crop residue management on SOC stocks in Swedish long-term experiments. Eight pairs of cover crop (undersown ryegrass) vs. no cover crop were investigated in Swedish long-term field experiments (16 to 24 years). Yields of the main crop were not affected by the cover crop. Cover crops significantly increased SOC stocks, with a mean carbon sequestration rate in all experiments (excluding one) of 0.32±0.29 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Interestingly, this sequestration is similar to that estimated for a U.S.experiment, where ryegrass growth is much less temperature- and light-limited than under Swedish conditions. This sequestration rate is also the same as that recently reported for many other cover crops in a global meta-analysis but less than SOC changes in ley-dominated rotations which under Nordic conditions were shown to accumulate in average 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 more carbon compared to exclusively annual cropping systems. Thus, originally introduced in agricultural rotations to reduce nitrate leaching, cover crops are also an effective practice to increase SOC stocks, even at relatively high latitudes. The effect of crop residue treatment was studied in 16 pairs of straw incorporated (SI) vs. straw removed (SR) treatments in six Swedish long-term field experiments. Data series on SOC with 5-28 sampling dates during 27-53 years were analysed using ICBM, a dynamic SOC model. At five out of six sites, the humification coefficient for straw (hlitter; the fraction of straw C that is entering the slow C pool) was much smaller (0-0.09) than the ICBM default h-value for plant material estimated in previous studies (0.125). The derived hlitter-values and thus the stabilization of straw-derived carbon increased significantly with clay content. For an Italian site (with five pairs of SI vs. SR) that was used for model validation we found

  11. Study of drying process of paint by dynamic speckle with B/D pixel counting technique (United States)

    Balamurugan, R.; Rajarajan, G.


    The aim of the work is the assessment of drying process of latex paint by dynamic Laser speckle method. The basic concept of dynamic speckle technique is described. Laser light scattering by water borne sample is a time dependent surface activity. The variation of laser speckle intensity is due to the change of refractive index and the particle movements of the latex paint. A novel method, B/D counting technique to measure the dynamic activity of drying paint using co-occurrence matrix of Time History of Speckle Pattern (THSP) is presented. The result of drying process of latex paint by dynamic laser speckle method is compared with the gravimetric method and agreed well.

  12. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.


    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  13. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Meik


    Full Text Available Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size evolving in response to shifts in prey size.Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively.Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over

  14. Rat retinal vasomotion assessed by laser speckle imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y; Postnov, Dmitry D; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    vasomotion occurs in anesthetized animals and (ii) vasomotion can be initiated by systemic administration of the thromboxane analogue U-46619 and the nitric-oxide donor S-nitroso-acetylDL-penicillamine (SNAP). Although these drugs activate different cellular pathways responsible for vasomotion, our approach...... that can address the role and dynamical properties of vasomotion in vivo. We apply laser speckle imaging to study spontaneous and drug induced vasomotion in retinal network of anesthetized rats. The results reveal a wide variety of dynamical patterns. Wavelet-based analysis shows that (i) spontaneous...

  15. Effect of low-frequency vibrations on speckle interferometry fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, C.S.; Pechersky, M.J.


    The effects of low-frequency vibrations on speckle correlation fringes have been investigated. The relatively short capture time of the camera in the low-frequency case may yield usable fringe contrast in spite of vibration. It has been shown that the fringes also shift due to the vibration. The study is in agreement with experimental observations of good-contrast correlation fringes even if the object is not on a vibration-isolated table. Some such experimental observations are also presented. copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  16. Optoelectronic imaging of speckle using image processing method (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Wang, Pengfei


    A detailed image processing of laser speckle interferometry is proposed as an example for the course of postgraduate student. Several image processing methods were used together for dealing with optoelectronic imaging system, such as the partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to reduce the effect of noise, the thresholding segmentation also based on heat equation with PDEs, the central line is extracted based on image skeleton, and the branch is removed automatically, the phase level is calculated by spline interpolation method, and the fringe phase can be unwrapped. Finally, the imaging processing method was used to automatically measure the bubble in rubber with negative pressure which could be used in the tire detection.

  17. Speckle tracking echocardiography in mature Irish Wolfhound dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westrup, Ulrik; McEvoy, Fintan


    Two-dimensional strain measurements obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have been reported in both humans and dogs. Incorporation of this technique into canine clinical practice requires the availability of measurements from clinically normal dogs, ideally of the same breed, taken...... under normal clinical conditions.The aims of this prospective study were to assess if it is possible to obtain STE data during a routine echocardiographic examination in Irish Wolfhound dogs and that these data will provide reference values and an estimation of measurement error....

  18. Excitonic Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures Measured by Speckle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    A new method to measure the time-dependent coherence of optical excitations in solids is presented, in which the coherence degree of light emission is deduced from its intensity fluctuations over the emission directions (speckles). With this method the decays of intensity and coherence...... are determined separately, thus distinguishing lifetime from pure dephasing. In particular, the secondary emission of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells is investigated. Here, the combination of static disorder and inelastic scattering leads to a partially coherent emission. The temperature dependence...

  19. Ocular microtremor measurement using laser-speckle metrology (United States)

    Kenny, Emer; Coakley, Davis; Boyle, Gerard


    We describe a novel, noninvasive measurement approach for recording a small involuntary tremor of the eye known as ocular microtremor. The method is based on measuring out-of-plane angular displacements of a target by using laser-speckle correlation of images recorded in the Fourier plane of a lens. The system has a dynamic range of 4 to 5000 μrad, resolution of 4 μrad, and a bandwidth of 250 Hz. The design and optimization of the system is presented with an in vitro validation of the system against its specification.

  20. Lensless Photoluminescence Hyperspectral Camera Employing Random Speckle Patterns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídek, Karel; Denk, Ondřej; Hlubuček, Jiří


    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 15309. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-26284Y Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : compressed sensing * photoluminescence imaging * laser speckles * single-pixel camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel


    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  2. Intraoperative multi-exposure speckle imaging of cerebral blood flow. (United States)

    Richards, Lisa M; Kazmi, Sm Shams; Olin, Katherine E; Waldron, James S; Fox, Douglas J; Dunn, Andrew K


    Multiple studies have demonstrated that laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has high potential to be a valuable cerebral blood flow monitoring technique during neurosurgery. However, the quantitative accuracy and sensitivity of LSCI is limited, and highly dependent on the exposure time. An extension to LSCI called multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI) overcomes these limitations, and was evaluated intraoperatively in patients undergoing brain tumor resection. This clinical study ( n = 8) recorded multiple exposure times from the same cortical tissue area spanning 0.5-20 ms, and evaluated images individually as single-exposure LSCI and jointly using the MESI model. This study demonstrated that the MESI estimates provided the broadest flow sensitivity for sampling the flow magnitude in the human brain, closely followed by the shorter exposure times. Conservation of flow analysis on vascular bifurcations was used to validate physiological accuracy, with highly conserved flow estimates (flow changes after tissue cautery. Results from this study demonstrate that intraoperative MESI can be performed with high quantitative accuracy and sensitivity for cerebral blood flow monitoring.

  3. Calibration of a speckle-based compressive sensing receiver (United States)

    Sefler, George A.; Shaw, T. Justin; Stapleton, Andrew D.; Valley, George C.


    Optical speckle in a multimode waveguide has been proposed to perform the function of a compressive sensing (CS) measurement matrix (MM) in a receiver for GHz-band radio frequency (RF) signals. Unlike other devices used for the CS MM, e.g. the digital micromirror device (DMD) used in the single pixel camera, the elements of the speckle MM are not known before use and must be measured and calibrated. In our system, the RF signal is modulated on a repetitively pulsed chirped wavelength laser source, generated from mode-locked laser pulses that have been dispersed in time or from an electrically addressed distributed Bragg reflector laser. Next, the optical beam with RF propagates through a multimode fiber or waveguide, which applies different weights in wavelength (or equivalently time) and space and performs the function of the CS MM. The output of the guide is directed to or imaged on a bank of photodiodes with integration time set to the pulse length of the chirp waveform. The output of each photodiode is digitized by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and the data from these ADCs are used to form the CS measurement vector. Accurate recovery of the RF signal from CS measurements depends critically on knowledge of the weights in the MM. Here we present results using a stable wavelength laser source to probe the guide.

  4. Real time speckle monitoring to control retinal photocoagulation (United States)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Brinkmann, Ralf


    Photocoagulation is a treatment modality for several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the retinal absorption as well as ocular transmission and light scattering makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure with one set of laser parameters. To guarantee a uniform damage throughout the therapy a real-time control is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real-time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis in-vivo is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633 nm diode laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. An algorithm is presented that can discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes and that seems to be robust to noise in-vivo. Tissue changes in rabbits during retinal coagulation could be observed for different lesion strengths. This algorithm can run on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage.

  5. Statistics on gene-based laser speckles with a small number of scatterers: implications for the detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene (United States)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Feodorova, Valentina A.


    The transformation mechanism for a nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydia trachomatis gene into a speckle pattern has been considered. The first and second-order statistics of gene-based speckles have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that gene-based speckles do not obey Gaussian statistics and belong to the class of speckles with a small number of scatterers. It has been shown that gene polymorphism can be easily detected through analysis of the statistical characteristics of gene-based speckles.

  6. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  7. Detection of radiation deformation in crystalline polymers using the speckle photography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghandoor, H.; Hashem, A.A.; Sharaf, F.


    In order to measure the resulting deformation due to gamma irradiation of polymers, a new optical technique, namely speckle-photography, was established and used. Thin films of tetrafluoroethene, with constant thickness were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays and the diffraction patterns of a laser beam passing through these films were recorded using the speckle photography technique. This technique has been applied to detect the radiation deformation in (Teflon) TFE, which is a crystalline polymer. A diffraction pattern due to the TFE thin layer is obtained and superimposed on the interference pattern displaying the speckle pattern pairs recorded on the same emulsion. (author)

  8. Single tracking location methods suppress speckle noise in shear wave velocity estimation. (United States)

    Elegbe, Etana C; McAleavey, Stephen A


    In ultrasound-based elastography methods, the estimation of shear wave velocity typically involves the tracking of speckle motion due to an applied force. The errors in the estimates of tissue displacement, and thus shear wave velocity, are generally attributed to electronic noise and decorrelation due to physical processes. We present our preliminary findings on another source of error, namely, speckle-induced bias in phase estimation. We find that methods that involve tracking in a single location, as opposed to multiple locations, are less sensitive to this source of error since the measurement is differential in nature and cancels out speckle-induced phase errors.

  9. Investigation of Portevin-Le Chatelier band with temporal phase analysis of speckle interferometry (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping


    A new method combining temporal phase analysis with dynamic digital speckle pattern interferometry is proposed to study Portevin-Le Chatelier effect quantitatively. The principle bases on that the phase difference of interference speckle patterns is a time-dependent function related to the object deformation. The interference speckle patterns of specimen are recorded with high sampling rate while PLC effect occurs, and the 2D displacement map of PLC band and its width are obtained by analyzing the displacement of specimen with proposed method.

  10. A new optical pressure sensor interrogated by speckles pattern for oil industry (United States)

    Sperandio, Vinicius M.; Pontes, Maria J.; Neto, Anselmo F.; Webster, Lucas G.


    A new optical pressure control concept in petroleum industry based on laser speckle analysis, with inherent safety light, is investigated in this work. A plastic optical fiber (POF) utilized to instrument a conventional manometer enabled pressure monitoring of a system that is interrogated by speckle photography technique. Specklegrams were imaged on a CCD camera and then analyzed, after Mathematical Morphology Filter, regarding its movement. Tests demonstrated that the speckle pattern movement is radial towards the center of pressure and accordingly reverse during depressurization within 5% maximum error.

  11. Dynamics of laser speckle imaging of blood flow and morphological changes in tissues with a full time local ischemia of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrov D.A.


    Full Text Available The purpose: to establish influence of a full ischemia of different duration and the subsequent reperfusionon pathology development in pancreas of rats by means of laser speckle-visualization and lifetime digital microscopy. Materials and Methods. The work has been performed on 42 white rats of line Wistar in weight of 200-250 Research of properties of a blood-groove was made by means of methods laser Doppler flowmetry, digital biomicroscopy and a method of laser speckle-contrast visualization. Results. After the termination of a 5-minute full ischemia the speed of bloodflow has been increased in 2-3 times, clinic pancreatic necrosis is marked does not develop. After the termination of 20-minute full ischemia the increase in speed of a bloodflow did not occur, there were morphological and clinical signs of pancreatic necrosis. Conclusion, the efficiency of monitoring of microhemodynamics of pancreas in rats by the method of speckle-capillary of full field has been shown. Multidirectional phase of perfusion changes in pancreas have been revealed after reversible infringement of blood supply of different duration.

  12. Co-exposure to sunlight enhances the toxicity of naturally weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to early lifestage red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and speckled seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). (United States)

    Alloy, Matthew; Garner, Thomas Ross; Bridges, Kristin; Mansfield, Charles; Carney, Michael; Forth, Heather; Krasnec, Michelle; Lay, Claire; Takeshita, Ryan; Morris, Jeffrey; Bonnot, Shane; Oris, James; Roberts, Aaron


    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Red drum and speckled seatrout are both important fishery resources in the Gulf of Mexico. They spawn near-shore and produce positively buoyant embryos that hatch into larvae in approximately 24 h. The goal of the present study was to determine whether exposure to UV as natural sunlight enhances the toxicity of crude oil to early lifestage red drum and speckled seatrout. Larval fish were exposed to several dilutions of high-energy water-accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) from 2 different oils collected in the field under chain of custody during the 2010 spill and 3 gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Co-exposure to natural sunlight and oil significantly reduced larval survival compared with exposure to oil alone. Although both species were sensitive at PAH concentrations reported during the Deepwater Horizon spill, speckled seatrout demonstrated a greater sensitivity to photo-induced toxicity than red drum. These data demonstrate that even advanced weathering of slicks does not ameliorate the potential for photo-induced toxicity of oil to these species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:780-785. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Fast and robust automatic calibration for single-shot dual-wavelength digital holography based on speckle displacements. (United States)

    Khodadad, Davood; Bergström, Per; Hällstig, Emil; Sjödahl, Mikael


    The objective of this paper is to describe a fast and robust automatic single-shot dual-wavelength holographic calibration method that can be used for online shape measurement applications. We present a model of the correction in two terms for each lobe, one to compensate the systematic errors caused by off-axis angles and the other for the curvature of the reference waves, respectively. Each hologram is calibrated independently without a need for an iterative procedure or information of the experimental set-up. The calibration parameters are extracted directly from speckle displacements between different reconstruction planes. The parameters can be defined as any fraction of a pixel to avoid the effect of quantization. Using the speckle displacements, problems associated with phase wrapping is avoided. The procedure is shown to give a shape accuracy of 34 μm using a synthetic wavelength of 1.1 mm for a measurement on a cylindrical test object with a trace over a field of view of 18  mm×18  mm.

  14. Imaging of nanoparticle-labeled stem cells using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography, laser speckle reflectometry, and light microscopy (United States)

    Cimalla, Peter; Werner, Theresa; Winkler, Kai; Mueller, Claudia; Wicht, Sebastian; Gaertner, Maria; Mehner, Mirko; Walther, Julia; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Wittig, Dierk; Karl, Mike O.; Ader, Marius; Funk, Richard H. W.; Koch, Edmund


    Cell transplantation and stem cell therapy are promising approaches for regenerative medicine and are of interest to researchers and clinicians worldwide. However, currently, no imaging technique that allows three-dimensional in vivo inspection of therapeutically administered cells in host tissues is available. Therefore, we investigate magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MM-OCT) of cells labeled with magnetic particles as a potential noninvasive cell tracking method. We develop magnetomotive imaging of mesenchymal stem cells for future cell therapy monitoring. Cells were labeled with fluorescent iron oxide nanoparticles, embedded in tissue-mimicking agar scaffolds, and imaged using a microscope setup with an integrated MM-OCT probe. Magnetic particle-induced motion in response to a pulsed magnetic field of 0.2 T was successfully detected by OCT speckle variance analysis, and cross-sectional and volumetric OCT scans with highlighted labeled cells were obtained. In parallel, fluorescence microscopy and laser speckle reflectometry were applied as two-dimensional reference modalities to image particle distribution and magnetically induced motion inside the sample, respectively. All three optical imaging modalities were in good agreement with each other. Thus, magnetomotive imaging using iron oxide nanoparticles as cellular contrast agents is a potential technique for enhanced visualization of selected cells in OCT.

