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Sample records for residual sludge remaining

  1. Radionuclide Leaching from Residual Solids Remaining after Acid Dissolution of K East Area Sludge Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Carlson, C.D.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of various leach treatments for decontaminating dissolver residual solids (KEACRESID1) produced during a 24-hour dissolution of K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite in boiling 6 M HNO 3 . The scope of this testing has been described in Section 4.5 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basin Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the residual solids generated in the K Basin sludge treatment process can restrict disposal of this solid to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The starting dissolver residual solid for this testing, KEACRESID1, is a visibly heterogeneous material. This material contains radionuclides at concentrations above the ERDF Waste Acceptance Criteria for transuranics (TRU) by about a factor of 3, for 239 Pu by a factor of 10, and for 241 Am by a factor of 1.6. It meets the ERDF criterion for 137 Cs by a factor of 4 and for uranium by a factor of 10. Therefore, the radionuclides of greatest interest in this leaching study are first 239 Pu, and then 241 Am, 137 Cs, and uranium

  2. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  3. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Krumhansl

    2002-04-02

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate nearby groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Performance assessment (PA) calculations must be carried out prior to closing the tanks. This requires developing radionuclide release models from the sludges so that the PA calculations can be based on credible source terms. These efforts continued to be hindered by uncertainties regarding the actual nature of the tank contents and the distribution of radionuclides among the various phases. In particular, it is of vital importance to know what radionuclides are associated with solid sludge components. Experimentation on actual tank sludges can be difficult, dangerous and prohibitively expensive. The research funded under this grant for the past three years was intended to provide a cost-effective method for developing the needed radionuclide release models using non-radioactive artificial sludges. Insights gained from this work will also have more immediate applications in understanding the processes responsible for heel development in the tanks and in developing effective technologies for removing wastes from the tanks.

  4. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.17 Oil residue (sludge) tank. (a) A tank vessel of 400 gross... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil residue (sludge) tank. 157.17...

  5. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological...... processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during...... the resting period. As the resting period proceeded, atmospheric air re-entered the pore space at all depth levels. The methane (CH4) concentration was at its highest during the first part of the resting period, and then declined as the sludge residue became more dewatered and thereby aerated. In the pore...

  6. Drying of residue and separation of nitrate salts in the sludge waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the dissolution process by water and the drying property of residue after separating nitrates in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97% at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue These were decomposed over 600 .deg. C and calcium carbonate, which was consisted mainly of residue, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 .deg. C. The residue have to be decomposed over 800 .deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six value into the stable U 3 O 8 of four value. As a result of removing the nitrates at the water adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 .deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80%

  7. Residual and cumulative effects of soil application of sewage sludge on corn productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rosana Faria; Moriconi, Waldemore; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antônio Almeida

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of frequent and periodic applications of sewage sludge to the soil, on corn productivity. The experiment was carried out as part of an experiment that has been underway since 1999, using two types of sludge. One came from the Barueri Sewage Treatment Station (BS, which receives both household and industrial sludge) and the other came from the Franca Sewage Treatment Station (FS, which receives only household sludge). The Barueri sludge was applied from 1999 up to the agricultural year of 2003/2004. With the exception of the agricultural years of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, the Franca sludge was applied up to 2008/2009. All the applications were made in November, with the exception of the first one which was made in April 1999. After harvesting the corn, the soil remained fallow until the next cultivation. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized block design with three replications and the following treatments: control without chemical fertilization or sludge application, mineral fertilization, and dose 1 and dose 2 of sludge (Franca and Barueri). The sludges were applied individually. Dose 1 was calculated by considering the recommended N application for corn. Dose 2 was twice dose 1. It was evident from this work that the successive application of sludge to the soil in doses sufficient to reach the productivity desired with the use of nitrogen fertilizers could cause environmental problems due to N losses to the environment and that the residual and cumulative effects should be considered when calculating the application of sludge to soil.

  8. Characteristics of residues from thermally treated anaerobic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.A.; Smith, J.E.; De Santis, J.; Ptak, T.; Ganley, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Sludge management and disposal are probably the most difficult and expensive operations involved in wastewater treatment today. To minimize final disposal costs many waste treatment facilities practice some form of anaerobic digestion and dewatering to reduce the volume and offensiveness of their by-product sludges. One potential alternative for reducing sludge volumes consists of high temperature, partial oxidation of these previously digested sludges (PDS) and subsequent anaerobic biological conversion of resulting soluble organics to methane. This paper describes solids destruction, residue characteristics and biodegradability factors that should be considered in the design of liquid thermal treatment processes for the management of anaerobic sludges. To date only very limited information is available concerning the suitability of thermally treated PDS to serve as a substrate for the generation of methane. The primary objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of producing methane efficiently from the residual VSS in anaerobically digested sludges. Secondary goals were to establish the ''best'' conditions for thermal treatment for solubilizing PDS, to observe the effect of the soluble products on methanogenesis and to evaluate process sidestreams for dewaterability and anaerobic biodegradability

  9. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg −1 of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  10. Residue characteristics of sludge from a chemical industrial plant by microwave heating pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Nina; Zeng, Jun-Yan; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2018-03-01

    Sludge from biological wastewater treatment procedures was treated using microwave heating pyrolysis to reduce the environmental impact of a chemical plant. In this study, major elements, trace elements, PAHs and nitro-PAHs in raw sludge, and pyrolysis residues were investigated. The contents of major element from raw sludge were carbon 46.7 ± 5.9%, hydrogen 5.80 ± 0.58%, nitrogen 6.81 ± 0.59%, and sulfur 1.34 ± 0.27%. Trace elemental concentrations including Zn, Mn, Cr, Cd, As, and Sn were 0.410 ± 0.050, 0.338 ± 0.008, 0.063 ± 0.006, 0.019 ± 0.001, 0.004 ± 0.001, and 0.003 ± 0.002 mg/g, respectively. For various pyrolysis temperatures, Ca, Fe, Sr, Cr, and Sn contents remained at almost the same level as those in raw sludge. Results indicated that these elements did not easily volatilize. The content of 16 PAH species was about 4.78 μg/g in the raw sludge and 23-65 μg/g for pyrolysis residues associated with various temperatures. The content of ten nitro-PAHs was about 58 ng/g for the raw sludge and 141-744 ng/g for pyrolysis residues. The total nitro-PAH content was highest at 600 °C and then decreased when the temperature was over 600 °C. Total nitro-PAH content was about 247 ng/g at 800 °C.

  11. Effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application on soil residues of chiral fungicide benalaxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liang, Yiran; Luo, Mai; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge on the dissipation behavior of the fungicide benalaxyl and its primary metabolite benalaxyl acid in soil were studied on an enantiomeric level during a 148-day exposure experiment. Chiral separation and analysis of the two pairs of enantiomers were achieved using HPLC-MS/MS with a chiralpak IC chiral column. Benalaxyl decreased with half-life of 16.1 days in soil under tap water irrigation with preferential residue of S-benalaxyl. Benalaxyl acid was formed with great preference of R-enantiomer before 21 days while enriched in S-enantiomer afterwards. The degradation of benalaxyl was restrained by both wastewater and treated wastewater irrigation, but the enantioselectivity in S-benalaxyl residue was enhanced. Benalaxyl acid was also formed with similar enantioselectivity as in tap water irrigation. Sewage sludge could accelerate benalaxyl degradation with shorter half-life. Surprisingly, the enantioselectivity with preference degradation of S-enantiomer in sewage sludge was opposite to that in soil. More benalaxyl acid was generated with EF values always lower than 0.5 and remained longer in sewage sludge than in soil. A sterilization experiment indicated that the conversion of benalaxyl to benalaxyl acid and the enantioselectivity were determined by the microorganisms in soil or sewage sludge. Farming practices like wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application might not only influence the fate of pesticide, but also the enantioselectivity of chiral pesticide enantiomers and thus the risks of pesticide residues posed to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40 mm) of pre-composted materials--sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest--evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and dewatered residues from enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kucner, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp residues (SBPR) from hydrolysis and dewatering of beet pulp were co-digested with municipal sewage sludge (MSS). The highest biogas yields of nearly 512 dm(3)/kg VSfed (volatile solids fed) were achieved for SBPR, treated both as the monosubstrate and as a mixture with MSS (1 : 1 by weight). Simultaneously, the highest methane production of 348 dm(3) CH4/kg VSfed was determined when the sewage sludge was co-digested with 35% SBPR. The analysis of digestate showed that neither ammonia nor volatile fatty acids destabilized the biogas production. Processing of sugar beet pulp into bioethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation has become increasingly attractive. However, in this process, only the liquid fraction derived from hydrolysis is subjected into alcoholic fermentation, whereas the remaining solid fraction needs to be utilized. This study demonstrated that sugar beet pulp residues after bioethanol production can successfully be co-digested with sewage sludge to increase biogas productivity of anaerobic digesters located at wastewater treatment plants.

  14. Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order

  15. Phase chemistry of tank sludge residual components. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.V.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Liu, J.; Nagy, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    'The proposed research will provide a scientific basis for predicting the long-term fate of radionuclides remaining with the sludge in decommissioned waste tanks. Nuclear activities in the United States and elsewhere produce substantial volumes of highly radioactive semi-liquid slurries that traditionally are stored in large underground tanks while final waste disposal strategies are established. Although most of this waste will eventually be reprocessed a contaminated structure will remain which must either be removed or decommissioned in place. To accrue the substantial savings associated with in-place disposal will require a performance assessment which, in turn, means predicting the leach behavior of the radionuclides associated with the residual sludges. The phase chemistry of these materials is poorly known so a credible source term cannot presently be formulated. Further, handling of actual radioactive sludges is exceedingly cumbersome and expensive. This proposal is directed at: (1) developing synthetic nonradioactive sludges that match wastes produced by the various fuel processing steps, (2) monitoring the changes in phase chemistry of these sludges as they age, and (3) relating the mobility of trace amounts of radionuclides (or surrogates) in the sludge to the phase changes in the aging wastes. This report summarizes work carried out during the first year of a three year project. A prerequisite to performing a meaningful study was to learn in considerable detail about the chemistry of waste streams produced by fuel reprocessing. At Hanford this is not a simple task since over the last five decades four different reprocessing schemes were used: the early BiPO 4 separation for just Pu, the U recovery activity to further treat wastes left by the BiPO 4 activities, the REDOX process and most recently, the PUREX processes. Savannah River fuel reprocessing started later and only PUREX wastes were generated. It is the working premise of this proposal that most

  16. Characterization of herb residue and high ash-containing paper sludge blends from fixed bed pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantao; Guo, Feiqiang; Li, Xiaolei; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Kuangye; Jiang, Xiaochen; Guo, Chenglong

    2018-04-10

    High ash-containing paper sludge which is rich in various metal oxides is employed in herb residue pyrolysis to enhance the yield of fuel gas and reduce tar yield in a drop tube fixed bed reactor. Effects of heat treatment temperature and blending ratio of paper sludge on the yields and composition of pyrolysis products (gas, tar and char) were investigated. Results indicate that paper sludge shows a significantly catalytic effect during the pyrolysis processes of herb residue, accelerating the pyrolysis reactions. The catalytic effect resulted in an increase in gas yield but a decrease in tar yield. The catalytic effect degree is affected by the paper sludge proportions, and the strongest catalytic effect of paper sludge is noted at its blending ratio of 50%. At temperature lower than 900 °C, the catalytic effect of paper sludge in the pyrolysis of herb residue promotes the formation of H 2 and CO 2 , inhibits the formation of CH 4 , but shows slight influence on the formations of CO, while the formation of the four gas components was all promoted at 900 °C. SEM results of residue char show that ash particles from paper sludge adhere to the surface of the herb residue char after pyrolysis, which may promote the pyrolysis process of herb residue for more gas releasing. FT-IR results indicate that most functional groups disappear after pyrolysis. The addition of paper sludge promotes deoxidisation and aromatization reactions of hetero atoms tars, forming heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and leading to tar yield decrease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reuse of residual sludge from stone-processing: differences and similarities between sludge coming from carbonate and silicate stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careddu, Nicola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimension stone working activities represents a serious environmental and economic problem both for Stone Industry and citizens. Indeed, most of time, residual sludge is landfilled because of the difficulties to recover it; such difficulties are mainly connected to local legislation and a lack of proper protocols. In general, it is possible to individuate two different categories of sludge: residual sludge coming from carbonate rocks (CS) and those coming from silicate rocks (SS). Both of them are characterised by a very fine size distribution. CS is composed mainly by the same compounds of the processed stones (marble, limestone, travertine). The reason of this is related to the very slow wear of diamond tools during processing which entails a negligible content of heavy metals. CS becomes very interesting, from an economic point of view, when it has a CaCO3 grade > 95 %. On the contrary, SS is characterised by high heavy metal and TPH content. Residual sludge from the processing of silicate rocks can be split in three different sub-categories, depending on the way they are produced, and in particular: sludge from gangsaw using abrasive steel shot (GSS), sludge from multi diamond-saw block cutter (DBC), and mixed sludge (MS) from gangsaw and block cutter. These three sub-categories show different problems connected to heavy metal content, indeed on the one hand GSS is characterised by a high percentage of Ni, Cr, Cu, etc., on the other hand DBC is characterised by Co and Cu high content. In general, sludge, management of which in Italy is administered in accordance with the Italian Legislative Decree 152/06, can be used as waste from for environmental restoration or for cement plants. Several researches investigate the possible reuse of these materials but, at present time, there is no evidence of its systematic recovery as "recycled product" or "by-product". On the basis of the results of these researches it is possible to highlight

  18. Estimation of pharmaceutical residues in primary and secondary sewage sludge based on quantities of use and fugacity modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S J; Ongerth, J E

    2002-01-01

    A general procedure was developed for estimating the concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in fresh primary and secondary sewage sludge. Prescribed quantities coupled with information on the various excretion ratios of 20 pharmaceuticals and 2 of their metabolites enabled prediction of the overall rates of excretion into Australian sewage. Fugacity modelling was applied to predict concentrations of these residues in fresh primary and secondary sludge. Predicted concentrations ranged from 10(-3)-884 microg/L in primary sludge and 10(-4)-36 microg/L in secondary sludge. Overall rates of removal to sludges ranged from 1-39%. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparison to analytical data.

  19. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  20. Study and utilization of residual sludges rich in alumina from an anodizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Carlos; Montero, Mavis L.; Rodriguez, Ventura

    2006-01-01

    Residual sludges from a process of anodizing were studied by x-ray diffraction as part of research into alternative materials for the chemical industry. The sludge containing mainly bayerite Al(OH) 3 and bohemite AlO(OH). The phases of α and β alumina were identified at 700 degrees, corundum phase is present at 850 degrees. Zeolite A is synthesized from these and by means of hydrothermal, which was identified by X-ray diffraction. Scanning microscopy of zeolite A shows a high degree of crystallinity. (author) [es

  1. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests on the amount of residue remaining. 180.34 Section 180.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... analysts to apply it successfully. (c) If the pesticide chemical is absorbed into a living plant or animal...

  2. Metals accumulations during thermal processing of sewage sludge - characterization of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing mass of sewage sludge, problems in its management have appeared. Over years sewage sludge was landfilled, however due to EU directives concerning environmental issues this option is no longer possible. This type of material is considered hazardous due to highly concentrated metals and harmful elements, toxic organic substances and biological components (e.g. parasites, microbes). Currently in Europe, incineration is considered to be the most reasonable method for sewage sludge treatment. As a result of sludge incineration significant amount of energy is recovered due to high calorific value of sewage sludge but bottom ash and APC residues are being produced. In this study we show the preliminary results of chemical and mineral analyses of both bottom ash and APC residues produced in fluidized bed boiler in sewage sludge incineration plant in Poland, with a special emphasis on metals which, as a part of incombustible fraction can accumulate in the residual materials after thermal processing. The bottom ash was a SiO2-P2O5-Fe2O3-CaO-Al2O3 dominated material. Main mineral phases identified in X-ray diffraction patterns were: quartz, feldspar, hematite, and phosphates (apatite and scholzite). The bottom ash was characterized by high content of Zn - 4472 mg kg-1, Cu - 665.5 mg kg-1, Pb - 138 mg kg-1, Ni - 119.5 mg kg-1, and interestingly high content of Au - 0.858 mg kg-1 The APC residues composition was dominated by soluble phases which represent more than 90% of the material. The XRD patterns indicated thenardite, halite, anhydrite, calcite and apatite as main mineral phases. The removal of soluble phases by dissolution in deionised water caused a significant mass reduction (ca. 3% of material remained on the filters). Calcite, apatite and quartz were main identified phases. The content of metals in insoluble material is relatively high: Zn - 6326 mg kg-1, Pb - 514.3 mg kg-1, Cu - 476.6 mg kg-1, Ni - 43.3 mg kg-1. The content of Cd, As, Se and Hg was

  3. An adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity obtained from the cellulose sludge of industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Géssica; Cavasotto, Jéssica; Machado, Francisco R S; Colpani, Gustavo L; Magro, Jacir Dal; Dalcanton, Francieli; Mello, Josiane M M; Fiori, Márcio A

    2017-02-01

    One of the major problems in effluent treatment plants of the cellulose and paper industry is the large amount of residual sludge generated. Therefore, this industry is trying to develop new methods to treat such residues and to use them as new products, such as adsorbents. In this regard, the objective of this work was to develop an adsorbent using the raw activated sludge generated by the cellulose and paper industry. The activated cellulose sludge, after being dried, was chemically activated with 42.5% (v/v) phosphoric acid at 85 °C for 1 h and was charred at 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C for 2 h. The efficiency of the obtained adsorbent materials was evaluated using kinetic tests with methylene blue solutions. Using the adsorption kinetics, it was verified that the three adsorbents showed the capacity to adsorb dye, and the adsorbent obtained at a temperature of 600 °C showed the highest adsorption capacity of 107.1 mg g -1 . The kinetic model that best fit the experimental data was pseudo-second order. The Langmuir-Freudlich isotherm adequately described the experimental data. As a result, the cellulose sludge generated by the cellulose and paper industries could be used as an adsorbent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remaining or residual first ribs are the cause of recurrent thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likes, Kendall; Dapash, Thadeus; Rochlin, Danielle H; Freischlag, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Surgical intervention for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) is not always successful. Treatment plans can be difficult in patients presenting with recurrent symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of this patient subset, who underwent operative intervention to remove a remaining or residual first rib because of recurrent thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)-related symptoms. Data on 15 patients who presented with previous scalenectomy, brachial plexus lysis, or first rib resection and scalenectomy (FRRS) with residual rib present on chest radiograph from 2004 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained database, with approval from the Institutional Review Board of Johns Hopkins Hospital. Patients were classified as having a remaining first rib if they presented with recurrent NTOS symptoms, had previously undergone scalenectomy and/or brachial plexus lysis alone to decompress the thoracic outlet, and exhibited an intact first rib on chest X-ray, whereas patients were classified as having a remnant rib if they presented with recurrent symptoms of NTOS, had previously undergone a first rib resection at another institution, and exhibited an anterior or posterior first rib on chest X-ray. Demographic and clinical characteristics along with postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Different precipitating events reaggravated symptoms in 12 patients. Events included car accidents (n = 4), work-related repetitive movements (n = 5), lifting heavy objects (n = 2), and repetitive injury (n = 1). Group 1: Previous scalenectomy (n = 2), brachial plexus lysis alone (n = 2), or both (n = 3). Seven patients (2 men and 5 women; mean age 34 [25-53]) presented with NTOS symptoms due to a remaining first rib at an average of 24 months (range: 2-68) after their initial operation at another institution. All underwent transaxillary first rib resection, residual scalene resection, and lysis of scar tissue. Perioperative complications

  5. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end- of-stream points. Austria and many other countries have to import up to 90% of the material inputs of metals from abroad. These primary resources are becoming more expensive as they become more scarce and remaining deposits more difficult to mine, which is a serious concern for industrialized nations. Basic economic and strategic reasoning demands an increase in recycling activities and waste minimization. Technologies to recover metals in a reasonable and economically relevant manner from very diffuse sources are practically non-existent or require large amounts of energy and chemicals, which pose environmental risks. On the other hand agriculture uses large volumes of mineral fertilizers, which are often sourced from mines as well, and thus are also subject to the same principle of finiteness and potential shortage in supply. These converted biological nutrients are taken up by crops and through the food chain and human consumption end up in sewage systems and in wastewater treatment plants in great quantities. The metabolized nutrients mostly do not return to agriculture, but due to contamination with heavy metals are diverted to be used as construction aggregates or are thermally treated and end up rather uselessly in landfills. The project BIO-ORE aimed to explore new pathways to concentrate metals from diluted sources such as sewage sludge and wastewater by using highly efficient biological absorption and transport mechanisms. These enzymatic systems from plants work with very little energy input. The process is called bioaccumulation and can be most effectively

  6. Biosynthesis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by bacterial community from propylene oxide saponification wastewater residual sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Zhu, Ying; Gu, Pengfei; Li, Yumei; Fan, Xiangyu; Song, Dongxue; Ji, Yan; Li, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    The saponification wastewater from the process of propylene oxide (PO) production is contaminated with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chlorine contents. Although the activated sludge process could treat the PO saponification wastewater effectively, the residual sludge was difficult to be disposed properly. In this research, microbes in PO saponification wastewater residual sludge were acclimated to produce poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from volatile fatty acids. Through Miseq Illumina highthroughput sequencing, the bacterial community discrepancy between the original and the acclimated sludge samples were analyzed. The proportions of Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Brevundimonas and Pseudomonas, the potential PHBV-producers in the residual sludge, were all obviously increased. In the batch fermentation, the production of PHBV could achieve 4.262g/L at 300min, with the content increased from 0.04% to 23.67% of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) in the acclimated sludge, and the COD of the PO saponification wastewater was also decreased in the fermentation. This work would provide an effective solution for the utilization of PO saponification wastewater residual sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance

  8. Characterization of the heterotrophic biomass and the endogenous residue of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Abdellah; Dold, Peter; Gadbois, Alain; Déléris, Stéphane; Houweling, Dwight; Comeau, Yves

    2012-03-01

    The activated sludge process generates an endogenous residue (X(E)) as a result of heterotrophic biomass decay (X(H)). A literature review yielded limited information on the differences between X(E) and X(H) in terms of chemical composition and content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The objective of this project was to characterize the chemical composition (x, y, z, a, b and c in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)P(b)S(c)) of the endogenous and the active fractions and EPS of activated sludge from well designed experiments. To isolate X(H) and X(E) in this study, activated sludge was generated in a 200L pilot-scale aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) fed with a soluble and completely biodegradable synthetic influent of sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. This influent, which contained no influent unbiodegradable organic or inorganic particulate matter, allowed the generation of a sludge composed essentially of two fractions: heterotrophic biomass X(H) and an endogenous residue X(E), the nitrifying biomass being negligible. The endogenous decay rate and the active biomass fraction of the MBR sludge were determined in 21-day aerobic digestion batch tests by monitoring the VSS and OUR responses. Fractions of X(H) and X(E) were respectively 68% and 32% in run 1 (MBR at 5.2 day SRT) and 59% and 41% in run 2 (MBR at 10.4 day SRT). The endogenous residue was isolated by subjecting the MBR sludge to prolonged aerobic batch digestion for 3 weeks, and was characterized in terms of (a) elemental analysis for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur; and (b) content of EPS. The MBR sludge was characterized using the same procedures (a and b). Knowing the proportions of X(H) and X(E) in this sludge, it was possible to characterize X(H) by back calculation. Results from this investigation showed that the endogenous residue had a chemical composition different from that of the active biomass with a lower content of inorganic matter (1:4.2), of nitrogen (1:2.9), of phosphorus (1

  9. Characteristics and aluminum reuse of textile sludge incineration residues after acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Manhong; Chen, Liang; Chen, Donghui; Zhou, Saijie

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and aluminum speciation of sludge incineration residue (SIR) were determined. Cementation of aluminum from sulfuric acid solution using SIR was studied. The results showed that acid-soluble inorganic aluminum was the predominant component in the sludge, and the total leached aluminum increased from 62.2% to 92.9% after incineration. Sulfuric acid dosage and reaction time were found to affect aluminum recovery positively. Conversely, the increase in temperature significantly inhibited recovery reactions. The optimized leaching condition was 1.66 g sulfuric acid per gram of SIR with a reaction time of 3 hr at 20 degrees C, resulting in the highest aluminum leaching rate of 96.7%. Compared to commercial aluminum sulfate solution coagulants, the leaching solution demonstrated higher COD(Cr), turbidity and color removal efficiency for textile wastewater.

  10. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of residual H 2 O 2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H 2 O 2 (MW-H 2 O 2 ) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H 2 O 2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H 2 O 2 (0.6 g H 2 O 2 /g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H 2 O 2 /g TS) pretreatment. The residual H 2 O 2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H 2 O 2 at 0.2 g H 2 O 2 /g TS was used in MW-H 2 O 2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H 2 O 2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  11. Effect of Sewage Sludge Addition on the Completion of Aerobic Composting of Thermally Hydrolyzed Kitchen Biogas Residue

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-tao Liu; Lu Cai

    2014-01-01

    The composting of thermal-hydrolyzed kitchen biogas residue, either with or without sewage sludge, was compared in this study. The addition of sewage sludge increased and prolonged the temperature to a sufficient level that met the requirements for aerobic composting. Moreover, after mixing the compost materials, oxygen, ammonia, and carbon dioxide levels reverted to those typical of aerobic composting. Finally, increased dewatering, organic matter degradation, and similar mature compost prod...

  12. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  13. Glass-ceramics from vitrified sewage sludge pyrolysis residues and recycled glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, E; Dal Maschio, R

    2011-11-01

    Pyrolysis of urban plant sewage sludge has been demonstrated to be an effective way to produce fuel gas. However, a complete disposal of this particular waste is not achieved if the solid residues from the treatment are not considered. In this paper we discuss the feasibility an integrated pyrolysis/vitrification/sintering approach, aimed at a "full" disposal: the pyrolysis residues are first converted into a glass, then transformed into glass-ceramics, by simple viscous flow sintering treatments, with or without additions of inexpensive recycled glasses and kaolin clay. The obtained products were demonstrated to constitute an alternative to natural stones, in terms of both mechanical strength and chemical stability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  15. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. ► The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. ► AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO 2 , biogenic CO 2 , CH 4, and avoided CO 2 as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO 2 -eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO 2 ), while the net CO 2 -eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO 2 ). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO 2 -eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO 2 -eq reduction.

  16. Fate of antibiotic and metal resistance genes during two-phase anaerobic digestion of residue sludge revealed by metagenomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Cui, Erping; Zuo, Yiru; Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong

    2018-03-07

    The prevalence and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is of growing interest, and residual sludge is among the main sources for the release of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Moreover, heavy metals concentrated in dense microbial communities of sludge could potentially favor co-selection of ARGs and metal resistance genes (MRGs). Residual sludge treatment is needed to limit the spread of resistance from WWTPs into the environment. This study aimed to explore the fate of ARGs and MRGs during thermophilic two-phase (acidogenic/methanogenic phase) anaerobic digestion by metagenomic analysis. The occurrence and abundance of mobile genetic elements were also determined based on the SEED database. Among the 27 major ARG subtypes detected in feed sludge, large reductions (> 50%) in 6 ARG subtypes were achieved by acidogenic phase (AP), while 63.0% of the ARG subtypes proliferated in the following methanogenic phase (MP). In contrast, a 2.8-fold increase in total MRG abundance was found in AP, while the total abundance during MP decreased to the same order of magnitude as in feed sludge. The distinct dynamics of ARGs and MRGs during the two-phase anaerobic digestion are noteworthy, and more specific treatments are required to limit their proliferation in the environment.

  17. Fate of Ah receptor agonists during biological treatment of an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Lillemor K; Klee, Nina; Olsman, Helena; Hollert, Henner; Engwall, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    Sweden is meeting prohibition for deposition of organic waste from 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a higher degree. Two biological treatment alternatives are anaerobic digestion and composting. Different oxygen concentrations result in different microbial degradation pathways and, consequently, in a different quality of the digestion or composting residue, It is therefore necessary to study sludge treatment during different oxygen regimes in order to follow both degradation of compounds and change in toxicity. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting, and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of both pharmaceutical and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. However, little data are available concerning sludge with nitroaromatics and any associated dioxin-like activity. Therefore, we studied the sludge before and after the treatments in order to detect any changes in levels of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists using two bioassays for dioxin-like compounds. An industrial sludge was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting in small reactors in a semi-continuous manner. The same volume as the feeding volume was taken out daily and stored at -20 degrees C. Sample preparation for the bioassays was done by extraction using organic solvents, followed by clean up with silica gel or sulphuric acid, yielding two fractions. The fractions were dissolved in DMSO and tested in the bioassays. The dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay with transfected H4IIE rat hepatoma pGudluc cells and an EROD induction assay with RTL-W1 rainbow trout liver cells. The bioassays showed that the sludge contained AhR agonists at levels of TCDD

  18. Efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha Residual effect of sewage sludge on off-season corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Moraes de Cesare Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Das opções de disposição final do lodo de esgoto, a reciclagem agrícola tem sido uma das mais utilizadas em diversos países desenvolvidos, sendo considerada a forma mais adequada em termos técnicos, econômicos e ambientais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha, após dois anos de aplicação consecutiva desse resíduo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. O experimento foi realizado em campo, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, e os tratamentos foram os seguintes: testemunha e adubações com lodo de esgoto nas doses de 6, 12, 24 e 36 t ha-1 (peso de matéria seca. Houve efeito residual do uso do lodo de esgoto caleado na produtividade de milho safrinha; a dose de 36 t ha-1 foi estatisticamente superior às doses de 6 e 12 t ha-1.Among the possibilities of final disposal of sewage sludge, agricultural recycling has become one of the most widely used in several developed countries, and is considered the most appropriate in technical, economical and environmental terms. This study aimed at evaluating the sewage sludge residual effect on off-season corn yield on an Eutroferric Red Latossol (Oxisol. The field experiment was in a randomized block design with three replications, with treatments consisting of increasing doses of sewage sludge (0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 t ha-1, on a dry weight basis, applied in the two previous cropping seasons.. The residual effect of the application of lime-stabilized sewage sludge increased the yield of off-season corn; the grain yield under a rate of 36 t ha-1 was statistically higher than those under 6 and 12 t ha-1.

  19. Temperature influence on product distribution and characteristics of derived residue and oil in wet sludge pyrolysis using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Lai, Nina; Zeng, Jun-Yan; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2017-04-15

    Sludge taken from a wastewater treatment plant of the petrochemical industry was dewatered and pyrolyzed to produce liquid oil as an alternative fuel via microwave heating. Element contents of dried sludge were 45.9±3.85wt.% carbon, 7.70±1.43wt.% hydrogen, 4.30±0.77wt.% nitrogen and 3.89±0.52wt.% sulfur. Two major thermal degradation peaks of sludge were determined during the microwave pyrolysis process, one at 325-498K (most of the water was vaporized, and the weight loss was over 85wt.%) and the other at 548-898K for sludge constituent decomposition. Zn content was high in the dried raw material and residues. Other toxic elements such as Ni, Cr, Pb, As and Cd contents were 0.61-0.99, 0.18-0.46, 0.15-0.25, 0.018-0.034, and 0.006-0.017mg/g, respectively. About 14-20wt.% of oil was produced based on the dried sludge cake, and the oil major elements were C (69-72wt.%), H (5.7-6.7wt.%), N (1.9-2.2wt.%), and S (0.58-0.82wt.%). The heat values of liquid oils were 8700-9200kcal/kg at 400-800°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Are disinfectant residues remained after cleaning hemodialysis machine procedure safe for patients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Małgorzata; Grzeszczuk, Karolina; Walski, Tomasz; Suder, Marek; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The dialysis machine shall be cleaned and disinfected after each patient treatment or after every 72 hours break in working. An acceptable disinfectants such as Puristeril plus or Puristeril 340, Citrosteril, Diasteril and Sporotal are used for decontamination. Puristeril 340 is designed for cold disinfection and due to the low pH value, the necessary decalcification of hemodialysis machines is easily achieved. It can be used for all haemodialysis systems like hemodialysis machines, water treatment devices and circuit pipes. Diluted Puristeril decomposes in a non-toxic way. Degradation products of peracetic acid, which is main component of Puristeril are: hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. Peracetic acid is widely used for disinfection due to its exceptionally broad spectrum of microbiocidal activity at low concentrations and short exposure times. After use Puristeril is easily removable by rinsing with water. This paper deals with the effect of the Puristeril toxicity on blood as a function of its concentration and incubation time. Concentration range of 3.5-70 ppm was used, with particular emphasis on concentrations close to 5 ppm, a value is the limit of sensitivity of strips of starch potassium iodide, the tests for detection of peracetic acid. There was a strong increase in autohaemolysis and malondialdehyde concentrations with increasing concentration of Puristeril. There were also changes in dependence on the parameters of the incubation time, with the greatest effects obtained after 2 hours incubation with Puristeril. The detection limit of peracetic acid used strips of starch potassium iodide does not guarantee the safety of a patient undergoing hemodialysis. Even the residual concentration of Puristeril plus cause increased lipid peroxidation of membrane, and therefore suggest the routine use of stripes on the lower limit of detection of peracetic acid or implement measurement of hydrogen peroxide residues performed with sensitivity 1 ppm.

  1. Production of lightweight aggregates from mining residues, heavy metal sludge, and incinerator fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.-C. [Department of Atomic Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, F.-C. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: d90541003@ntu.edu.tw; Lo, S.-L. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, M.-Y. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-F. [Department of Atomic Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-D. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-01

    In this study, artificial lightweight aggregate (LWA) manufactured from recycled resources was investigated. Residues from mining, fly ash from an incinerator and heavy metal sludge from an electronic waste water plant were mixed into raw aggregate pellets and fed into a tunnel kiln to be sintered and finally cooled rapidly. Various feeding and sintering temperatures were employed to examine their impact on the extent of vitrification on the aggregate surface. Microstructural analysis and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were also performed. The results show that the optimum condition of LWA fabrication is sintering at 1150 deg. C for 15 min with raw aggregate pellets fed at 750 deg. C. The rapidly vitrified surface envelops the gas produced with the increase in internal temperature and cooling by spraying water prevents the aggregates from binding together, thus forming LWA with specific gravity of 0.6. LWA produced by sintering in tunnel kiln shows good vitrified surface, low water absorption rate below 5%, and low cylindrical compressive strength of 4.3 MPa. In addition, only trace amounts of heavy metals were detected, making the LWA non-hazardous for construction use.

  2. Recycling potential of air pollution control residue from sewage sludge thermal treatment as artificial lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Gusiatin, Zygmunt M; Thornton, Arthur; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Zielinska, Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Thermal treatment of sewage sludge produces fly ash, also known as the air pollution control residue (APCR), which may be recycled as a component of artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWA). Properties of APCR are typical: high content of Ca, Mg, P2O5, as well as potential to induce alkaline reactions. These properties indicate that ALWA prepared with a high content of APCR may remove heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium nitrogen from wastewater with high efficiency. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the optimal composition of ALWA for potential use as a filter media in wastewater treatment systems. Five kinds of ALWA were produced, with different proportions of ash (shown as percentages in subscripts) in mixture with bentonite: ALWA0 (reference), ALWA12.5, ALWA25, ALWA50, and ALWA100. The following parameters of ALWA were determined: density, bulk density, compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, and removal efficiency of ions Zn(2+), NH4 (+), and PO4 (3-). Tests showed that ALWA had good mechanical and hydraulic properties, and might be used in wastewater filtering systems. Phosphates and zinc ions were removed with high efficiency (80-96%) by ALWA25-100 in static (batch) conditions. The efficiency of ammonium nitrogen removal was low, <18%. Artificial wastewater treatment performance in dynamic conditions (through-flow), showed increasing removal efficiency of Zn(2+), PO4 (3-) with a decrease in flow rate.

  3. Development of an efficient process for the treatment of residual sludge discharged from an anaerobic digester in a sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Naoki; Tang, Yue-Qin; Iwamura, Makoto; Ohta, Hiroto; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    In order to reduce the discharge of residual sludge from an anaerobic digester, pre-treatment methods including low-pressure wet-oxidation, Fenton oxidation, alkali treatment, ozone oxidation, mechanical destruction and enzymatic treatment were evaluated and compared. VSS removal efficiencies of greater than 50% were achieved in cases of low-pressure wet-oxidation, Fenton oxidation and alkali treatment. Residual sludge from an anaerobic digester was pre-treated and subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion. As a result, the process of low-pressure wet-oxidation followed by anaerobic digestion achieved the highest VSS removal efficiency of 83%. The total efficiency of VSS removal of sewage sludge consisting of primary and surplus sludge would be approximately 92%, assuming that the VSS removal efficiency of sewage sludge is 50% in the anaerobic digester of the sewage treatment plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ruminal parameters analyzed in remaining digestion residue of roughages in the in vitro/gas system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Fábio Prudêncio de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal performance is the most direct measure in the evaluation of feed quality. However, performance data are often insufficient to determine possible interactions that may take place in the ruminal environment. The purpose of the present trial was to evaluate the possible associative effects on the concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3 and pH in the remaining liquid fraction from the dry matter (DM digestion for exclusive roughages: sugarcane (SC, 60- (EG60 and 180-day elephantgrass (EG180, and corn silage (SIL, as well as for combined roughages: sugarcane+corn silage (SCSIL, sugarcane+60-day elephantgrass (SCEG60, sugarcane+180-day elephantgrass (SCEG180, corn silage+60-day elephantgrass (SILEG60, corn silage+180-day elephantgrass (SILEG180 associated at equal DM proportions (50%. These associative effects present positive or negative effects on bovine performance. Concentrations of VFAs and N-NH3, as well as pH for the treatments were, respectively: SC= 56.9 mmol L-1, 50.1 mg dL-1, 5.7; SCSIL= 61.4 mmol L-1, 50.7 mg dL-1, 5.8; SCEG60= 54.7 mmol L-1, 47.6 mg dL-1, 5.8; SCEG180= 45.4 mmol L-1, 49.4 mg dL-1, 6.0; SIL= 57.2 mmol L-1, 54.0 mg dL-1, 5.8; SILEG60= 57.1 mmol L-1, 53.1 mg dL-1, 5.9; SILEG180= 55.9 mmol L-1, 52.3 mg dL-1, 6.0; EG60= 58.1 mmol L-1, 49.4 mg dL-1, 5.9; and EG180= 44.0 mmol L-1, 46.4 mg dL-1, 6.1. Nonstructural carbohydrates and starch, associated with fiber and protein, contributed to positive associative effect on the 50:50 sugarcane/corn silage mixtures. The high fermentative aspect of such mixture may have promoted the best results in bovine performance.

  5. Impact of storage duration on the gaseous emissions during convective drying of urban residual sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraikin, L.; Salmon, T.; Crine, M.; Leonard, A. [University of Liege, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Liege (Belgium); Herbreteau, B.; Nicol, F. [VEOLIA Environnement Recherche et Innovation, Limay (France); Levasseur, J.P. [VEOLIA Water, Technical Direction, Saint-Maurice (France)

    2011-07-15

    Drying has become an important step within the context of sludge management. Sometimes, sludges from several wastewater treatment plants are centralized in order to dry them at an acceptable cost. Depending on sludge supply, there can be a delay between delivery and feeding into the dryer. The impact of sludge storage duration on the drying kinetics and on the exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia is investigated. Results show that, after 20 days of storage, the drying time is multiplied by 1.5, and the emissions of VOCs and NH{sub 3} are multiplied by 5 and 40, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Investigation on the fast co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge with biomass and the combustion reactivity of residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuanghui; Tan, Houzhang; Wang, Xuebin; Yang, Fuxin; Cao, Ruijie; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Renhui

    2017-09-01

    Gaining the valuable fuels from sewage sludge is a promising method. In this work, the fast pyrolysis characteristics of sewage sludge (SS), wheat straw (WS) and their mixtures in different proportions were carried out in a drop-tube reactor. The combustion reactivity of the residual char obtained was investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results indicate that SS and WS at different pyrolysis temperatures yielded different characteristic gas compositions and product distributions. The co-pyrolysis of SS with WS showed that there existed a synergistic effect in terms of higher gas and bio-oil yields and lower char yield, especially at the WS adding percentage of 80wt%. The addition of WS to SS increased the carbon content in the SS char and improved char porous structures, resulting in an improvement in the combustion reactivity of the SS char. The research results can be used to promote co-utilization of sewage sludge and biomass. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Facilitating the enzymatic saccharification of pulped bamboo residues by degrading the remained xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Li, Xin; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9 to 2.99/100C9 after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization using XRD of puzzolanic materials from residual sludge from water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, G.; Montaño, A. M.; González, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this work is to do mechanical and chemical characterization of puzzolanic materials using compressive strength measurements and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). These materials are composed of red clay and aluminous sludge produced by the treatment of potable water at Planta Algodonal, Ocaña, Norte de Santander, Colombia. Ceramic bricks were sintered to 1100°C and ten were characterized in their physically, mechanically and chemically properties. The results showed that the relationships with which the Colombian standards according to NTC 4017 (100KGF/cm2) for non-structural bricks are maintained for those containing 10% (105Kgf/cm2) and 20% (102.9Kgf/cm2) of sludge with respect to clay.

  9. The use of sewage sludge as additive to avoid operational problems at combustion of shredder residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    When shredder light fraction (SLF) from recovery of metal scrap is energy recovered it is usually mixed with more than 90% of other wastes. SLF is a fuel with high energy content but also with relatively high chlorine and metal content and could cause deposit and corrosion problems in incineration plants. Sewage sludge has previously been shown to reduce deposition and corrosion problems in combustion of alkali and chlorine containing biomass. In this work 20 % SLF (by energy content) has been combusted together with municipal solid waste and industrial wastes, with and without addition of 3 % (by energy content) sewage sludge. The initial fireside corrosion rate was then compared to the corrosion rate during combustion of the normal fuel mix, i.e. only municipal solid waste and industrial wastes. The tests were done at the 20 MW fluidized bed boiler of Lidkoping heat production plant. During the tests air-cooled corrosion and deposit probes were exposed for 24 hours. Deposit probes were placed at three different flue gas temperatures - in the combustion chamber, upstream and downstream the convection pass. The corrosion probes were placed upstream the convection pass and on the probes there were three different materials at three different water temperatures (280, 350 and 420 degree Celsius). The tests showed that sewage sludge could help avoiding deposition and corrosion problems when incinerating SLF. The amount of deposits was reduced and the content of the deposits was less corrosive when sewage sludge was added. The project was financed by Waste Refinery as a collaboration project between Stena Metall AB, Metso AB, High Temperature Corrosion Center at Chalmers University of Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden and Lidkopings Varmeverk. (author)

  10. Composting of solid and sludge residues from agricultural and food industries. Bioindicators of monitoring and compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, G; Bottura, G; Taddei, P; Garavani, M; Marchetti, R; Sorlini, C

    2001-01-01

    A study to monitor the composting process, to evaluate the effectiveness of bioindicators for the quality and maturity of cured compost obtained by a mixture of winery residues, sludges from dairies and solid residues from food processing (grape-stalks, grape-dregs, rice husks), was conducted. Composting process lasting five months was monitored by chemico-physical, spectroscopic (FTIR, DTG and DSC), microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Biological activities (ATP, DHA contents and several enzymatic activities), impedance variations (DT) of mixed cultures during growth and potential pathogens (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), were determined. The phytotoxicity tests gave a germination index higher than 90% and no significant genotoxic differences between controls and the compost samples were evidenced. Pathogens were not found on the cured compost that can therefore be satisfactorily used as amendment for agricultural crops. However, no single measurement of a composting process factor, biological, chemical or physical, gave a comprehensive view of the quality of a specific composting. We proposed a tool of bioindicators of potential activity and markers in combination for integrated evaluation of monitoring of composting process and compost quality. The responses of several enzymatic activities were positive and indicative of their favorable use capable to reveal even very small changes within microbial population and activity in test and monitoring of compost programmes.

  11. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of petrochemical sludge-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, I.S.; Del Panno, M.T.; De Antoni, G.L.; Painceira, M.T. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencia Exactas, Laboratorio de Biodegradacion Microbiologica de Hidrocarburos

    2005-06-01

    This study evaluated by biological and chemical analyses the effectiveness of bioremediation of sludge from the petrochemical industry in systems containing artificially contaminated soil. The sludge-soil systems were prepared with three different initial concentrations of sludge, and during bioremediation 86-95% of the hydrocarbons was eliminated. Simultaneously, soil bacterial populations and inhibition of seed germination by aqueous extracts increased in all sludge-soil systems during the first 180 days of treatment. After 1 year of bioremediation, a loss in the catabolic capacity of the Gram-negative bacterial population was observed, but was not dependent on the initial sludge concentration. Furthermore, residual levels of hydrocarbons and seed germination inhibitory effect decreased sharply, but some level of toxicity remained in the systems containing the highest initial sludge concentration. Independent of the initial sludge concentration, the contaminated soils did not re-establish their original features even when residual hydrocarbon concentrations suggested the end of the process. (author)

  12. Isolation and Characterization of PHA-Producing Bacteria from Propylene Oxide Saponification Wastewater Residual Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruirui; Gu, Pengfei; Fan, Xiangyu; Shen, Junyu; Wu, Yulian; Huang, Lixuan; Li, Qiang

    2018-03-21

    A polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing strain was isolated from propylene oxide (PO) saponification wastewater activated sludge and was identified as Brevundimonas vesicularis UJN1 through 16S rDNA sequencing and Biolog microbiological identification. Single-factor and response surface methodology experiments were used to optimize the culture medium and conditions. The optimal C/N ratio was 100/1.04, and the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were sucrose (10 g/L) and NH 4 Cl (0.104 g/L) respectively. The optimal culture conditions consisted of initial pH of 6.7 and an incubation temperature of 33.4 °C for 48 h, with 15% inoculum and 100 mL medium at an agitation rate of 180 rpm. The PHA concentration reached 34.1% of the cell dry weight and increased three times compared with that before optimization. The only report of PHA-producing bacteria by Brevundimonas vesicularis showed that the conversion rate of PHAs using glucose as the optimal carbon source was 1.67%. In our research, the conversion rate of PHAs with sucrose as the optimal carbon source was 3.05%, and PHA production using sucrose as the carbon source was much cheaper than that using glucose as the carbon source.

  13. Phosphorus Sorption Capacity of Concrete Waste, Natural Sorbents, Alum Residuals from Water Supply Sludge, and Ceramic Material for Tertiary Treatment in Onsite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Larpkiattaworn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus (P sorption capacity was determined for concrete waste, alum residuals from water treatment sludge, and natural sorbents (shells, clay, kaolin, and mordenite from various parts of Thailand. The material showing the best P sorption capacity (shells was selected for preparing a ceramic material to support the growth of nitrifying bacteria. The ceramic material, consisting of shells (50% by weight, alum residuals sludge (40% by weight and a soil (10% by weight heat at 750°C for about one hour, was studied for its P sorption capacity. Langmuir and Freundlich sorption isotherms yielded similar relative maximum P sorption capacities for the sorbents. The results from the Langmuir calculations showed the following maximum P sorption capacities: 32.26 g P/Kg shells, 31.25 g P/Kg concrete waste, 7.19 g P/Kg alum residuals sludge, 290 mg P/Kg clay, 80 mg P/Kg kaolin, and 30 mg P/Kg mordenite. The P sorption capacity for the prepared ceramic material at grain size 12 mm was 4.85 g P/kg. This result suggests that the ceramic material could be used for P sorption while providing growth support for nitrifying bacteria, similar to the well documented a popular P sorption material: light expanded clay aggregate (LECA from Sweden.

  14. T Cell Determinants Incorporating [beta]-Amino Acid Residues Are Protease Resistant and Remain Immunogenic In Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Andrew I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Price, Jason D.; Kauwe, Andreade; Chen, Weisan; Oakley, Aaron; Perlmutter, Patrick; McCluskey, James; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Rossjohn, Jamie; Purcell, Anthony W. (Monash); (Melbourne); (ANU)

    2010-07-20

    A major hurdle in designing successful epitope-based vaccines resides in the delivery, stability, and immunogenicity of the peptide immunogen. The short-lived nature of unmodified peptide-based vaccines in vivo limits their therapeutic application in the immunotherapy of cancers and chronic viral infections as well as their use in generating prophylactic immunity. The incorporation of {beta}-amino acids into peptides decreases proteolysis, yet its potential application in the rational design of T cell mimotopes is poorly understood. To address this, we have replaced each residue of the SIINFEKL epitope individually with the corresponding {beta}-amino acid and examined the resultant efficacy of these mimotopes. Some analogs displayed similar MHC binding and superior protease stability compared with the native epitope. Importantly, these analogs were able to generate cross-reactive CTLs in vivo that were capable of lysing tumor cells that expressed the unmodified epitope as a surrogate tumor Ag. Structural analysis of peptides in which anchor residues were substituted with {beta}-amino acids revealed the basis for enhanced MHC binding and retention of immunogenicity observed for these analogs and paves the way for future vaccine design using {beta}-amino acids. We conclude that the rational incorporation of {beta}-amino acids into T cell determinants is a powerful alternative to the traditional homologous substitution of randomly chosen naturally occurring {alpha}-amino acids, and these mimotopes may prove particularly useful for inclusion in epitope-based vaccines.

  15. Filtration of sludge residue from chamber 804 during production of primary bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfirrmann

    1942-02-23

    The filtration experiments and three common types of filter in use in coal liquefaction plants are described. The types of filter were the Kerzenfilter (candle filter), the Dorr filter, and the Scholven filter. The process for production of bitumen operated at 300 atm. pressure 25.5 millivolts temperature, and throughput of 0.5 kg/liter of reaction space/hr. The residue was thinned with middle oil and tested for filterability in a small pressure filter (2-kg samples) which gave results agreeing with the results obtained in industrial-size filter installations. The Kerzenfilter operated under 5 atm. nitrogen pressure and alternated between periods of filtration and of blowing off acumulated filter cake by 8 to 10 atm. reverse nitrogen pressure. The disadvantages of this type were that the yield of filtrate diminished greatly through time because of clogging up of the stone filter plate, rips in the plate often let excessive amounts of ash through, and the blowing off of filter cake caused losses of oil and damage to workers and surroundings. The Dorr filter was an almost continuously-operating filter which used Kieselgur (diatomaceous earth) suspended in middle oil over an asbestos cloth base as the filter. It worked very well, but had the disadvantages of operating under vacuum instead of under pressure (greater oil losses to vaporization) and the expense of the Kieselgur; experiments were underway to minimize both disadvantages. The Scholven filter was not satisfactory because its metal filter plate stopped up almost completely.

  16. Activated sludge mass reduction and biodegradability of the endogenous residues by digestion under different aerobic to anaerobic conditions: Comparison and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, C G; Fall, C; Olguín, M T

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to identify suitable conditions for the in-situ reduction of excess sludge production by intercalated digesters in recycle-activated sludge (RAS) flow. The objective was to compare and model biological sludge mass reduction and the biodegradation of endogenous residues (XP) by digestion under hypoxic, aerobic, anaerobic, and five intermittent-aeration conditions. A mathematical model based on the heterotrophic endogenous decay constant (bH) and including the biodegradation of XP was used to fit the long-term data from the digesters to identify and estimate the parameters. Both the bH constant (0.02-0.05 d(-1)) and the endogenous residue biodegradation constant (bP, 0.001-0.004 d(-1)) were determined across the different mediums. The digesters with intermittent aeration cycles of 12 h-12 h and 5 min-3 h (ON/OFF) were the fastest, compared to the aerobic reactor. The study provides a basis for rating RAS-digester volumes to avoid the accumulation of XP in aeration tanks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of PAH depletion of subsurface Exxon Valdez oil residues remaining in Prince William Sound in 2007-2008 and their likely bioremediation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R. [Louisville Univ., Louisville, KY (United States); Bragg, J.R. [Creative Petroleum Solutions LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the extent of oil weathering at the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) sites and estimated the bioremediation potential for shoreline segments by examining the depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to an estimated applicability threshold of 70 per cent. The distribution of oil was examined by location and current ratios of nitrogen and non-polar oil in order to assess if biodegradation rates were nutrient-limited. The impact of sequestration on the effectiveness of bioremediation was also studied. Results of the study showed that the EVOS residues are patchy and infrequently found on sites that were heavily oiled in 1989. Only 0.4 per cent of the oil originally stranded in 1989 remained. The remaining EVOS residues are sequestered under boulder and cobble armour in areas with limited contact with flowing water. The study also showed that concentrations of nitrogen and dissolved oxygen in pore waters within strata adjacent to the sequestered oil can support biodegradation. Most remaining EVOS residues are highly weathered and biodegraded. It was concluded that nutrients added to the shorelines are unlikely to effectively contact the sequestered oil. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  18. Residual effect of applying composted sewage sludge to the majority nutrients in an alive grove soil; Efecto residual de la aplicacion de un lodo de depuradora compostado sobre los nutrientes mayoritarios de un suelo de olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez Fernandez, R.; Aguilar Torres, M. A.; Gonzalez Fernandez, P.