  15. Evaluation of detectable defect size for inner defect of pressure vessel using laser speckle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeoung Suk; Seon, Sang Woo; Choi, Tae Ho; Kang, Chan Geun; Na, Man Gyun; Jung, Hyun Chul [Chsoun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Pressure vessels are used in various industrial fields. If a defect occurs on the inner or outer surface of a pressure vessel, it may cause a massive accident. A defect on the outer surface can be detected by visual inspection. However, a defect on the inner surface is generally impossible to detect with visual inspection. Nondestructive testing can be used to detect this type of defect. Laser speckle shearing interferometry is one nondestructive testing method that can optically detect a defect; its advantages include noncontact, full field, and real time inspection. This study evaluated the detectable size for an internal defect of a pressure vessel. The material of the pressure vessel was ASTM A53 Gr.B. The internal defect was detected when the pressure vessel was loaded by internal pressure controlled by a pneumatic system. The internal pressure was controlled from 0.2 MPa to 0.6 MPa in increments of 0.2 MPa. The results confirmed that an internal defect with a 25 % defect depth could be detected even at 0.2 MPa pressure variation.

  16. Investigation of Rock Failure Pattern in Creep by Digital Speckle Correlation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Tan


    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanical characteristics from creep deformation to failure of rock, the tests of uniaxial compression and pushing steel-plate anchored in rock were performed, by using RLJW-2000 servo test synchronizing with Digital Speckle Correlation Method (DSCM. The investigations showed that for a uniaxial compressive specimen, when load arrived at 0.5σc, displacement clusters orderly formed, which was ahead of the macrocreep strain occurring in a slight jump mode when load arrived at 0.7σc. When the load level arrived at 0.8σc, displacement clusters gathered to be a narrow band. After that, the specimen abruptly fractured in a shear mode. In the creep pushing steel-plate test, when pushing force arrived at 25 kN, crack began to occur, the horizontal displacement field as well as shear strain field concentrated continuously along the interface between steel-plate and rock, and a new narrow concentrating band gathered in the upper layer. When pushing force arrived at 27.5 kN, another new narrow shear deformation band formed in the lower layer. Then, the steel-plate was pushed out quickly accompanying strong creep deformation.

  17. Uncloaking diffusive-light invisibility cloaks by speckle analysis. (United States)

    Niemeyer, Andreas; Mayer, Frederik; Naber, Andreas; Koirala, Milan; Yamilov, Alexey; Wegener, Martin


    Within the range of validity of the stationary diffusion equation, an ideal diffusive-light invisibility cloak can make an arbitrary macroscopic object hidden inside of the cloak indistinguishable from the surroundings for all colors, polarizations, and directions of incident visible light. However, the diffusion equation for light is an approximation which becomes exact only in the limit of small coherence length. Thus, one expects that the cloak can be revealed by illumination with coherent light. The experiments presented here show that the cloaks are robust in the limit of large coherence length but can be revealed by analysis of the speckle patterns under illumination with partially coherent light. Experiments on cylindrical core-shell cloaks and corresponding theory are in good agreement.

  18. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.


    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  19. Speckle reduction via higher order total variation approach. (United States)

    Wensen Feng; Hong Lei; Yang Gao


    Multiplicative noise (also known as speckle) reduction is a prerequisite for many image-processing tasks in coherent imaging systems, such as the synthetic aperture radar. One approach extensively used in this area is based on total variation (TV) regularization, which can recover significantly sharp edges of an image, but suffers from the staircase-like artifacts. In order to overcome the undesirable deficiency, we propose two novel models for removing multiplicative noise based on total generalized variation (TGV) penalty. The TGV regularization has been mathematically proven to be able to eliminate the staircasing artifacts by being aware of higher order smoothness. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm is developed for solving the TGV-based optimization problems. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our proposed methods achieve state-of-the-art results, both visually and quantitatively. In particular, when the image has some higher order smoothness, our methods outperform the TV-based algorithms.

  20. Surface Roughness Measurement on a Wing Aircraft by Speckle Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Barrientos


    Full Text Available The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given.

  1. Surface roughness measurement on a wing aircraft by speckle correlation. (United States)

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto


    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given.

  2. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.


    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  3. Evaluation and Correction for Optical Scattering Variations in Laser Speckle Rheology of Biological Fluids (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.


    Biological fluids fulfill key functionalities such as hydrating, protecting, and nourishing cells and tissues in various organ systems. They are capable of these versatile tasks owing to their distinct structural and viscoelastic properties. Characterizing the viscoelastic properties of bio-fluids is of pivotal importance for monitoring the development of certain pathologies as well as engineering synthetic replacements. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) is a novel optical technology that enables mechanical evaluation of tissue. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the tissue and temporal speckle intensity fluctuations are analyzed to evaluate mechanical properties. The rate of temporal speckle fluctuations is, however, influenced by both optical and mechanical properties of tissue. Therefore, in this paper, we develop and validate an approach to estimate and compensate for the contributions of light scattering to speckle dynamics and demonstrate the capability of LSR for the accurate extraction of viscoelastic moduli in phantom samples and biological fluids of varying optical and mechanical properties. PMID:23705028


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Bahi, Lizzie Anne P.; Gaulin, Joseph R. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Sherry, William H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 87719 (United States); Baena Galle, Roberto [Observatori Fabra, Reial Academia de Ciencies i Arts de Barcelona, Cami de l' Observatori s/n, E-08002 Barcelona (Spain); Van Altena, William F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)


    Five hundred thirty-one speckle measures of binary stars are reported. These data were taken mainly during the period 2008 June through 2009 October at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak and represent the last data set of single-filter speckle observations taken in the WIYN speckle program prior to the use of the current two-channel speckle camera. The astrometric and photometric precision of these observations is consistent with previous papers in this series: we obtain a typical linear measurement uncertainty of approximately 2.5 mas, and the magnitude differences reported have typical uncertainties in the range of 0.1-0.14 mag. In combination with measures already in the literature, the data presented here permit the revision of the orbit of A 1634AB (= HIP 76041) and the first determination of visual orbital elements for HDS 1895 (= HIP 65982).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Samundeeswari


    Full Text Available Breast cancer, commonly found in women is a serious life threatening disease due to its invasive nature. Ultrasound (US imaging method plays an effective role in screening early detection and diagnosis of Breast cancer. Speckle noise generally affects medical ultrasound images and also causes a number of difficulties in identifying the Region of Interest. Suppressing speckle noise is a challenging task as it destroys fine edge details. No specific filter is designed yet to get a noise free BUS image that is contaminated by speckle noise. In this paper M2 filter, a novel hybrid of linear and nonlinear filter is proposed and compared to other spatial filters with 3×3 kernel size. The performance of the proposed M2 filter is measured by statistical quantity parameters like MSE, PSNR and SSI. The experimental analysis clearly shows that the proposed M2 filter outperforms better than other spatial filters by 2% high PSNR values with regards to speckle suppression.

  6. Speckle-based three-dimensional velocity measurement using spatial filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We present an optical method for measuring the real-time three-dimensional (3D) translational velocity of a diffusely scattering rigid object observed through an imaging system. The method is based on a combination of the motion of random speckle patterns and regular fringe patterns. The speckle ...... spatial filters designed to measure the three components of the object’s translational velocity. Furthermore, experimental data are presented that demonstrate full 3D velocity measurement.......We present an optical method for measuring the real-time three-dimensional (3D) translational velocity of a diffusely scattering rigid object observed through an imaging system. The method is based on a combination of the motion of random speckle patterns and regular fringe patterns. The speckle...

  7. Software phantom with realistic speckle modeling for validation of image analysis methods in echocardiography (United States)

    Law, Yuen C.; Tenbrinck, Daniel; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Kuhlen, Torsten


    Computer-assisted processing and interpretation of medical ultrasound images is one of the most challenging tasks within image analysis. Physical phenomena in ultrasonographic images, e.g., the characteristic speckle noise and shadowing effects, make the majority of standard methods from image analysis non optimal. Furthermore, validation of adapted computer vision methods proves to be difficult due to missing ground truth information. There is no widely accepted software phantom in the community and existing software phantoms are not exible enough to support the use of specific speckle models for different tissue types, e.g., muscle and fat tissue. In this work we propose an anatomical software phantom with a realistic speckle pattern simulation to _ll this gap and provide a exible tool for validation purposes in medical ultrasound image analysis. We discuss the generation of speckle patterns and perform statistical analysis of the simulated textures to obtain quantitative measures of the realism and accuracy regarding the resulting textures.

  8. Speckle tracking evaluation of right ventricular functions in children with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abd Rab Elrasol Tolba


    Conclusions: Children with SCD have impaired right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions when compared to healthy children with early evaluation of the systolic dysfunction by speckle tracking imaging technique.

  9. Speeding up 3D speckle tracking using PatchMatch (United States)

    Zontak, Maria; O'Donnell, Matthew


    Echocardiography provides valuable information to diagnose heart dysfunction. A typical exam records several minutes of real-time cardiac images. To enable complete analysis of 3D cardiac strains, 4-D (3-D+t) echocardiography is used. This results in a huge dataset and requires effective automated analysis. Ultrasound speckle tracking is an effective method for tissue motion analysis. It involves correlation of a 3D kernel (block) around a voxel with kernels in later frames. The search region is usually confined to a local neighborhood, due to biomechanical and computational constraints. For high strains and moderate frame-rates, however, this search region will remain large, leading to a considerable computational burden. Moreover, speckle decorrelation (due to high strains) leads to errors in tracking. To solve this, spatial motion coherency between adjacent voxels should be imposed, e.g., by averaging their correlation functions.1 This requires storing correlation functions for neighboring voxels, thus increasing memory demands. In this work, we propose an efficient search using PatchMatch, 2 a powerful method to find correspondences between images. Here we adopt PatchMatch for 3D volumes and radio-frequency signals. As opposed to an exact search, PatchMatch performs random sampling of the search region and propagates successive matches among neighboring voxels. We show that: 1) Inherently smooth offset propagation in PatchMatch contributes to spatial motion coherence without any additional processing or memory demand. 2) For typical scenarios, PatchMatch is at least 20 times faster than the exact search, while maintaining comparable tracking accuracy.

  10. Considerations on the choice of experimental parameters in residual stress measurements by hole-drilling and ESPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Barile


    Full Text Available Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Great number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon. Over the years, different techniques have been developed to measure residual stresses; nowadays the combination of Hole Drilling method (HD with Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI has encountered great interest. The use of a high sensitivity optical technique instead of the strain gage rosette has the advantage to provide full field information without any contact with the sample by consequently reducing the cost and the time required for the measurement. The accuracy of the measurement, however, is influenced by the proper choice of several parameters: geometrical, analysis and experimental. In this paper, in particular, the effects of some of those parameters are investigated: misknowledgment in illumination and detection angles, the influence of the relative angle between the sensitivity vector of the system and the principal stress directions, the extension of the area of analysis and the adopted drilling rotation speed. In conclusion indications are provided to the scope of optimizing the measurement process together with the identification of the major sources of errors that can arise during the measuring and the analysis stages.

  11. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography as aids to assessment of pressurized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.V.


    This paper gives details of the defect detection holographic technique and describes laser speckle photography to evaluate in phase movement and strain in pressurized components. The new fibre optic technique and system appraisal is included. The holographic tests show that it is possible to detect on the outside of tubes defects in the bore approximately 10% of thickness deep. Speckle photography gives object lateral movement, direction and strain. (Auth.)

  12. Potential of the McMath-Pierce 1.6-Meter Solar Telescope for Speckle Interferometry (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Wiley, Edward; Boyce, Patrick; Branston, Detrick; Rowe, David; Genet, Russell


    We explored the aiming and tracking accuracy of the McMath-Pierce 1.6 m solar telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory as part of an investigation of using this telescope for speckle interferometry of close visual double stars. Several slews of various lengths looked for hysteresis in the positioning system (we found none of significance) and concluded that the 1.6 m telescope would make a useful telescope for speckle interferometry.

  13. Single Tracking Location Methods Suppress Speckle Noise in Shear Wave Velocity Estimation


    Elegbe, Etana C.; McAleavey, Stephen A.


    In ultrasound-based elastography methods, the estimation of shear wave velocity typically involves the tracking of speckle motion due to an applied force. The errors in the estimates of tissue displacement, and thus shear wave velocity, are generally attributed to electronic noise and decorrelation due to physical processes. We present our preliminary findings on another source of error, namely, speckle-induced bias in phase estimation. We find that methods that involve tracking in a single l...

  14. Estimation of vessel diameter and blood flow dynamics from laser speckle images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    Laser speckle imaging is a rapidly developing method to study changes of blood velocity in the vascular networks. However, to assess blood flow and vascular responses it is crucial to measure vessel diameter in addition to blood velocity dynamics. We suggest an algorithm that allows for dynamical...... masking of a vessel position and measurements of it's diameter from laser speckle images. This approach demonstrates high reliability and stability....

  15. Developing and setting up optical methods to study the speckle patterns created by optical beam smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surville, J.


    We have developed three main optical methods to study the speckles generated by a smoothed laser source. The first method addresses the measurement of the temporal and spatial correlation functions of the source, with a modified Michelson interferometer. The second one is a pump-probe technique created to shoot a picture of a speckle pattern generated at a set time. And the third one is an evolution of the second method dedicated to time-frequency coding, thanks to a frequency chirped probe pulse. Thus, the speckles can be followed in time and their motion can be described. According to these three methods, the average size and duration of the speckles can be measured. It is also possible to measure the size and the duration of each of them and mostly their velocity in a given direction. All the results obtained have been confronted to the different existing theories. We show that the statistical distributions of the measured speckles'size and speckles'intensity agree satisfactorily with theoretical values

  16. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.


    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  17. Laser speckle contrast reveals cerebral blood flow dynamics evoked by optogenetically controlled neuronal activity (United States)

    Li, Nan; Thakor, Nitish V.; Pelled, Galit


    As a critical basis of functional brain imaging, neurovascular coupling describes the link between neuronal and hemodynamic changes. The majority of in vivo neurovascular coupling studies was performed by inducing sensory stimulation via afferent inputs. Unfortunately such an approach results in recruiting of multiple types of cells, which confounds the explanation of neuronal roles in stimulus evoked hemodynamic changes. Recently optogenetics has emerged to provide immediate control of neurons by exciting or inhibiting genetically engineered neurons expressing light sensitive proteins. However, there is a need for optical methods capable of imaging the concurrent hemodynamic changes. We utilize laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) to obtain high resolution display of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the vicinity of the targeted neural population. LSCI is a minimally invasive method for imaging CBF in microvessels through thinned skull, and produces images with high spatiotemporal resolution, wide field of view. In the integrated system light sources with different wavelengths and band-passing/blocking filters were used to allow simultaneous optical manipulation of neuronal activities and optical imaging of corresponding CBF. Experimental studies were carried out in a rodent model expressing channalrhodopsin (ChR2) in excitatory neurons in the somatosensory cortex (S1). The results demonstrated significant increases of CBF in response to ChR2 stimulation (exciting neuronal firing) comparable to the CBF response to contralateral forepaw stimulation. The approach promises to be an exciting minimally invasive method to study neurovascular coupling. The complete system provides a novel approach for broad neuroscience applications.

  18. Determining the mechanical properties of rat skin with digital image speckle correlation. (United States)

    Guan, E; Smilow, Sarah; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan


    Accurate measurement of the mechanical properties of skin has numerous implications in surgical repair, dermal disorders and the diagnosis and treatment of trauma to the skin. Investigation of facial wrinkle formation, as well as research in the areas of skin aging and cosmetic product assessment can also benefit from alternative methodologies for the measurement of mechanical properties. A noncontact, noninvasive technique, digital image speckle correlation (DISC), has been successfully introduced to measure the deformation field of a skin sample loaded by a material test machine. With the force information obtained from the loading device, the mechanical properties of the skin, such as Young's modulus, linear limitation and material strength, can be calculated using elastic or viscoelastic theory. The DISC method was used to measure the deformation of neonatal rat skin, with and without a glycerin-fruit-oil-based cream under uniaxial tension. Deformation to failure procedure of newborn rat skin was recorded and analyzed. Single skin layer failures were observed and located by finding the strain concentration. Young's moduli of freshly excised rat skin, cream-processed rat skin and unprocessed rat skin, 24 h after excision, were found with tensile tests to be 1.6, 1.4 and 0.7 MPa, respectively. Our results have shown that DISC provides a novel technique for numerous applications in dermatology and reconstructive surgeries. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Off-axis holographic laser speckle contrast imaging of blood vessels in tissues (United States)

    Abdurashitov, Arkady; Bragina, Olga; Sindeeva, Olga; Sergey, Sindeev; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Tuchin, Valery V.