    2002-07-01

    The agricultural reuse of sewage sludge is an excellent management option because in addition to the elimination of the residue, from the environment an appreciable amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and some micronutrients are added to the soil. During two successive years 20 Mgha-1of composted sewage sludge was applied to a clay soil of the Campina de Cordoba cropped with olive trees. The concentrations of some of the main nutrients like phosphorus and potassium increased after the amendment. The phosphorus content in the surface soil horizon increased from 2.3 to 9.3 ppm whereas the potassium content increased from 239 to 320 ppm in the same horizon for the same two years period. These results are encouraging for the organic amendment use. (Author)

  19. Return of phosphorus in agricultural residues and urban sewage sludge to soil using biochar from low-temperature gasification as fertilizer product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Grønlund, Mette

    The return of residual products from bioenergy generation to soils is a step towards closing nutrient cycles, which is especially important for nutrients produced from non-renewable resources such as phosphorus (P). Low-temperature gasification is an innovative process efficiently generating ener...... from different biomass fuels, such as agricultural residues and waste streams, and at the same time producing a biochar product potentially valuable for soil amendment. In pot experiments, different residual products originating from low-temperature gasification were tested for their P......-fertilizing potential with spring barley as a test crop. Biochar resulting from gasification of pure wheat straw showed the best P fertilizer value, however, because of the low P content, extremely high amounts had to be applied when crop P demand should be met, which came along with an over-fertilization of potassium...... (K). Gasification of pure sewage sludge with a high Fe and Al content practically eliminated its P fertilizer value, while co-gasification of sludge lower in Fe and Al together with wheat straw resulted in a biochar product with only somewhat reduced P availability and improved P/K ratio...

  20. Residues of pharmaceutical products in recycled organic manure produced from sewage sludge and solid waste from livestock and relationship to their fermentation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and solid waste from livestock being utilized is useful for circulation of nourishment in farmlands as recycled organic manure (ROM). In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of 12 pharmaceutical products generated by human activity in the ROMs produced from human waste sludge (HWS), sewage sludge (SS), cattle manure (CM), poultry manure (PM), swine manure (SM) and horse manure (HM). The kind and number of pharmaceutical products detected in ROMs were different. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) were detected at high levels in HWS and SS samples. In addition, the detection frequency and concentration levels of sulfonamides (SAs) in PM and SM were high. Moreover, high concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC) were found in only SM. These differences reflect specific adherence adsorption of the pharmaceutical products to different livestock and humans. Moreover, it was found that the concentrations of pharmaceutical products and fermentation levels of ROMs had significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p=0.024). When the fermentation test of ROM was conducted in a rotary fermentor in a lab scale test, the residue levels of pharmaceutical products decreased effectively except carbamazepine (CBZ). The rates of decrease were in the case of tetracyclines (TCs): 85-92%, FQs: 81-100%, erythromycine: 67%, SAs: 79-95%, trimethoprim: 86% and CBZ: 37% by 30 d. Pharmaceutical products that can be decomposed by fermentation process at the lowest impact of residual antibiotic activities may therefore be considered as environmentally friendly medicines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fat residue and use-wear found on Acheulian biface and scraper associated with butchered elephant remains at the site of Revadim, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Solodenko

    Full Text Available The archaeological record indicates that elephants must have played a significant role in early human diet and culture during Palaeolithic times in the Old World. However, the nature of interactions between early humans and elephants is still under discussion. Elephant remains are found in Palaeolithic sites, both open-air and cave sites, in Europe, Asia, the Levant, and Africa. In some cases elephant and mammoth remains indicate evidence for butchering and marrow extraction performed by humans. Revadim Quarry (Israel is a Late Acheulian site where elephant remains were found in association with characteristic Lower Palaeolithic flint tools. In this paper we present results regarding the use of Palaeolithic tools in processing animal carcasses and rare identification of fat residue preserved on Lower Palaeolithic tools. Our results shed new light on the use of Palaeolithic stone tools and provide, for the first time, direct evidence (residue of animal exploitation through the use of an Acheulian biface and a scraper. The association of an elephant rib bearing cut marks with these tools may reinforce the view suggesting the use of Palaeolithic stone tools in the consumption of large game.

  2. Impact of composting strategies on the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guodi; Chen, Tongbin; Yu, Jie; Gao, Ding; Shen, Yujun; Niu, Mingjie; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-12-01

    Nonylphenol can be present in sewage sludge, and this can limit the use of the sewage sludge to amend soil. Composting is one of the most efficient and economical methods of making sewage sludge stable and harmless. The nonylphenol degradation rates during composting with added bulking agents and with aeration applied were studied. Three organic bulking agents (sawdust, corn stalk, and mushroom residue) were added to sewage sludge, and the effects of the bulking agents used and the amount added on nonylphenol degradation were determined. The highest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (71.6%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% mushroom residue. The lowest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (22.5%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust. The temperature of the composting pile of sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust became too high for nonylphenol to be efficiently degraded, and the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate was lower than was found for sewage sludge containing 10% sawdust. Increasing the ventilating time from 5 to 15 min increased the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate from 19.7 to 41.6%. Using appropriate aerobic conditions facilitates the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge, decreasing the risks posed by sewage sludge applied to land. Adding too much of a bulking agent can decrease the amount of the nonylphenol degraded. Increasing the ventilating time and the amount of air supplied can increase the amount of nonylphenol degraded even if doing so causes the composting pile temperature to remain low.

  3. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  5. Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelqvist, Alina

    2013-04-01

    Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics and metal leachability of incinerated sewage sludge ash and air pollution control residues from Hong Kong evaluated by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Xue, Qiang; Fang, Le; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-06-01

    The improper disposal of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and air pollution control residues (APCR) from sewage sludge incinerators has become an environmental concern. The physicochemical, morphological and mineralogical characteristics of ISSA and APCR from Hong Kong, and the leachability and risk of heavy metals, are presented in this paper. The results showed that a low hydraulic and pozzolanic potential was associated with the ISSA and APCR due to the presence of low contents of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaO and high contents of P, S and Cl (especially for APCR). Although high concentrations of Zn and Cu (especially for ISSA) followed by Ni, Pb and As, Se were detected, a low leaching rate of these metals (especially at neutral and alkaline pH) rendered them classifiable as non-hazardous according to the U.S. EPA and Chinese national regulatory limits. The leached metals concentrations from ISSA and APCR were mainly pH dependent, and metals solubilization occurred mainly at low pH. Different leaching tests should be adopted based on the simulated different environmental conditions and exposure scenarios for assessing the leachability as contrasting results could be obtained due to the differences in complexing abilities and final pH of the leaching solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Boosting biogas production from sewage sludge by adding small amount of agro-industrial by-products and food waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2018-01-01

    In Greece, in many cities, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operate their own anaerobic digestion (AD) facility in order to treat sewage sludge rather than achieve optimum biogas production. Nowadays, there is a growing interest regarding the addition of other co-substrates in these existing facilities in order to increase gas yield from the biomass. This practice may be possible by adding small amount of co-substrates which will not affect significantly in the designed hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the lack of experimental data regarding this option is a serious obstacle. In this study, the effect of co-digestion sewage sludge, with small amount of agro-industrial by-products and food wastes is examined in lab-scale experiments. Specifically, co-digestion of SS and food waste (FW), grape residues (GR), crude glycerol (CG), cheese whey (CW) and sheep manure (SM), in a small ratio of 5-10% (v/v) was investigated. The effect of agro-industrial by-products and food waste residues on biogas production was investigated using one 1L and three 3L lab-scale reactors under mesophilic conditions at a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The biogas production rate reached 223, 259, 406, 572, 682 and 1751 mlbiogas/lreactor/d for 100% SS, 5% SM & 95% SS, 10% CW & 90% SS, 5% FW & 95% SS, 5% FW & 5% CG & 90% SS and 5% CG & 95% SS respectively. Depending on the co-digestion material, the average removal of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged between 20% (5% SM & 95% SS) and 76% (5% FW & 5% CG & 90% SS). Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 26% (5% SM & 95% SS) and 62% (5% FW & 5% CG & 90% SS) for organic loading rates between 0.8kgVSm -3 d -1 and 2.0kgVSm -3 d -1 . Moreover, co-digestion improved biogas production from 14% (5% SM & 95% SS) to 674% (5% CG & 95% SS). This work suggests that WWTPs in Greece can increase biogas production by adding other wastes to the sewage sludge without affecting the operation of existing digesters and without requiring

  8. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  9. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (<4 mm). The columns were irrigated with 2000 mL/week (230 mm) for twelve weeks (April to July). Half of them were irrigated with non-saline water (NS) and the others were so with saline water (S) from the beginning of the experiment. Four treatments combining the quality of the irrigation water (saline and non-saline) and wastes were studied: SW-NS, SW-S, LR-NS, and LR-S. After 24 hours of irrigation on the first day of each week, the leachates were taken and analyzed the heavy metal content (AAS-ES espectometer). The environmental risk due to the presence of heavy metals associated with the use of these materials was very low in general (under 0.1 mg/L). The use of sewage sludge favoured the presence of these metals in the lecheates and no effect

  10. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of municipal sewage sludge and hazelnut shell by TG-DTG-MS and residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinyang; Zhao, Bing; Sun, Manli; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Mingchuan; Li, Haibo; Xu, Shucong

    2017-04-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of municipal sewage sludge and hazelnut shell blend have been studied in this work. The behavior of co-pyrolysis was researched by a method of multi-heating rates and different blend ratios to analyze thermal decomposition stages. The experimental data of the blended samples in TG-DTG plots were compared with calculated data to investigate the interactions during co-pyrolysis. The bio-chars investigated by SEM and FTIR spectra were used to examine the physical and chemical changes. The results showed there are four thermal decomposition stages during co-pyrolysis, with hydrocarbon transforming to gas evolution in the second and the third stages. The inhibitive interaction occurred between 260 and 400°C and the accelerative interaction occurred between 450 and 900°C during co-pyrolysis. The activation energy of the blended sample was 51.97-178.84kJ/mol in the second stage and 207.04-630.73kJ/mol in the third stage calculated by DAEM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uptake of Heavy Metal Residues from Sewerage Sludge in the Milk of Goat and Cattle during Summer Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Aslam, Ijaz Javed*, Faqir Hussain Khan and Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of different heavy metal residues including cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, led (Pb, arsenic (As, and mercury (Hg were determined in goat and cattle milk collected from two areas, each consisted of three sites. Area 1 was selected in the North-East and Area 2 in the North-West of Faisalabad city along the main sewerage drains. Levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, As and Hg in the milk of goat and cattle were higher than the most reported values in the literature. The levels of heavy metal residues in the milk of cattle from Area 1 were higher than those present in cattle milk from Area 2. However, in case of goat milk the residual values from Area 1 and Area 2 were non-significantly different. It was concluded that the levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, As and Hg in the milk of goat and cattle were higher than reported values in the literature.

  12. Seasonal changes in chemical and mineralogical composition of sewage sludge incineration residues and their potential for metallic elements and valuable components recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Increasing energy needs, the implementation of the circular economy principles and rising environmental awareness caused that waste management is becoming a major social and economic issue. The EU Member States have committed to a significant reduction in the amount of waste produced and landfilled and to use their inherent energy and raw materials potential. One of the most reasonable option to fulfil these commitments is waste incineration. The aim of the waste incineration is to reduce their volume and toxicity by disinfection and detoxification at high temperatures. Thermal process and reduction of volume allows the recovery of minerals and metallic elements from residues as well as the energy production (waste-to-energy strategy) during incineration. As a result of waste incineration a variety of solid residues (bottom ash, fly ash, air pollution control residues) and technological waste (gas waste, wastewater) are produced. The goal of this study is to characterize fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues formed as a result of municipal sewage sludge incineration in terms of their chemical and mineral composition and their extractive potential. Residues were sampled quarterly to study their seasonal changes in composition. The fly ash was a Si-P-C-Fe-Al dominated material, whereas the APC residues composition was dominated by Na-rich soluble phases. The removal of soluble phase ( 98% of the material) from the APC residues by dissolution in deionised water caused significant mass reduction and concentration of non-soluble elements. The main mineral phases in fly ash were quartz, hematite, Fe-PO4, whitlockite and feldspar, while in APC thenardite, and in lower amount calcite, apatite and quartz were present. The chemical composition of fly ash was practically invariable in different seasons, but significant differences were observed in APC residues. The lowest concentrations of all elements and the highest TOC content were measured in the samples

  13. Characterization of sludges of La Golondrina WWTP: sludges as final containers of the domestic wastewater pollution; Caracterizacion de fangos de la EDAR La Golondrina (EMACSA-Cordoba): su funcion como receptores finales de la contaminacion del agua residual urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Alonso Perez de siles, L.; Rojas Moreno, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    Treatment of wastewater is to concentrate the original pollution in a by-product: the wastewater sludge or bio-solid. As example, La Golondrina WWTP (Cordoba-spain) promotes the production of 1,3 kg of sludge per m''3 of wastewater, yielding logically a treated water according to laws. Furthermore, the treatment process there applied reduces the levels of nine majority metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg) from 2,72 mg/l to 1.42 mg/l in the treated water, generating almost, a sludge agrees with the spanish normative to sludge intended to agricultural use (its main fate). Summarizing, the treatment of wastewater supposes the concentration of the original biodegradable load into the sludge around 340 times, while metals exhibited a different concentration degree for each one (from 10.000 times for Fe, u pto 1-2 times for Cd and Hg). Finally, the concentration degree of a metal in the sludge is mainly led by the removed concentration of metal in the treatment process, and after, by the original concentration of metal in the influent wastewater. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. Nitrogen mineralisation and greenhouse gas emission from the soil application of sludge from reed bed mineralisation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Larsen, Julie Dam; Bekiaris, G

    2017-01-01

    A sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is a technology used for dewatering and stabilising sewage sludge via assisted biological mineralisation, which creates a sludge residue suitable for use as fertiliser on agricultural land. We evaluated the effect of sludge residue storage time (stabilisa......A sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is a technology used for dewatering and stabilising sewage sludge via assisted biological mineralisation, which creates a sludge residue suitable for use as fertiliser on agricultural land. We evaluated the effect of sludge residue storage time...

  15. Treating an aged pentachlorophenol- (PCP-) contaminated soil through three sludge handling processes, anaerobic sludge digestion, post-sludge digestion and sludge land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T; Berthouex, P M

    2001-01-01

    The extensive pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination and its increasing treatment costs motivate the search for a more competitive treatment alternative. In a municipal wastewater treatment plant, anaerobic sludge-handling processes comprises three bio-processes, namely the anaerobic sludge digestion, post-sludge digestion and sludge land application, which reduce sludge organic content and make sludge a good fertilizer for land application. Availability and effectiveness make the anaerobic sludge handling processes potential technologies to treat PCP-contaminated soil. The technical feasibility of using anaerobic sludge bioprocesses was studied by treating PCP soil in two pilot digesters to simulate the primary sludge digestion, in serum bottles to mimic the post-sludge digestion, and in glass pans to represent the on-site sludge application. For primary digestion, the results showed that up to 0.98 and 0.6 mM of chemical and soil PCP, respectively, were treated at nearly 100% and 97.5% efficiencies. The PCP was transformed 95% to 3-MCP, 4.5% to 3,4-DCP, and 0.5% to 3,5-DCP. For post-digestion, 100% pure chemical PCP and greater than 95% soil PCP were removed in less than 6 months with no chlorophenol residues of any kind. Complete removal of PCP by-products makes this process a good soil cleanup method. For on-site treatment, PCP was efficiently treated by multiple sludge application; however, the PCP residue was observed due to the high initial PCP content in soil. Overall, more mass PCP per unit sludge per day was processed using the primary sludge digestion than the on-site soil treatment or post-sludge digestion. And, sludge acclimation resulted in better PCP treatment efficiencies with all three processes.

  16. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  17. GKSS-workshop: contaminated sludges. Treatment and utilization fine graned residues; GKSS-Workshop: Kontaminierte Schlaemme. Behandlung und Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten feinkoerniger Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvermann, G.; Luther, G.; Niemeyer, B. [eds.] [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    2000-07-01

    New regulations, such as the materials recycling act, soil protection act and unsolved problems related to the treatment of contaminated sludges, the utilisation of the gained products demand the development of innovative techniques for industrial, dredged or drilling sludges. The workshop offered a platform for intensive discussions between representatives of industry, research institutions, associations, and authorities. The main aim of the workshop was the presentation of fundamental background of sludge processing and advanced technical solutions. The available proceedings contain 21 lectures held on the workshop with the following ranges of topics of the sludge treatment: legislation, R and D-funding, technological bases, decontamination processes, dewatering and drying processes, recycling and immobilization. (orig.) [German] Neue Gesetze wie das Kreislaufwirtschafts- oder das Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz und anstehende Probleme bei der Beseitigung belasteter Schlaemme - zum Beispiel Industrie-, Bohr- und Baggergutschlaemme - erfordern die Entwicklung innovativer Techniken zu ihrer Aufbereitung, Reinigung bzw. Verwertung. Der Workshop bot ein Formung zur intensiven Diskussion zwischen Industrie, Forschung, Verbaenden und Behoerden. Ziel war es, unterschiedliche Methoden der Schlammbehandlung zu eroertern, Loesungswege aufzuzeigen und Moeglichkeiten fuer Kooperationen zu erarbeiten. Der vorliegende Band enthaelt Beitraege der Referenten, die sich auf folgende Themenbereiche der Schlammbehandlung konzentrieren: juristische Aspekte, Foerdermoeglichkeiten, Grundlagen, Aufbereitung von Schlaemmen, Entwaesserung und Trocknung von Schlaemmen, Verwertung und Immobilisierung. (orig.)

  18. Methods for Converter Sludge Dehydration Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhromeev, M. I.; Moreva, Y. A.; Starkova, L. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the intensification methods for converter sludge dehydration exemplified by the sludges of the Oxygen Converter Workshop (OCW) of the Open Joint-Stock Company “Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works” (MMK, OJSC), one of the largest metallurgical companies in the Southern Urals. Converter sludges can contain up to 45-70% of ferrum [21] which is interesting in terms of their use as an addition to a sinter-feed mixture. Sludge intensifies the sintering process. It positively influences pelletizing and fusion mixture melting dynamics at sintering. Over the period of the converter sludge dehydration complex operation at the OCW, MMK, OJSC, it was revealed that processing results in obtaining of high humidity sludge. It causes sludge freezing during the winter period, thus, its transportation involves extra costs for sludge warming up. To resolve the above-mentioned problem, the following works were performed in 2016: - experimental studies of how the application of the low-molecular anionic flocculate “SEURVEY” FL-3 influences sludge humidity reduction. - experimental studies of how the filtering press process operation parameters influence sludge humidity reduction. The new flocculate application didn't lower the dehydrated sludge humidity (the objective was the humidity of not more than 15%). Basing upon the conducted research results, we can make a conclusion that putting into operation the sewage water reactant treatment technology with the use of “SEURVEY”, FL-3 (H-10) is not recommended. The research of the influence the filtering press process parameters have on the dehydration process intensification demonstrated that reaching of the obtained residue humidity value lower than 15% is possible under the reduction of the filtering press chamber depths to 30 mm and with the application of additional operation “Residue drying” with compressed air. This way of the sludge dehydration problem resolving at filtering presses of the

  19. Processed wastewater sludge for improvement of mechanical properties of concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera-Diaz, Carlos; Martinez-Barrera, Gonzalo; Gencel, Osman; Bernal-Martinez, Lina A.; Brostow, Witold

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrochemical methods produce less amount of residual sludge as compared with chemical procedures. → Wastewater sludge contains a large amount of water. → The residual sludge is used to prepare cylinder specimen concrete. → There are improvements in the elastic modulus of the concrete when is prepared with residual sludge. - Abstract: Two problems are addressed simultaneously. One is the utilisation of sludge from the treatment of wastewater. The other is the modification of the mechanical properties of concrete. The sludge was subjected to two series of treatments. In one series, coagulants were used, including ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate or aluminium polyhydroxychloride. In the other series, an electrochemical treatment was applied with several starting values of pH. Then, concretes consisting of a cement matrix, silica sand, marble and one of the sludges were developed. Specimens without sludge were prepared for comparison. Curing times and aggregate concentrations were varied. The compressive strength, compressive strain at yield point, and static and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. Diagrams of the compressive strength and compressive strain at the yield point as a function of time passed through the minima as a function of time for concretes containing sludge; therefore, the presence of sludge has beneficial effects on the long term properties. Some morphological changes caused by the presence of sludge are seen in scanning electron microscopy. A way of utilising sludge is thus provided together with a way to improve the compressive strain at yield point of concrete.

  20. Processed wastewater sludge for improvement of mechanical properties of concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Diaz, Carlos, E-mail: cbd0044@yahoo.com [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Martinez-Barrera, Gonzalo [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km.12, San Cayetano C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Gencel, Osman [Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, 74100 Bartin (Turkey); Bernal-Martinez, Lina A. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Brostow, Witold [Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized Materials (LAPOM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology (CART), University of North Texas, 1150 Union Circle 305310, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electrochemical methods produce less amount of residual sludge as compared with chemical procedures. {yields} Wastewater sludge contains a large amount of water. {yields} The residual sludge is used to prepare cylinder specimen concrete. {yields} There are improvements in the elastic modulus of the concrete when is prepared with residual sludge. - Abstract: Two problems are addressed simultaneously. One is the utilisation of sludge from the treatment of wastewater. The other is the modification of the mechanical properties of concrete. The sludge was subjected to two series of treatments. In one series, coagulants were used, including ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate or aluminium polyhydroxychloride. In the other series, an electrochemical treatment was applied with several starting values of pH. Then, concretes consisting of a cement matrix, silica sand, marble and one of the sludges were developed. Specimens without sludge were prepared for comparison. Curing times and aggregate concentrations were varied. The compressive strength, compressive strain at yield point, and static and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. Diagrams of the compressive strength and compressive strain at the yield point as a function of time passed through the minima as a function of time for concretes containing sludge; therefore, the presence of sludge has beneficial effects on the long term properties. Some morphological changes caused by the presence of sludge are seen in scanning electron microscopy. A way of utilising sludge is thus provided together with a way to improve the compressive strain at yield point of concrete.

  1. Effect of steam and oil sludge ash additive on the products of oil sludge pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Shuo; Wang, Yuhua; Fumitake, Takahashi; Kouji, Tokimatsu; Li, Aimin; Kunio, Yoshikawa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of oil sludge with steam or/and oil sludge ash was carried out. • Oil product yield was increased by steam and oil sludge ash presence. • Steam injection and oil sludge ash addition improved the oil product quality. • Synergetic effect of steam and oil sludge ash on the oil product was reported. • A possible catalytic mechanism was proposed. - Abstract: In this study, a strategy of combining steam injection with oil sludge ash addition to improve the yield and quality of the oil products of oil sludge pyrolysis process is proposed. Oil sludge pyrolysis with the addition of different amounts of steam and oil sludge ash was conducted under inert conditions at 450 °C by employing a stirred tank reactor. This procedure was performed to investigate the effect of steam injection and oil sludge ash addition on the distribution and quality of the oil products. The possible catalytic mechanism occurring during the pyrolysis process was proposed. The quality of the oil product was determined based on the results of the boiling point distribution, the carbon residue, the ultimate analysis, the Saturates, Asphaltenes, Resins and Aromatics (SARA) composition and the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. The results indicate that both steam injection and oil sludge ash addition caused the oil yield to increase. Steam injection increased the proportions of the heavy and middle fractions in the oil product and reduced the carbon residue by improving the stability of the oil system. Oil sludge ash addition reduced the carbon residue and lessened the decrease in the light oil/heavy oil ratio by converting the heavy fraction or coke precursors to lighter fractions. The synergetic effect of steam injection and oil sludge ash addition can further reduce the carbon residue of the oil product. The presence of oil sludge ash significantly reduced the S, N, and O mobilities from the oil sludge feedstock to the oil product. These performances can be

  2. Pesticides residues in water treatment plant sludge: validation of analytical methodology using liquid chromatography coupled to Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moracci, Luiz Fernando Soares

    2008-01-01

    The evolving scenario of Brazilian agriculture brings benefits to the population and demands technological advances to this field. Constantly, new pesticides are introduced encouraging scientific studies with the aim of determine and evaluate impacts on the population and on environment. In this work, the evaluated sample was the sludge resulted from water treatment plant located in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The technique used was the reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Compounds were previously liquid extracted from the matrix. The development of the methodology demanded data processing in order to be transformed into reliable information. The processes involved concepts of validation of chemical analysis. The evaluated parameters were selectivity, linearity, range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The obtained qualitative and quantitative results were statistically treated and presented. The developed and validated methodology is simple. As results, even exploring the sensitivity of the analytical technique, the work compounds were not detected in the sludge of the WTP. One can explain that these compounds can be present in a very low concentration, can be degraded under the conditions of the water treatment process or are not completely retained by the WTP. (author)

  3. Sewage sludge as additive to reduce the initial fireside corrosion caused by combustion of shredder residues in a waste-fired BFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, T.; Pettersson, J.; Johansson, L.G.; Svensson, J.E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Environmental Inorganic Chemistry; Davidsson, K. [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Corrosion/deposition field tests have been carried out in a commercial waste-fired BFB boiler using air-cooled probes. The influence of 20% shredder light fraction (SLF), from recovery of metal scrap material, mixed with waste was studied at different material temperatures (280-420 C). In addition, 3% sewage sludge was added to the 20% SLF/waste mixture. The initial deposit and corrosion products were compared to when the normal waste (municipal solid waste and industrial wastes) fuel was used. After 24 hours exposure, the deposits were analyzed as for elemental composition while the corrosion products were characterised by ESEM/EDX and XRD. The results show that combustion of 20% SLF increased the amount of deposition, which in addition contains a larger fraction chlorine. This causes a higher initial corrosion rate. Adding 3% sewage sludge removes the effect of the SLF and deposits and corrosion products were comparable with the ones formed during the reference exposure. The results indicate that the initial fireside corrosion is chlorine induced and no signs of low-melting heavy metals salts were observed in the corrosion products. (orig.)