    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has become one of the most common tools for functional imaging in tissues. Incomplete theoretical description and sophisticated interpretation of measurement results are completely sidelined by a low-cost and simple hardware, fastness, consistent results, and repeatability. In addition to the relatively low measuring volume with around 700 μm of the probing depth for the visible spectral range of illumination, there is no depth selectivity in conventional LSCI configuration; furthermore, in a case of high NA objective, the actual penetration depth of light in tissues is greater than depth of field (DOF) of an imaging system. Thus, the information about these out-of-focus regions persists in the recorded frames but cannot be retrieved due to intensity-based registration method. We propose a simple modification of LSCI system based on the off-axis holography to introduce after-registration refocusing ability to overcome both depth-selectivity and DOF problems as well as to get the potential possibility of producing a cross-section view of the specimen.

  20. Non invasive blood flow assessment in diabetic foot ulcer using laser speckle contrast imaging technique (United States)

    Jayanthy, A. K.; Sujatha, N.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba; Narayanamoorthy, V. B.


    Measuring microcirculatory tissue blood perfusion is of interest for both clinicians and researchers in a wide range of applications and can provide essential information of the progress of treatment of certain diseases which causes either an increased or decreased blood flow. Diabetic ulcer associated with alterations in tissue blood flow is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations. A technique which can detect the onset of ulcer and provide essential information on the progress of the treatment of ulcer would be of great help to the clinicians. A noninvasive, noncontact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique has been described in this paper which is used to assess the changes in blood flow in diabetic ulcer affected areas of the foot. The blood flow assessment at the wound site can provide critical information on the efficiency and progress of the treatment given to the diabetic ulcer subjects. The technique may also potentially fulfill a significant need in diabetic foot ulcer screening and management.

  1. The asymmetric facial skin perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy discovered by laser speckle imaging technology. (United States)

    Cui, Han; Chen, Yi; Zhong, Weizheng; Yu, Haibo; Li, Zhifeng; He, Yuhai; Yu, Wenlong; Jin, Lei


    Bell's palsy is a kind of peripheral neural disease that cause abrupt onset of unilateral facial weakness. In the pathologic study, it was evidenced that ischemia of facial nerve at the affected side of face existed in Bell's palsy patients. Since the direction of facial nerve blood flow is primarily proximal to distal, facial skin microcirculation would also be affected after the onset of Bell's palsy. Therefore, monitoring the full area of facial skin microcirculation would help to identify the condition of Bell's palsy patients. In this study, a non-invasive, real time and full field imaging technology - laser speckle imaging (LSI) technology was applied for measuring facial skin blood perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy patients. 85 participants with different stage of Bell's palsy were included. Results showed that Bell's palsy patients' facial skin perfusion of affected side was lower than that of the normal side at the region of eyelid, and that the asymmetric distribution of the facial skin perfusion between two sides of eyelid is positively related to the stage of the disease (P Bell's palsy patients, and we discovered that the facial skin blood perfusion could reflect the stage of Bell's palsy, which suggested that microcirculation should be investigated in patients with this neurological deficit. It was also suggested LSI as potential diagnostic tool for Bell's palsy.

  2. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan


    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.


    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  4. The Field Practices of Lambdacyhalothrin and Deltamethrin Insecticides Against Adult Mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi as the Main Vector of Malaria: Residual Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Khosravani


    Full Text Available Background Various chemical control methods have adopted in anti-malaria interventions. Indoor residual spraying (IRS has been proven as a candidate in elimination program. On the other hand, resistance to multiple insecticides was implicated as a concern issue in these polices. Pesticides should be evaluated to identify probable resistant and make decision to choose a technique against vectors. Methods In this cross-sectional study, Bioassay test applied on lambdacyhalothrin WP 10% (0.05 mg a.i. /m2 and deltamethrin WP 5% (0.05 mg a.i./m2 on two surfaces (cement and plaster against adult mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi according to WHO criteria to measure the residual activity in Saravan county, southern Iran. Overall, 3960 mosquitoes was used in our research. The mortality rates of An.stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae measured between selected surfaces and insecticides in several times. Data analyzed by Mann-Whitney (nonparametric test using SPSS v22 statistic software. Results This paper illustrated that maximal course of residual efficacy was about 3 months. No statistically significant different was exhibited between type of surface within mortality rates of An. Stephensi (P = 0.724 but lambdacyhalothrin has more durability than deltamethrin Conclusions We established that lambdacyhalothrin can be used into control and elimination setting of malaria with two rounds of spray at an interval of 3-4 months in south of Iran.

  5. Simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon under field conditions by GC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Kang, Di; Zhang, Haizhen; Chen, Yuling; Wang, Fei; Shi, Lihong; Hu, Deyu; Zhang, Kankan


    An optimized quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for the simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (1% formic acid) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg, and the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for all three analytes. The recoveries of the fungicides in watermelon, pulp and soil were 72.32-99.20% for difenoconazole, 74.68-87.72% for trifloxystrobin and 78.59-92.66% for trifloxystrobin acid with relative standard deviations of 1.34-14.04%. The dissipation dynamics of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin in watermelon and soil followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives of 3.2-8.8 days in both locations. The final residue levels of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin were below 0.1 mg/kg (maximum residue level [MRL] set by China) and 0.2 mg/kg (MRL set by European Union), respectively, in pulp samples collected 14 days after the last application. These results could help Chinese authorities to establish MRL of trifloxystrobin in watermelon and provide guidance for the safe and proper application of both fungicides on watermelon. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Measurement of skin stretch using digital image speckle correlation. (United States)

    Staloff, Isabelle Afriat; Rafailovitch, Miriam


    The surface of the skin is covered by intersecting grooves and ridges which produce characteristic skin surface patterns. It has been suggested that these folds provide a reserve of tissue, allowing the skin to stretch during normal muscle movements. More so, skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. Therefore, to characterize skin displacement following stretch, a discrete, description of the in-plane skin displacement during stretch is of interest. We introduce the use of digital image speckle correlation (DISC), a non-contact technique, to map, in two dimensions, the surface deformation patterns resulting from skin stretching. We analyze skin stretch under the mechanical action of a film former applied on a defined square surface on the back of the hand. This is achieved by taking a series of images, during the drying process of the film former. The images are then analyzed with DISC to create vector diagram and projection maps, from which we can obtain spatially resolved information regarding the skin displacement. We first show that DISC can provide spatially resolved information at any time point during the drying process: areas of de-wetting, wetting were identified using projection maps; we then extracted the value of the drying time. Finally using a vector map, we show the orientation of the skin displacement during stretching and calculated the magnitude of the total stretch. We have shown previously that DISC can be used to determine skin mechanical properties and muscular activity. We show here that DISC, as a non-contact technique, can map, in two dimensions, the surface deformation patterns of a polymer solution on a substrate at any time point during the drying process. DISC analysis generates for each speckle of the sample analyzed, the orientation and magnitude of displacement of the polymer solution. DISC can map in two dimensions the deformation undergone by the substrate and skin stretch is measured in this particular case. We therefore

  7. In-situ measurement of the strain distribution in a tensile specimen by using a digital speckle pattern interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kim, Young-Suk; Cheong, Yong-Moo


    Less sensitivity to environmental vibrations is essential for industrial applications of a digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) to measure micro deformations. In this paper, a robust DSPI using single fringe to mechanical vibrations is designed for measuring the strain distribution of a tensile specimen. This system adopts a noise-immune signal processing algorithm to acquire a 3D strain distribution image. To acquire an accurate strain distribution for a tensile-specimen, locally-averaged and directionally-oriented filters operating in the frequency domain are used. This system uses a path-independent least-squares phase-unwrapping algorithm to acquire the 3D shape of the strain distribution. As for the initial experiments to measure the strain distribution of a tensile specimen in a vibration field, this system demonstrated a feasibility for industrial applications by providing reliable strain data.

  8. Application of electronic speckle-pattern interferometry to measure in-plane thermal displacement in flip-chip packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baik-Woo; Jang, Woosoon; Kim, Dong-Won; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Nah, Jae-Woong; Paik, Kyung-Wook; Kwon, Dongil


    Electronic speckle-pattern interferometry (ESPI) was applied for noncontact, real-time evaluation of thermal deformation in a flip-chip package. The spatial resolution of ESPI was increased to submicron scale by magnifying the areas studied in order to measure the deformation of such small-scale components as the solder in the flip-chip package. Thermal deformation in the horizontal and vertical directions around the solder joints was measured as two-dimensional mappings during heating from 25 to 125 deg. C. ESPI was successful in obtaining information on the complicated deformation field around the solder joints. Furthermore, the shear strain could also be calculated using the measured thermal deformation around each solder joint. The applicability of ESPI to flip-chip packages was verified by comparing the ESPI results with those of finite-element analysis (FEA)

  9. A novel experimental procedure for removing ambiguity from the interpretation of neutron and x-ray reflectivity measurements: ''Speckle holography''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.; Hamilton, W.A.; Smith, G.S.; Rieker, T.P.; Pynn, R.


    The analysis of neutron or x-ray reflectivity data to obtain density profiles close to surfaces is akin to the notorious phaseless Fourier problem, well known in many fields such as crystallography. It is a difficult problem because a highly nonlinear transform relates the density profile to the data; this results in the existence of several very different solutions, which are also hard to find. A novel experimental procedure is presented, the analogue of astronomical speckle holography, which is designed to eliminate the ambiguity problems inherent in traditional reflectivity measurements. The theoretical basis of this procedure is explained, and it is illustrated with a simple example using both simulated and real experimental data

  10. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography as aids to assessment of pressurised components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.V.


    This summary gives defect detection holographic technique and describes laser speckle photography to evaluate in-plane movement and strain in pressurized components and conclusions. In holography no lens is used, coherent light is reflected from all points of an object to all parts of a photosensitive surface, such as a photographic plate, simultaneously light of the same wave length and coherence is made to illuminate at a different angle the same plate. These two beams, the object and the reference, cause primary fringes. The developed plate when illuminated with the reference reconstructs the original object in three dimensions. If a double exposure is made on the same plate and if parts of the object have moved between exposure the reconstructed object will be lined with secondary fringes, each fringe representing displacement down the line of sight of one wavelength of the light used. Speckle photography is the same as conventional photography excepting, that instead of using daylight or a flash lamp a coherent light beam is used. Minute points on the object illuminated by divergent laser beam act as point sources of light giving the surface a speckled appearance. In speckle photography a camera records on the plate the object and speckles. A double exposure taken on the same plate when the object has moved between exposures will, after development, when illuminated with the laser beam from Youngs fringes. Speckles and fringes are related to points on the object therefore it is possible to obtain movement and strain. The holographic tests show that it is possible to detect on the outside of tube defects in the bore approximately 10% of thickness deep. Speckle photography gives object lateral movement, direction and strain

  11. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon


    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  12. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V


    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  13. Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles. (United States)

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh


    Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated-fully or partially-from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Feeding habits of the speckled guitarfish Rhinobatos glaucostigma (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae). (United States)

    Lara-Mendoza, R E; Márquez-Farías, J F; Román-Reyes, J C


    The stomachs of 464 speckled guitarfish Rhinobatos glaucostigma were sampled from the south-eastern Gulf of California (GC) to determine diet composition. Numerical indices and prey-specific index of relative importance ((%I)PSIR ) were used to determine the feeding strategy of the species. An analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) was used to determine differences in diet with respect to sex, season (dry or rainy) and maturity stages (immature or mature). The diversity and niche breadth (by sex, season and maturity) and a general trophic level were determined. The overall diet was dominated by shrimps ((%I)PSIR  = 43.47), amphipods ((%I)PSIR  = 18.89) and crabs ((%I)PSIR  = 18.07). ANOSIM demonstrated differences in the diet by maturity and season, but not by sex. Rainy and dry season diets were dominated by shrimps and amphipods, respectively. Immature specimens fed mainly on amphipods, whereas mature fish preferred shrimps and crabs. Rhinobatos glaucostigma showed a narrow niche breadth with an intermediary trophic level (TL  = 3.72) and can be considered as a secondary consumer in the soft-bottom demersal community of the south-east GC. Understanding the feeding habits and trophic level of R. glaucostigma is vital to help identify the segments of the population vulnerable to overfishing by artisanal and industrial fisheries, and to aid in conservation and management of this elasmobranch. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. 3D Characterization of corneal deformation using ultrasound speckle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyton Clayson


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D mechanical response of the cornea to intraocular pressure (IOP elevation has not been previously reported. In this study, we use an ultrasound speckle tracking technique to measure the 3D displacements and strains within the central 5.5mm of porcine corneas during the whole globe inflation. Inflation tests were performed on dextran-treated corneas (treated with a 10% dextran solution and untreated corneas. The dextran-treated corneas showed an inflation response expected of a thin spherical shell, with through-thickness thinning and in-plane stretch, although the strain magnitudes exhibited a heterogeneous spatial distribution from the central to more peripheral cornea. The untreated eyes demonstrated a response consistent with swelling during experimentation, with through-thickness expansion overriding the inflation response. The average volume ratios obtained in both groups was near 1 confirming general incompressibility, but local regions of volume loss or expansion were observed. These results suggest that biomechanical measurements in 3D provide important new insight to understand the mechanical response of ocular tissues such as the cornea.

  16. Effect of static scatterers in laser speckle contrast imaging: an experimental study on correlation and contrast (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Figueiras, Edite; Correia, Carlos; Cardoso, João


    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a non-invasive microvascular blood flow assessment technique with good temporal and spatial resolution. Most LSCI systems, including commercial devices, can perform only qualitative blood flow evaluation, which is a major limitation of this technique. There are several factors that prevent the utilization of LSCI as a quantitative technique. Among these factors, we can highlight the effect of static scatterers. The goal of this work was to study the influence of differences in static and dynamic scatterer concentration on laser speckle correlation and contrast. In order to achieve this, a laser speckle prototype was developed and tested using an optical phantom with various concentrations of static and dynamic scatterers. It was found that the laser speckle correlation could be used to estimate the relative concentration of static/dynamic scatterers within a sample. Moreover, the speckle correlation proved to be independent of the dynamic scatterer velocity, which is a fundamental characteristic to be used in contrast correction.

  17. Soil water evaporation and crop residues (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  18. Laser speckle: theory and applications. January 1970-May 1988 (Citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1970-May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This bibliography contains citations concerning applications and theoretical considerations pertaining to laser speckle interferometry. Topics include experimental and theoretical investigations, applications in stress and vibrational analysis, velocity and displacement measurement, and surface analysis. Speckle noise-reduction techniques and speckle photography are also treated. (This updated bibliography contains 247 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. In-field rates of decomposition and microbial communities colonizing residues vary by depth of residue placement and plant part, but not by crop genotype for residues from two Cry1AB Bt corn hybrids and their non-transgenic i (United States)

    The adoption of Bt corn has been largely overshadowed by concerns about their unintended effects on human health and the environment. Residues of transgenic Bt crops decomposed more slowly than their non-transgenic isolines in one laboratory study, although no mechanism to explain these observations...

  20. Selectivity and balance of spatial filtering velocimetry of objective speckles for measuring out-of-plane motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, Hal T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We probe the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the axial distance between the object and the observation plane changes. With the purpose of measuring out-of-plane motion in real time, we apply optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics. To achieve this, a rotationally sym...

  1. Correction of optical absorption and scattering variations in Laser Speckle Rheology measurements. (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K


    Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) is an optical technique to evaluate the viscoelastic properties by analyzing the temporal fluctuations of backscattered speckle patterns. Variations of optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients further modulate speckle fluctuations, posing a critical challenge for quantitative evaluation of viscoelasticity. We compare and contrast two different approaches applicable for correcting and isolating the collective influence of absorption and scattering, to accurately measure mechanical properties. Our results indicate that the numerical approach of Monte-Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) reliably compensates for any arbitrary optical variations. When scattering dominates absorption, yet absorption is non-negligible, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) formalisms perform similar to MCRT, superseding other analytical compensation approaches such as Telegrapher equation. The computational convenience of DWS greatly simplifies the extraction of viscoelastic properties from LSR measurements in a number of chemical, industrial, and biomedical applications.

  2. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.


    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  3. Relationship between analysis of laser speckle image and Knoop hardness on softening enamel. (United States)

    Koshoji, Nelson H; Prates, Renato A; Bussadori, Sandra K; Bortoletto, Carolina C; de Miranda Junior, Walter G; Librantz, André F H; Leal, Cintia Raquel Lima; Oliveira, Marcelo T; Deana, Alessandro M


    In this study is presented the correlation between laser speckle images and enamel hardness loss. In order to shift the enamel hardness, a dental demineralization model was applied to 32 samples of vestibular bovine teeth. After they were cleaned, cut and polished, the samples were divided into 4 groups and immersed in 30ml of a cola-based soft drink for 10, 20, 30 and 40min twice a day for 7 consecutive days with half the surface protected by two layers of nail polish. Each sample was analyzed by Knoop hardness and laser speckle imaging. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that the laser speckle image technique presents a strong correlation with the hardness loss of the enamel (r=0.7085, phardness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Analysis of strain in reinforced concrete components by laser speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.P.