  4. Sewage sludge treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  5. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the gem residue (sludge) addition in bulk red ceramics; Estudo da adicao de residuo (lodo) de gemas na massa ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruxel, F.R.; Oliveira, E.C.; Stulp, S.; Muller, C.S.; Etchepare, H.D., E-mail: eniz@univates.br [Univates - Centro Universitario, Lajeado, RS (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    This work aims to incorporate gems waste (sludge saw cutting of gems), produced in an amethyst and agate firm cut, in the red ceramic body used for the production of solid bricks. The raw materials were tested by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and granulometric distribution analysis, for characterize the mineralogy and physical chemistry of materials. Samples were prepared with 0%, 5%, 9%, 13% and 17% waste added to the ceramic body by mass. The physical properties studied were compressive strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption and density in accordance with current technical standard. The results showed that it is possible to incorporate up to 5% of waste in bulk ceramics. (author)

  7. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  8. Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Physical and biochemical changes in sludge upon Tubifex tubifex predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, S.L.; Khadem, A.F.; Foreman, Christine M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Worm predation (WP) on activated sludge leads to increased sludge degradation rates, irrespective of the type of worm used or reactor conditions employed. However, the cause of the increased sludge degradation rates remains unknown. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the physical and

  10. Sludge busters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds.

  11. Fate of emerging and priority micropollutants during the sewage sludge treatment: Case study of Paris conurbation. Part 1: Contamination of the different types of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Patureau, D; Vulliet, E; Delgenes, N; Danel, A; Deshayes, S; Eudes, V; Guerin, S; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2017-01-01

    This article provides data on the contamination of different kinds of sludge (raw, centrifuged, digested, thermally dried sludge and sludge cake) from Paris conurbation by 71 various pollutants including pharmaceutical products (PHPs), hormones, perfluorinated acids (PFAs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alkylphenols (APs), phthalates (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Very high contents of LAS (0.1-10g/kg dry matter - DM) compared to other compounds were found in all types of sludge followed by DEHP (10-100mg/kg DM) and fluoroquinolones (1-100mg/kg DM). APs were measured at intermediary contents in Parisian sludge, lying in the 2-20mg/kg DM range. Finally, hormones, PAHs, PCBs, PAEs, PFAs and the remaining PHPs were all found at contents lower than 1mg/kg DM. For most compounds (PHPs, PFOS, DEHP, PAHs), no significant differences in the micropollutant contents were found for similar types of sludge from different WWTP in Paris, highlighting the homogeneity of sludge contamination in downstream Paris catchment. The variability of concentration is rather high (coefficient of variation >100%) for several PHPs, PFAs or PCBs while it is moderate (PFAs, APs and PCBs. During sludge treatment (centrifugation, digestion, thermal drying, sludge conditioning+press filtration), the hormones, LAS, APs, PAHs, DEHP and PCBs concentrations increased, while those of PHPs and PFAs decreased. In the case of digestion, the increase of content can be explained by no pollutant removal or a lower removal than DM removal (concentration phenomenon) whereas the decrease underlines that the compound is more removed than the DM. In any case, these concentration variations presuppose the mechanisms of dissipation that could be attributed to volatilization, biotic or abiotic transformation (complete or with metabolites production), bound residues formation. In addition, data on sludge liquors - centrifuged (CW) and condensed (TDW) waters

  12. Analysis of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Compounds in Wastewater Sludge and Aqueous Samples using GC-MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitroshkov, Alexandre V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilmore, Tyler J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The Bioenergy Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is evaluating the feasibility of converting wastewater sludge materials to fuels. Wastewater sludge from various municipalities will be used in the evaluation process and as with any municipal waste, there is the potential for residual contaminates to remain in the sludge following wastewater treatment. Many surveys and studies have confirmed the presence of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater and effluents (World Health Organization, 2011). Determination of the presence and concentrations of the contaminants is required to define the proper handling of this sludge. A list of targeted compounds was acquired from the literature and an analytical method was developed for the pharmaceutical and personal care compounds. The presence of organics complicated the analytical techniques and, in some cases, the precision of the results. However, residual concentrations of a range of compounds were detected in the wastewater sludge and the presence and concentrations of these compounds will be considered in identifying the appropriate handling of this material in conduct of research.

  13. Microwave calcination for plutonium immobilization and residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Rising, T.L.; Roushey, W.J.; Sprenger, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    In the late 1980's development was begun on a process using microwave energy to vitrify low level mixed waste sludge and transuranic mixed waste sludge generated in Building 374 at Rocky Flats. This process was shown to produce a dense, highly durable waste form. With the cessation of weapons production at Rocky Flats, the emphasis has changed from treatment of low level and TRU wastes to stabilizaiton of plutonium oxide and residues. This equipment is versatile and can be used as a heat source to calcine, react or vitrify many types of residues and oxides. It has natural economies in that it heats only the material to be treated, significantly reducing cycle times over conventional furnaces. It is inexpensive to operate in that most of the working components remain outside of any necessary contamination enclosure and therefore can easily be maintained. Limited testing has been successfully performed on cerium oxide (as a surrogate for plutonium oxide), surrogate electrorefining salts, surrogate residue sludge and residue ash. Future plans also include tests on ion exchange resins. In an attempt to further the usefullness of this technology, a mobile, self-contained microwave melting system is currently under development and expected to be operational at Rocky Flats Enviromental Technology Site by the 4th quarter of FY96

  14. Degradation of chlortetracycline in wastewater sludge by ultrasonication, Fenton oxidation, and ferro-sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulicharla, Rama; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Rouissi, Tarek; Auger, Serge; Drogui, Patrick; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2017-01-01

    Residual emerging contaminants in wastewater sludge remain an obstacle for its wide and safe applications such as landfilling and bio-fertilizer. In this study, the feasibility of individual ultrasonication (UlS) and Fenton oxidation (FO) and combined, Ferro-sonication processes (FO) on the degradation of chlortetracycline (CTC) in wastewater sludge was investigated. UlS parameters such as amplitude and sonication time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) for further optimization of FS process. Generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals in FO and FS processes were compared to evaluate the degradation efficiency of CTC. Increasing in the ratio of hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration showed increased CTC degradation in FO process; whereas in FS, an increase in iron concentration did not show any significant effect (p>0.05) on CTC degradation in sludge. The estimated iron concentration in sludge (115mg/kg) was enough to degrade CTC without the addition of external iron. The only adjustment of sludge pH to 3 was enough to generate in-situ hydroxyl radicals by utilizing iron which is already present in the sludge. This observation was further supported by hydroxyl radical estimation with adjustment of water pH to 3 and with and without the addition of iron. The optimum operating UlS conditions were found to be 60% amplitude for 106min by using RSM. Compared to standalone UlS and FO at 1:1 ratio, FS showed 15% and 8% increased CTC degradation respectively. In addition, UlS of sludge increased estrogenic activity 1.5 times higher compared to FO. FS treated samples did not show any estrogenic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmaceutical load in sewage sludge and biochar produced by hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Eyser, C; Palmu, K; Schmidt, T C; Tuerk, J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the removal of twelve pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), which has emerged as a technology for improving the quality of organic waste materials producing a valuable biochar material. In this study, the HTC converted sewage sludge samples to a biochar product within 4h at a temperature of 210 °C and a resulting pressure of about 15 bar. Initial pharmaceutical load of the sewage sludge was investigated as well as the residual concentrations in biochar produced from spiked and eight native sewage sludge samples from three waste water treatment plants. Additionally, the solid contents of source material and product were compared, which showed a considerable increase of the solid content after filtration by HTC. All pharmaceuticals except sulfamethoxazole, which remained below the limit of quantification, frequently occurred in the investigated sewage sludges in the μg/kg dry matter (DM) range. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, metoprolol and propranolol were detected in all sludge samples with a maximum concentration of 800 μg/kgDM for metoprolol. HTC was investigated regarding its contaminant removal efficiency using spiked sewage sludge. Pharmaceutical concentrations were reduced for seven compounds by 39% (metoprolol) to≥97% (carbamazepine). In native biochar samples the four compounds phenazone, carbamazepine, metoprolol and propranolol were detected, which confirmed that the HTC process can reduce the load of micropollutants. In contrast to the other investigated compounds phenazone concentration increased, which was further addressed in thermal behaviour studies including three structurally similar potential precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  17. Co-combustion of automotive shredder residue (ASR) and sewage sludge with a mixture of industrial and household waste in an 20MW fluidized bed combustor; Samfoerbraenning av bilfluff, roetslam och avfall i en 20 MW fluidbaeddpanna - Studier av braenslesammansaettningens paaverkan paa belaeggningsbildning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Johansson, Andreas; Johansson, Linda; Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena

    2007-07-01

    In order to prevent a further increased use of resources and to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, organic wastes are today diverted towards material and energy recovery. This creates a waste market with an increasing number of waste fractions that needs to be treated properly. As an example, in Sweden it has recently been prohibited to landfill source separated combustible waste (2002) and organic waste (2005). Wastes as automotive shredder residue (ASR) and sewage sludge can no longer be landfilled and needs to be either material or energy recovered, which challenge the waste treatment sector. This work investigates the effects of ASR and sewage sludge co-combustion in a 20 MW Energy-from-Waste plant (bubbling fluidised bed). The long term objective of the work is to increase the fuel flexibility, the boiler availability and the power production. This report focus on boiler operation and combustion performance in terms of agglomeration, deposit rates and emissions. In addition to the tests with ASR and sewage sludge, repeated measurements were performed during normal load as a reference. The results show that the co-combusted fractions of ASR and sewage sludge, which on mass basis constituted 6 % and 15 % respectively, did not increase the risk for agglomeration or deposits on heat-exchanging surfaces. Instead, compared to the two reference cases, the deposit rates decreased when sewage sludge was added. Only minor variation in the emissions was seen between the different cases. The levels of I-TEQs were far below the legislated values in all cases

  18. Co-gasification of sewage sludge and woody biomass in a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier: toxicity assessment of solid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Le; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Jingwen Charmaine; Neoh, Koon Gee; Bay, Boon Huat; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2015-02-01

    As the demand for fossil fuels and biofuels increases, the volume of ash generated will correspondingly increase. Even though ash disposal is now strictly regulated in many countries, the increasing volume of ash puts pressure on landfill sites with regard to cost, capacity and maintenance. In addition, the probability of environmental pollution from leakage of bottom ash leachate also increases. The main aim of this research is to investigate the toxicity of bottom ash, which is an unavoidable solid residue arising from biomass gasification, on human cells in vitro. Two human cell lines i.e. HepG2 (liver cell) and MRC-5 (lung fibroblast) were used to study the toxicity of the bottom ash as the toxins in the bottom ash may enter blood circulation by drinking the contaminated water or eating the food grown in bottom ash-contaminated water/soil and the toxic compounds may be carried all over the human body including to important organs such as lung, liver, kidney, and heart. It was found that the bottom ash extract has a high basicity (pH = 9.8-12.2) and a high ionic strength, due to the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals e.g. K, Na, Ca and Mg. Moreover, it also contains concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Zn, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Mo) and non-toxic organic compounds. Although human beings require these trace elements, excessive levels can be damaging to the body. From the analyses of cell viability (using MTS assay) and morphology (using fluorescence microscope), the high toxicity of the gasification bottom ash extract could be related to effects of high ionic strength, heavy metals or a combination of these two effects. Therefore, our results suggest that the improper disposal of the bottom ash wastes arising from gasification can create potential risks to human health and, thus, it has become a matter of urgency to find alternative options for the disposal of bottom ash wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing mixing mode and intensity to prevent sludge flotation in sulfidogenic anaerobic sludge bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wu, Di; Ekama, George A; Huang, Hao; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2017-10-01

    Sludge flotation is a notorious problem in anaerobic wastewater treatment that can occur under various operational conditions and even cause the anaerobic process to completely fail. Despite having been documented for over three decades, its causes and remedies remain elusive, particularly for low-gas-production anaerobic processes such as sulfidogenic and anammox processes. This paper systematically studies sludge flotation in an anaerobic sulfidogenic process for saline domestic sewage treatment. Three lab-scale sulfidogenic reactors were operated in parallel with different modes of mixing (hydraulic, mechanical and pneumatic) at various mixing intensity levels at shear rates ranging from 0.7 to 6.6 s -1 to investigate reactor performance and sludge properties and their relationships with sludge flotation potential. The results indicate that a sulfidogenic reactor with low flotation potential have sludge with low hydrophobicity, low viscosity, and low (more negative) surface charge, while the sludge particle surfaces have high compactness and low roughness. These sludge properties enabled a sludge flotation potential of less than 20% to be maintained. Furthermore, our results show that i) mixing and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), ii) EPS and sludge properties, and iii) sludge properties and sludge flotation potential are all strongly correlated (all the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (R s ) are either over 0.64 (if positively correlated) or under -0.64 (if negatively correlated), at the 95% confidence level). Accordingly, sludge flotation can be resolved by controlling reactor mixing. Our findings provide a method to optimize the design and operation of anaerobic sulfidogenic reactors that can be extended to similar low-gas-production anaerobic bioreactors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Volatility and partitioning of Cd and Pb during sewage sludge thermal conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Shou-Yu; Mao, Qing; Li, Hao; Wang, Cai-Wei; Jiang, Feng-Hao; Lyu, Jun-Fu

    2018-02-09

    In this paper, the thermal characteristics of sewage sludge and the transformation behavior of Pb and Cd during the thermal conversion process were addressed. The incineration process and pyrolysis process of the sewage sludge were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the thermal conversion process of the sewage sludge could be divided into three stages and the presence of oxygen could accelerate the decomposition of the sewage sludge. Furthermore, the effects of thermal conditions on the concentration ratio of Cd and Pb and their species partitioning in the residual char and ash were investigated. For the pyrolysis process, the maximum concentration ratio of Cd reached 41.64% at 500 °C and the lowest one 2.92% at 700 °C. Contrary, the concentration ratio of Pb remained above 93% as the temperature increased. Thus, the suitable temperature for the sewage sludge pyrolysis was below 500 °C. For the incineration process, the incineration temperature had great influence on the concentration ratio of Cd and Pb. When the incineration temperature increased from 700 °C to 900 °C, the concentration ratio of Cd decreased drastically from 99.32% to 10.96%. The maximum concentration ratio for Pb (95.31%) was reached at 800 °C. Besides, the lowest concentration ratio of Cd and Pb were obtained at a residence time of 30 min. The partitioning analyses of the Cd and Pb contained in the ash showed that the residence time had little effect on the partitioning of Cd and Pb, and the residual fractions of Cd and Pb were both above 90%. It was concluded that Cd and Pb were properly stabilized in the ash. Thus, Cd and Pb in the ash were difficult to be released into the environment and to cause secondary pollution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Adsorption of a dye by sludges and the roles of extracellular polymeric substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wang-sheng; Liu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigated the adsorption of a dye, acid turquoise blue A, by four kinds of sludges including activated sludge, anaerobic sludge, dried activated sludge, and dried anaerobic sludge, respectively. The roles of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) including the soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) for the biosorption of activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were further studied. Results show that the relation between four kinds of sludge adsorption amount and remained concentration of the dye fitted well both Freundlich model (R2: 0.921-0.995) and Langmuir model (R2: 0.958-0.993), but not quite fitted BET model (R2: 0.07-0.863). The adsorption capability of dried anaerobic sludge ranked the highest, and dried activated sludge was the lowest. According to Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption amount of dried anaerobic, anaerobic, activated, and dried activated sludge was 104 mg/g, 86 mg/g, 65 mg/g, 20 mg/g, respectively. The amount of the dye found in EPS for both activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were over 50%, illustrating that EPS adsorption was predominant in adsorption of the dye by sludge. The amount of adsorbed dye by BEPS was greater than that by SEPS for anaerobic sludge, but for activated sludge the result was quite opposite. The amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was much higher than the corresponding values of BEPS for both sludges. The average amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was 52 times of the corresponding value of BEPS for activated sludge, and 10 times for anaerobic sludge. The relation between adsorption amount of dye by BEPS from anaerobic sludge and remained concentration of the dye in mixed liquor was best fitted to Langmuir model (R2: 0.9986).

  2. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  3. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-06-03

    CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  4. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-01-01

    CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL

  5. Análise da contaminação parasitária em compostos orgânicos produzidos com biossólidos de esgoto doméstico e resíduos agropecuários Analysis of parasitological contamination in organic composts with sewage sludge and agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robson Duarte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a contaminação por ovos de helmintos, cistos e oocistos de protozoários em compostos orgânicos utilizando lodo de esgoto doméstico e resíduos agropecuários. Foram realizadas análises parasitológicas em amostras de 25 diferentes compostos orgânicos, antes e após tratamento térmico a 60°C durante 12 horas. Os resultados demonstraram elevada contaminação parasitária em todos os compostos analisados antes do tratamento e a não redução dessa contaminação após o tratamento térmico. A identificação das larvas obtidas em coproculturas antes e após o tratamento térmico dos compostos indicou que os gêneros mais freqüentemente observados foram Cooperia e Trichostrongylus, que são nematóides gastrintestinais de ruminantes. Estes resultados demonstram que ovos de helmintos podem permanecer viáveis mesmo após o processo de compostagem e o tratamento térmico. Os compostos produzidos com lodo de esgoto doméstico e resíduo agropecuários, utilizando esses processos de tratamentos, podem constituir riscos de contaminação para humanos e animais.This research aimed at evaluating the cysts, oocysts and eggs contamination before and after thermal treatment of 60°C for 12 hours, in 25 different organic composts produced with biosolids from domestic waste-water treatment and animal and agricultural residues. The results showed high parasitological contamination for all organic composts before the treatment and these contaminations were not reduced after thermic treatment. The larva identification in coprocultures before and after thermic treatment showed Cooperia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most prevalent nematodes. These results demonstrated that helmintus’ eggs can remain viable even after the composing and thermic treatment. The obtained composition with sewage sludge and agricultural residues through these treatment processes can establish contamination risks for humans and animals.

  6. Chemical properties of soils treated with biological sludge from gelatin industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Melo Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agro-industrial organic wastes in the environment can be reduced when used in agriculture. From the standpoint of soil fertility, residue applications can increase the organic matter content and provide nutrients for plants. This study evaluated the effect of biological sludge from gelatin industry on the chemical properties of two Ultisols (loamy sand and sandy clay and an Oxisol (clay. The experiment lasted 120 days and was carried out in laboratory in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement, combining the three soils and six biological sludge rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m³ ha-1, with three replications. Biological sludge rates of up to 500 m³ ha-1 decreased soil acidity and increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CEC and N, Ca, Mg, and P availability, without exceeding the tolerance limit for Na. The increase in exchangeable base content, greater than the effective CEC, indicates that the major part of cations added by the sludge remains in solution and can be lost by leaching.

  7. Evaluating the stabilisation degree of digested sewage sludge: investigations at four municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, V; Smidt, E; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2006-01-01

    Further reduction of volatile suspended solids (VSS) during a post-stabilisation step was applied to evaluate the stabilisation degree of digested sewage sludge. For this purpose digested sludge was collected at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and further stabilised in lab-scale chemostat reactors either under anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Experimental results showed that even in adequately digested sludge a consistent amount of VSS was degraded during aerobic post-stabilisation. It seems that aerobic conditions play a significant role during degradation of residual VSS. Additionally, specific VSS production (gVSS/peCOD110.d) as well as specific oxygen uptake rate were shown to be suitable parameters to assess the degree of sludge stabilisation at WWTPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to reveal changes in the sludge composition. Spectra of treated and untreated sludge samples indicated that the major component of residual VSS in stabilised sludge for instance consisted of biomass, while cellulose was absent.

  8. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  9. Nutrient contributions by benthal sludge deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Devendra S; Shrihari, S

    2009-10-01

    Settled solids from effluents discharged into a river system, undergoing decomposition at the river bottom, form an appreciable internal nutrient source for the biological activities in the river system. During the stabilization of benthal deposits, a variety of nutrients are released into the overlying waters. The exchange between sediment and overlying waters is a major component of the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles in the natural waters. The releases of such nutrients is a surface phenomenon, regulated by the conditions of benthal sludge layers, flow rate of overlying waters, etc. The rate of ammonia nitrogen release manifested an optimum low value when benthal sludge depth was 0.2 m, but was not influenced by the flow rate of overlying water and h/d ratios. The rate of phosphate release from benthal sludge was independent of depth of benthal sludge, flow rate and h/d ratios. The nutrients in the benthal sludge layers were increasing with time, and were concentrated at a layer 10 cm below the top surface. The nutrients release (percent of nutrient remaining in top benthal sludge layers) decreased with time and became almost constant after about 40 days. The nutrients release under continuously accumulating conditions of benthal sludge and the effects of frequency of addition have been discussed in this paper. The nutrients release was less when the frequency of addition was less.

  10. Selected heavy metals speciation in chemically stabilised sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniowska, Ewa; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Marła

    2017-11-01

    Selected heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd) were analysed in soil, digested sewage sludge as well as in the sludge stabilised with CaO or Fenton's reagent. The dose of Fenton's reagent was as follows: Fe2+ = 1g.L-1, Fe2+/H2O2=1:100; stabilisation lasted for 2 h. Dose of CaO was equal to 1 g CaO.g d.m.-1 Total concentration of all metals in the digested sewage sludge was higher than in the soil. Chemical stabilisation of sludge with Fenton's reagent increased total metal content in the sludge as a result of total solids removal. Opposite effect was stated when the sludge was mixed with CaO. Also chemical fractions of heavy metals were identified (exchangeable, carbonate bound, iron oxides bound, organic and residual). The results indicate that stabilisation of the sludge with Fenton's reagent increased mobility of heavy metals compared to the digested sludge. Amendment of CaO increased percent share of examined metals in residual fraction, thus immobilised them and decreased their bioavailability.

  11. Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Activated Sludge Flocs: Extraction, Identification, and Investigation of Their Link with Cations and Fate in Sludge Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul

    2007-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge are known to account for the flocculent nature of activated sludge. Extensive studies over the last few decades have attempted to extract and characterize activated sludge EPS, but a lack of agreement between studies has also been quite common. The molecular makeup of EPS has, however, remained nearly unexplored, leaving their identity, function, and fate over various stages in the activated sludge system mainly unknown. In spite o...

  12. Properties of wastepaper sludge in geopolymer mortars for masonry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shiqin; Sagoe-Crentsil, Kwesi

    2012-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the use of wastepaper sludge in geopolymer mortar systems for manufacturing construction products. The investigation was driven by the increasing demand for reuse options in paper-recycling industry. Both fresh and hardened geopolymer mortar properties are evaluated for samples incorporating dry wastepaper sludge, and the results indicate potential end-use benefits in building product manufacture. Addition of wastepaper sludge to geopolymer mortar reduces flow properties, primarily due to dry sludge absorbing water from the binder mix. The average 91-day compressive strength of mortar samples incorporating 2.5 wt% and 10 wt% wastepaper sludge respectively retained 92% and 52% of the reference mortar strength. However, contrary to the normal trend of increasing drying shrinkage with increasing paper sludge addition to Portland cement matrices, the corresponding geopolymer drying shrinkage decreased by 34% and 64%. Equally important, the water absorption of hardened geopolymer mortar decreased with increasing paper sludge content at ambient temperatures, providing good prospects of overall potential for wastepaper sludge incorporation in the production of building and masonry elements. The results indicate that, despite its high moisture absorbance due to the organic matter and residual cellulose fibre content, wastepaper sludge appears compatible with geopolymer chemistry, and hence serves as a potential supplementary additive to geopolymer cementitious masonry products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy and resource utilization of deinking sludge pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Rui; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Gaojin; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion technique was applied in deinking sludge from the pulp and papermaking industrial to indagate the utilization of sludge biomass to energy, and the pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolytic products of deinking sludge were studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The static tubular furnace as an applied industrial research was used to study deinking sludge pyrolysis. The solid, gas and liquid of products was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph–mass (GC/MS), respectively. The results revealed that the weight-loss process of deinking sludge was a non-isothermal reaction and composed of four stages, i.e. dewater stage, volatile releasing stage, carbon burnout stage and some calcium carbonate decomposition. Pyrolytic products from deinking sludge in the static tubular furnace were comprised of the gaseous (29.78%), condensed liquid (bio-oil, 24.41%) and solid residues (45.81%). The volatiles from deinking sludge pyrolyzing were almost aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. styrene, toluene and benzene and few acids and the solid was calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) that can be reused as paper filler. Deinking sludge was converted into high-grade fuel and chemicals by means of thermochemical conversion techniques, hence, pyrolysis of paper deinking sludge had a promising development on the comprehensive utilization.

  14. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  15. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.

  16. Analysis of sludge from Hanford K East Basin canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J. [ed.] [comp.] [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Welsh, T.L. [B and W Protec, Inc. (United States); Baker, R.B. [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Hoppe, E.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Abrefah, J.; Tingey, J.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-09-12

    Sludge samples from the canisters in the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and to assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements. This report is a summary and review of the data provided by various laboratories. Although raw chemistry data were originally reported on various bases (compositions for as-settled, centrifuged, or dry sludge) this report places all of the data on a common comparable basis. Data were evaluated for internal consistency and consistency with respect to the governing sample analysis plan. Conclusions applicable to sludge disposition and spent fuel storage are drawn where possible.

  17. Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luostarinen, S; Luste, S; Sillanpää, M

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35 degrees C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918 m(3)/tVS(added)), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the two materials was found feasible up to grease trap sludge addition of 46% of feed volatile solids (hydraulic retention time 16d; maximum organic loading rate 3.46 kgVS/m(3)d). Methane production was significantly higher and no effect on the characteristics of the digested material was noticed as compared to digesting sewage sludge alone. At higher grease trap sludge additions (55% and 71% of feed volatile solids), degradation was not complete and methane production either remained the same or decreased.