    Laser speckle photography is an optical process for non-contact measurement of strain in a plane at right angles to the axis of the optical system. The material composition and relief of the surface of a test sample have a great effect on the applicability of the process. Bodies with too smooth or too rough surfaces, and bodies of a transparent structure (salt bearing rocks) cannot be examined by speckle photography without previous surface treatment. The principle of the process and its application to the examination of reinforced concrete components is described. The capability of speckle photography, the accuracy of measurement which can be achieved and possible sources of error are discussed. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Estudio de la magnetostricción por interferometría de Speckle


    Chicharro Higuera, José Manuel


    En esta tesis se realiza un estudio de la magnetostricción de materiales magnéticos por interferometría de speckle. En la primera parte, se recogen los fundamentos teóricos del fenómeno del speckle y de las técnicas experimentales que se aplican en el desarrollo de este trabajo. En la segunda parte, se analizan las bases teóricas de la magnetostricción, aplicando la fotografía de speckle en la determinación de la magnetostricción en saturación. Se estudia la aplicabilidad del método caracteri...

  6. Noise reduction in digital speckle pattern interferometry using bidimensional empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Maria Belen; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.


    We propose a bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) method to reduce speckle noise in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) fringes. The BEMD method is based on a sifting process that decomposes the DSPI fringes in a finite set of subimages represented by high and low frequency oscillations, which are named modes. The sifting process assigns the high frequency information to the first modes, so that it is possible to discriminate speckle noise from fringe information, which is contained in the remaining modes. The proposed method is a fully data-driven technique, therefore neither fixed basis functions nor operator intervention are required. The performance of the BEMD method to denoise DSPI fringes is analyzed using computer-simulated data, and the results are also compared with those obtained by means of a previously developed one-dimensional empirical mode decomposition approach. An application of the proposed BEMD method to denoise experimental fringes is also presented

  7. Speckle and fringe dynamics in imagingspeckle-pattern interferometry for spatial-filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Iversen, Theis F. Q.; Yura, Harold T.


    This paper analyzes the dynamics of laser speckles and fringes, formed in an imaging-speckle-pattern interferometer with the purpose of sensing linear three-dimensional motion and out-of-plane components of rotation in real time, using optical spatial-filtering-velocimetry techniques. The ensemble......-average definition of the cross-correlation function is applied to the intensity distributions, obtained in the observation plane at two positions of the object. The theoretical analysis provides a description for the dynamics of both the speckles and the fringes. The analysis reveals that both the magnitude...... and direction of all three linear displacement components of the object movement can be determined. Simultaneously, out-ofplane rotation of the object including the corresponding directions can be determined from the spatial gradient of the in-plane fringe motion throughout the observation plane. The theory...

  8. A New Approach for Speckle Reduction in Holographic 3D printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsugi, Takeru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro


    A Holographic 3D printer produces a high quality 3D image reproduced by a full-color, full-parallax holographic stereogram with high-density light-ray recording. But speckle-pattern noise localized behind the reconstructed image is causing a loss of the display quality. This noise is originated from the speckle generated by a diffuser for equalizing the intensity distribution of the object light on the recording medium. We analyze some conventional ways for speckle reduction using a band-limited diffuser, and it is found that these ways cannot reduce the noise sufficiently. Then we propose two methods, one introduces a moving diffuser and the other introduces multiple exposures and a digital diffuser called as 4L-PRPS.

  9. Speckle noise suppression using part of pixels in a single-exposure digital hologram (United States)

    Leng, Junmin; Zhou, Zhehai; Li, Fubing; Zheng, Qingyu; Liu, Gang


    A method is proposed to suppress speckle noise using only part of the pixels in a single-exposure digital hologram. Different holographic patterns are first generated from a single-exposure digital hologram using specially designed binary masks; then, these holographic patterns are reconstructed according to the Fresnel transform. The reconstructed images are superposed and averaged on the intensity to achieve the suppression of speckle noise. The entire denoising process does not need any additional digital holograms or specific requirements for recording a hologram. Theoretical simulation and experiment verification were carried out and confirm that the proposed method is a very convenient and effective way to suppress speckle noise in digital holography. The proposed method has wide applications in holographic imaging, holographic storage, and art display.

  10. Postharvest Monitoring of Tomato Ripening Using the Dynamic Laser Speckle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mariusz Pieczywek


    Full Text Available The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε. The well-established optical parameters of tomatoes skin were used as a reference method (luminosity, a*/b*, chroma. Both methods were tested with respect to their prediction capabilities of the maturity and destructive indicators of tomatoes—firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. The statistical significance of the tested relationships were investigated by means of linear regression models. The climacteric maturation of tomato fruit was associated with an increase in biospckle activity. Compared to the 830 nm laser wavelength the biospeckle activity measured at 640 nm enabled more accurate predictions of firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. At 640 nm laser wavelength both activity descriptors (C4 and ε provided similar results, while at 830 nm the ε showed slightly better performance. The linear regression models showed that biospeckle activity descriptors had a higher correlation with chlorophyll and carotenoids content than the a*/b* ratio and luminosity. The results for chroma were comparable with the results for both biospeckle activity indicators. The biospeckle method showed very good results in terms of maturation monitoring and the prediction of the maturity indices of tomatoes, proving the possibility of practical implementation of this method for the determination of the maturity stage of tomatoes.

  11. Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: II. Residual-Field Inspection (United States)


    and subsequent removal of a magnetic field, relying on the remanent magnetisation of the component to produce crack indications. For certain...can be reliably detected b Crack depth B Magnetic Induction, Magnetic Flux Density B Magnitude of Magnetic Induction = |B| Br Remanent Magnetic...Induction ( Remanence ) Fmag Magnetic force on a spherical particle H Magnetic Field Strength, Magnetising Force UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR-3033

  12. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.


    weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N...... and denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  13. Dynamic laser speckle to detect motile bacterial response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendra, H; Murialdo, S; Passoni, L


    This proposal deals with the technique for detection of motile response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using dynamic laser speckle or biospeckle as an alternative method. The study of bacterial displacement plays an essential role in biocatalysts processes and biodegradation. Hence, some biodegrading enzymes are benign catalytic that could be used for the production of industrially useful compounds as well as in wastewater treatments. This work presents an experimental set up and a computational process using frame sequences of dynamic laser speckle as a novel application. The objective was the detection of different levels of motility in bacteria. The encouraging results were achieved through a direct and non invasive observation method of the phenomenon

  14. Multiresolution edge detection using enhanced fuzzy c-means clustering for ultrasound image speckle reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsantis, Stavros [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504 (Greece); Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504 (Greece); Skouroliakou, Aikaterini [Department of Energy Technology Engineering, Technological Education Institute of Athens, Athens 12210 (Greece); Hazle, John D. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Kagadis, George C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504, Greece and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)


    Purpose: Speckle suppression in ultrasound (US) images of various anatomic structures via a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm. Methods: The proposed algorithm employs an enhanced fuzzy c-means (EFCM) clustering and multiresolution wavelet analysis to distinguish edges from speckle noise in US images. The edge detection procedure involves a coarse-to-fine strategy with spatial and interscale constraints so as to classify wavelet local maxima distribution at different frequency bands. As an outcome, an edge map across scales is derived whereas the wavelet coefficients that correspond to speckle are suppressed in the inverse wavelet transform acquiring the denoised US image. Results: A total of 34 thyroid, liver, and breast US examinations were performed on a Logiq 9 US system. Each of these images was subjected to the proposed EFCM algorithm and, for comparison, to commercial speckle reduction imaging (SRI) software and another well-known denoising approach, Pizurica's method. The quantification of the speckle suppression performance in the selected set of US images was carried out via Speckle Suppression Index (SSI) with results of 0.61, 0.71, and 0.73 for EFCM, SRI, and Pizurica's methods, respectively. Peak signal-to-noise ratios of 35.12, 33.95, and 29.78 and edge preservation indices of 0.94, 0.93, and 0.86 were found for the EFCM, SIR, and Pizurica's method, respectively, demonstrating that the proposed method achieves superior speckle reduction performance and edge preservation properties. Based on two independent radiologists’ qualitative evaluation the proposed method significantly improved image characteristics over standard baseline B mode images, and those processed with the Pizurica's method. Furthermore, it yielded results similar to those for SRI for breast and thyroid images significantly better results than SRI for liver imaging, thus improving diagnostic accuracy in both superficial and in-depth structures. Conclusions: A

  15. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  16. Multiresolution edge detection using enhanced fuzzy c-means clustering for ultrasound image speckle reduction. (United States)

    Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C


    Speckle suppression in ultrasound (US) images of various anatomic structures via a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm. The proposed algorithm employs an enhanced fuzzy c-means (EFCM) clustering and multiresolution wavelet analysis to distinguish edges from speckle noise in US images. The edge detection procedure involves a coarse-to-fine strategy with spatial and interscale constraints so as to classify wavelet local maxima distribution at different frequency bands. As an outcome, an edge map across scales is derived whereas the wavelet coefficients that correspond to speckle are suppressed in the inverse wavelet transform acquiring the denoised US image. A total of 34 thyroid, liver, and breast US examinations were performed on a Logiq 9 US system. Each of these images was subjected to the proposed EFCM algorithm and, for comparison, to commercial speckle reduction imaging (SRI) software and another well-known denoising approach, Pizurica's method. The quantification of the speckle suppression performance in the selected set of US images was carried out via Speckle Suppression Index (SSI) with results of 0.61, 0.71, and 0.73 for EFCM, SRI, and Pizurica's methods, respectively. Peak signal-to-noise ratios of 35.12, 33.95, and 29.78 and edge preservation indices of 0.94, 0.93, and 0.86 were found for the EFCM, SIR, and Pizurica's method, respectively, demonstrating that the proposed method achieves superior speckle reduction performance and edge preservation properties. Based on two independent radiologists' qualitative evaluation the proposed method significantly improved image characteristics over standard baseline B mode images, and those processed with the Pizurica's method. Furthermore, it yielded results similar to those for SRI for breast and thyroid images significantly better results than SRI for liver imaging, thus improving diagnostic accuracy in both superficial and in-depth structures. A new wavelet-based EFCM clustering model was introduced toward

  17. Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert


    We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.

  18. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J [Optics Department, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Huang, Y C [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Choi, B, E-mail: jcram@inaoep.m [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  19. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao


    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  20. Calculated Hanle transmission and absorption spectra of the 87Rb D1 line with residual magnetic field for arbitrarily polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Moon, Han Seb


    This paper reports a theoretical study on the transmission spectra of an arbitrarily polarized laser beam through a rubidium cell with or without a buffer gas in Hanle-type coherent population trapping (CPT). This study examined how laser polarization, transverse magnetic field, and collisions with buffer gas affects the spectrum. The transmission spectrum due to CPT and the absorption spectrum due to the level crossing absorption (LCA) were calculated according to the laser polarization. The results show that the LCA is strongly dependent on the transverse magnetic field and interaction time of the atoms with a laser light via collisions with the buffer gas. In addition, the spectral shape of the calculated Hanle spectrum is closely related to the direction between the (stray) transverse magnetic field and polarization of the laser.

  1. Longitudinal changes of ocular blood flow using laser speckle flowgraphy during normal pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Sato

    Full Text Available Innovative laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG enables noninvasive evaluation of retinal microcirculation and the usefulness has been reported in the field of ophthalmology. LSFG has allowed us to measure the real time changes of retinal blood flow without pupillary dilatations and contrast media. Herein, we investigated the change of retinal blood flow in normal pregnant women during gestation using LSFG.A prospective cohort study was conducted in 53 pregnant women who visited our institution between January, 2013 and July, 2014. Finally, a total of 41 participants without any obstetric complications were available for evaluation. Retinal blood flow was measured with LSFG in a total of 4 times during pregnancy (T1. 11-13 weeks, T2. 19-21 weeks, T3. 28-30 weeks, T4. 34-36 weeks and mean blur rate (MBR, blowout score (BOS, flow acceleration index (FAI, and resistive index (RI are analyzed from these measurements. Relations between LSFG parameters and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP are determined throughout pregnancy.MBR showed no significant changes throughout pregnancy. BOS showed a tendency to increase in the 3rd trimester. FAI values showed a slight increase from the 1st to 2nd trimester while a significant decrease was noted in the 3rd trimester. RI exhibited no changes between the 1st and 2nd trimesters, values decreased significantly after the 3rd trimester. MAP was positively correlated with BOS, and negatively correlated with FAI and RI.The present study clearly demonstrated that profiles of LSFG parameters demonstrated a decrease of resistance in retinal blood vessels. These changes in indices provide a highly sensitive reflection of physiological changes in vascular resistance due to pregnancy. Thus, LSFG may be useful, as a non-invasive, diagnostic tool to detect pregnancy related disorders such as preeclampsia.

  2. Field and analytical data relating to the 1972 and 1978 surveys of residual contamination of the Monte Bello Islands and Emu atomic weapons test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Duggleby, J.C.


    Radiation surveys of the Monte Bello Islands test site in Western Australia, and the Emu test site in South Australia, were carried out in 1972 and 1978. The results have been published in ARL reports ARL/TR--010 and ARL/TR--012. The detailed field and analytical data which formed the basis of those publications are given

  3. The genetic reservation of Hungarian Speckled Hen and the Speckled Transylvanian Naked Neck Hen in Hódmezővásárhely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Benk


    Full Text Available Our faculty has been dealing with the cross-breeding of Hungarian speckled hen to maintain the species since 1977. We keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the bare-neck type on the pilot farm. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavour to find the best way for the productionpurpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the egg production, the eggshell colour and the hatching results.

  4. Comparative evaluation between re-irradiation and demand endoscopic dilatation vs endoscopic dilatation alone in patients with recurrent/reactivated residual in-field esophageal malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teli Mohmad


    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal cancer has emerged as a major health challenge in many regions of the world, including the valley of Kashmir, which is situated adjacent to the esophageal cancer belt on its Southern side. Radiotherapy is one of the main modalities of treatment. However, residual/recurrent disease is common and salvage options for these patients are limited. Scarce literature is available regarding the use of re-irradiation in this setting though re-irradiation has been successfully used in recurrent tumors at various other anatomical sites. Aim: In the present study, external beam re-irradiation with demand dilatation vs per-oral endoscopic dilatation alone were compared with regard to the impact of these modalities on symptom control, survival, and quality of life of the patients. Treatment-related sequelae were also compared. Setting and Design: Prospective and randomized. Materials and Methods: The study included 34 cases who were palliated with re-irradiation and 35 cases who refused to enter the experimental protocol and, therefore, received per-oral demand dilatation alone, with the disease being allowed to follow its natural course. Both groups were statistically cross-matched with regard to their demographic and clinical parameters. Statistical Method Used: Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, Student′s t-test, and Kaplan-Meier test for survival analysis. Results: The results favor the use of re-irradiation as it significantly improves dysphagia-free survival and quality of life. The treatment-related complications/morbidity of this protocol was acceptable. Conclusion: A trial of re-irradiation with external beam is justified in selected patients.

  5. Comparison of septal strain patterns in dyssynchronous heart failure between speckle tracking echocardiography vendor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Everdingen, Wouter M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413647595; Paiman, Marie-Louise; van Deursen, Caroline J M; Cramer, MJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155240706; Vernooy, Kevin; Delhaas, Tammo; Prinzen, Frits W


    AIM: To analyze inter-vendor differences of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in imaging cardiac deformation in patients with dyssynchronous heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven patients (all with LBBB, median age 60.7 years, 9 males) with implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy

  6. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoddard, M.C.; Fayet, A.; Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.


    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a

  7. Functional assessment of the diaphragm by speckle tracking ultrasound during inspiratory loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos-Oppersma, Eline; Hatam, Nima; Doorduin, Jonne; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Marx, Gernot; Goetzenich, Andreas; Fritsch, Sebastian; Heunks, Leo M.A.; Bruells, Christian S.


    Assessment of diaphragmatic effort is challenging, especially in critically ill patients in the phase of weaning. Fractional thickening during inspiration assessed by ultrasound has been used to estimate diaphragm effort. It is unknown whether more sophisticated ultrasound techniques such as speckle

  8. Application of the spectral analysis of speckle dynamics in some problems of mechanics and nondestructive testing (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexander P.; Popov, Denis O.; Malygin, Alexander S.; Rzhannikov, Andrey A.


    It is shown, that interpretation of spectra is very simple and can be used for construction of diagrams of total micro - displacements. The spectral analysis was used also for: studying of interaction of a man - made and natural biological membrane with solutions, researches of periodic change of speckle brightness, arising at movement of water in a cuvette and at plastic deformation of materials.

  9. Measurement of fibrous cap thickness in atherosclerotic plaques by spatiotemporal analysis of laser speckle images (United States)

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bilenca, Alberto; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Necrotic-core fibroatheromas (NCFA) with thin, mechanically weak fibrous caps overlying lipid cores comprise the majority of plaques that rupture and cause acute myocardial infarction. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) has been recently demonstrated to enable atherosclerotic plaque characterization with high accuracy. We investigate spatio-temporal analysis of LSI data, in conjunction with diffusion theory and Monte Carlo modeling of light transport, to estimate fibrous cap thickness in NCFAs. Time-varying laser speckle images of 20 NCFAs are selected for analysis. Spatio-temporal intensity fluctuations are analyzed by exponential fitting of the windowed normalized cross-correlation of sequential laser speckle patterns to obtain the speckle decorrelation time constant, τ(ρ), as a function of distance ρ from the source entry location. The distance, ρ′, at which τ(ρ) dropped to 65% of its maximum value is recorded. Diffusion theory and Monte Carlo models are utilized to estimate the maximum photon penetration depth, zmax(ρ′), for a distance equal to ρ′, measured from LSI. Measurements of zmax(ρ′) correlate well with histological measurements of fibrous cap thickness (R=0.78, p<0.0001), and paired t-tests show no significant difference between the groups (p=0.4). These results demonstrate that spatio-temporal LSI may allow the estimation of fibrous cap thickness in NCFAs, which is an important predictor of plaque Stability. PMID:16674181

  10. [Speckle tracking--a new ultrasound tool for the assessment of fetal myocardial function]. (United States)

    Willruth, A; Geipel, A; Merz, W; Gembruch, U


    Speckle tracking is a new ultrasound tool to assess 2D ventricular global and segmental myocardial velocity and deformation (strain, strain rate). Multiple factors such as fetal motion, high heart rates, low blood pressure, small size of the heart, physiological cardiac translation, filling and maturational changes of myocardium, polyhydramnion, maternal obesity and aortic pulsation can degrade the image quality and result in artifacts and measurement errors which may have an impact on the final analysis. Therefore deformation indices such as strain and strain rate offer a quantitative technique for the estimation of global and segmental myocardial function and contractility. At present longitudinal peak systolic strain is the most commonly applied deformation parameter used to analyse segmental and global myocardial contractility in adults. When obtained using Doppler methods, these measurements are angle dependent, whereas speckle tracking techniques overcome the limitations of Doppler echocardiography which is a particular advantage in foetal echocardiography. Nevertheless, the time and training necessary to acquire high-quality video clips limit the implementation of speckle tracking into clinical routine. It is not yet clear whether this new technique will identify subclinical myocardial impairment earlier than with current techniques or allow for better discrimination between healthy fetuses and fetuses with congenital heart disease. The clinical use of speckle tracking will have to be demonstrated in larger groups of complicated pregnancies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. GPC light shaper for speckle-free one- and two-photon contiguous pattern excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson


    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is an efficient method for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions useful in diverse applications such as static beam shaping, optical manipulation and recently, for excitation in two-photon optogenetics. To fully utilize typical Gaussian lasers...

  12. Improved quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of basal cell carcinomas using speckle reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars


    suggests a method for improving OCT image quality for skin cancer imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCT is an optical imaging method analogous to ultrasound. Two basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were imaged using an OCT speckle reduction technique (SR-OCT) based on repeated scanning by altering the distance between...

  13. Laser-line scanning speckle reduction based on a one-dimensional beam homogenizer (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Jacobs, P.; Hartmann, P.


    Laser-line scanners have become ubiquitous in many forms of automation and measurement systems. Despite this fact, these systems are still susceptible to speckle or interference on rough scattering surfaces. Many scanning systems must be calibrated to the material being analyzed to obtain their full potential. In general, post-processing algorithms are used in most modern line-scanning devices in order to smooth out speckle and enhance the resolution through sub-pixel interpolation. However, these post-processing techniques come at a cost of increased CPU time and a subsequent decrease in bandwidth and resolution. in this paper, a low-cost, high-resolution solution to generating speckle-free sharply focused laser lines is presented. The key to this technique relies on only removing the spatial coherence in one dimension using a 1-D cylindrical lens array as a beam homogenizer. This beam homogenizer is then wrapped around and rotated about a central axis in order to remove the temporal component on the laser's coherence. Since the plane-wave-like behavior is maintained along one dimension, this beam can still be sharply focused to a line. however, the spatial coherence and temporal coherence are reduced to the point that speckle is minimally visible.

  14. Speckle Noise Reduction for the Enhancement of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoon Nowshiravan Rahatabad


    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important pre-processing steps in optical coherence tomography (OCT is reducing speckle noise, resulting from multiple scattering of tissues, which degrades the quality of OCT images. Materials and Methods The present study focused on speckle noise reduction and edge detection techniques. Statistical filters with different masks and noise variances were applied on OCT and test images. Objective evaluation of both types of images was performed, using various image metrics such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, root mean square error, correlation coefficient and elapsed time. For the purpose of recovery, Kuan filter was used as an input for edge enhancement. Also, a spatial filter was applied to improve image quality. Results The obtained results were presented as statistical tables and images. Based on statistical measures and visual quality of OCT images, Enhanced Lee filter (3×3 with a PSNR value of 43.6735 in low noise variance and Kuan filter (3×3 with a PSNR value of 37.2850 in high noise variance showed superior performance over other filters. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, by using speckle reduction filters such as Enhanced Lee and Kuan filters on OCT images, the number of compounded images, required to achieve a given image quality, could be reduced. Moreover, use of Kuan filters for promoting the edges allowed smoothing of speckle regions, while preserving image tissue texture.

  15. Temperature mapping of sunspots and pores from speckle reconstructed three colour photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sütterlin, P.; Wiehr, E.


    The two-dimensional temperature distribution in a highly structured sunspot and in two small umbrae is determined from a three-colour photometry in narrow spectral continua. Disturbing influences from the earth’s atmosphere are removed by speckle masking techniques, yielding a spatial resolution

  16. Wave optics simulation of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle effects in CO2 lidar. (United States)

    Nelson, D H; Walters, D L; Mackerrow, E P; Schmitt, M J; Quick, C R; Porch, W M; Petrin, R R


    Laser speckle can influence lidar measurements from a diffuse hard target. Atmospheric optical turbulence will also affect the lidar return signal. We present a numerical simulation that models the propagation of a lidar beam and accounts for both reflective speckle and atmospheric turbulence effects. Our simulation is based on implementing a Huygens-Fresnel approximation to laser propagation. A series of phase screens, with the appropriate atmospheric statistical characteristics, are used to simulate the effect of atmospheric turbulence. A single random phase screen is used to simulate scattering of the entire beam from a rough surface. We compare the output of our numerical model with separate CO(2) lidar measurements of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle. We also compare the output of our model with separate analytical predictions for atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle. Good agreement was found between the model and the experimental data. Good agreement was also found with analytical predictions. Finally, we present results of a simulation of the combined effects on a finite-aperture lidar system that are qualitatively consistent with previous experimental observations of increasing rms noise with increasing turbulence level.

  17. Camera-based speckle noise reduction for 3-D absolute shape measurements. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas


    Simultaneous position and velocity measurements enable absolute 3-D shape measurements of fast rotating objects for instance for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. Laser Doppler distance sensors enable simultaneous position and velocity measurements with a single sensor head by evaluating the scattered light signals. The superposition of several speckles with equal Doppler frequency but random phase on the photo detector results in an increased velocity and shape uncertainty, however. In this paper, we present a novel image evaluation method that overcomes the uncertainty limitations due to the speckle effect. For this purpose, the scattered light is detected with a camera instead of single photo detectors. Thus, the Doppler frequency from each speckle can be evaluated separately and the velocity uncertainty decreases with the square root of the number of camera lines. A reduction of the velocity uncertainty by the order of one magnitude is verified by the numerical simulations and experimental results, respectively. As a result, the measurement uncertainty of the absolute shape is not limited by the speckle effect anymore.

  18. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair


    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  19. Laser speckle contrast imaging for monitoring changes in microvascular blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Rikard; Strandby, Rune B.; Svendsen, Lars Bo


    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microvascular blood flow is essential for healing and predicts surgical outcome. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between fluxes measured with the laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique and changes in absolute blood flow. In addition, we studied...

  20. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao; Liu, Gangjun; Feng, Guoying; Chen, Zhongping


    Abstract. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique, which is based on low-coherence interferometry. OCT images suffer from speckle noise, which reduces image contrast. A shrinkage filter based on wave atoms transform is proposed for speckle reduction in OCT images. Wave atoms transform is a new multiscale geometric analysis tool that offers sparser expansion and better representation for images containing oscillatory patterns and textures than other traditional transforms, such as wavelet and curvelet transforms. Cycle spinning-based technology is introduced to avoid visual artifacts, such as Gibbs-like phenomenon, and to develop a translation invariant wave atoms denoising scheme. The speckle suppression degree in the denoised images is controlled by an adjustable parameter that determines the threshold in the wave atoms domain. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively remove the speckle noise and improve the OCT image quality. The signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, average equivalent number of looks, and cross-correlation (XCOR) values are obtained, and the results are also compared with the wavelet and curvelet thresholding techniques. PMID:24825507

  1. Single-plane multiple speckle pattern phase retrieval using a deformable mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Glückstad, Jesper; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    A design for a single-plane multiple speckle pattern phase retrieval technique using a deformable mirror (DM) is analyzed within the formalism of complex ABCD-matrices, facilitating its use in conjunction with dynamic wavefronts. The variable focal length DM positioned at a Fourier plane of a lens...

  2. Speckle metrology in the nanoworld, as it is perceived today, and how it may affect industry (United States)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.


    accelerometers, require the use of computational modeling and simulation coupled/combined with physical measurements. This author believes that successful combination of computer aided design (CAD) and multiphysics as well as multiscale simulation tools with the state-of-the-art (SOTA) measurement methodology will contribute to reduction of high prototyping costs, long product development cycles, and time-tomarket pressures while developing new sensors with nanoscale characteristics for various applications we use now and those that we will need in the future. In our approach we combine/hybridize a unique, fully integrated, software environment for multiscale, multiphysics, high fidelity analysis of the contemporary sensors with the SOTA optoelectronic laser interferometric microscope (OELIM) methodology, which is based on recent developments in speckle. The speckle-based OELIM methodology allows remote, noninvasive, full-field-of-view (FFV) measurements of deformations with high spatial resolution, nanometer accuracy, and in near real-time. In this paper, both, the software environment and the OELIM methodology are described and their applications are illustrated with representative examples demonstrating viability of the completely autonomous computer-based procedures for the development of contemporary sensors with nanocharacteristics suitable for the advancement of new evolving technologies that will shape our future. This process is demonstrated using devices of contemporary interest. The preliminary examples demonstrate capability of our approach to quantitatively determine effects of static and dynamic loads on the performance of sensors. In addition, potential economic rewards of the technology, projected into near future, will also be discussed.

  3. Feature tracking measurement of dyssynchrony from cardiovascular magnetic resonance cine acquisitions: comparison with echocardiographic speckle tracking. (United States)

    Onishi, Toshinari; Saha, Samir K; Ludwig, Daniel R; Onishi, Tetsuari; Marek, Josef J; Cavalcante, João L; Schelbert, Erik B; Schwartzman, David; Gorcsan, John


    Analysis of left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony may provide incremental prognostic information regarding cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response in addition to QRS width alone. Our objective was to quantify LV dyssynchrony using feature tracking post processing of routine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine acquisitions (FT-CMR) in comparison to speckle tracking echocardiography. We studied 72 consecutive patients who had both steady-state free precession CMR and echocardiography. Mid-LV short axis CMR cines were analyzed using FT-CMR software and compared with echocardiographic speckle tracking radial dyssynchrony (time difference between the anteroseptal and posterior wall peak strain). Radial dyssynchrony analysis was possible by FT-CMR in all patients, and in 67 (93%) by echocardiography. Dyssynchrony by FT-CMR and speckle tracking showed limits of agreement of strain delays of ± 84 ms. These were large (up to 100% or more) relative to the small mean delays measured in more synchronous patients, but acceptable (mainly 200 ms. Radial dyssynchrony was significantly greater in wide QRS patients than narrow QRS patients by both FT-CMR (radial strain delay 230 ± 94 vs. 77 ± 92* ms) and speckle tracking (radial strain delay 242 ± 101 vs. 75 ± 88* ms, all *p acquisitions which, at least for the patients with more marked dyssynchrony, showed reasonable agreement with those from speckle tracking echocardiography. The clinical usefulness of the method, for example in predicting prognosis in CRT patients, remains to be investigated.

  4. Edge Probability and Pixel Relativity-Based Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion. (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak; Chaudhury, Santanu; Sarkar, Mukul; Soin, Arvinder Singh; Sharma, Vivek


    Anisotropic diffusion filters are one of the best choices for speckle reduction in the ultrasound images. These filters control the diffusion flux flow using local image statistics and provide the desired speckle suppression. However, inefficient use of edge characteristics results in either oversmooth image or an image containing misinterpreted spurious edges. As a result, the diagnostic quality of the images becomes a concern. To alleviate such problems, a novel anisotropic diffusion-based speckle reducing filter is proposed in this paper. A probability density function of the edges along with pixel relativity information is used to control the diffusion flux flow. The probability density function helps in removing the spurious edges and the pixel relativity reduces the oversmoothing effects. Furthermore, the filtering is performed in superpixel domain to reduce the execution time, wherein a minimum of 15% of the total number of image pixels can be used. For performance evaluation, 31 frames of three synthetic images and 40 real ultrasound images are used. In most of the experiments, the proposed filter shows a better performance as compared to the state-of-the-art filters in terms of the speckle region's signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. It also shows a comparative performance for figure of merit and structural similarity measure index. Furthermore, in the subjective evaluation, performed by the expert radiologists, the proposed filter's outputs are preferred for the improved contrast and sharpness of the object boundaries. Hence, the proposed filtering framework is suitable to reduce the unwanted speckle and improve the quality of the ultrasound images.

  5. On possibility of using E, H - crossed fields and gas-dynamic flowing of argon in the processes of degassing by the method of ion-stimulated desorption of residual gas in the KUTI-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharapov, V.E.


    In the project considered if the possibility to use the degassing of an adhezatior chamber inner walls, using the method of ion-stimulated desorption (ISD) of residual gas in the glow discharge is considered. It is suggested that the experiment should be realized using the model or the KUTI (PKUTI) prototype to decrease operation pressure to p -7 Pa (2x10 -9 Tor) at the expense of introduction of the technology described and certain modifications in the processes of leak-in and pumping. The use of crossed E,H-fields and gasodynamic regime of argon flow in the process of preliminary degassing of the adhezator chamber by the glow discharge is the main idea of the project

  6. Effect of far-field stresses and residual stresses incorporation in predicting fracture toughness of carbon nanotube reinforced yttria stabilized zirconia (United States)

    Mahato, Neelima; Nisar, Ambreen; Mohapatra, Pratyasha; Rawat, Siddharth; Ariharan, S.; Balani, Kantesh


    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a potential thermal insulating ceramic for high temperature applications (>1000 °C). YSZ reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was processed via spark plasma sintering to produce dense, crack-free homogeneous sample and avoid any degradation of MWNTs when sintered using conventional routes. Despite porosity, the addition of MWNT has a profound effect in improving the damage tolerance of YSZ by allowing the retention of tetragonal phase. However, at some instances, the crack lengths in the MWNT reinforced YSZ matrices have been found to be longer than the standalone counterparts. Therefore, it becomes inappropriate to apply Anstis equation to calculate fracture toughness values. In this regard, a combined analytical cum numerical method is used to estimate the theoretical fracture toughness and quantitatively analyze the mechanics of matrix cracking in the reinforced composite matrices incorporating the effects of various factors (such as far-field stresses, volume fraction of MWNTs, change in the modulus and Poisson's ratio values along with the increase in porosity, and bridging and phase transformation mechanism) affecting the fracture toughness of YSZ-MWNT composites. The results suggest that the incorporation of far-field stresses cannot be ignored in estimating the theoretical fracture toughness of YSZ-MWNT composites.

  7. Standardized Approach to Quantitatively Measure Residual Limb Skin Health in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation (United States)

    Rink, Cameron L.; Wernke, Matthew M.; Powell, Heather M.; Tornero, Mark; Gnyawali, Surya C.; Schroeder, Ryan M.; Kim, Jayne Y.; Denune, Jeffrey A.; Albury, Alexander W.; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Colvin, James M.; Sen, Chandan K.