  18. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  19. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basim, Y.; Farzadkia, M.; Jaafarzadeh, N.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of

  20. Sludge residence time and membrane fouling : What is the connection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Broeck, R.; Van Dierdonck, J.; Nijskens, P.; Dotremont, C.; Krzeminski, P.; van der Graaf, J.H.J.M.; van Lier, J.B.; Impe, J.F.M.; Smets, I.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, waste activated sludge is more and more regarded as an energy source (through subsequent anaerobic digestion) or even as a potential source of fine chemicals (through subsequent fermentation processes). To this end, the organic content of the activated sludge should remain as high as

  1. Radium 226 in filter sludges from ground water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, K.

    1999-01-01

    Sludge waters from 80 different water works in Germany have been investigated on the content of radium 226, which appears wide-spread in ground water in very low concentrations, but heavily enriched in treatment sludges. The radium 226 contents of the sludge waters from treatment facilities for iron and manganese removal and in some cases for softening and flocculation were related to the dry residues separately determined. The specific Ra 226-activities of the dry residues fit to a log-norm distribution with a median value of 500 Bq/kg and a deviation of 1.7. 90% of the values were below 1200 Bq/kg. Radium 226 is strongly fixed to the sludges and will not be washed out, as elution experiments showed. Further investigations and calculations of the radium 226 content in the treated ground water proved the plausibility of the results. (orig.) [de

  2. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  3. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  4. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  5. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  6. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique; Extraccion de metales toxicos y valiosos de los desechos de lodos y cenizas provenientes de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales RECICLAGUA aplicando la tecnica de lixiviado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J.J

    2004-07-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  7. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  8. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  9. Characterization and constructive utilization of sludge produced in clari-flocculation unit of water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2018-03-01

    All water treatment plants produce waste/residue amid the treatment of raw water. This study selectively investigates the clariflocculator sludge for its physicochemical characteristics and potential reuse options. Sieve analysis, XRF, SEM, XRD, FTIR, and TG-DTA instrumental techniques have been used to characterize the sludge sample. Results show that clariflocculator sludge contains about 78% fine sand having grain size range 150-75 μm. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO constitute the maximum percentage of chemical compounds present in the sludge and quartz is the main crystalline phase of the sludge. Recycling and reuse of this sludge, especially, as fine sand in preparing mortar, concrete mix and other civil engineering products would pave the way for constructive utilization with safe and sustainable sludge management strategies.

  10. Sludge Heel Removal By Aluminum Dissolution At Savannah River Site 12390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, M.

    2012-01-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

  11. SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL BY ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 12390

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, M.

    2012-01-12

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

  12. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  13. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the

  14. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  15. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...

  16. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  17. Anaerobic sludge granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Castro Lopes, de S.I.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades
    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades. The initial

  18. Toxicity evaluation of sewage sludges in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W; Li, K; Fang, M; Su, D C

    2001-11-01

    Anaerobically digested sewage sludges collected from four wastewater treatment plants located in Sha Tin, Tai Po, Yuen Long, and Shek Wu Hui in Hong Kong were subjected to chemical characterization and toxicity testing to provide preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. All sewage sludges were slightly alkaline with pH range of 8.3-8.7. Electrical conductivity (EC; 0.69 dS m(-1)) and soluble NH4-N content (996 mg kg(-1)) of sewage sludge from Yuen Long were lower than that of other plants. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined as total, extractable, and water-soluble fraction using mixed acid digestion, DTPA (pH 7.3), and distilled water, respectively. Yuen Long sludge was most polluted with Zn and Cr higher than the pollutant concentration limits listed in Part 503 of USEPA, owing to the effluent coming from the tannery industry. High concentration of Ni was found in sludge from Sha Tin that originated mainly from the electroplating industry. DTPA-extractable Zn contents were high in sludges from Yuen Long (1247 mg kg(-1)) and Shek Wu Hui (892 mg kg(-1)), while 3.7 mg kg(-1) of DTPA-extractable Cr was found in Yuen Long sludge. Metal speciation of sludges showed that Pb was major in residual phase while Cu, Cr, and Ni in organic and residual phases, and Zn did not show any dominant chemical phase. The sludge extracts did not exert significant adverse effect on seed germination of Brassica chinensis (Chinese cabbage), but Yuen Long sludge caused a reduction in root growth. In view of its lower EC and soluble ammonia contents, the high concentration of Zn and Cr in Yuen Long sludge would likely be responsible for this adverse effect on root growth. Therefore, Yuen Long sludge would likely have a more serious impact on soil quality and plant growth as compared to other sludges. This would require further verification from greenhouse and field experiments.

  19. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N 2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H 2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage...

  1. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  2. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    .1 kg/t sewage sludge applied in the previous year at a rate of 65 t/ha and only 3.7 kg/t at 195 t/ha. At a rate of 100 kg N/ha mineral fertilizer resulted in an yield increase of 4.9 kg grains/1 kg N. Maize yield in the third year after sewage sludge application increased by 11 kg grains/ton at a rate of 65 t/ha and only by 3.8 kg/t at 195 t/ha. Ammonium nitrate alone increased yield maize by 10.6 kg grains for 1 kg N. Plant utilization of N from sewage sludge during 3 years was of 17.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha sewage sludge and only 6.5 % at rate of 195 t/ha. 6 The sewage sludge has increased soil pH by 0.2 units 3 years after the application of 65 t/ha, due to high amounts of Ca present in it. The content of accessible phosphates from soil fertilized by 65 t/ha sewage sludge increased significantly, existing the danger of soil overphosphatizing, with negative consequences on the plant nutrition. The total content of of Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn from soil had easily increased on plots amended by 60-90 t/ha sewage sludge, doubled or tripled in case of Zn and remained unchanged in case of Cd. 8 Soil contamination by pathogenic germs remains low, Salmonella was absent, existing only the contamination with eggs of intestinal worms. 9 Sewage sludge between 30-60 t/ha had residual effect for at least 3 years. Periodical soil analyses on Zn and PAL content are indispensable, in order not exceed the allowable maximum limits. Our data have showed that the rate of sewage sjudge on chernozem must not exceed 400 kg P/ha.

  3. Kneader/dryer for sludges of distillation wastes; Secador-amasador para lodos de la clarificacion, lodos de barnices y residuos de la destilacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, W.

    2001-07-01

    The evaporation and indirect drying of industrial and biological sludges requires equipment of heavy mechanical design that is capable to cope with sticky, pasty matter. LIST-DISCOTHERM B y LIST-ORP kneaders/dryers of closed design are able to dry difficult sludges in a single-step continuous operation without recycling of dry product. Drying of sewage sludge, paint sludges and other process wastes including solvent recovery is an important step for an ecologically safe processing of these residuals. (Author)

  4. Metal fractionation in sludge from sewage UASB treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A F M; Zaiat, M; Silva, G H R; Fermoso, F G

    2017-05-15

    This study evaluates the trace metal composition and fractionation in sludge samples from anaerobic sewage treatment plants from six cities in Brazil. Ten metals were evaluated: Ni, Mn, Se, Co, Fe, Zn, K, Cu, Pb and Cr. Specific methanogenic activity of the sludge was also evaluated using acetic acid as the substrate. Among the essential trace metals for anaerobic digestion, Se, Zn, Ni and Fe were found at a high percentage in the organic matter/sulfide fraction in all sludge samples analyzed. These metals are less available for microorganisms than other metals, i.e., Co and K, which were present in significant amounts in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. Cu is not typically reported as an essential metal but as a possible inhibitor. One of the samples showed a total Cu concentration close to the maximal amount allowed for reuse as fertilizer. Among the non-essential trace metals, Pb was present in all sludge samples at similar low concentrations and was primarily present in the residual fraction, demonstrating very low availability. Cr was found at low concentrations in all sludge samples, except for the sludge from STP5; interestingly, this sludge presented the lowest specific methanogenic activity, indicating possible Cr toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  6. Assessment of a Danish sludge treatment reed bed system and a stockpile area, using substance flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    of substances in an STRB system over a 12-year treatment period, followed by three months' post-treatment in a stockpile area (SPA). Samples of sludge, reject water and sludge residue of different ages were collected at two Danish STRB system facilities and analysed for content of relevant substances....... Concentrations of carbon and nitrogen in the sludge residue residing in an STRB system changed as a function of treatment time, mainly due to mineralisation; only a negligible part was lost to reject water. Considering metals and phosphorus, the main share was accumulated in the sludge residue; only minor...... fractions were lost to mineralisation or reject water. Post-treatment in an SPA resulted in an increase in dry matter content from 24% to 32%. After treatment, the concentrations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, copper and chromium) in the sludge residue met the threshold values stated...

  7. Enhancing faecal sludge management in peri-urban areas of Lusaka through faecal sludge valorisation: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, J. M.; Nyirenda, E.; Nyambe, I.

    2017-03-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, has two million inhabitants with 70% residing in peri-urban areas. Ninety (90) % of this population employ pit latrines for excretion generating approximately 22,680 tons of faecal sludge per annum. This sludge is inadequately managed hence of the generated amount, over 60% remains within the residential environment thereby compromising both the environment and public health. To foster a solution to this problem, a study was commissioned to assess faecal sludge valorisation potential and how it would impact on Faecal Sludge Management. The study evaluated policy, institutional and regulatory frameworks, sanitation practices including latrine construction and usage aspects and also characterised the faecal sludge for selected parameters relevant to valorisation. Four peri-urban areas were adopted as study sites. Policy issues together with existing institutional and regulatory frameworks were assessed through literature review. Sanitation practices were evaluated through physical observations, focus group discussions, interviews and questionnaire administration. Faecal sludge characterisation was through sampling and analysis. It was observed that there are policy gaps in fostering faecal sludge valorisation. Sanitation practices and latrines construction also do not favour valorisation. The quality of the raw sludge has potential for valorisation though again, some parameters like solid waste content require drastic changes in sanitation practices in order not to compromise the reuse potential of the sludge. It was concluded that if faecal sludge management is to be enhanced through valorisation, there is need to have policies promoting pit latrine faecal sludge reuse and strengthened regulatory and institutional frameworks in this respect.

  8. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  9. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support.

  10. A novel method for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of steel wire rope sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Yang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of steel wire rope industry has led to the generation of large quantities of pickling sludge, which causes significant ecological problems and considerable negative environmental effects. In this study, a novel method was proposed for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of the steel wire rope sludge. Based on the method, two steel wire rope sludges (the Pb sludge and the Zn sludge) were firstly extracted by hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and then mixed with the hydrochloride acid extracting solution of aluminum skimmings to produce composite polyaluminum ferric flocculants. The optimum conditions (acid concentration, w/v ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature) for acid extraction of the sludges were studied. Results showed that 97.03 % of Pb sludge and 96.20 % of Zn sludge were extracted. Leaching potential of the residues after acid extraction was evaluated, and a proposed treatment for the residues had been instructed. The obtained flocculant products were used to purify the real domestic wastewater and showed an equivalent or better performance than the commercial ones. This method is environmental-friendly and cost-effective when compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  11. Solidification Tests for LLW sludges at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.; Bickford, J.; Foote, M.; Jessop, D.; Gagel, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC), operated by EnergX TN, LLC, must process about 350,000 gallons of remote-handled (RH) sludge from ten liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In order to solidify and stabilize the waste to meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the waste must be mixed with solidification/stabilization agents, remain flowable during mixing, be self leveling in the waste disposal container, and produce a solid waste form that is not hazardous and has no free liquids, suitable for transportation and disposal at the NTS. Lab-scale tests using a surrogate sludge were performed at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSETA) to evaluate a range of grouting recipes, using Portland cement, fly ash and ground blast furnace slag, plus other additives. The viscosity of the wet grout and the amount of free water, if any, after various time intervals, was measured. EnergX personnel supplied the initial grout recipe, based on testing with a simplified sludge surrogate (calcium nitrate and diatomaceous earth). The tests at MSE-TA showed that ratios of dry blend ingredients to surrogate of from 0.75:1 to 1:1 would produce flowable grouts with viscosities of 1300 to 2200 cP that had no free water at any time during curing. The recipe for a surrogate sludge slurry was developed at ORNL, which matches the primary constituents of the average tank waste sludge composition, including, in decreasing concentrations, calcium, aluminum, magnesium, uranium, iron, and thorium. The target total suspended solids (TSS ) concentration in the surrogate is 5.0 wt%, which is the planned concentration for sluicing the sludge from the tanks for solidification. Soluble ions in the surrogate include nitrate, nitrite, carbonate, chloride, sulfate, sodium and potassium. The surrogate was prepared by adding soluble salts of the metals to water, and then precipitating the sludge by adding calcium

  12. Residual waste from Hanford tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204. 2. Contaminant release model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Krupka, Kenneth M; Deutsch, William J; Lindberg, Michael J

    2006-06-15

    Release of U and 99Tc from residual sludge in Hanford waste tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204 atthe U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state was quantified by water-leaching, selective extractions, empirical solubility measurements, and thermodynamic modeling. A contaminant release model was developed based on these experimental results and solid-phase characterization results presented elsewhere. Uranium release was determined to be controlled by two phases and occurred in three stages. In the first stage, U release is controlled by the solubility of tejkaite, which is suppressed by high concentrations of sodium released from the dissolution of NaNO3 in the residual sludges. Equilibrium solubility calculations indicate the U released during this stage will have a maximum concentration of 0.021 M. When all the NaNO3 has dissolved from the sludge, the solubility of the remaining cejkaite will increase to 0.28 M. After cejkaite has completely dissolved, the majority of the remaining U is in the form of poorly crystalline Na2U2O7 [or clarkeite Na[(UO2)O(OH)](H20)0-1]. In contact with Hanford groundwater this phase is not stable, and becquerelite becomes the U solubility controlling phase, with a calculated equilibrium concentration of 1.2 x 10(-4) M. For Tc, a significant fraction of its concentration in the residual sludge was determined to be relatively insoluble (20 wt % for C-203 and 80 wt % for C-204). Because of the low concentrations of Tc in these sludge materials, the characterization studies did not identify any discrete Tc solids phases. Release of the soluble fraction of Tc was found to occur concomitantly with NO3-. It was postulated that a NaNO3-NaTcO4 solid solution could be responsible for this behavior. The Tc release concentrations for the soluble fraction were estimated to be 2.4 x 10-6 M for C-203 and 2.7 x 10(-5) M for C-204. Selective extraction results indicated that the recalcitrant fraction of Tc was

  13. Extending the use of dewatered alum sludge as a P-trapping material in effluent purification : study on two separate water treatment sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.Q.; Yang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The generation of alum sludge from drinking water purification process remains inevitable when aluminium sulphate is used as primary coagulant for raw water coagulation. Sustainable managing such the sludge becomes an increasing concern in water industry. Its beneficial reuse is therefore highly desirable and has attracted considerable research efforts. In view of the novel development of alum sludge as a value-added raw material for beneficial reuse for wastewater treatment, this study exami...

  14. Use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer for increasing soil fertility and crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.

    1997-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic-matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amendment for farmers. In this study at four locations in Bavaria, the application of sewage sludge produced com yields that were similar to or better than those produced by an equal application (in terms of N) of chemical fertilizer. High rates of sludge (800 m 3 /ha) further improved crop yields, although such are impractical for farmers' fields. Residual beneficial effects of sewage-sludge application were seen also in terms of subsequent yields of barley. Application of sludge also improved biological and physical properties of the soils. More long-term studies are needed to better understand how sewage sludge contributes to the improvement of soil fertility and crop yields. (author)

  15. Investigation of Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Mažeikienė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important to control not only the large wastewater treatment plants work, but also the work of individual small wastewater treatment plants for the protection of environment. Individual small wastewater treatment plants can become the local sources of pollution, when they are not functioning properly. Sewage purification indicators are not always the same as declared at wastewater treatment plants documentation in real conditions, so it is important to control the properly work of individual small wastewater treatment plants. The work of the small wastewater treatment plant AT-6 was analyzed by the treated sewage results (BDS7, SM, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, PO4-P, the quality of activated sludge, biological indicators and enzymatic activity in this article. The nitrification process was not going very well by the results of research, because there was the 72 mg/l concentration of ammonium nitrogen remaining in the cleaned wastewater. The morphological study of the activated sludge has confirmed the hypothesis that the necessary conditions for nitrification process were not established. The oxygen supply was increased and the small wastewater treatment plant functioning become more efficient, because nitrification process started working properly – there was less than 1 mg/l of ammonium nitrogen remaining in the cleaned wastewater.

  16. Low intensity surplus activated sludge pretreatment before anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (municipal, or industrial treatment is still a problem in so far that it is not satisfactorily resolved in terms of cost and final disposal. Two common forms of sludge disposal are possible; the first being direct disposal on land (including agriculture and the second being incineration (ash production, although neither of these methods are universally applied. Simplifying the issue, direct sludge disposal on land is seldom applied for sanitary and environmental reasons, while incineration is not popular for financial (high costs reasons. Very often medium and large wastewater treatment plants apply anaerobic digestion for sludge hygiene principles, reducing the amount to be disposed and for biogas (energy production. With the progress in sewage biological treatment aiming at nutrient removal, primary sludge has been omitted in the working processes and only surplus activated sludge requires handling. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS is more difficult due to the presence of microorganisms, the decomposition of which requires a relatively long time for hydrolysis. In order to upgrade the hydrolysis effects, several different pre-treatment processes have already been developed and introduced. The additional pre-treatment processes applied are aimed at residual sludge bulk mass minimization, shortening of the anaerobic digestion process or higher biogas production, and therefore require additional energy. The water-energy-waste Nexus (treads of of the benefits and operational difficulties, including energy costs are discussed in this paper. The intensity of pre-treatment processes to upgrade the microorganism’s hydrolysis has crucial implications. Here a low intensity pre-treatment process, alkalisation and hydrodynamic disintegration - hybrid process - were presented in order to achieve sufficient effects of WAS anaerobic digestion. A sludge digestion efficiency increase expressed as 45% biogas additional

  17. Hydraulic conductivity and soil-sewage sludge interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero de Melo Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems faced by humanity is pollution caused by residues resulting from the production and use of goods, e.g, sewage sludge. Among the various alternatives for its disposal, the agricultural use seems promising. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity and interaction of soil with sandy-silty texture, classified as Spodosols, from the Experimental Station Itapirema - IPA, in Goiana, state of Pernambuco, in mixtures with sewage sludge from the Mangueira Sewage Treatment Station, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco at rates of 25, 50 and 75 Mg ha-1. Tests were conducted to let water percolate the natural saturated soil and soil-sludge mixtures to characterize their physical, chemical, and microstructural properties as well as hydraulic conductivity. Statistical data analysis showed that the presence of sewage sludge in soils leads to an increase of the < 0.005 mm fraction, reduction in real specific weight and variation in optimum moisture content from 11.60 to 12.90 % and apparent specific dry weight from 17.10 and 17.50 kN m-3. In the sludge-soil mixture, the quartz grains were covered by sludge and filling of the empty soil macropores between grains. There were changes in the chemical characteristics of soil and effluent due to sewage sludge addition and a small decrease in hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate the possibility that soil acidity influenced the concentrations of the elements found in the leachate, showing higher levels at higher sludge doses. It can be concluded that the leaching degree of potentially toxic elements from the sewage sludge treatments does not harm the environment.

  18. Composting winery waste: sludges and grape stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, E; Sort, X; Soliva, M; Trillas, I

    2004-11-01

    The composting of winery waste is an alternative to the traditional disposal of residues, and also involves a commitment to reducing the production of waste products. We studied two residues (sludge and grape stalks), mixed in two proportions (1:1 and 1:2 sludge and grape stalks (v/v)), and we also examined the effects of grinding the grape stalks. Our results showed that composting the assayed materials was possible. Best results were obtained in the compost heap in which the residues were mixed in the proportion 1:2, and where the grape stalks had been previously ground. Optimum results required a moisture around 55% and a maximum temperature around 65 degrees C and an oxygen concentration not lower than 5-10%. The resulting compost had a high agronomic value and is particularly suitable for the soils of the vineyards which have a very low organic matter content. The compost can be reintroduced into the production system, thereby closing the residual material cycle.

  19. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  20. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  1. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox ® ), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of C free PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of C free PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, C free PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  3. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells on four different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material. Casagra......Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells on four different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material...

  4. TBT and TPhT persistence in a sludged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcic, Christophe; Le Hecho, Isabelle; Denaix, Laurence; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2006-12-01

    The persistence of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in soils was studied, taking into consideration the quantity of sewage sludge, TBT and TPhT concentrations in soil as well as the soil pH. The organotin compounds (OTC) were introduced into the soil via a spiked urban sludge, simulating agricultural practise. OTC speciation was achieved after acidic extraction of soil samples followed by gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric analysis (GC-PFPD). Leaching tests conducted on a spiked sludge showed that more than 98% of TBT are sorbed on the sludge. TBT persistence in soil appeared to depend on its initial concentration in sludge. Thus, it was more important when concentration is over 1000 microg(Sn) kg(-1) of sludge. More than 50% of the initial TBT added into the soil were still present after 2 months, whatever the experimental conditions. The main degradation product appeared to be dibutyltin. About 90% of TPhT were initially sorbed on sludge, whatever the spiking concentration in sludge was. However, TPhT seemed to be quantitatively exchangeable at the solid/liquid interface, according to the leaching tests. It was also significantly degraded in sludged soil as only about 20% of TPhT remain present after 2 months, the monophenyltin being the main degradation product. pH had a significant positive effect on TBT and particularly TPhT persistence, according to the initial amounts introduced into the soil. Thus, at pH over 7 and triorganotin concentration over 100 microg(Sn) kg(-1), less than 10% of TBT but about 60% of TPhT were degraded. When the sludge was moderately contaminated by triorganotins (typically 50 microg(Sn) kg(-1) in our conditions) the pH had no effect on TBT and TPhT persistence.

  5. Design characteristics of the Sludge Mobilization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project is being processed into low-level waste and solidified in cement. High-level waste also stored underground will be vitrified and solidified into canistered glass logs. To move the waste from where it resides at the Waste Tank Farm to the Vitrification Facility requires equipment to prepare the storage tanks for low-level and high-level waste processing, equipment to mobilize and mix the radioactive sludge into a homogeneous slurry, and equipment to transfer the slurry for vitrification. The design of the Sludge Mobilization System has incorporated the necessary components to effect the preparation and transfer of waste in five operational phases. The first phase of the Sludge Mobilization System, which began in 1987, prepared the waste tanks to process radioactive liquid for delivery to the Cement Solidification System and to support the mobilization equipment. The second phase, beginning in 1991, will wash the sludge that remains after the liquid supernatant is decanted to prepare it for mobilization operations. The third phase will combine the contents of various waste tanks into one tank. The fourth phase will resuspend and mix the contents of the high-level waste tank. The fifth and final phase of the Sludge Mobilization System will entail transferring the waste mixture to the Vitrification Facility for processing into glass logs. Provisions for recycling the waste streams or slurries within the tank farm or for returning process streams to the Waste Tank Farm from the Vitrification Facility are also included in the final phase. This document addresses the Sludge Mobilization System equipment design characteristics in terms of its use in each of the five operational phases listed above

  6. Changes in the Concentration of Heavy Metals (Cr, Cd, Ni During the Vermicomposting Process of Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Zigmontienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge treatment and utilization is an important issue for a biodegradable waste management strategy. Heavy metals in sewage sludge complicate its use. Vermicomposting is one of the ways to improve the characteristics of sewage sludge and to reduce the residual concentrations of heavy metals. Study on changes in the concentration of heavy metals (Chromium, Nickel and Cadmium, when vermicomposting sewage sludge, was performed using Californian earthworms (Eisenia fetida. For that purpose, 60 kg of sewage sludge from Vilnius Waste Water Treatment Plant were taken thus inserting 1.5 kg of Californian earthworms into it. Optimal conditions for work (optimum temperature, moisture, pH for earthworms to survive were maintained in the course of the study that lasted 120 days and was conducted in June – August. The samples of sewage sludge and earthworms were taken every 10 days. The concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  7. Start-up of horizontal anaerobic reactors with sludge blanket and fixed bed for wastewater treatment from coffee processing by wet method Partida de reatores anaeróbios horizontais com manta de lodo e de leito fixo para tratamento de águas residuárias do beneficiamento de frutos do cafeeiro por via úmida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was evaluated the start-up procedures of anaerobic treatment system with three horizontal anaerobic reactors (R1, R2 and R3, installed in series, with volume of 1.2 L each. R1 had sludge blanket, and R2 and R3 had half supporter of bamboo and coconut fiber, respectively. As an affluent, it was synthesized wastewater from mechanical pulping of the coffee fruit by wet method, with a mean value of total chemical oxygen demand (CODtotal of 16,003 mg L-1. The hydraulic retention time (HRT in each reactor was 30 h. The volumetric organic loading (VOL applied in R1 varied from 8.9 to 25.0 g of CODtotal (L d-1. The mean removal efficiencies of CODtotal varied from 43 to 97% in the treatment system (R1+R2+R3, stabilizing above 80% after 30 days of operation. The mean content of methane in the biogas were of 70 to 76%, the mean volumetric production was 1.7 L CH4 (L reactor d-1 in the system, and the higher conversions were around at 0.20 L CH4 (g CODremoved-1 in R1 and R2. The mean values of pH in the effluents ranged from 6.8 to 8.3 and the mean values of total volatile acids remained below 200 mg L-1 in the effluent of R3. The concentrations of total phenols of the affluent ranged from 45 to 278 mg L-1, and the mean removal efficiency was of 52%. The start-up of the anaerobic treatment system occurred after 30 days of operation as a result of inoculation with anaerobic sludge with active microbiota.Foram avaliados os procedimentos de partida de sistema de tratamento com três reatores anaeróbios horizontais (R1, R2 e R3, instalados em série, com volume de 1,2 L cada. O R1 com manta de lodo e o R2 e R3 através de suporte de bambu e fibra de coco, respectivamente. Como afluente,foram sintetizadas águas residuárias do despolpamento mecânico dos frutos do cafeeiro por via úmida, com valor médio de demanda química de oxigênio total (DQOtotal de 16.003 mg L-1. O tempo de detenção hidráulica (TDH em cada reator foi de 30 h. As

  8. Desempenho de reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo em dois estágios tratando águas residuárias de suinocultura Performance of two-stage up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating swine wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. de Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de dois reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB em escala-piloto com volumes de 908 L e 188 L, instalados em série, alimentados com águas residuárias de suinocultura com concentrações médias de sólidos suspensos totais (SST variando de 2.216 mg L-1 a 7.131 mg L-1 e submetidos a tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH de 62,3 e 31,1 h, no primeiro reator, e de 12,9 e 6,5 h, no segundo reator. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQOtotal variaram de 74,0% a 89,6% no Reator 1 e de 34,3% a 45,1% no Reator 2, resultando em valores médios de 86,6% a 93,1% para o sistema de tratamento em dois estágios com carga orgânica volumétrica (COV na faixa de 3,40 a 14,44 kg DQOtotal m-3 reator d-1 no Reator 1. As concentrações de metano no biogás foram acima de 75% para o Reator 1 e de 80% para o Reator 2. Os valores médios de pH variaram na faixa de 6,9 a 8,2 para o efluente do Reator 1 e de 7,0 a 8,3 para o efluente do Reator 2. Os ácidos voláteis totais mantiveram-se estáveis com concentrações médias abaixo de 200 mg L-1. Esses resultados indicaram que as condições de carga orgânica, em termos de DQO e SSV, impostas ao sistema de tratamento anaeróbio em dois estágios, não foram limitantes para que houvesse o desenvolvimento de lodo com microbiota adaptada e com alta atividade, propiciando altas eficiências médias de remoção de matéria orgânica (86,6 a 93,1% para DQOtotal e 85,6 a 88,2% para SSV e taxas de produção de metano de 0,156 a 0,289 m³ CH4 kg-1 de DQO removida.The objective of this work was monitoring the performance of two up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB in a pilot-scale testing with volumes of 908 L and 188 L, installed in series, loaded with swine wastewater with total suspended solids (TSS ranging from 2216 to 7131 mg L-1, submitted to an hydraulic detention time (HDT of 62.3 and 31.1 h, in the first reactor, and 12.9 and 6.5 h, in the second

  9. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-09-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.