    Objective: (1) Develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb skin health. (2) Report reference residual limb skin health values in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Approach: Residual limb health outcomes in individuals with transtibial (n = 5) and transfemoral (n = 5) amputation were compared to able-limb controls (n = 4) using noninvasive imaging (hyperspectral imaging and laser speckle flowmetry) and probe-based approaches (laser doppler flowmetry, transcutaneous oxygen, transepidermal water loss, surface electrical capacitance). Results: A standardized methodology that employs noninvasive imaging and probe-based approaches to measure residual limb skin health are described. Compared to able-limb controls, individuals with transtibial and transfemoral amputation have significantly lower transcutaneous oxygen tension, higher transepidermal water loss, and higher surface electrical capacitance in the residual limb. Innovation: Residual limb health as a critical component of prosthesis rehabilitation for individuals with lower limb amputation is understudied in part due to a lack of clinical measures. Here, we present a standardized approach to measure residual limb health in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Conclusion: Technology advances in noninvasive imaging and probe-based measures are leveraged to develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb health in individuals with lower limb loss. Compared to able-limb controls, resting residual limb physiology in people that have had transfemoral or transtibial amputation is characterized by lower transcutaneous oxygen tension and poorer skin barrier function. PMID:28736682

  8. Standardized Approach to Quantitatively Measure Residual Limb Skin Health in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation. (United States)

    Rink, Cameron L; Wernke, Matthew M; Powell, Heather M; Tornero, Mark; Gnyawali, Surya C; Schroeder, Ryan M; Kim, Jayne Y; Denune, Jeffrey A; Albury, Alexander W; Gordillo, Gayle M; Colvin, James M; Sen, Chandan K


    Objective: (1) Develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb skin health. (2) Report reference residual limb skin health values in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Approach: Residual limb health outcomes in individuals with transtibial ( n  = 5) and transfemoral ( n  = 5) amputation were compared to able-limb controls ( n  = 4) using noninvasive imaging (hyperspectral imaging and laser speckle flowmetry) and probe-based approaches (laser doppler flowmetry, transcutaneous oxygen, transepidermal water loss, surface electrical capacitance). Results: A standardized methodology that employs noninvasive imaging and probe-based approaches to measure residual limb skin health are described. Compared to able-limb controls, individuals with transtibial and transfemoral amputation have significantly lower transcutaneous oxygen tension, higher transepidermal water loss, and higher surface electrical capacitance in the residual limb. Innovation: Residual limb health as a critical component of prosthesis rehabilitation for individuals with lower limb amputation is understudied in part due to a lack of clinical measures. Here, we present a standardized approach to measure residual limb health in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Conclusion: Technology advances in noninvasive imaging and probe-based measures are leveraged to develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb health in individuals with lower limb loss. Compared to able-limb controls, resting residual limb physiology in people that have had transfemoral or transtibial amputation is characterized by lower transcutaneous oxygen tension and poorer skin barrier function.

  9. Airplane wing deformation and flight flutter detection method by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology. (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yu, Zhijing; Wang, Tao; Zhuge, Jingchang; Ji, Yue; Xue, Bin


    Airplane wing deformation is an important element of aerodynamic characteristics, structure design, and fatigue analysis for aircraft manufacturing, as well as a main test content of certification regarding flutter for airplanes. This paper presents a novel real-time detection method for wing deformation and flight flutter detection by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology. Speckle patterns whose positions are determined through the vibration characteristic of the aircraft are coated on the wing; then the speckle patterns are imaged by CCD cameras which are mounted inside the aircraft cabin. In order to reduce the computation, a matching technique based on Geodetic Systems Incorporated coded points combined with the classical epipolar constraint is proposed, and a displacement vector map for the aircraft wing can be obtained through comparing the coordinates of speckle points before and after deformation. Finally, verification experiments containing static and dynamic tests by using an aircraft wing model demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Radial and longitudinal strain and strain rate assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Tidholm, A.; Nägga, K.M.


    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function using conventional echocardiographic methods is difficult in mitral regurgitation (MR) owing to altered hemodynamic loading conditions. Newer methods such as speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) provide assessment of LV strain (St) and strain rates...

  11. A reduced gastric corpus microvascular blood flow during Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy detected by laser speckle contrast imaging technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Rikard; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Secher, Niels H.


    BACKGROUND: Reduced microvascular blood flow is related to anastomotic insufficiency following esophagectomy, emphasizing a need for intraoperative monitoring of the microcirculation. This study evaluated if laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) was able to detect intraoperative changes in gastric...

  12. Estimation of individual response in finger blood concentration change under occlusion on human arm using speckle patterns (United States)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Shinohara, Tomomi; Okazaki, Syunya; Funamizu, Hideki; Kyoso, Masaki; Shimatani, Yuichi; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa


    We have developed the method for imaging blood flow and blood concentration change by using laser speckle in fiber illumination. We experimentally discuss the relationship of blood occlusion condition and individual response of blood concentration change measured by the method.

  13. Modulation analysis in spatial phase shifting electronic speckle pattern interferometry and application for automated data selection on biological specimens (United States)

    Knoche, Sabine; Kemper, Björn; Wernicke, Günther; von Bally, Gert


    In electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), for a fast and objective analysis of measurement data which occur with a high repetition rate, an automated data processing is of particular advantage. For this reason, investigations were carried out to determine if the modulation of speckle interferograms can be applied as a quality parameter for the selection of suitable interferogram data for further evaluation e.g. phase unwrapping when spatial phase shifting (SPS) is performed. Six methods for determining the modulation of speckle interferograms are characterised and compared. The applicability of the speckle interferogram modulation as a parameter for mask generation in the unwrapping process of the phase difference is demonstrated by the evaluation of measurement data obtained from experiments with a spatial phase shifting endoscopic ESPI system on a technical surface and on a human gastrectomy specimen.

  14. Effect of field exposure to 38-year-old residual petroleum hydrocarbons on growth, condition index, and filtration rate of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbertson, Jennifer B.; Valiela, Ivan; Olsen, Ylva S.; Reddy, Christopher M.


    In September 1969, the Florida barge spilled 700,000 L of No. 2 fuel oil into the salt marsh sediments of Wild Harbor, MA. Today a substantial amount, approximately 100 kg, of moderately degraded petroleum remains within the sediment and along eroding creek banks. The ribbed mussels, Geukensia demissa, which inhabit the salt marsh creek bank, are exposed to the spilled oil. Examination of short-term exposure was done with transplantation of G. demissa from a control site, Great Sippewissett marsh, into Wild Harbor. We also examined the effects of long-term exposure with transplantation of mussels from Wild Harbor into Great Sippewissett. Both the short- and long-term exposure transplants exhibited slower growth rates, shorter mean shell lengths, lower condition indices, and decreased filtration rates. The results add new knowledge about long-term consequences of spilled oil, a dimension that should be included when assessing oil-impacted areas and developing management plans designed to restore, rehabilitate, or replace impacted areas. - Mussels exposed to petroleum in transplant and field experiments exhibited significant long-term effects

  15. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara


    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...

  16. Close Binary Star Speckle Interferometry on the McMath-Pierce 0.8-Meter Solar Telescope (United States)

    Wiley, Edward; Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Branston, Detrick; Boyce, Patrick; Rowe, David; Ridgely, John; Estrada, Reed; Genet, Russell


    Observations were made in April 2014 to assess the utility of the 0.8-meter solar telescope at the McMath-Pierce Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory for performing speckle interferometry observations of close binary stars. Several configurations using science cameras, acquisition cameras, eyepieces, and flip mirrors were evaluated. Speckle images were obtained and recommendations for further improvement of the acquisition system are presented.

  17. Satellite Magnetic Residuals Investigated With Geostatistical Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox Maule, Chaterine; Mosegaard, Klaus; Olsen, Nils


    The geomagnetic field varies on a variety of time- and length scales, which are only rudimentarily considered in most present field models. The part of the observed field that cannot be explained by a given model, the model residuals, is often considered as an estimate of the data uncertainty (wh...

  18. Design of binary patterns for speckle reduction in holographic display with compressive sensing and direct-binary search algorithm (United States)

    Leportier, Thibault; Hwang, Do Kyung; Park, Min-Chul


    One problem common to imaging techniques based on coherent light is speckle noise. This phenomenon is caused mostly by random interference of light scattered by rough surfaces. Speckle noise can be avoided by using advanced holographic imaging techniques such as optical scanning holography. A more widely known method is to capture several holograms of the same object and to perform an averaging operation so that the signal to noise ratio can be improved. Several digital filters were also proposed to reduce noise in the numerical reconstruction plane of holograms, even though they usually require finding a compromise between noise reduction and edge preservation. In this study, we used a digital filter based on compressive sensing algorithm. This approach enables to obtain results equivalent to the average of multiple holograms, but only a single hologram is needed. Filters for speckle reduction are applied on numerical reconstructions of hologram, and not on the hologram itself. Then, optical reconstruction cannot be performed. We propose a method based on direct-binary search (DBS) algorithm to generate binary holograms that can be reconstructed optically after application of a speckle reduction filter. Since the optimization procedure of the DBS algorithm is performed in the image plane, speckle reduction techniques can be applied on the complex hologram and used as a reference to obtain a binary pattern where the speckle noise generated during the recording of the hologram has been filtered.

  19. Changes in speckle patterns induced by load application onto an optical fiber and its possible application for sensing purpose (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Okumura, Jyun-ya; Hyuga, Akio


    Speckle patterns to be observed in an output light spot from an optical fiber are known to be changed due to external disturbances applied onto the optical fiber. In order to investigate possibilities of utilizing such changes in speckle patterns for sensing application, a certain load was applied onto a jacket-covered communication-grade multi-mode glass optical fiber through which laser beams emitted from a laser diode were propagating, and observed changes in speckle patterns in the output light spot from the optical fiber were investigated both as image data via a CCD camera and as an output voltage from a photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot. The load was applied via a load application mechanism in which several ridges were provided onto opposite flat plates and a certain number of weights were placed there so that corrugated bending of the optical fiber was intentionally induced via load application due to the ridges. The obtained results showed that the number of speckles in the observed pattern in the output light spot as well as the output voltage from the photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot showed decreases upon load application with relatively satisfactory repeatability. When the load was reduced, i.e., the weights were removed, the number of speckles then showed recovery. These results indicate there is a certain possibility of utilizing changes in speckle patterns for sensing of load application onto the optical fiber.

  20. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.


    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  1. Reproducibility of retinal circulation measurements obtained using laser speckle flowgraphy-NAVI in patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M


    Full Text Available Naoko Aizawa, Yu Yokoyama, Naoki Chiba, Kazuko Omodaka, Masayuki Yasuda, Takaaki Otomo, Masahiko Nakamura, Nobuo Fuse, Toru NakazawaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine Sendai, Miyagi, JapanBackground: Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG enables noninvasive quantification of the retinal circulation in glaucoma patients. In this study, we tested the intrasession reproducibility of LSFG-NAVI, a modified LSFG technique.Methods: Sixty-five eyes from 33 subjects (male (M:female (F = 17:16 with a mean age of 49.4 ± 11.2 years were examined in this study. Two parameters indicating reproducibility – the coefficient of variation (COV and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC – were analyzed three times on the same day that mean blur rate (MBR was measured using LSFG-NAVI. The sites analyzed were the retinal artery and vein, the optic disk, and the choroid. Following classification according to the Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT; SITA-Standard 30-2 program, the COV and ICC were examined in patients with (GHT+; 38 eyes, M:F = 20:18, average age 48.9 ± 12.8 years and without (GHT-; 27 eyes, M:F = 13:14, average age 50.1 ± 8.7 years abnormal glaucomatous visual fields.Results: For all subjects, the intrasession reproducibility of MBR in the optic disk (COV: 3.4 ± 2.0; ICC: 0.95 and choroid (COV: 4.7 ± 3.4; ICC: 0.98 was excellent. The reproducibility for the retinal vein (COV: 8.4 ± 5.6, ICC: 0.90 and retinal artery (COV: 10.9 ± 9.9, ICC: 0.9 was moderate. MBRs in the optic disk had good reproducibility in both the GHT+ group (COV: 3.8 ± 2.0; ICC: 0.97 and the GHT− group (COV: 2.9 ± 2.1; ICC: 0.95. Local assessment of the optic disk in normal or glaucoma patients showed that the COVs of the quadrant optic disk areas were best in the temporal area of MBR (3.4%, 4.2%, respectively.Conclusion: LSFG-NAVI showed favorable reproducibility in evaluation of retinal circulation of glaucoma patients, particularly in

  2. Speckle based configuration for simultaneous in vitro inspection of mechanical contractions of cardiac myocyte cells (United States)

    Golberg, Mark; Fixler, Dror; Shainberg, Asher; Zlochiver, Sharon; Micó, Vicente; Garcia, Javier; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Zalevsky, Zeev


    In this manuscript we propose optical lensless configuration for a remote non-contact measuring of mechanical contractions of vast number of cardiac myocytes. All the myocytes were taken from rats, and the measurements were done in an in vitro mode. The optical method is based on temporal analysis of secondary reflected speckle patterns generated in lensless microscope configuration. The processing involves analyzing the movement and the change in the statistics of the generated secondary speckle patterns that are created on top of the cell culture when it is illuminated by a spot of laser beam. The main advantage of the proposed system is the ability to measure many cells simultaneously (approximately one thousand cells) and to extract the statistical data of their movement at once. The presented experimental results also include investigation the effect of isoproteranol on cells contraction process.

  3. Phase extraction in dynamic speckle interferometry: proposal of a road map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquot P.


    Full Text Available Of all the two-beam interference patterns, the ones obtained in speckle interferometry (SI are the most difficult to be phase-demodulated. Many solutions exist in classical smooth-wave interferometry and alike techniques, both in static and dynamic regimes. In SI, the three constituents of the signals – the background, the modulation and the phase – are all basically random variables. There is no way to make a prediction of the evolution of these variables outside the small size of the correlation volumes – the volumes defined by the average speckle grain. To some extent, the classical methods can be adapted to SI. Here, we prefer to develop a series of new processing tools tailored to the specificities of the dynamic SI signals: the cooperative use of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD, the Hilbert transform (HT, and the three dimensional piecewise processing (3DPP for recovering efficiently the phase of these signals.

  4. Influence of the number of cones on speckle patterns in the Laser MegaJoule configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cain A. Le


    Full Text Available This paper investigates statistical properties of hot spots when speckle patterns are generated by the superimposition of multiple laser beams in a 2 cone and a 3 cone Laser MegaJoule configuration in the zone where all the beams overlap. Three different cases of polarizations are investigated: P polarization, S polarization and the case of Double Polarization Smoothing (DPS. It is found that the sizes of the speckles depend on the choice of the polarization and that DPS seems to be the best option in both configurations. It is shown that the longitudinal radius of the hot spots in a 2 cone configuration is bigger than in a 3 cone configuration.

  5. Combination of Spatial Domain Filters for Speckle Noise Reduction in Ultrasound Medical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Garg


    Full Text Available The occurrence of speckle noise in medical Ultrasound (US images poses a big challenge to medical practitioners over last several years. Speckle noise reduces the fine details present in the images and hence make it more difficult to diagnose. In this paper, a~novel method based on the combination of three spatial domain filters is presented. The output of these filters is combined on the basis of an Intensity Classifier Map (ICF formed using Coefficient of Dispersion (CoD parameter. Experiments were conducted on synthetic and real US images. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the proposed method is carried out in comparison to other six existing methods. It has been found from the obtained results that proposed method delivers observable improvement in all quantitative parameters undertaken for synthetic US image and in MVR value for real US images. Also, the effectiveness of the proposed method is found to be consistent with qualitative assessment of the denoised images.

  6. Right atrial and ventricular function evaluated with speckle tracking in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramberg, Emilie; Olausson, Maria; Jørgensen, Tem Bendix Salkvist


    Aims Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) has prognostic significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate right atrium (RA) and RV myocardial damage with 2-dimensional speckle-tracking in patients with an acute central vs an acute peripheral PE. Methods...... and Results Twenty-six patients with acute PE and 10 controls were retrospectively enrolled. Right atrium and RV myocardial deformation was analyzed using speckle-tracking imaging echocardiography. Parameters were evaluated to illustrate myocardial damage in patients with a central or a peripherally located...... of an increased D-dimer in this group. Right ventricular dimensions were more affected among patients with a PE. Compared with controls, segmental RV and RA strain/strain rate in the free wall was significantly reduced in patients with PE (P

  7. Usefulness of speckle tracking echocardiography in hypertensive crisis and the effect of medical treatment. (United States)

    Alam, Mahboob; Zhang, Lily; Stampehl, Mark; Lakkis, Nasser; Dokainish, Hisham


    The acute impact of hypertensive crisis, and changes after treatment, on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function using comprehensive echocardiography, including speckle tracking, has not been well characterized. Thirty consecutive patients admitted to the hospital from the emergency room with hypertensive crisis underwent Doppler echocardiography at baseline and after blood pressure optimization. The mean age of the patients was 54 ± 13 years, with 19 men (63%). The most common presenting symptoms included dyspnea (70%), chest pain (43%), and altered mental status (13%). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures at presentation were 198 ± 12 and 122 ± 12 mm Hg, decreasing to 143 ± 15 and 77 ± 12 mm Hg (p hypertensive crisis and significantly improved after medical treatment. LV diastolic function, assessed using conventional and speckle-tracking parameters, was also depressed and significantly improved after treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography through structural guided filtering (United States)

    Gyger, Cyrill; Cattin, Roger; Hasler, Pascal W.; Maloca, Peter


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution noninvasive technology used in medical imaging for the spatial visualization of biological tissue. Due to its coherent nature, OCT suffers from speckle noise, which significantly degrades the information content of resulting scans. We introduce a new filtering method for three-dimensional OCT images, inspired by film grain removal techniques. By matching structural relatedness along all dimensions, the algorithm builds up vector paths for every voxel in the image volume representing its structural neighborhood. Then, by considering the information redundancy along these paths, our filter is able to reduce speckle noise significantly while simultaneously preserving structural information. This filter exceeds some common three-dimensional denoising algorithms used for OCT images, both in visual rendering quality and in measurable noise reduction. The noise-reduced results allow for improvement in subsequent processing steps, such as image segmentation.

  9. A Nonlinear Diffusion Equation-Based Model for Ultrasound Speckle Noise Removal (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Zhichang; Zhang, Dazhi; Wu, Boying


    Ultrasound images are contaminated by speckle noise, which brings difficulties in further image analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this paper, we address this problem in the view of nonlinear diffusion equation theories. We develop a nonlinear diffusion equation-based model by taking into account not only the gradient information of the image, but also the information of the gray levels of the image. By utilizing the region indicator as the variable exponent, we can adaptively control the diffusion type which alternates between the Perona-Malik diffusion and the Charbonnier diffusion according to the image gray levels. Furthermore, we analyze the proposed model with respect to the theoretical and numerical properties. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves much better speckle suppression and edge preservation when compared with the traditional despeckling methods, especially in the low gray level and low-contrast regions.

  10. Holographic interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology for 3D deformations in dentistry (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Kemper, Björn; Kröger, Elke; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter


    The mechanical loading of dental restorations and hard tissue is often investigated numerically. For validation and optimization of such simulations, comparisons with measured deformations are essential. We combine digital holographic interferometry and digital speckle photography for the determination of microscopic deformations with a photogrammetric method that is based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. This multimodal workstation allows the simultaneous acquisition of the specimen's macroscopic 3D shape and thus a quantitative comparison of measured deformations with simulation data. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of our system, two applications are presented: the quantitative determination of (1) the deformation of a mandible model due to mechanical loading of an inserted dental implant and of (2) the deformation of a (dental) bridge model under mechanical loading. The results were compared with data from finite element analyses of the investigated applications. The experimental results showed close agreement with those of the simulations.

  11. A Speckle survey of Southern Hipparcos Visual Doubles and Geneva-Copenhagen Spectroscopic Binaries (United States)

    Mendez, R. A.; Tokovinin, A.; Horch, E.


    We present a speckle survey of Hipparcos visual doubles and spectroscopic binary stars identified by the Geneva-Copenhagen spectroscopic survey with the SOAR 4m telescope + HRCam. These systems represent our best chance to take advantage of Gaia parallaxes for the purpose of stellar mass determinations. Many of these systems already have mass fractions (although generally no spectroscopic orbit - an astrometric orbit will determine individual masses), metallicity information, and Hipparcos distances. They will be used to improve our knowledge of the mass-luminosity relation, particularly for lower-metallicity stars. Our survey will create the first all-sky, volume-limited, speckle archive for the two primary samples, complementing a similar effort that has been recently been completed at the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. This extension to the Southern Hemisphere will fill out the picture for a wider metallicity range.

  12. Volumetric Analysis Using Low-Field Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging for 168 Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Glioblastomas: Effects of Extent of Resection and Residual Tumor Volume on Survival and Recurrence. (United States)

    Fukui, Atsushi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Saito, Taiichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Nitta, Masayuki; Ikuta, Soko; Kawamata, Takakazu


    Extent of resection (EOR) remains controversial in therapy for glioblastoma (GBM). However, an increasing number of studies favor maximum EOR as being associated with longer patient survival. Residual tumor volume (RTV) has also recently emerged as a prognostic factor. Low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has contributed to improve the EOR of GBM. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between EOR/RTV and overall survival (OS)/progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with newly diagnosed GBM using low-field iMRI. Adult patients who underwent surgery for newly diagnosed supratentorial GBM between 2000 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three-dimensional volumetric tumor measurements were made. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between EOR/RTV and OS/PFS. Of 168 patients, 126 (75%) died and 154 (91%) showed tumor recurrence. Median OS and PFS for patients with iMRI were 19.3 months (95% confidence interval, 15.4-23.7 months) and 9.5 months (95% confidence interval, 7.8-10.8 months). Median preoperative tumor volume was 37.0 cm 3 (interquartile range [IQR], 19.9-59.8 cm 3 ). Median RTV was 0 cm 3 (IQR, 0-1.6 cm 3 ). Median EOR was 100% (IQR, 96.2%-100%). In multivariate analysis, after controlling for age and Karnofsky Performance Status, EOR and RTV remained significantly associated with survival (hazard ratio, 1.56; P = 0.018) and recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.53; P = 0.013). Maximum RTV for survival was 3 cm 3 . This volumetric analysis for low-field iMRI showed that both EOR and RTV were significantly associated with survival and recurrence. We determined a threshold RTV of 3 cm 3 as the maximum RTV associated with survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. BL_Wiener Denoising Method for Removal of Speckle Noise in Ultrasound Image


    Suhaila Sari; Zuliana Azreen Zulkifeli; Hazli Roslan; Nabilah Ibrahim


    Medical imaging techniques are extremely important tools in medical diagnosis. One of these important imaging techniques is ultrasound imaging. However, during ultrasound image acquisition process, the quality of image can be degraded due to corruption by speckle noise. The enhancement of ultrasound images quality from the 2D ultrasound imaging machines is expected to provide medical practitioners more reliable medical images in their patients’ diagnosis. However, developing a denoising techn...

  14. Real-time three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography: technical aspects and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorrentino R


    Full Text Available Regina Sorrentino, Roberta Esposito, Enrica Pezzullo, Maurizio Galderisi Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Interdepartmental Laboratory of Cardiac Imaging, Federico II University Hospital, Naples, Italy Abstract: Three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D STE is a novel technique for the quantification of cardiac deformation based on tracking of ultrasonic speckles in gray scale full-volume 3D images. Developments in ultrasound technologies have made 3D speckle tracking widely available. Two-dimensional echocardiography has intrinsic limitations regarding estimation of left ventricular (LV volumes, ejection fraction, and LV mechanics, due to its inherent foreshortening errors and dependency on geometric models. The development of 3D echocardiography has improved reproducibility and accuracy. Data regarding the feasibility, accuracy, and clinical applications of 3D STE are rapidly assembling. From the tracking results, 3D STE derives several parameters, including longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain, as well as a combined assessment of longitudinal and circumferential strain, termed area strain. 3D STE can also quantify LV rotational movements such as rotation, twist, and torsion. 3D STE provides a better insight on global and regional myocardial deformation. Main applications include detection of subclinical myocardial involvement in heart failure, arterial hypertension, dyssynchrony, and ischemic heart disease. Emerging areas of application include a large spectrum of heart-involving systemic conditions, such as prediction of rejection in heart transplant patients, early detection of cardiotoxicity in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer, and deeper physiological understanding of LV contraction mechanics in different types of athletes. Aim of this review is to discuss background, technical acquisition and processing aspects as well as recognized and developing clinical applications of this emerging

  15. Know the Star, Know the Planet. 2. Speckle Interferometry of Exoplanet Host Stars (United States)


    DVA ” is background subtracted through boxcar subtraction and the sharp central peak, which corresponds to the zeroth-order speckles correlating with...them- selves, is clipped. Companions in the resulting DVA are then readily apparent as peaks several sigma above the background. Of the 118 exoplanet...USNO with an ICCD and reduced with the DVA method. Asterisks (N = 11) are those observed by other interferometry groups, and an “X” (N = 292) are

  16. Waveguide generated mitigation of speckle and scintillation on an actively illuminated target (United States)

    Moore, Trevor D.; Raynor, Robert A.; Spencer, Mark F.; Schmidt, Jason D.


    Active illumination is often used when passive illumination cannot produce enough signal intensity to be a reliable imaging method. However, an increase in signal intensity is often achieved by using highly coherent laser sources, which produce undesirable effects such as speckle and scintillation. The deleterious effects of speckle and scintillation are often so immense that the imaging camera cannot receive intelligible data, thereby rendering the active illumination technique useless. By reducing the spatial coherence of the laser beam that is actively illuminating the object, it is possible to reduce the corruption of the received data caused by speckle and scintillation. The waveguide method discussed in this paper reduces spatial coherence through multiple total internal reflections, which create multiple virtual sources of diverse path lengths. The differing path lengths between the virtual sources and the target allow for the temporal coherence properties of the laser to be translated into spatial coherence properties. The resulting partial spatial coherence helps to mitigate the self-interference of the beam as it travels through the atmosphere and reflects off of optically rough targets. This mitigation method results in a cleaner, intelligible image that may be further processed for the intended use, unlike its unmitigated counterpart. Previous research has been done to independently reduce speckle or scintillation by way of spatial incoherence, but there has been no focus on modeling the waveguide, specifically the image plane the waveguide creates. Utilizing a ray-tracing method we can determine the coherence length of the source necessary to create incoherent spots in the image plane, as well as accurately modeling the image plane.

  17. Feasibility and observer reproducibility of speckle tracking echocardiography in congenital heart disease patients. (United States)

    Mokhles, Palwasha; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Vletter-McGhie, Jackie S; Van Domburg, Ron T; Ruys, Titia P E; Kauer, Floris; Geleijnse, Marcel L; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W


    The twisting motion of the heart has an important role in the function of the left ventricle. Speckle tracking echocardiography is able to quantify left ventricular (LV) rotation and twist. So far this new technique has not been used in congenital heart disease patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility and the intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of LV rotation parameters in adult patients with congenital heart disease. The study population consisted of 66 consecutive patients seen in the outpatient clinic (67% male, mean age 31 ± 7.7 years, NYHA class 1 ± 0.3) with a variety of congenital heart disease. First, feasibility was assessed in all patients. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed for the patients in which speckle tracking echocardiography was feasible. Adequate image quality, for performing speckle echocardiography, was found in 80% of patients. The bias for the intra-observer reproducibility of the LV twist was 0.0°, with 95% limits of agreement of -2.5° and 2.5° and for interobserver reproducibility the bias was 0.0°, with 95% limits of agreement of -3.0° and 3.0°. Intra- and inter-observer measurements showed a strong correlation (0.86 and 0.79, respectively). Also a good repeatability was seen. The mean time to complete full analysis per subject for the first and second measurement was 9 and 5 minutes, respectively. Speckle tracking echocardiography is feasible in 80% of adult patients with congenital heart disease and shows excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional

  19. Egg speckling patterns do not advertise offspring quality or influence male provisioning in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell Stoddard

    Full Text Available Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits.

  20. Laser Speckle Rheology for evaluating the viscoelastic properties of hydrogel scaffolds (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nia, Hadi Tavakoli; Ahn, Shawn; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.


    Natural and synthetic hydrogel scaffolds exhibit distinct viscoelastic properties at various length scales and deformation rates. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) offers a novel, non-contact optical approach for evaluating the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of hydrogels. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the specimen and a high-speed camera acquires the time-varying speckle images. Cross-correlation analysis of frames returns the speckle intensity autocorrelation function, g2(t), from which the frequency-dependent viscoelastic modulus, G*(ω), is deduced. Here, we establish the capability of LSR for evaluating the viscoelastic properties of hydrogels over a large range of moduli, using conventional mechanical rheometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based indentation as reference-standards. Results demonstrate a strong correlation between |G*(ω)| values measured by LSR and mechanical rheometry (r = 0.95, p  0.08) over a large range (47 Pa – 36 kPa). In addition, |G*(ω)| values measured by LSR correlate well with indentation moduli, E, reported by AFM (r = 0.92, p rheology and micro-indentation in assessing hydrogel viscoelastic properties at multiple frequencies and small length-scales. PMID:27905494

  1. Feasibility and reference values of left atrial longitudinal strain imaging by two-dimensional speckle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisi Matteo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of speckle tracking in the assessment of left atrial (LA deformation dynamics is not established. We sought to determine the feasibility and reference ranges of LA longitudinal strain indices measured by speckle tracking in a population of normal subjects. Methods In 60 healthy individuals, peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS and time to peak longitudinal strain (TPLS were measured using a 12-segment model for the left atrium. Values were obtained by averaging all segments (global PALS and TPLS and by separately averaging segments measured in the two apical views (4- and 2-chamber average PALS and TPLS. Results Adequate tracking quality was achieved in 97% of segments analyzed. Inter and intra-observer variability coefficients of measurements ranged between 2.9% and 5.4%. Global PALS was 42.2 ± 6.1% (5–95° percentile range 32.2–53.2%, and global TPLS was 368 ± 30 ms (5–95° percentile range 323–430 ms. The 2-chamber average PALS was slightly higher than the 4-chamber average PALS (44.3 ± 6.0% vs 40.1 ± 7.9%, p Conclusion Speckle tracking is a feasible technique for the assessment of longitudinal myocardial LA deformation. Reference ranges of strain indices were reported.

  2. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using a discrete wavelet transform-based image fusion technique. (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Sung Yun


    Here, the speckle noise in ultrasonic images is removed using an image fusion-based denoising method. To optimize the denoising performance, each discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and filtering technique was analyzed and compared. In addition, the performances were compared in order to derive the optimal input conditions. To evaluate the speckle noise removal performance, an image fusion algorithm was applied to the ultrasound images, and comparatively analyzed with the original image without the algorithm. As a result, applying DWT and filtering techniques caused information loss and noise characteristics, and did not represent the most significant noise reduction performance. Conversely, an image fusion method applying SRAD-original conditions preserved the key information in the original image, and the speckle noise was removed. Based on such characteristics, the input conditions of SRAD-original had the best denoising performance with the ultrasound images. From this study, the best denoising technique proposed based on the results was confirmed to have a high potential for clinical application.

  3. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Zhou, Tunhe; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal


    To achieve high resolution and sensitivity on the nanometer scale, further development of X-ray optics is required. Although ex-situ metrology provides valuable information about X-ray optics, the ultimate performance of X-ray optics is critically dependent on the exact nature of the working conditions. Therefore, it is equally important to perform in-situ metrology at the optics' operating wavelength (`at-wavelength' metrology) to optimize the performance of X-ray optics and correct and minimize the collective distortions of the upstream beamline optics, e.g. monochromator, windows, etc. Speckle-based technique has been implemented and further improved at Diamond Light Source. We have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach an accuracy of two nanoradians. The recent development of the speckle-based at-wavelength metrology techniques will be presented. Representative examples of the applications of the speckle-based technique will also be given - including optimization of X-ray mirrors and characterization of compound refraction lenses. Such a high-precision metrology technique will be extremely beneficial for the manufacture and in-situ alignment/optimization of X-ray mirrors for next-generation synchrotron beamlines.

  4. Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Li, Yan; Wang, Yimin; Kraus, Martin F.; Liu, Jonathan J.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Baumann, Bernhard; Fujimoto, James G.; Huang, David


    The effectiveness of speckle reduction using traditional frame averaging technique was limited in ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography (OCT). As the motion between repeated frames was very small, the speckle pattern of the frames might be identical. This problem could be solved by averaging frames acquired at slightly different locations. The optimized scan range depended on the spot size of the laser beam, the smoothness of the boundary, and the homogeneity of the tissue. In this study we presented a method to average frames obtained within a narrow range along the slow-axis. A swept-source OCT with 100,000 Hz axial scan rate was used to scan the retina in vivo. A series of narrow raster scans (0-50 micron along the slow axis) were evaluated. Each scan contained 20 image frames evenly distributed in the scan range. The imaging frame rate was 417 HZ. Only frames with high correlation after rigid registration were used in averaging. The result showed that the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) increased with the scan range. But the best edge reservation was obtained with 15 micron scan range. Thus, for ultrahigh speed OCT systems, averaging frames from a narrow band along the slow-axis could achieve better speckle reduction than traditional frame averaging techniques.