  10. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY NUMBER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A representative of a sludge sample collected from the same source was filtered under the same environmental condition and the result analysed with two different concepts. One method of analysis uses Sludge Dewaterability Number, while the second employed the Carman's Specific resistance concept in sludge ...

  12. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  13. Heavy metals availability and soil fertility after land application of sewage sludge on dystroferric Red Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge is the solid residue obtained from urban sewage treatment plants. It is possible to use the sludge in a sustainable way as fertilizer and as soil conditioner due to its high levels of organic matter and nutrients. Besides pathogens and volatile organic compounds, the residue may also contain heavy metals which may accumulate and contaminate crops and the food chain. The aim of this study was evaluates the changes in the fertility of dystrophic Red Latosol and in the availability of heavy metals following application of sewage sludge. It was assessed whether organic matter supplied to the soil as large amounts of sewage sludge would decrease availability of heavy metals in the soil due to of insoluble compounds formation. From this, an experiment was carried out in polyethylene pots using lettuce plant for test. Sewage sludge were applied to the soil in concentrations equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 t ha-1, and a control without sludge, in four replicates, in a completely randomized design. The results show that sewage sludge led to an increase of organic matter contents, of the cation exchange capacity (CEC and of nutrients found in the soil. It also improved plant growth up to a concentration of 120 t ha-1. Availability of heavy metals, however, was reduced in sludge concentrations starting with 120 t ha-1.

  14. Ceramsite preparation from sea sludge with sewage sludge biochar and its environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Yu, Guangwei; Pan, Lanjia; Li, Chunxing; Xie, Shengyu; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yin

    2018-02-01

    Ceramsite were produced from sea sludge (SS) by adding different percentage of sewage sludge biochar (SSB). The characteristics of ceramsite including micrograph and elementary composition were analyzed. In addition, the heavy metals (HMs) fractions, leaching behaviour and potential environmental risk were also investigated. The microstructure of the ceramsite was slit pores and the main elements of the ceramsite were Si, Al and O. The residual fraction (F4) of Cu, Cr and Cd in ceramsite with 100% SS (SS100) reached the maximum (100%, 99% and 100%, respectively), while F4 of Zn and Ni in ceramsite with 80% SS and 20% SSB (SS80) reached the top value of 99.5% and 98%. Moreover, the HMs of feedstock can be immobilized after sintering as ceramsite and the leached amounts of HMs in all ceramsite were much lower than that stated by GB 5085.3-2007. Furthermore, ceramsite preparation from sea sludge with sewage sludge biochar will not bring HMs contamination and potential ecological risk.

  15. Effects of sewage sludge fertilizer on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Elloumi, Nada; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Zouari, Mohamed; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Ayadi, Habib; Kallel, Monem

    2016-10-01

    Use of sewage sludge, a biological residue produced from sewage treatment processes in agriculture, is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the usefulness of sewage sludge amendment for Helianthus annuus, a pot experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 % (w/w) amendment ratios to the agricultural soil. Soil pH decreased whereas electrical conductivity, organic matter, total N, available P, and exchangeable Na, K, and Ca increased in soil amended with sewage sludge in comparison to unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment led to significant increase in Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations of soil. The increased concentration of heavy metals in soil due to sewage sludge amendment led to increases in shoot and root concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in plant as compared to those grown on unamended soil. Accumulation was more in roots than shoots for most of the heavy metals. Moreover, high metal removal for the harvestable parts of the crops was recorded. Sewage sludge amendment increased root and shoot length, leaves number, biomass, and antioxidant activities of sunflower. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, and soluble sugar content in response to amendment with sewage sludge may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress. Graphical abstract Origin, fate and behavior of sewage sludge fertilizer.

  16. Heavy metals and its chemical speciation in sewage sludge at different stages of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytła, Malwina; Widziewicz, Kamila; Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of heavy metal concentrations and forms in sewage sludge constitutes an important issue in terms of both health and environmental hazards the metals pose. The total heavy metals concentration enables only the assessment of its contamination. Hence the knowledge of chemical forms is required to determine their environmental mobility and sludge final disposal. Heavy metals speciation was studied by using four-stage sequential extraction BCR (Community Bureau of Reference). This study was aimed at determining the total concentration of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) and their chemical forms (except for Hg) in sludge collected at different stages of its processing at two municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in southern Poland. Metals contents in sludge samples were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). This study shows that Zn and Cu appeared to be the most abundant in sludge, while Cd and Hg were in the lowest concentrations. The sewage sludge revealed the domination of immobile fractions over the mobile ones. The oxidizable and residual forms were dominant for all the heavy metals. There was also a significant difference in metals speciation between sludges of different origin which was probably due to differences in wastewater composition and processes occurring in biological stage of wastewater treatment. The results indicate a negligible capability of metals to migrate from sludge into the environment. Our research revealed a significant impact of thickening, stabilization and hygienization on the distribution of heavy metals in sludge and their mobility.

  17. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing. Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with approximately2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with approximately7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale

  18. Use of sewage sludge and organic residues in the growth of seedlings Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. = Uso de lodo de esgoto e resíduos orgânicos no crescimento de mudas de Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Macedo Delarmelina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the production of seedlings, the substrate has a significant influence on plant growth, which can be used in an original or combined form. This has made necessary studies to obtain substrates able to ensure adequate growth of the seedlings grown in nurseries. With to contribute to the knowledge of the specie Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers, this study determined the best ratio of the components for the formation of a suitable growth medium for theses seedlings. The treatments were formulated using sewage sludge (LE, organic compost (CO, coffee straw (PC in natura, and the commercial substrate (SC. Seedlings were grown in plastic pots with a capacity of 120 cm3. The experiment consisted of fourteen treatments withthree replicates of five seedlings each. After 150 days old the following variables were measured: plant height, stem diameter,ratio between plant height and stem diameter, dry mass of shoot, dry mass of root system, total dry mass, dry mass ratio of shoot/root dry mass, and Dickson quality index. The results indicated that the treatments containing sewage sludge and organic compost in its composition, especially the treatment T7 (40% LE + 60% CO provided the demonstrated the best morphological characteristics of Sesbania virgata seedlings. = Na fase de produção de mudas, o substrato exerce influência significativa no crescimento das plantas, e sua utilizaçãopode ser feita de forma original ou combinados, tornando necessário, estudos voltados para obtenção de substratos capazes de garantir adequado crescimento e qualidade das mudas produzidas em viveiro. Visando contribuir para o conhecimento da espécie Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a melhor proporção entre componentes para formação de substrato para mudas. Os tratamentos foram formulados utilizando lodo de esgoto (LE, palha de café in natura (PC in natura, composto orgânico (CO e o substrato comercial (SC em diferentes propor

  19. Analysis of perfluorinated phosponic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in water, sludge and sediment by LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esperza, X.; Moyano, E.; de Boer, J.; Galceran, M.T.; van Leeuwen, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Residues of perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were investigated in various Dutch surface waters, sludge and sediments. For this purpose, a liquid chromatographic (LC) method was optimized by testing several columns with different mobile phases.

  20. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  1. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  2. Efeito residual de quatro aplicações anuais de lodo de esgoto e vinhaça na qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar Sugarcane technological parameters affected by sewage sludge and vinasse added in soil for four consecutive years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caramo Có Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos residuais, por quatro anos seguidos, de diferentes tipos de resíduos, aplicados de formas e em doses distintas, sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar de quinto corte (cultivar SP 81-3250. Os tratamentos testados são combinações de dois tipos de resíduos (lodo de esgoto; vinhaça; lodo de esgoto + vinhaça com dois modos de aplicação (ao lado da linha de cultivo e em área total e com duas doses (100 e 200%, e um tratamento-testemunha. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, totalizando 39 parcelas. As variáveis analisadas foram: percentagem de sólidos solúveis no caldo extraído (Brix % C.E., percentagem aparente de sacarose no caldo extraído (Pol % C.E., percentagem da fibra na cana (Fibra % cana, pureza (%, percentagem aparente de sacarose na cana (Pol % cana, percentagem de açúcares redutores na cana (AR % cana, percentagem de açúcares redutores totais na cana (ART % cana e açúcares totais recuperáveis (ATR. Os fatores de variação testados (tipo de resíduo, modo de aplicação e doses não promoveram alterações na qualidade e não comprometeram a valorização da cana-de-açúcar.The main objective of this research was to evaluate the residual effect of different residues applied during four years in distinct application modes and rates, on the technological quality of the 5th ratoon of sugar cane (cultivar SP 81-3250. The treatments were from combination of two residues (sewage sludge, vinasse, sewage sludge + vinasse applied according two different ways (close to the sugar cane line and spread in the whole area, in two rates (100 and 200% besides a control treatment. The experimental design was randomized blocks with thirteen treatments and three replications, resulting 39 experimental plots. The following parameters were analyzed: percentage of soluble solids in juice (Brix % JC, apparent percentage of

  3. Disposal of radioactive residuals requires careful planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontius, F.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radionuclides removed from source waters during water treatment become concentrated in residual liquids and sludges. Treatment technologies used to remove these contaminants from source waters may generate wastes that contain substantial radioactivity. Water systems that install one or more of these technologies in order to comply with the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) eventually adopted must dispose of the residuals. Disposal of radionuclide-containing wastes can be especially difficult, depending on the nature and amount of radioactivity present

  4. Chemical dissolving of sludge from a high level waste tank at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.F.; Hill, A.J. Jr.

    1977-11-01

    The concept for decontamination and retirement of radioactive liquid waste tanks at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) involves hydraulic slurrying to remove most of the settled sludges followed by chemical dissolving of residual sludges. Dissolving tests were carried out with small samples of sludge from SRP Tank 16H. Over 95 percent of the sludge was dissolved by 8 wt percent oxalic acid at 85 0 C with agitation in a two-step dissolving process (50 hours per step) and an initial reagent-to-sludge volume of 20. Oxalic acid does not attack the waste tank material of construction, appears to be compatible with the existing waste farm processes and equipment after neutralization, and with future processes planned for fixation of the waste into a high-integrity solid for packaging and shipping

  5. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. System for the Reduction of Substances in Reject Water from Reed-Bed Sludge Mineralization Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    the reject water via recirculation into a mixed reactor and back onto the reed-beds. The mixed rector consists of a container in which sludge (that is typically loaded directly on to reed-beds) is mixed with recirculated reject water from reed-beds. The sludge mixture has a definable hydraulic retention time...... within the container. The solution is then applied to the reed-beds, which dewaters, converts, and partially mineralize the sludge mixture. The reject water from the reed-beds is split where up to100% of the reject water is recirculated back to the mixed reactor and the remaining usually disposed......The invention is a system for the reduction of substances in reject water from reed-bed sludge mineralization plants (also referred to as sludge dewatering reed-beds). The systems utilizes the composition of substances in reject water from reed-beds and that of sludge to reduce substance mass from...

  7. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  8. From municipal/industrial wastewater sludge and FOG to fertilizer: A proposal for economic sustainable sludge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratina, Božidar; Šorgo, Andrej; Kramberger, Janez; Ajdnik, Urban; Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Ekart, Janez; Šafarič, Riko

    2016-12-01

    After a ban on the depositing of untreated sludge in landfills, the sludge from municipal and industrial water-treatment plants can be regarded as a problem. Waste products of the water treatment process can be a problem or an opportunity - a source for obtaining raw materials. In the European Union, raw sludge and fats, oil and grease (FOG) from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) cannot be deposited in any natural or controlled environment. For this reason, it must be processed (stabilized, dried) to be used later as a fertilizer, building material, or alternative fuel source suitable for co-incineration in high temperature furnaces (power plants or concrete plants). The processes of drying sludge, where heat and electricity are used, are energy consuming and economically unattractive. Beside energy efficiency, the main problem of sludge drying is in its variability of quality as a raw material. In addition to this, sludge can be contaminated by a number of organic and inorganic pollutants and organisms. Due to the presence or absence of pollutants, different end products can be economically interesting. For example, if the dried sludge contains coliform bacteria, viruses, helminths eggs or smaller quantities of heavy metals, it cannot be used as a fertilizer but can still be used as a fuel. The objectives of the current article is to present a batch-processing pilot device of sludge or digestate that allows the following: (1) low pressure and low temperature energy effective drying of from 10 to 40% remaining water content, (2) disinfection of pathogen (micro)organisms, (3) heavy metal reduction, (4) production of products of predetermined quality (e.g. containing different quantities of water; it can be used as a fertilizer, or if the percentage of water in the dry sludge is decreased to 10%, then the dried sludge can be used as a fuel with a calorific value similar to coal). An important feature is also the utilization of low

  9. Digestion of high rate activated sludge coupled to biochar formation for soil improvement in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansubuga, Irene; Banadda, Noble; Ronsse, Frederik; Verstraete, Willy; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-09-15

    High rate activated sludge (HRAS) is well-biodegradable sludge enabling energy neutrality of wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion. However, even through successful digestion a notable residue still remains. Here we investigated whether this residue can be converted to biochar, for its use as a fertilizer or as a solid fuel, and assessed its characteristics and overall process efficiency. In a first phase, HRAS was anaerobicaly digested under mesophilic conditions at a sludge retention time of 20 days. HRAS digested well (57.9 ± 6.2% VS degradation) producing on average 0.23 ± 0.04 L CH4 per gram VS fed. The digestate particulates were partially air-dried to mimic conditions used in developing countries, and subsequently converted to biochar by fixed-bed slow pyrolysis at a residence time of 15 min and at highest heating temperatures (HHT) of 300 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C. Subsequently, the produced chars were characterized by proximate analysis, CHN-elemental analysis, pH in solution and bomb calorimetry for higher heating value. The yield and volatile matter decreased with increasing HHT while ash content and fixed carbon increased with increasing HHT. The produced biochar showed properties optimal towards soil amendment when produced at a temperature of 600 °C with values of 5.91 wt%, 23.75 wt%, 70.35% on dry basis (db) and 0.44 for volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash content and H/C ratio, respectively. With regard to its use for energy purposes, the biochar represented a lower calorific value than the dried HRAS digestate likely due to high ash content. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion of HRAS and its subsequent biochar formation at HHT of 600 °C represents an attractive route for sludge management in tropic settings like in Uganda, coupling carbon capture to energy generation, carbon sequestration and nutrient recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermophilic versus Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreeyessus, Getachew D; Jenicek, Pavel

    2016-06-18

    During advanced biological wastewater treatment, a huge amount of sludge is produced as a by-product of the treatment process. Hence, reuse and recovery of resources and energy from the sludge is a big technological challenge. The processing of sludge produced by Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is massive, which takes up a big part of the overall operational costs. In this regard, anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge continues to be an attractive option to produce biogas that could contribute to the wastewater management cost reduction and foster the sustainability of those WWTPs. At the same time, AD reduces sludge amounts and that again contributes to the reduction of the sludge disposal costs. However, sludge volume minimization remains, a challenge thus improvement of dewatering efficiency is an inevitable part of WWTP operation. As a result, AD parameters could have significant impact on sludge properties. One of the most important operational parameters influencing the AD process is temperature. Consequently, the thermophilic and the mesophilic modes of sludge AD are compared for their pros and cons by many researchers. However, most comparisons are more focused on biogas yield, process speed and stability. Regarding the biogas yield, thermophilic sludge AD is preferred over the mesophilic one because of its faster biochemical reaction rate. Equally important but not studied sufficiently until now was the influence of temperature on the digestate quality, which is expressed mainly by the sludge dewateringability, and the reject water quality (chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, and pH). In the field of comparison of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion process, few and often inconclusive research, unfortunately, has been published so far. Hence, recommendations for optimized technologies have not yet been done. The review presented provides a comparison of existing sludge AD technologies and the gaps that need to be filled so as to optimize

  11. Thermophilic versus Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreeyessus, Getachew D.; Jenicek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    During advanced biological wastewater treatment, a huge amount of sludge is produced as a by-product of the treatment process. Hence, reuse and recovery of resources and energy from the sludge is a big technological challenge. The processing of sludge produced by Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is massive, which takes up a big part of the overall operational costs. In this regard, anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge continues to be an attractive option to produce biogas that could contribute to the wastewater management cost reduction and foster the sustainability of those WWTPs. At the same time, AD reduces sludge amounts and that again contributes to the reduction of the sludge disposal costs. However, sludge volume minimization remains, a challenge thus improvement of dewatering efficiency is an inevitable part of WWTP operation. As a result, AD parameters could have significant impact on sludge properties. One of the most important operational parameters influencing the AD process is temperature. Consequently, the thermophilic and the mesophilic modes of sludge AD are compared for their pros and cons by many researchers. However, most comparisons are more focused on biogas yield, process speed and stability. Regarding the biogas yield, thermophilic sludge AD is preferred over the mesophilic one because of its faster biochemical reaction rate. Equally important but not studied sufficiently until now was the influence of temperature on the digestate quality, which is expressed mainly by the sludge dewateringability, and the reject water quality (chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, and pH). In the field of comparison of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion process, few and often inconclusive research, unfortunately, has been published so far. Hence, recommendations for optimized technologies have not yet been done. The review presented provides a comparison of existing sludge AD technologies and the gaps that need to be filled so as to optimize

  12. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  13. Minimization of Excess Sludge in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Reza Momeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plant represents a rising challenge in activated sludge processes. Hence, the minimization of excess sludge production was investigated by increasing the dissolved oxygen in aeration basin. Units of the pilot include: Primary sedimentation tank, aeration basin, secondary sedimentation tank, and return sludge tank. Volume of aeration basin is 360 l and influent flow rate is 90 L/h. Influent of pilot is taken from effluent of grit chamber of Isfahan's North Wastewater treatment plant. The experiments were done on different parts of pilot during the 5 month of study. Results show that increase of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank affect on decrease of excess sludge. Increase of dissolved oxygen from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L resulted in 25% decrease of excess sludge. Variation of dissolved oxygen affect on settleability of sludge too. By increase of dissolved oxygen, SVI decreased and then increased. Value of 1-3 mg/L was the adequate range of dissolved oxygen by settleability of sludge and optimum range was 2-2.5 mg/L. It could be concluded by increasing of dissolved oxygen up to of 3 mg/L, sludge settleability significant decreased.

  14. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  15. Heavy metal fate in pilot-scale sludge drying reed beds under various design and operation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakis, Alexandros I; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2012-04-30

    Thirteen pilot-scale sludge drying reed bed (SDRB) units have been constructed and operated under various settings. The beds included a cobbles lower layer, where perforated PVC aeration tubes were placed, and two gravel layers on top. The setup included planted beds with common reeds and control units. Three sludge loading rates (SLR) were examined: 30, 60 and 75 kg dm/m(2)/yr. Heavy metal (HM) accumulation in the residual sludge layer was negligible or low, and was found to increase with sludge layer depth. Plant uptake was low; the belowground biomass accumulated significantly more HMs compared to the aboveground biomass. Less than 16% of the influent HM left the bed through drainage. HM accumulation in the gravel layer was the major metal sink in the mass balance. On the whole, the HM content of the residual sludge was below the legal limits proposed by the EU for land application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of hydrothermal carbonization on migration and environmental risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge during pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Liu, Zhengang; Zheng, Qingfu; Lang, Qianqian; Xia, Yu; Peng, Nana; Gai, Chao

    2018-01-01

    The heavy metals distribution during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge, and pyrolysis of the resultant hydrochar was investigated and compared with raw sludge pyrolysis. The results showed that HTC reduced exchangeable/acid-soluble and reducible fraction of heavy metals and lowered the potential risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge. The pyrolysis favored the transformation of extracted/mobile fraction of heavy metals to residual form especially at high temperature, immobilizing heavy metals in the chars. Compared to the chars from raw sludge pyrolysis, the chars derived from hydrochar pyrolysis was more alkaline and had lower risk and less leachable heavy metals, indicating that pyrolysis imposed more positive effect on immobilization of heavy metals for the hydrochar than for sewage sludge. The present study demonstrated that HTC is a promising pretreatment prior to pyrolysis from the perspective of immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Farmers' attitude toward treated sludge use in the villages of West Bank, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Md M; Kattou'a, Mary G; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Sato, Chikashi

    2017-07-01

    An application of treated sewage sludge on agricultural land has been widely accepted, as this method is simple and economical for disposal of wastewater residues. When applied properly on an agricultural land, sludge can replenish organic matter and nutrients in soil. Although sewage sludge has been used in agriculture in many parts of the world, its acceptability varies with different cultures and beliefs among farmers. Farmers' concerns on sludge use are primarily due to its anthropogenic origin, pollutants that it carries, a general perception of sewage being dirty, and its offensive odor. This paper aims to investigate farmers' perceptions on land application of treated sewage sludge on their farm. This study targeted two farming communities, namely, Anza and Beit Dajan villages, located in Jenin and Nablus districts in the West Bank, Palestine. In this study, a sample of 106 farmers were randomly selected and surveyed through a mixture of structured and open-ended questions. Results indicated that, overall, farmers have positive perceptions on land application of sludge. A majority of the farmers are in favor of the concept of sludge use when a planned wastewater treatment plant is constructed and it becomes operational. Results also indicate that a majority of the farmers are in favor of using sludge for fertilizing fruit trees, rather than growing vegetables and other plants in a greenhouse, and that many of them have knowledge of sludge properties and advantages and disadvantages of sludge use in agriculture. Despite the positive perceptions by the majority of farmers, a small fraction of the farmers are in disfavor of the use of sludge for the following reasons: psychological and social concerns, potential health risks, and their religious beliefs. Results further suggest that the land application of treated sewage sludge can be accepted by more farmers if the consumers are willing to buy agricultural products fertilized by sludge, sludge meets the public

  18. Research on Treatment Technology and Device of Oily Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Q.; Shui, F. S.; Li, Q. F.

    2017-12-01

    Oily sludge is a solid oily waste, which is produced during the process of oil exploitation, transportation, refining and treatment of oily sewage. It contains a great number of hazardous substance, and is difficult to handle with. To solve the problem of waste resources of oil sludge with high oil content and usually not easy to aggregate during the preparation of profile control agent, a new oily sludge treatment device was developed. This device consists of heat supply unit, flush and filter unit, oil removal unit and dehydration unit. It can effectively clean and filter out the waste from oily sludge, recycle the oil resources and reduce the water content of the residue. In the process of operation, the water and chemical agent are recycled in the device, eventually producing little sewage. The device is small, easy to move and has high degree of automation control. The experimental application shows that the oil removal rate of the oily sludge is up to 70%, and the higher the oil content rate the better the treatment.

  19. Solar-thermic sewage sludge treatment in extreme alpine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W; Schoen, M A; Wett, B

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of a program for environmental protection conducted by the German mountaineers' club (DAV) problems emerging from residual solids accumulating in on-site wastewater treatment plants of mountain refuges were investigated. To handle these problems in an ecologically and economically reasonable way two devices for solar-supported treatment of sludge and bio-solids have been developed. These units support gravity-filtration and evaporation of liquid sludge as well as thermal acceleration of composting processes. Two solar sludge dryers were installed and operated without external energy supply at alpine refuges treating primary and secondary sludge, respectively. Batch-filling during the season could increase load capacity and a total solids concentration of up to 40% could be achieved before discharge at the beginning of the next season. The promising results from the solar sludge dryer encouraged for the development of a solar composter. The period of temperature levels suitable for composting biosolids in mountain areas can be extended considerably by application of this technology--measured temperature distribution indicated no freezing at all.

  20. Monitoring of sludge dewatering equipment by image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquine de Souza, Sandro; Grandvalet, Yves; Denoeux, Thierry

    2004-11-01

    Belt filter presses represent an economical means to dewater the residual sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants. In order to assure maximal water removal, the raw sludge is mixed with a chemical conditioner prior to being fed into the belt filter press. When the conditioner is properly dosed, the sludge acquires a coarse texture, with space between flocs. This information was exploited for the development of a software sensor, where digital images are the input signal, and the output is a numeric value proportional to the dewatered sludge dry content. Three families of features were used to characterize the textures. Gabor filtering, wavelet decomposition and co-occurrence matrix computation were the techniques used. A database of images, ordered by their corresponding dry contents, was used to calibrate the model that calculates the sensor output. The images were separated in groups that correspond to single experimental sessions. With the calibrated model, all images were correctly ranked within an experiment session. The results were very similar regardless of the family of features used. The output can be fed to a control system, or, in the case of fixed experiment conditions, it can be used to directly estimate the dewatered sludge dry content.

  1. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  2. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  3. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  4. Oily Sludge Biodetoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    bio- contactors , 5 membrane reactors, and activated sludge systems have been developed to maximize bacterial contact with the waste and reduce...with a membrane filter that has enabled them to use all of the treated wastewater for plant cooling. xiv 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1...other activities. To increase the throughput of the filtration unit, the original membranes were replaced with a polysulfone blend spiral wound

  5. Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatello, Shane; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2013-11-01

    The drivers for increasing incineration of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the resulting incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) are reviewed. It is estimated that approximately 1.7 milliontonnes of ISSA are produced annually world-wide and is likely to increase in the future. Although most ISSA is currently landfilled, various options have been investigated that allow recycling and beneficial resource recovery. These include the use of ISSA as a substitute for clay in sintered bricks, tiles and pavers, and as a raw material for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate. ISSA has also been used to form high density glass-ceramics. Significant research has investigated the potential use of ISSA in blended cements for use in mortars and concrete, and as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. However, all these applications represent a loss of the valuable phosphate content in ISSA, which is typically comparable to that of a low grade phosphate ore. ISSA has significant potential to be used as a secondary source of phosphate for the production of fertilisers and phosphoric acid. Resource efficient approaches to recycling will increasingly require phosphate recovery from ISSA, with the remaining residual fraction also considered a useful material, and therefore further research is required in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  7. Investigating the fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Helm, Richard F; Novak, John T

    2008-12-01

    The fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion was investigated using three different cation-associated extraction methods and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Extraction methods used were the cation exchange resin (CER) method for extracting calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), sulfide extraction for removing iron, and base treatment (pH 10.5) for dissolving aluminum. Extracellular polymeric substances extracted were then subjected to SDS-PAGE, and the resultant protein profiles were examined before and after sludge digestion. The SDS-PAGE results showed that three methods led to different SDS-PAGE profiles for both undigested and digested sludges. The results further revealed that CER-extracted proteins remained mainly undegraded in anaerobic digestion, but were degraded in aerobic digestion. While the fate of sulfide- and base-extracted proteins was not clear for aerobic digestion, their changes in anaerobic digestion were elucidated. Most sulfide-extracted proteins were removed by anaerobic digestion, while the increase in protein band intensity and diversity was observed for base-extracted proteins. These results suggest that activated sludge flocs contain different fractions of proteins that are distinguishable by their association with certain cations and that each fraction undergoes different fates in anaerobic and aerobic digestion. The proteins that were resistant to degradation and generated during anaerobic digestion were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification results and their putative roles in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are discussed in this study.

  8. Improved waste-activated sludge dewatering using sludge/oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasonication had low dewatering and energy efficiency with long irradiation times, indicating that it would be difficult to implement in a field plant. The water content of sludge was reduced to 60% within 120 s using microwaves, but dewatering efficiency depended on the thickness and volume of the sludge. In a pilot-scale ...

  9. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-04

    might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

  10. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO 2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO 2.25 and UO 3 · 2H 2 O.

  11. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing: Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Canister Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Bredt, P.R.; Silvers, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) as part of the overall activities for the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. These tests were conducted to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin canister sludge composite in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M, 7.8 M and 10 M and temperatures of 25 C and boiling. Assuming that the sludge was 100% uranium metal, a 4X stoichiometric excess of nitric acid was used for all testing, except that conducted at 4 M. In the 4 M nitric acid dissolution test, 50% excess nitric acid was used resulting in a dissolver solution with a significantly higher solids loading. The boiling tests were conducted for 11 hr, the 25 C dissolution tests were conducted from 24 hr to 2 weeks. For the 25 C dissolution testing, the weight percent residual solids was determined, however, chemical and radiochemical analyses were not performed

  12. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  13. Constraints to increased sludge utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.E.; Bory, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The management and disposition of municipal sewage sludge is a growing problem as secondary treatment plants are completed to meet Clean Water Act standards. The prohibition of ocean dumping, the increased cost and difficulty to secure and operate sludge landfills, and the high energy costs of dewatering and incineration should all contribute to an increase in land application. However, land application and other beneficial use alternatives, such as give away/sale, account for only 20% of the 12 m/day tons of sludge produced nationally. This result can in part be attributed to public health, institutional, and legal constraints on implementing land application systems. Public health constraints include contaminants in sludge which may pose a risk to human health. Much current controversy about the safety of applying sludge to agricultural land on which food chain crops are grown focuses on heavy metals, especially cadmium. But proposed federal and state regulation of cadmium concentrations in sludge, at levels where human health risk has not been demonstrated, may limit utilization by land application. State operating rules and other administrative controls over sludge application are among the institutional constraints. Since land is an essential element in a land application system, securing adequate and suitable land involves legal constraints. Involuntary acquisition and zoning procedures can delay and frustrate land application programs. Securing indemnity insurance for possible damage to land to which sludge is applied has also been an obstacle to implementation of utilization programs

  14. Contributo para a melhoria de solos marginais destinados a pastagens pela aplicação de lama residual urbana, sem riscos ambientais Contribution to the improvement of degraded soils under pastures through sewage sludge application, without environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    ções de biomassa, por melhoria do teor de fósforo “assimilável” no solo, a LRU não provocou poluição do solo, um ano após a sua aplicação, quanto aos compostos orgânicos pesquisados, nem aumentou a flora microbiana patogénica, nos dois ciclos culturais. Contudo, a maior dose de LRU aumentou a concentração de Cu extraível por água régia no solo (0-10 cm para níveis superiores ao máximo legislado em Portugal (100 mg kg-1 e reduziu apreciavelmente a população de rizóbio, no 1º ciclo cultural e a proporção de leguminosas, no 2º ciclo. Os teores foliares de Cu foram muito inferiores ao nível máximo tolerável para a dieta de pequenos ruminantes (25 mg kg-1, o que sugere, nitidamente, que da aplicação da LRU não deverão ocorrer efeitos nocivos para a nutrição animal. Face aos efeitos indesejáveis do nível mais elevado de LRU, a dose L1 (12 t/ha seria a recomendável.Sewage sludge (SS application to soils reserved for pastures, still scarcely used in the country, often contributes to improve organic matter (O.M. and some plant nutrient contents and to reduce the erosion risk, by increasing the soil vegetation cover. However, the occasional occurrence in SS of high levels of heavy metals, organic pollutant compounds, and pathogenic organisms restrict the SS rate to apply and makes indispensable their control in the soils to which they were applied. Also, the high nitrogen concentration often present in SS can inhibit the symbiotic rhizobium activity, with sequent damage in the leguminous species survival in grassland. In this work, dry matter yield, floristic composition, and copper (Cu concentration in the plant biomass were evaluated, in two successive years of a field experiment with a sown pasture mixture, established in a poor Haplic Luvisol in the Mértola region. A biologically treated SS from Évora, rich in Cu, was applied. The evolution in the topsoil of the O.M., some plant nutrients, and aqua regia extractable Cu concentrations

  15. Mineralogy and metals speciation in Mo rich mineral sludges generated at a metal recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Joussein, E; Labanowski, J; Lens, P N L; van Hullebusch, E D

    2015-04-01

    In France, more than 250 million metric tons of sludges need to be treated each year. These sludges are either dumped on the landfills or reused as secondary resources in order to preserve natural resources. A large portions of these sludges are mineral sludges, originating from metal recycling plants. In order to estimate their metal recovery potential, these mineral sludges were characterized. Four types of mineral sludge samples were collected from a metal recycling plant (3 from the recycling plant storage areas (bulk storage, barrel storage and storage shed) and 1 from the collection basin). The sludges were characterized, wherein the Mo, Ni, Cr, Co, Zn and W content and speciation were quantified. The samples had pH values between 5.9 and 10.3 with organic matter contents varying between 6.3% (storage shed) and 29.5% (bulk storage) (loss on ignition at 500 °C). Based on their leaching properties, the four mineral sludge samples (in the case of Mo) and the bulk storage sludge (in the case of Ni and Zn) were classified as potentially hazardous regarding the EN 12457-1 and EN 12457-2 method. Mineralogical results reveal that both bulk storage and the storage shed give the highest contributions to the metal content of the collection basin sample. Sequential extraction of the collection basin samples indicated that Mo is bound to the oxidizable and residual fraction, while Ni, Cr and Co were bound to the residual fraction, and Zn to the soluble acid fraction, respectively. W tends to be equally distributed among all extracted fractions. A strong correlation existed between Mo and Co, as well as between Ni, Zn and Cr, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned

  17. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241 C 204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2007-05-23

    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct 90Sr values in Chapter 3. The changes were made on page 3.9, paragraph two and Table 3.10; page 3.16, last paragraph on the page; and Tables 3.21 and 3.31. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in October 2004. This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Treatment of radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.; Payne, B.J.; Pegler, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sludge e.g. that which may accumulate in irradiated nuclear fuel element storage ponds, is treated by pumping it from a settling tank to a particle separator, conveniently a hydrocyclone and a sloping plate separator, the liquid being returned to the settling tank and the solids being metered into a drum pre-lined with dry cement. The drums are in a containment box in which they are transferred to a mixing station where the particles and cement are mixed and thence to a curing station. After curing the drums are embedded in cement in outer containers for transport to a long-term storage site. (author)

  1. Activated sludge filterability and full-scale membrane bioreactor operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeminski, P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite continuous developments in the field of MBR technology, membrane fouling together with the associated energy demand and related costs issues remain major challenges. The efficiency of the filtration process in an MBR is governed by the activated sludge filterability, which is still limitedly

  2. Change in re-use value of incinerated sewage sludge ash due to chemical extraction of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Qi-Ming; Fang, Le; Xue, Qiang; Cheeseman, C R; Donatello, Shane; Liu, Lei; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-04-01

    The potential of six different extractants to recover phosphorus (P) from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) was evaluated. Secondary effects such as the co-dissolution of Zn and Cu were also considered. The residual ISSA from each study was assessed in particular detail, focusing on the leachability of remaining Zn and Cu, major element composition, crystalline phases and overall degree of crystallinity and particle size distribution. The residual ISSA was also evaluated as a pozzolanic material using a Strength Activity Index (SAI) test with mortars containing Portland cement with a 20% substitution by ISSA. All results were compared to tests with untreated ISSA. Overall, the use of 3 of the 6 extractants could be ruled out due to poor P recovery potential and/or a serious compromise of the potential reuse of residual ISSA in Portland cement-based materials. The results highlight the added value of considering the potential reuse of residual ISSA when trying to optimize P recovery from ISSA by wet methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludges on biogas production and sludge quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharaply, Athapol; Parkpian, Preeda; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2007-06-01

    potassium (K) 0.95-0.96%. The heavy metals, chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) remaining in digested sludge were present at relatively high levels (Cr 1,849-4,230 and Cu 930-2,526 mg/kg dried sludge). The metals were present as organic matter-bound and sulfide-bound fractions that are not soluble and available. The digested sludge could be safely applied to soil as a plant nutrient source, without fecal coliforms or heavy metals risk. A sludge mixture ratio of 25:75 (sewage:brewery), which generated the higher nutrient concentrations (N=4.22%, P=3.20% and K=0.95%), biogas production and treatment efficiency meet the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) safety guidelines required for agricultural application. Biogas production and methane at the 25:75 ratio (sewage:brewery) yielded highest amount of VSremoved (0.65 m3/kg) and CODremoved (220 L/kg), respectively.

  4. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Kolat; Zdeněk Kadlec

    2013-01-01

    The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energ...

  5. Treatment of urban sludge by hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiwei; Jiang, Enchen

    2017-08-01

    Urban sludge was treated by Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). The effect of hydrothermal carbonization temperature, mixing with or without catalysts on solid products yield, heavy metal contents, turbidity and COD value was evaluated. The result showed solid products yield decreased from 92.04% to 52.65% when the temperature increased from 180 to 300°C. And the Cu, Zn, and Pb contents under exchangeable states decreased and reached discharge standard. Addition of FeCl 3 or Al(OH) 3 resulted in a significant increase in the exchangeable states of Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cd and decrease in their residual states. The turbidity and COD value of hydrothermal liquid decreased from 450° to 175°, and 13 to 6.8g/L, with increasing hydrothermal temperature. Comparison with HTC, solid productivity from low-temperature pyrolysis is higher. The exchangeable states of Cu, Zn, and Cr exceeded the limiting values. Our results show HTC can facilitate transforming urban sludge into no-pollution and energy-rich products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ferrocyanide safety program: An assessment of the possibility of ferrocyanide sludge dryout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Fauske, H.K.; Dickinson, D.R.; Crippen, M.D.; McCormack, J.D.; Cash, R.J.; Meacham, J.E.; Simmons, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    Much attention has been focused on the Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tanks as a results of problems that have been envisioned for them. One problem is the potential chemical reaction between ferrocyanide precipitate particles and nitrates in the absence of water. This report addresses the question of whether dryout of a portion of ferrocyanide sludge would render it potentially reactive. Various sludge dryout mechanisms were examined to determine if any of them could occur. The mechanisms are: (1) bulk heating of the entire sludge inventory to its boiling point; (2) loss of liquid to the atmosphere via sludge surface evaporation; (3) local drying by boiling in a hot spot region; (4) sludge drainage through a leak in the tank wall; and (5) local drying by evaporation from a warm segment of surface sludge. From the simple analyses presented in this report and more detailed published analyses, it is evident that global loss of water from bulk heating of the sludge to its boiling point or from surface evaporation and vapor transport to the outside air is not credible. Also, from the analyses presented in this report and experimental and analytical work presented elsewhere, it is evident that formation of a dry local or global region of sludge as a result of tank leakage (draining of interstitial liquid) is not possible. Finally, and most importantly, it is concluded that formation of dry local regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hot spots or warm surface regions is not possible. The conclusion that local or global dryout is incredible is consistent with four decades of waste storage history, during which sludge temperature have gradually decreased or remained constant and the sludge moisture content has been retained. 54 refs

  7. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  8. Thermogravimetric analysis of co-combustion between microalgae and textile dyeing sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Ma, Xiaoqian; Xu, Zhibin

    2015-03-01

    The synergistic interaction and kinetics of microalgae, textile dyeing sludge and their blends were investigated under combustion condition by thermogravimetric analysis. The textile dyeing sludge was blended with microalgae in the range of 10-90wt.% to investigate their co-combustion behavior. Results showed that the synergistic interaction between microalgae and textile dyeing sludge improved the char catalytic effect and alkali metals melt-induced effect on the decomposition of textile dyeing sludge residue at high temperature of 530-800°C. As the heating rate increasing, the entire combustion process was delayed but the combustion intensity was enhanced. The lowest average activation energy was obtained when the percentage of microalgae was 60%, which was 227.1kJ/mol by OFW and 227.4kJ/mol by KAS, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt

    1998-12-11

    Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

  10. The influence of clay fineness upon sludge recycling in a ceramic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szőke, A. M.; Muntean, M.; Sándor, M.; Brotea, L.

    2016-04-01

    The feasibility of sludge recycling in the ceramic manufacture was evaluated through laboratory testing. Such residues have similar chemical and mineralogical composition with the raw mixture of the green ceramic body used in construction. Several ceramic masses with clay and various proportion of sludge have been synthesized and then characterized by their physical-mechanical properties. The fineness of the clay, the main component of the green ceramic body, has been considered for every raw mixture. The proportion of the sludge waste addition depends on the clay fineness and the sintering capacity also, increases with the clay fineness. The ceramic properties, particularly, the open porosity, and mechanical properties, in presence of small sludge proportion (7, 20%) shows small modification. The introduction of such waste into building ceramic matrix (bricks, tiles, and plates) has a very good perspective.

  11. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Fedoseev, A.M.; Budantseva, N.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Yusov, A.B.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Charushnikova, I.A.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.; Lapitskaya, T.S.; Makarenkov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium(III)solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH) 4 - through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported

  12. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  13. Influence of agronomic amendments on the fate of bound methyl parathion residues in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, Z.; Helling, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    The fate of [ring- 14 C] methyl parathion in a silt loam soil was monitored during a 49-day incubation period. At this point, 54% of the initial 14 C remained in the soil; of this, 13% was extractable with MeOH and 87% was bound residue. Soils were then treated with inorganic and organic amendments and incubated an additional 70 days. Release of methyl parathion bound residues could not be demonstrated, but mineralization of both bound and extractable 14 C to 14 CO 2 was seen. Slow, continuous production of CO 2 , all at comparable rates, occurred with the controls and with amendments H 2 SO 4 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , NH 4 OH, chitin, oat seedlings, and oat straw. Glucose and asparagine caused high rates of 14 CO 2 production. HgCl 2 gave very high initial rates of 14 CO 2 loss; the rate declined to that of the control only after 9-10 weeks. The lime treatment exceeded the controls after 1 week, declining only slightly with time. The effects of sewage sludge and dairy manure were similar to the controls except that: (a) sludge caused a very high initial loss of 14 CO 2 , and (b) both treatments gave an unaccountable loss of 14 C, perhaps as 14 CH 4 from anaerobic conditions. By 70 days, levels of extractable 14 C and bound 14 C had both declined twice as rapidly in certain amended soils as in unamended controls. (author)

  14. Co-pelletization of sewage sludge and agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ersel; Wzorek, Małgorzata; Akçay, Selin

    2017-09-21

    This paper concerns the process of production and properties of pellets based on biomass wastes. Co-pelletization was performed for sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant and other biomass material such as animal and olive wastes. The aim of the present study was to identify the key factors affecting on the sewage sludge and agricultural residues co-pelletization processes conditions. The impact of raw material type, pellet length, moisture content and particle size on the physical properties was investigated. The technic and technological aspects of co-pelletization were discussed in detail. The physical parameters of pellets, i.e.: drop strength, absorbability and water resistance were determined. Among others, also energy parameters: low and high heat value, content of ash and volatiles were presented. Results showed the range of raw materials moisture, which is necessary to obtain good quality biofuels and also ratio of sewage sludge in pelletizing materials. The analysis of the energetic properties has indicated that the pellet generated on the basis of the sewage sludge and another biomass materials can be applied in the processes of co-combustion with coal. Those biofuels are characterised with properties making them suitable for use in thermal processes and enabling their transport and storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The prospect of hazardous sludge reduction through gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakiki, R.; Wikaningrum, T.; Kurniawan, T.

    2018-01-01

    Biological sludge generated from centralized industrial WWTP is classified as toxic and hazardous waste based on the Indonesian’s Government Regulation No. 101/2014. The amount of mass and volume of sludge produced have an impact in the cost to manage or to dispose. The main objective of this study is to identify the opportunity of gasification technology which can be applied to reduce hazardous sludge quantity before sending to the final disposal. This preliminary study covers the technical and economic assessment of the application of gasification process, which was a combination of lab-scale experimental results and assumptions based on prior research. The results showed that the process was quite effective in reducing the amount and volume of hazardous sludge which results in reducing the disposal costs without causing negative impact on the environment. The reduced mass are moisture and volatile carbon which are decomposed, while residues are fix carbon and other minerals which are not decomposed by thermal process. The economical simulation showed that the project will achieve payback period in 2.5 years, IRR value of 53 % and BC Ratio of 2.3. The further study in the pilot scale to obtain the more accurate design and calculations is recommended.

  16. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates

  17. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  18. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2007-05-23

    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct values in Section 3.4.1.7, second paragraph, last sentence; 90Sr values in Tables 3.22 and 3.32; and 99Tc values Table 4.3 and in Chapter 5. In addition, the tables in Appendix F were updated to reflect corrections to the 90Sr values. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in May 2005. CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contam¬inants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  19. Steam generator sludge removal apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, B.W.; Werner, C.E.; Klahn, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to equipment for cleaning steam generators and in particular to a high pressure fluid lance for cleaning sludge off the steam generator tubes away from an open tube lane. 6 figs

  20. Irradiation of municipal sludge for agricultural use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Scott B.

    Research has demonstrated that irradiation is an effective means for reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where sludge reuse in public areas meets criteria for protection of the public health. Complementary research has demonstrated the value of the irradiated sludge in both agronomic and animal science applications. The benefits of sludge application to cropland are well documented. The irradiation process does not increase the extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals from sludge-amended soils. However, it does eliminate the hazards associated with pathogen contamination when applying sludge to agricultural land. Irradiated sludge has also been evaluated as a supplemental foodstuff for cattle and sheep. The data indicate that products derived from raw sewage may have a substantial nutritive value for ruminant animals. Irradiation of sewage sludge is a practical means of sludge disinfection. Where a highly disinfected sludge is required, it should be considered as a viable sludge management alternative. Evaluation of sludge irradiation technology and its associated costs must be done with consideration of other sludge treatment processes to develop an acceptable sludge management system.

  1. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  2. Arsenic in an alkaline AMD treatment sludge: Characterization and stability under prolonged anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; Fiset, Jean-Francois; Poirier, Glenn; Ablett, James

    2010-01-01

    Lime treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates large volumes of neutralization sludge that are often stored under water covers. The sludge consists mainly of calcite, gypsum and a widespread ferrihydrite-like Fe phase with several associated species of metal(loid) contaminants. The long-term stability of metal(loid)s in this chemically ill-defined material remains unknown. In this study, the stability and speciation of As in AMD sludge subjected to prolonged anoxic conditions is determined. The total As concentration in the sludge is 300 mg kg -1 . In the laboratory, three distinct water cover treatments were imposed on the sludge to induce different redox conditions (100%N 2 , 100%N 2 + glucose, 95%N 2 :5%H 2 ). These treatments were compared against a control of oxidized, water-saturated sludge. Electron micro-probe (EMP) analysis and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) results indicate that As is dominantly associated with Fe in the sludge. In all treatments and throughout the experiment, measured concentrations of dissolved As were less than 5 μg L -1 . Dissolved Mn concentration in the N 2 + glucose treatment increased significantly compared to other treatments. Manganese and As K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses showed that Mn was the redox-active element in the solid-phase, while As was stable. Arsenic(V) was still the dominant species in all water-covered sludges after 9 months of anoxic treatments. In contrast, Mn(IV) in the original sludge was partially reduced into Mn(II) in all water-covered sludges. The effect was most pronounced in the N 2 + glucose treatment, suggesting microbial reduction. Micro-scale SXRF and XANES analysis of the treated sludge showed that Mn(II) accumulated in areas already enriched in Fe and As. Overall, the study shows that AMD sludges remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions. External sources of chemical reductants or soluble C were needed to induce

  3. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  4. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  5. Vermistabilization of sewage sludge (biosolids) by earthworms: converting a potential biohazard destined for landfill disposal into a pathogen-free, nutritive and safe biofertilizer for farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajiv K; Herat, Sunil; Bharambe, Gokul; Brahambhatt, Ashish

    2010-10-01

    Earthworms feed readily upon sludge components, rapidly converting them into vermicompost, reduce the pathogens to safe levels and ingest the heavy metals. Volume is significantly reduced from 1 m³ of wet sludge (80% moisture) to 0.5 m³ of vermicompost (30% moisture). Earthworms have real potential both to increase the rate of aerobic decomposition and composting of organic matter and also to stabilize the organic residues in the sludge--removing the harmful pathogens (by devouring them and also by discharge of antibacterial coelomic fluid) and heavy metals (by bio-accumulation). They also mineralize the essential nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the sludge. It may not be possible to remove toxic substances completely, but at least change the 'chemical make-up' of the sludge to make it harmless to the soil and enable its use as a nutritive organic fertilizer. This method has been found to comply with grade A standards for sludge stabilization.

  6. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  7. Influence of the application of sewage sludge on the degradation of pesticides in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M E; Estrada, I B; Martínez, O; Martín-Villacorta, J; Aller, A; Morán, A

    2004-11-01

    A study was made of the influence of the application of sewage sludge on the degradation of pesticides in the soil. Two kinds of sludge were used, with different characteristics, one from an urban treatment plant and one from a food processing plant. Three organophosphorus insecticides, fenitrothion, diazinon and dimethoate, were studied. The relative importance was determined of the chemical and biological degradation processes, which involved experiments on soil and sterile soil samples. A comparative study was also made of the degradation of pesticide residues and the evolution of the microbial population. The application of sludge seems to have a complex effect on the degradation of pesticides, determined by the bioavailability and biodegradability of their active ingredient. The biodegradation of pesticide residues brings about alterations in the microorganism population of the soil. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Change in microflora of sewage sludge by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Takehisa, Masaaki; Iizuka, Hiroshi.

    1983-01-01

    Total bacteria of activated dewatered sludge cake of Takasaki city which amounted to 2 x 10 9 per gram diminished rapidly with the radiation dose, but slowly after 0.5 Mrad, and 10 3 per gram survived even after 10 Mrad irradiation. However, coliforms which amounted to 8 x 10 7 per gram were inactivated below 0.5 Mrad irradiation. The predominant bacteria in non-irradiated sludge were Pseudomonas cepacia and it mainly survived up to 2 Mrad, but Bacillus were predominant at 0.5 to 0.7 Mrad irradiation. The main residual flora from 2 to 5 Mrad was composed of Pseudomonas soranacearum, P. cepacia and P. delafieldii, and the main residual flora in more than 5 Mrad irradiated sludge was P. flava. These typical strains of Pseudomonas in phosphate buffer were radiation sensitive, and their D 10 values were from 0.005 to 0.021 Mrad under aerobic irradiation conditions. (author)

  9. Development of a process for radiation disinfection and composting of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Waichiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1985-05-01

    Radiation disinfection of sewage sludge and composting of the irradiated sludge were studied for a purpose of their safe land application from a viewpoint of environment protection and beneficial utilization of resources. Seasonal changes of total bacterial number and coliform number in sludge cake, those of the dose required for disinfection and the regrowth of bacteria after disinfection were examined. Determination of residual bacteria werealso carried out. The dose for disinfection of coliform was 0.3-0.5 Mrad(3-5 kGy). Fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH, pressure, buking agent and seeds, were studied in addition to continuation and scale-up of the process for aerobic fermentation of irradiated sludge for a purpose of shortening the period for primary fermentation. And conditions for maintaining high oxygen permeability of sludge and deordorization were also investigated. The optimum conditions for composting were shown to be near 7 for pH, 50 0 C for temperature. Composting in a continuous process was studied based on microbiological rate expressions, and it was shown that the composting rate could be estimated from batch-experimental data. Composting in a large scale was investigated by using a small scale fermentor and a computer, and was estimated to have the same rate as in a small scale, when the fermentation conditions were maintained at the optimum. It was also shown that the diameter of sludge grain should be less than about 5 mm to obtain high oxygen permeability of sludge and maintain the fast rate in isothermal composting, and that the evolution of anmonia which is an index of ill-smell would also cease within 3 days under the optimum conditions. The products obtained in the isothermal composting of irradiated sludge were shown to be almost the same as those by usual composting processes using nonirradiated sludges. (J.P.N.)