  5. Acute myocarditis with normal wall motion detected with 2D speckle tracking echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sturmberger


    Full Text Available We present the case of a 26-year-old male with acute tonsillitis who was referred for coronary angiography because of chest pain, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and biphasic T waves. The patient had no cardiovascular risk factors. Echocardiography showed no wall motion abnormalities and no pericardial effusion. 2D speckle tracking revealed distinct decreased regional peak longitudinal systolic strain in the lateral and posterior walls. Ischemic disease was extremely unlikely in view of his young age, negative family history regarding coronary artery disease, and lack of regional wall motion abnormalities on the conventional 2D echocardiogram. Coronary angiography was deferred as myocarditis was suspected. To confirm the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance tomography (MRT was performed, showing subepicardial delayed hyperenhancement in the lateral and posterior walls correlating closely with the strain pattern obtained by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. With a working diagnosis of acute myocarditis associated with acute tonsillitis, we prescribed antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient’s clinical signs resolved along with normalization of serum creatine kinase (CK levels, and the patient was discharged on the third day after admission. Learning points: • Acute myocarditis can mimic acute coronary syndromes. • Conventional 2D echocardiography lacks specific features for detection of subtle regional wall motion abnormalities. • 2D speckle tracking expands the scope of echocardiography in identifying myocardial dysfunction derived from edema in acute myocarditis.

  6. Evaluation of Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Chronic Asymptomatic Alcoholics by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murathan Kucuk


    Full Text Available By using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, we aimed to investigate the structural and functional changes on myocardium in chronic asymptomatic alcoholics without any cardiovascular disease. Forty-one consecutive asymptomatic male alcoholics who were admitted to the outpatient alcoholism unit and 30 age matched healthy male volunteers selected as the control group were enrolled in the study. The study group were investigated by using standard two-dimensional echocardiography and speckle tracking echocardiography. The left ventricular (LV global longitudinal strain and LV global circumferential strain were significantly lower in alcoholics when compared with control subjects. There was no difference in global radial strain between the two groups. To demonstrate the effect of total life time dose of ethanol (TLDE on echocardiographic abnormalities, we assessed the correlation analysis. There was a nonsignificant weak correlation between global LV circumferential strain and TLDE (r=0.27, p=0.083. Speckle tracking echocardiography derived left ventricular systolic function was impaired in chronic alcoholic patients when compared with healthy controls.

  7. Observation of drying process of multilayered paint using fOCT based on dynamic speckles (United States)

    Fukai, T.; Kadono, H.


    Recently, a demand for the precise observation of a multilayered paint system have been increasing such as in car industry. However, conventional methods can observe only the surface condition of the paint. In this study, we propose a new method to observe a three dimensional drying process of the multilayered paint using functional Optical Coherence Tomography (fOCT). In this method, the dynamic speckles that appear in OCT signal were utilized. The temporal properties of the dynamic speckle is related to the Brownian motion of the scattering particles in the paint, and thus depends on the drying condition. Autocorrelation function of the speckle signal was calculated and its width, i.e., correlation length (CL), was used as a measure. In the experiment, two layer system consisting of different paints on the thin glass plate, and the drying process was observed for two hours. In the second layer exposed to the air, CL showed a monotonic increment indicating a steady progress of the drying process while in the first layer (deeper layer), CL decreased slightly for the first 50min. and then started to increase. This implies that drying process has been reversed due to the transport of the solvent from the second layer in the early stage. Such a complicated drying process of the multilayer system could also be confirmed from OCT signal image of the interface between the layers. This analysis was performed using the phase term obtained in the OCT interference signal with an accuracy of 0.1μm.

  8. Reduction of speckle noise by multi-kinoforms in holographic three-dimensional display (United States)

    Zheng, Huadong; Yu, Yingjie; Qian, Haiyan; Asundi, Anand


    In order to avoid missing low-frequency information of three-dimensional (3D) object, pseudorandom phase is generally added to object planes in tomographic hologram calculation, but speckle noise is inevitably introduced. A novel method is proposed to improving the quality of image reconstructed from kinoform generated by computational tomographic holography. Multi-kinoforms of 3D object are calculated, and the images of these kinoforms are superposed to suppress the speckle noise of reconstructed image. An invariant pseudorandom phase is added to each object plane in calculating each kinoform, and the pseudorandom phase is generated randomly again in next kinoform calculating. Digital reconstruction results from single kinoform and multi-kinoforms are analyzed by considering the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and correlation coefficient (CC) between reconstructed images and original object, which verifies that the speckle noise in reconstructed image can be suppressed by superposing enough images reconstructed from the kinoforms. Electro-optical reconstruction results also confirm that the method is available.

  9. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.


    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  10. Using speckle to reduce the influence of DPL modes on holographic storage system (United States)

    Huang, Dong; He, Qingsheng; Wang, Jinnan; Jin, Hongzhen; Jin, Guofan


    In normal angular multiplexed holographic storage system, to make the system compact, replacing the Ar+ laser with the diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPL) is an important means, but the application of DPL will increase the cross-talk and reduce the storage density because of the multiple longitudinal modes in the output of the DPL. In this paper, a novel speckle holographic storage scheme is proposed, in which a random phase diffuser is added in the front of storage medium along the reference optical path of the 90° geometry. A theoretical model has been derived to describe the storage properties of this scheme based on the cross-correlation of dynamic speckle and the diffractive theory. The angular selectivity in the normal angular multiplexed system and in the speckle-coded angular multiplexed system have been theoretically compared and experimentally confirmed. The results indicate that this scheme allows an increase of storage density with a simple modification in the DPL system.

  11. Differentiation of the drying time of adhesives on plywoods through the dynamic speckle technique (United States)

    Kumari, S.; Nirala, A. K.


    The drying time of adhesives such as Fevicol SH, Fevicol MR, Dendrite white and Bulbond after coating separately on the three plywoods, namely Archidply, Centuryply and Greenply, has been studied non-destructively using the dynamic speckle technique. The time history of the speckle pattern, the co-occurrence matrix, 3D graphs and line profiles of images from the time history of the speckle pattern along with 3D trajectory plots have been used for qualitative analysis whereas the inertia moment, absolute value difference, SM index and autocovariance have been used for quantitative analysis. The gray-level co-occurrence matrix has been used for the first time to study the textual parameters of adhesive coated on plywoods during drying. The average drying time of adhesive is a maximum for Bulbond on Archidply (357.25  ±  1.49 min) and a minimum for Dendrite white on Greenply (90.75  ±  2.36 min). Comparative studies among the results obtained for all the four adhesives on the three plywoods reveal that Dendrite white adhesive is the best among the adhesives because it takes the shortest time to dry on all the plywoods, and Greenply is the best among all the plywoods because drying is fastest on it for all the adhesives. Furthermore, it is also concluded that the best plywood and the best adhesive may be decided by knowing the remnant activity.

  12. Speckle Reduction and Structure Enhancement by Multichannel Median Boosted Anisotropic Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi


    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to reduce speckle noise and enhance structures in speckle-corrupted images. It utilizes a median-anisotropic diffusion compound scheme. The median-filter-based reaction term acts as a guided energy source to boost the structures in the image being processed. In addition, it regularizes the diffusion equation to ensure the existence and uniqueness of a solution. We also introduce a decimation and back reconstruction scheme to further enhance the processing result. Before the iteration of the diffusion process, the image is decimated and a subpixel shifted image set is formed. This allows a multichannel parallel diffusion iteration, and more importantly, the speckle noise is broken into impulsive or salt-pepper noise, which is easy to remove by median filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is clear when it is compared to other diffusion algorithms and the well-known adaptive weighted median filtering (AWMF scheme in both simulation and real medical ultrasound images.

  13. Systematic and random errors in self-mixing measurements: effect of the developing speckle statistics. (United States)

    Donati, Silvano; Martini, Giuseppe


    We consider the errors introduced by speckle pattern statistics of a diffusing target in the measurement of large displacements made with a self-mixing interferometer (SMI), with sub-λ resolution and a range up to meters. As the source on the target side, we assume a diffuser with randomly distributed roughness. Two cases are considered: (i) a developing randomness in z-height profile, with standard deviation σ(z), increasing from ≪λ to ≫λ and uncorrelated spatially (x,y), and (ii) a fully developed z-height randomness (σ(z)≫λ) but spatially correlated with various correlation sizes ρ(x,y). We find that systematic and random errors of all types of diffusers converge to that of a uniformly illuminated diffuser, independent of the actual profile of radiant emittance and phase distribution, when the standard deviation σ(z) is increased or the scale of correlation ρ(x,y) is decreased. This convergence is a sign of speckle statistics development, as all distributions end up with the same errors of the fully developed diffuser. Convergence is earlier for a Gaussian-distributed amplitude than for other spot distributions. As an application of simulation results, we plot systematic and random errors of SMI measurements of displacement versus distance, for different source distributions standard deviations and correlations, both for intra- and inter-speckle displacements.

  14. Speckle reduction process based on digital filtering and wavelet compounding in optical coherence tomography for dermatology (United States)

    Gómez Valverde, Juan J.; Ortuño, Juan E.; Guerra, Pedro; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Rubio-Guivernau, José L.; Santos, Andrés.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.


    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has shown a great potential as a complementary imaging tool in the diagnosis of skin diseases. Speckle noise is the most prominent artifact present in OCT images and could limit the interpretation and detection capabilities. In this work we propose a new speckle reduction process and compare it with various denoising filters with high edge-preserving potential, using several sets of dermatological OCT B-scans. To validate the performance we used a custom-designed spectral domain OCT and two different data set groups. The first group consisted in five datasets of a single B-scan captured N times (with N<20), the second were five 3D volumes of 25 Bscans. As quality metrics we used signal to noise (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR) and equivalent number of looks (ENL) ratios. Our results show that a process based on a combination of a 2D enhanced sigma digital filter and a wavelet compounding method achieves the best results in terms of the improvement of the quality metrics. In the first group of individual B-scans we achieved improvements in SNR, CNR and ENL of 16.87 dB, 2.19 and 328 respectively; for the 3D volume datasets the improvements were 15.65 dB, 3.44 and 1148. Our results suggest that the proposed enhancement process may significantly reduce speckle, increasing SNR, CNR and ENL and reducing the number of extra acquisitions of the same frame.

  15. Clinical utility of speckle-tracking echocardiography in cardiac resynchronisation therapy. (United States)

    Khan, Sitara G; Klettas, Dimitris; Kapetanakis, Stam; Monaghan, Mark J


    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) can profoundly improve outcome in selected patients with heart failure; however, response is difficult to predict and can be absent in up to one in three patients. There has been a substantial amount of interest in the echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular dyssynchrony, with the ultimate aim of reliably identifying patients who will respond to CRT. The measurement of myocardial deformation (strain) has conventionally been assessed using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), which is limited by its angle dependence and ability to measure in a single plane. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is a technique that provides measurements of strain in three planes, by tracking patterns of ultrasound interference ('speckles') in the myocardial wall throughout the cardiac cycle. Since its initial use over 15 years ago, it has emerged as a tool that provides more robust, reproducible and sensitive markers of dyssynchrony than TDI. This article reviews the use of two-dimensional and three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in the assessment of dyssynchrony, including the identification of echocardiographic parameters that may hold predictive potential for the response to CRT. It also reviews the application of these techniques in guiding optimal LV lead placement pre-implant, with promising results in clinical improvement post-CRT. © 2016 The authors.

  16. Speckle variance optical coherence tomography of blood flow in the beating mouse embryonic heart. (United States)

    Grishina, Olga A; Wang, Shang; Larina, Irina V


    Efficient separation of blood and cardiac wall in the beating embryonic heart is essential and critical for experiment-based computational modelling and analysis of early-stage cardiac biomechanics. Although speckle variance optical coherence tomography (SV-OCT) relying on calculation of intensity variance over consecutively acquired frames is a powerful approach for segmentation of fluid flow from static tissue, application of this method in the beating embryonic heart remains challenging because moving structures generate SV signal indistinguishable from the blood. Here, we demonstrate a modified four-dimensional SV-OCT approach that effectively separates the blood flow from the dynamic heart wall in the beating mouse embryonic heart. The method takes advantage of the periodic motion of the cardiac wall and is based on calculation of the SV signal over the frames corresponding to the same phase of the heartbeat cycle. Through comparison with Doppler OCT imaging, we validate this speckle-based approach and show advantages in its insensitiveness to the flow direction and velocity as well as reduced influence from the heart wall movement. This approach has a potential in variety of applications relying on visualization and segmentation of blood flow in periodically moving structures, such as mechanical simulation studies and finite element modelling. Picture: Four-dimensional speckle variance OCT imaging shows the blood flow inside the beating heart of an E8.5 mouse embryo. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Algorithmic processing of intrinsic signals in affixed transmission speckle analysis (ATSA) (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ghijsen, Michael T.; Tromberg, Bruce J.


    Affixed Transmission Speckle Analysis (ATSA) is a method recently developed to measure blood flow that is based on laser speckle imaging miniaturized into a clip-on form factor the size of a pulse-oximeter. Measuring at a rate of 250 Hz, ATSA is capable or obtaining the cardiac waveform in blood flow data, referred to as the Speckle-Plethysmogram (SPG). ATSA is also capable of simultaneously measuring the Photoplethysmogram (PPG), a more conventional signal related to light intensity. In this work we present several novel algorithms for extracting physiologically relevant information from the combined SPG-PPG waveform data. First we show that there is a slight time-delay between the SPG and PPG that can be extracted computationally. Second, we present a set of frequency domain algorithms that measure harmonic content on pulse-by-pulse basis for both the SPG and PPG. Finally, we apply these algorithms to data obtained from a set of subjects including healthy controls and individuals with heightened cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that the time-delay and frequency content are correlated with cardiovascular health; specifically with vascular stiffening.

  18. Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography based on adaptive 2D dictionary (United States)

    Lv, Hongli; Fu, Shujun; Zhang, Caiming; Zhai, Lin


    As a high-resolution biomedical imaging modality, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in medical sciences. However, OCT images often suffer from speckle noise, which can mask some important image information, and thus reduce the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. Taking full advantage of nonlocal self-similarity and adaptive 2D-dictionary-based sparse representation, in this work, a speckle noise reduction algorithm is proposed for despeckling OCT images. To reduce speckle noise while preserving local image features, similar nonlocal patches are first extracted from the noisy image and put into groups using a gamma- distribution-based block matching method. An adaptive 2D dictionary is then learned for each patch group. Unlike traditional vector-based sparse coding, we express each image patch by the linear combination of a few matrices. This image-to-matrix method can exploit the local correlation between pixels. Since each image patch might belong to several groups, the despeckled OCT image is finally obtained by aggregating all filtered image patches. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over other state-of-the-art despeckling methods, in terms of objective metrics and visual inspection.

  19. Hypoperfusion Induced by Preconditioning Treadmill Training in Hyper-Early Reperfusion After Cerebral Ischemia: A Laser Speckle Imaging Study. (United States)

    He, Zhijie; Lu, Hongyang; Yang, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Li; Wu, Yi; Niu, Wenxiu; Ding, Li; Wang, Guili; Tong, Shanbao; Jia, Jie


    Exercise preconditioning induces neuroprotective effects during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, which involves the recovery of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of re-established CBF following ischemia and reperfusion are unclear. The present study investigated CBF in hyper-early stage of reperfusion by laser speckle contrast imaging, a full-field high-resolution optical imaging technique. Rats with or without treadmill training were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. CBF in arteries, veins, and capillaries in hyper-early stage of reperfusion (1, 2, and 3 h after reperfusion) and in subacute stage (24 h after reperfusion) were measured. Neurological scoring and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were further applied to determine the neuroprotective effects of exercise preconditioning. In hyper-early stage of reperfusion, CBF in the rats with exercise preconditioning was reduced significantly in arteries and veins, respectively, compared to rats with no exercise preconditioning. Capillary CBF remained stable in the hyper-early stage of reperfusion, though it increased significantly 24 h after reperfusion in the rats with exercise preconditioning. As a neuroprotective strategy, exercise preconditioning reduced the blood perfusion of arteries and veins in the hyper-early stage of reperfusion, which indicated intervention-induced neuroprotective hypoperfusion after reperfusion onset.

  20. Evolution of the optical vortex density in phase corrected speckle fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS


    Full Text Available to determine the characteristics scales associated with these processes. Here the authors report the initial results and show how one can represent the evolution of the vortex density in the paraxial limit....