  10. Preparation of lightweight concretes with sewage sludge ash and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Young

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge results from the accumulation of solids from the unit processes of chemical coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation during wastewater treatment. Rapid urbanization in many areas of the world has resulted in a drastic increase of sewage sludge. More than two million tons of sewage sludge resulted from the treatment of urban sewage is produced annually in Korea. The majority of sewage sludge is disposed of conventionally by the landfill or ocean disposal method, both of which create severe environmental pollution. However, increasingly stringent environmental regulations and scarcity of landfill sites have posed disposal problems of sludge. Incineration is a viable alternative providing a means of sludge stabilization resulting in a reduced volume of sterile, odorless and practically inert residue. Accordingly, the development of environment friendly treatment technique of SSA (sewage sludge ash) inevitably produced during incineration of sewage sludge may be urgently required. For this aim, an attempt to manufacture the lightweight concrete has been made using sewage sludge ash and the physical properties have been determined in terms of specific gravity, compressive strength and thermal conductivity. As a result, the density of specimen prepared with SSA was ranged from 0.6 to 1.4g/ cm 3 and the compressive strength was ranged from 20 to 40kg/ cm 2 . As far as the thermal conductivity of specimen was concerned, it was ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 W/ mK depending on material composition which was far less than that of concrete. It was concluded that the lightweight concretes prepared with SSA could be applicable to building or construction materials such as insulation board and sound absorption material. (author)

  11. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soybean yield and chemical attributes in soil after five-year surface application of slag, aqueous lime and sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Büll, Leonardo Theodoro; Freitag, Elisa Eni; Corrêa, Juliano Corulli; Fernandes, Dirceu Maximino

    2008-01-01

    The agricultural use of industrial residues and sewage sludge in order to provide essential nutrients to a plant and soil liming, will be one of the most promising alternative options of soil fertilization and liming management in a very near future, as far as these applications follow the prevailing technical norms to prevent eventual environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of slag, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone, under surface app...

  13. Water pollution control. Sewage sludges processing; Lutte contre la pollution des eaux. Traitements des boues d'epuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelin, E.

    1999-04-01

    The today environmental policy leads the industrial to better control their wastes. In this context, the author deals with the industrial liquid wastes and especially with sewage sludges after residual industrial water processing. The first part presents the sludges physical, chemical and rheological characteristics according to the different industries. The second part deals with the volume and olfactive nuisances reduction processes. (A.L.B.)

  14. Characterization of sludge generated from the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with tannin-based coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taluana Delakis Recanello

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the sludge resulting from the leachate treatment generated at sanitary landfill with tannin-based coagulant, denominated Tanfloc SG® supplied by TANAC SA Company. The effluent treatment was performed at pH 7.4 and [Tanfloc SG] = 2700 mg/L, considered as optimum condition in COD and turbidity removal, however. Metal fractionation chemical analyses were done through simple and sequential extractions, with results indicating the solid residue is constituted by 29% of amorphous oxide, 28% of final residue, 22% of crystalline oxide and 21% of exchangeable fraction. The leaching tests have shown the sludge originated by Tanfloc SG® treatment is classified as Class I residue - considered dangerous, according to Brazilian legislation (NBR 10.004/2004 - ABNT, indicating that such residues need to be treated and must be disposed in industrial landfills, for being a hazardous material due to its toxicity.

  15. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  16. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The

  17. Treatment of the oily waste sludges through thermal plasma in absence of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda J, G.; Pacheco S, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares. Laboratorio de Aplicaciones de Plasmas Termicos. Apdo. Postal 18-1027. C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The thermal plasma process in absence of oxygen for the degradation of oily waste sludges was evaluated. These residues are commonly generated in the petrochemical industry and are considered hazardous wastes according to the present environmental regulations. The process was operated using difference residence times and the characteristics of the gaseous by products and residual soils were determined. The efficiency of organic matter degradation was 99.99%. The attained volume reduction, under the best conditions was 95.5%. The residual soils were composed of carbon and clays. The residual gases have low molecular weight. The resulting final wastes were non-hazardous and could be disposed of in landfills. (Author)

  18. Soluble carbon in oxisol under the effect of organic residue rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lúcia Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic residues to the soil can increase soluble organic carbon (SOC and affect the pH and electrolytic conductivity (EC of the soil. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of residue and the applied dose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing C rates contained in organic residue on the pH, EC, water-extractable total carbon (WETC, water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC, and water-extractable inorganic carbon (WEIC in soil treated with manure (chicken, swine, and quail, sawdust, coffee husk, and sewage sludge. The levels of total C (TC- KH2PO4, organic carbon (OC- KH2PO4, and inorganic C (IC- KH2PO4 extractable by a 0.1 mol L-1 KH2PO4 solution were also quantified in soil under the effect of increasing rates of chicken and quail manures. The following rates of organic residue C were applied to a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol sample: 0, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 mg kg-1. The addition of organic residues to the soil increased pH, except in the case of sewage sludge, which acidified the soil. The acidity correction potential of chicken and quail manure was highest, dependent on the manure rate applied; regardless of the dose used, sawdust barely alters the soil pH. At all tested rates, the EC of the soil treated with swine manure, coffee husk, and sawdust remained below 2.0 dS m-1, which is a critical level for salinity-sensitive crops. However, the application of chicken or quail manure and sewage sludge at certain rates increased the EC to values above this threshold level. Highest levels of WETC, WEOC, and WEIC were obtained when chicken and quail manure and coffee husk were applied to the Oxisol. The quantities of SOC extracted by KH2PO4 were higher than the quantities extracted by water, demonstrating the ability of soil to adsorb C into its colloids.

  19. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  20. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2004-10-28

    This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy

  2. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  3. Fractionation and business potential from sludge - Pafrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, H.; Groenroos, A.; Pirkonen, P. (VTT Tecchnical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: hanna.kyllonen@vtt.fi; Maekinen, L.; Aemmaelae, A.; Niinimaeki, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)), Email: liisa.makinen@oulu.fi

    2010-10-15

    Wastewater sludges contain valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aimed with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generate potential business ideas, which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Primary, waste activated, tertiary and deinking sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal waste activated sludge were the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Wood based components and chemical elements have been determined to clarify the raw material potential for biorefineries. Conventional fractionation techniques (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone, belt filter press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge can be fractionated. Correlations of wood based components and dewatering properties have been studied especially for the waste activated sludge. The effects of wood based filter aids were studied on the dewatering properties of waste activated sludge. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. (orig.)

  4. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge: gas production and phosphorus recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acelas Soto, N.Y.; Lopez, D.P.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of the gasification of dewatered sewage sludge in supercritical water (SCW) for energy recovery combined with P-recovery from the solid residue generated in this process was investigated. SCWG temperature (400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C) and residence time (15 min, 30 min, 60

  5. Gaseous emissions from sewage sludge combustion in a moving bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistella, Luciane; Silva, Valdemar; Suzin, Renato C; Virmond, Elaine; Althoff, Chrtistine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2015-12-01

    Substantial increase in sewage sludge generation in recent years requires suitable destination for this residue. This study evaluated the gaseous emissions generated during combustion of an aerobic sewage sludge in a pilot scale moving bed reactor. To utilize the heat generated during combustion, the exhaust gas was applied to the raw sludge drying process. The gaseous emissions were analyzed both after the combustion and drying steps. The results of the sewage sludge characterization showed the energy potential of this residue (LHV equal to 14.5 MJ kg(-1), db) and low concentration of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). The concentration of CO, NOx, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) emitted from the sludge combustion process were lower than the legal limits. The overall sludge combustion and drying process showed low emissions of PCDD/PCDF (0.42 ng I-TEQ N m(-3)). BTEX and PAH emissions were not detected. Even with the high nitrogen concentration in the raw feed (5.88% db), the sludge combustion process presented NOx emissions below the legal limit, which results from the combination of appropriate feed rate (A/F ratio), excess air, and mainly the low temperature kept inside the combustion chamber. It was found that the level of CO emissions from the overall sludge process depends on the dryer operating conditions, such as the oxygen content and the drying temperature, which have to be controlled throughout the process in order to achieve low CO levels. The aerobic sewage sludge combustion process generated high SO2 concentration due to the high sulfur content (0.67 wt%, db) and low calcium concentration (22.99 g kg(-1)) found in the sludge. The high concentration of SO2 in the flue gas (4776.77 mg N m(-3)) is the main factor inhibiting PCDD/PCDF formation. Further changes are needed in the pilot plant scheme to reduce SO2 and particulate matter emissions

  6. Relationship between centrifugation and drying of sludge and the organic halogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Hrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on determination of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX concentration in the digested sludge from the sewage treatment plant and the losses of this component during dewatering and drying of sludge. Drying of the sludge from wastewater treatment plant is not extended too much in Czech Republic. In this work, the AOX are monitored, because AOX is one of the limits restraining use of the sludge on an agricultural land. Another reason is technological demand for using the sludge in cement processing, because chlorine in AOX can cause decrease in a heat transfer effect in a cement kiln. It is clear from the results that both centrifuged and dried sludge from the sewage treatment plant Brno fulfilled limits for using sludge on agriculture land. They can also be composted, in case they meet other requirements. If not, it is a possibility of co-incineration in cement kiln. In such case, limit for total chlorine including the AOX is required too. This limit was not exceeded. Another aim was to calculate a mass balance of AOX during the centrifugation and drying processes. It was found out, that after centrifugation the main part of AOX remained in the centrifuged sludge (96.4 %. The rest was drawn-off with reject water. 60 % of AOX in the reject water were dissolved compounds. A similar situation occurred during the drying process. More than 99 % of AOX was bound in the dried sludge. The air and vaporised water contained such quantity of AOX, which corresponded with the amount of the dust in the air and the amount of particles of sludge in vaporised water.

  7. Long-Term Impact of Field Applications of Sewage Sludge on Soil Antibiotic Resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Ying; McGrath, Steve P; Su, Jian-Qiang; Hirsch, Penny R; Clark, Ian M; Shen, Qirong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-06

    Land applications of municipal sewage sludge may pose a risk of introducing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from urban environments into agricultural systems. However, how the sewage sludge recycling and application method influence soil resistome and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) remains unclear. In the present study, high through-put quantitative PCR was conducted on the resistome of soils from a field experiment with past (between 1994 and 1997) and annual (since 1994) applications of five different sewage sludges. Total inputs of organic carbon were similar between the two modes of sludge applications. Intrinsic soil resistome, defined as the ARGs shared by the soils in the control and sludge-amended plots, consisted of genes conferring resistance to multidrug, β-lactam, Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B (MLSB), tetracycline, vancomycin, and aminoglycoside, with multidrug resistance genes as the most abundant members. There was a strong correlation between the abundance of ARGs and MGE marker genes in soils. The composition and diversity of ARGs in the five sludges were substantially different from those in soils. Considerable proportions of ARGs and MGE marker genes in the sludges attenuated following the application, especially aminoglycoside and tetracycline resistance genes. Annual applications posed a more significant impact on the soil resistome, through both continued introduction and stimulation of the soil intrinsic ARGs. In addition, direct introduction of sludge-specific ARGs into soil was observed especially from ARG-rich sludge. These results provide a better insight into the characteristics of ARG dissemination from urban environment to the agricultural system through sewage sludge applications.

  8. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  9. Wood ash to treat sewage sludge for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    About 90% of the three million tons of wood ash generated in the United States from wood burning facilities is being landfilled. Many landfills are initiated tipping fees and/or restrictions on the disposal of special wastes such as ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of using wood ash to stabilize sewage sludge and (2) the fertilizer and liming value of the sludge/ash mixture on plant response and soil pH. Research showed that wood ash, when mixed with sludge, will produce a pH above 12.0, which meets US EPA criteria for pathogen reduction for land application on non-direct food chain crops. Different ratios of wood ash to sludge mixtures were tested and the 1:1 ratio (by weight) was found to be optimal. Five replications of wood ash from four sources were tested for moisture content, pH and fertilizer nutrients. The pH of the ash/sludge mixture (1:1) on day one ranged from 12.4 to 13.2. In most cases the pH remained the same over a 21 day test or only dropped 0.1 to 0.3 units. Analyses of the mixtures showed that heavy metal concentrations (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Zn) were low. The 1:1 ash/sludge mixture had a calcium carbonate equivalency of 17%. Green house pot studies using tall fescue grass were loadings of 300 to 750 pounds per acre of TKN-N than for 500 lb/acre of 10-10-10 commercial fertilizer. Plant tissue analysis showed N, P, K, Ca, and Mg levels to be within the sufficiency range for tall fescue.

  10. Reduction of selenite to elemental selenium nanoparticles by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohan; Matassa, Silvio; Singh, Satyendra; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Total selenium removal by the activated sludge process, where selenite is reduced to colloidal elemental selenium nanoparticles (BioSeNPs) that remain entrapped in the activated sludge flocs, was studied. Total selenium removal efficiencies with glucose as electron donor (2.0 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)) at neutral pH and 30 °C gave 2.9 and 6.8 times higher removal efficiencies as compared to the electron donors lactate and acetate, respectively. Total selenium removal efficiencies of 79 (±3) and 86 (±1) % were achieved in shake flasks and fed batch reactors, respectively, at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations above 4.0 mg L(-1) and 30 °C when fed with 172 mg L(-1) (1 mM) Na2SeO3 and 2.0 g L(-1) COD of glucose. Continuously operated reactors operating at neutral pH, 30 °C and a DO >3 mg L(-1) removed 33.98 and 36.65 mg of total selenium per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) at TSS concentrations of 1.3 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. However, selenite toxicity to the activated sludge led to failure of a continuously operating activated sludge reactor at the applied loading rates. This suggests that a higher hydraulic retention time (HRT) or different reactor configurations need to be applied for selenium-removing activated sludge processes. Graphical Abstract Scheme representing the possible mechanisms of selenite reduction at high and low DO levels in the activated sludge process.

  11. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  12. Leachability of metals from sludge-based artificial lightweight aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.-C. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo, S.-L. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sllo@ccms.ntu.edu.tw; Lee, M.-Y. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Ko, C.-H. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-D. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, S.-C. [Department of Atomic Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-F. [Department of Atomic Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2007-07-19

    Metal sludge from industrial wastewater treatment plants was mixed with mining residues to be recycled into lightweight aggregate (LWA) through sintering at different temperatures. The physical properties of the LWA thus obtained were examined by scanning electron microscopy analyzer (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). The sequential extraction method combined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was employed to determine the concentration and distribution of hazardous toxic elements in the metal sludge-based artificial LWA. The results show that the leaching concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb present in the non-sintered raw aggregate pellets reached 7.4, 68.0, 96.0, and 61.4 mg/l, respectively, far exceeding the regulatory threshold. Sintering at 1150 deg. C for 15 min results in stronger chemical bonds being formed between the elements. Hence, after the first three steps of sequential extraction, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb reached 2.69, 1.50, and 1.88 mg/l at 1150 deg. C, while the final residues had total concentrations of 96.1, 88.4, and 60.6 mg/kg, respectively, with Cd undetected in both phases. The concentration levels fell within the regulatory threshold, indicating that the LWA fabricated from recycled metal sludge contains elements that are toxic and hazardous but not leached. Having no harmful effect on the environment, the metal sludge-based artificial LWA is not only safe but also practical with good physical properties.

  13. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  14. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank. PMID:26350761

  15. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  16. Characterization of sewage sludge generated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and perspectives for agricultural recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Henrique Marques de Abreu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary sewage collection and treatment is a serious environmental problem in Brazilian cities, as well as the destination of solid waste resulting from this process, i.e. the sewage sludge, a substance rich in organic matter and nutrients, which is normally discarded in landfills. The aim of this study was to characterize the sewage sludge generated in four treatment stations in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and check if they meet the legal criteria of the National Environment Council (CONAMA, Resolution No. 375/2006. It also focused on analyzing the perspectives for its agricultural recycling based on the potential demand for main agricultural crops grown in Rio de Janeiro State. Samples from eight sewage sludge lots from four treatment stations located in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. These stations receive and treat only domestic sewage by activated sludge system. For chemical and biological characterization of these lots, representative samples were collected and analyzed according to parameters of CONAMA Resolution No. 375/2006. In order to analyze the perspectives of agricultural recycling of sewage sludge in Rio de Janeiro State, 10 crops with the largest cultivated area in the state were surveyed and analyzed which of them are apt to receive sewage sludge as fertilizer and/or soil amendment. To determine the potential demand for sewage sludge in agriculture, the area occupied by these crops were multiplied by each fertilizer recommendation considering the sewage sludge as fertilizer. The analyzed sludge presented a high content of nutrients and organic matter and was included in the parameters of heavy metals, pathogenic agents, and bacteriological indicators stipulated by CONAMA Resolution No. 375/2006. The agricultural panorama of Rio de Janeiro State is favorable for agricultural recycling of sewage sludge since there is a great potential demand for this residue and, among the 10 agricultural crops with the

  17. Geochemical Testing And Model Development - Residual Tank Waste Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, K.J.; Connelly, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  18. GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

    2010-03-09

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  19. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  20. grown on soil amended with sewage sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Disposal of sewage sludge is the major challenge facing wastewater treatment facilities. Several reports claimed that land application is the best option to manage sludge disposal. However, there is perception that sludge contains heavy metals that are potentially harmful to the living organisms. Thus, the study assessed ...

  1. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  2. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    -rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  3. Fractionation and business potential from sludge (Pafrak)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P.; Kylloenen, H. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Niinimaeki, J.; Oksanen, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    Wastewater sludge contains valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aims with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generation of potential business ideas which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Municipal waste activated sludge and deinking, primary, waste activated and tertiary sludge from pulp and paper industry are the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Dewatering properties, which are one of the key topics, have been studied with a novel flocculation/filtration device. Conventional fractionation equipment (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone. filter belt press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge could be fractionated. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. One of the key issues in future research is how to affect the binding forces between different substances in sludge. (orig.)

  4. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  5. Operator assisted optimization of sludge dewatering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1991-01-01

    On a municipal wastewater treatment plant using a decanter-centrifuge for dewatering of anaerobic digested sludge an operator assisting system for sludge dewatering was developed. The system is based on a database used to collect data on sludge properties and operational conditions which is added...

  6. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  7. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sludge sampling. 61.54 Section 61.54... sampling. (a) As an alternative means for demonstrating compliance with § 61.52(b), an owner or operator... days prior to a sludge sampling test, so that he may at his option observe the test. (c) Sludge shall...

  8. Paper Sludge Reuse in Lightweight Aggregates Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Ji; Hsueh, Ying-Chih; Peng, Ching-Fang; Tang, Chao-Wei

    2016-10-27

    The lightweight aggregates used by the civil engineering market are sintered at a high temperature, about 1200 °C. In times of high energy prices and regulation of carbon dioxide emissions, lightweight aggregate products of the high-temperature process in sales marketing are not readily accepted. This study developed a sintered-type paper sludge lightweight aggregate. In order to reduce energy consumption, substitution of some reservoir sediment clay in paper sludge substitutes is to be expected. The study used two types of paper sludge (green clay paper sludge and paper pulp sludge). The sintering temperature was reduced effectively as the green clay paper sludge was substituted for some of the reservoir sediment clay, and the optimum substitute ranges of green clay paper sludge were 10%-50%. The optimum substitute ranges of the paper pulp sludge were 10%-40%. Test results show that the properties of aggregates have a particle density of 0.66-1.69 g/cm³, a water absorption of 5%-30%, and a loss on ignition of 10%-43%. The loss on ignition of aggregate became greater with the increase in paper sludge content. This means that the calorific value provided by the paper sludge will increase as paper sludge content increases. Paper sludge can therefore be considered a good material to provide heat energy for sintering lightweight aggregate.

  9. Influence of extraction method on size exclusion chromatography fingerprints of EPS from wastewater sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourven, I; Simon, S; Guibaud, G

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were separated using two serial-linked size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns to obtain detailed fingerprints. The chromatographic profile results were influenced by the nature of biological sludge (activated sludges, anaerobic granules, anaerobic flocculated sludges). Furthermore, our results highlight that EPS fingerprints are also highly dependent on the extraction method. If physical extractions modify only the relative absorbance of the chromatographic peaks, heating during extraction induces significant modifications of the fingerprints, probably owing to better organic matter extraction efficiency as well as an increase in hydrolysis for some compounds but not for EPS extracted from anaerobic granular sludges. This confirms that thermal treatment is a proper method to extract EPS from anaerobic granular sludges. The use of chemical extraction results in major changes on the EPS fingerprints. This work demonstrates that some chromatographic peaks are due to residues from the chemical reagent (such as EDTA, glutaraldehyde) which can modify or form complexes with some EPS macromolecules. As a result, due to its sensitivity to sludge origin and/or extraction procedure, SEC appears to be a suitable tool for an accurate qualitative EPS characterization.

  10. Microbiological evaluation of sludge during an improvement process applying the washing technique (selective pressure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, Francisco; Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Gonzalez, Luz Catalina

    2001-01-01

    In this investigation, the microbial consortiums were evaluated by using characterization by trophic groups and related groups by their sensibility to oxygen, as well as the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of an acclimated sludge, starting from an aerobium sludge corning from a residual water treatment plant. Later, the technique of improvement by washing was applicated to this sludge, getting inoculum for the starting of an anaerobic reactor of the kind UASB (treatment reactor). At the same time, a control reactor was operated, inoculated with acclimated sludge. Both reactors were operated during 120 days, using brown sugar as substrate, the experimental phase included dates up to 70 operation days, characterizing the sludge at the end of this period. The SMA was analysed using acetic and formic acids as substrates. The results showed activities between 0,45 and 1,39 g DQO-CH 4 /SSV -d. for both substrates. At the end of the experimental phase of the UASB reactor, the sulphate reducer bacteria from the acetate and the lactate were observed as predominant group, followed by the methanogenic hydrogenophilic bacteria. It is important to notice that, with the application of the sludge washing technique, all the tropic groups were increased, with the exception of the lactate fermentative bacteria

  11. Potential impacts of using sewage sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isidoria Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sewage sludge has long been successfully used in the production of nursery plants; however, some restriction may apply due to its high pathogenic characteristics. The process of charring the organic waste significantly reduces that undesired component and may be as effective as the non-charred residue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on the growth and morphological traits of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus grandis L. seedlings, and compare results with those observed when using uncharred sewage sludge. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. Charred and non-charred sewage sludge were tested with and without NPK addition. A control treatment was also evaluated. Ten weeks old eucalyptus seedlings were transferred to the pots and grew for eight weeks. Chlorophyll content, plant height and stem diameter were measured at 0, 30 and 60 days after transplant. Shoot and root biomass were measured after plant harvest. Dickson Quality Index was calculated to evaluate the overall quality of seedlings. Biochar was effective in improving the seedlings quality, and had similar effects as the non-charred waste. Therefore, sewage sludge biochar has the potential to improve the process of production of forest species seedlings and further reduce the environmental risks associated with the use of non-charred sewage sludge.

  12. PBDEs versus NBFR in wastewater treatment plants: occurrence and partitioning in water and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Cristale

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the occurrence of flame retardants (FR in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located close to Barcelona (NE Spain, an area with high urban and industrial pressures. Compounds studied include eight polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs and eight New Brominated Flame Retardants (NBFRs, for which little information regarding their presence, partitioning and fate within the WWTPs is available. In unfiltered influent samples, PBDEs were not detected and bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyltetrabromophthalate was the only NBFR detected, and all WWTPs were efficient in eliminating this compound as no residues were found in the effluents. However, primary sludge contained from 279 to 2299 ng/g dry weight of ΣFR and the concentration increased in secondary (biological sludge. NBFRs accounted for the main FR detected in sludge, representing a 63-97% of the total load, and among PBDEs, BDE-209 was the most ubiquitous congener. Considering the amount of sludge generated in each WWTP, it was estimated that 0.34-17.2 kg of FR are released annually through the sludge, which can have negative environmental and health implications if sludge is used as biosolid in agriculture. Overall, this study provides a sampling design and analytical protocol to be used to determine the evolution of FR in WWTPs and compares the levels detected, considering that PBDEs are being phased out to be substituted by other compounds which also have high accumulative and recalcitrant properties.

  13. Dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw under mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiangqian; Wu, Guangxue; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Dry anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can recover biogas as energy; however, its low C/N ratio limits it as a single substrate in the anaerobic digestion. Rice straw is an abundant agricultural residue in China, which is rich in carbon and can be used as carbon source. In the present study, the performance of dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw was investigated under mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. The operational factors impacting dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw such as C/N ratio, moisture content, and initial pH were explored under mesophilic conditions. The results show that low C/N ratios resulted in a higher biogas production rate, but a lower specific biogas yield; low moisture content of 65 % resulted in the instability of the digestion system and a low specific biogas yield. Initial pH ranging 7.0-9.0 did not affect the performance of the anaerobic digestion. The C/N ratio of 26-29:1, moisture content of 70-80 %, and pH 7.0-9.0 resulted in good performance in the dry mesophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw. As compared with mesophilic digestion, thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw significantly enhanced the degradation efficiency of the substrates and the specific biogas yield (p sewage sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

  14. Sludge reduction by ozone: Insights and modeling of the dose-response effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C; Silva-Hernández, B C; Hooijmans, C M; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Esparza-Soto, M; Lucero-Chávez, M; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2018-01-15

    Applying ozone to the return flow in an activated sludge (AS) process is a way for reducing the residual solids production. To be able to extend the activated sludge models to the ozone-AS process, adequate prediction of the tri-atoms effects on the particulate COD fractions is needed. In this study, the biomass inactivation, COD mineralization, and solids dissolution were quantified in batch tests and dose-response models were developed as a function of the reacted ozone doses (ROD). Three kinds of model-sludge were used. S1 was a lab-cultivated synthetic sludge with two components (heterotrophs X H and X P ). S2 was a digestate of S1 almost made by the endogenous residues, X P . S3 was from a municipal activated sludge plant. The specific ozone uptake rate (SO 3 UR, mgO 3 /gCOD.h) was determined as a tool for characterizing the reactivity of the sludges. SO 3 UR increased with the X H fraction and decreased with more X P . Biomass inactivation was exponential (e -β.ROD ) as a function of the ROD doses. The percentage of solids reduction was predictable through a linear model (C Miner  + Y sol ROD), with a fixed part due to mineralization (C Miner ) and a variable part from the solubilization process. The parameters of the models, i.e. the inactivation and the dissolution yields (β, 0.008-0.029 (mgO 3 /mgCOD ini ) -1 vs Y sol , 0.5-2.8 mg COD sol /mgO 3 ) varied in magnitude, depending on the intensity of the scavenging reactions and potentially the compactness of the flocs for each sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. STABILIZATION OF ACTIVE SLUDGE AFTER WASTEWATER TREATMENT CONTAMINATED BY PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Semenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biochemical purification of wastewater containing refined petroleum products takes place due to the oxidation of pollutants by active sludge organisms. As a result of this process the intense consumption of pollutants by active sludge and its growth occurs. Therefore, the possibility to use active sludge containing refined petroleum products after wastewater treatment requires its stabilization. Methods: In this work the oxidation by a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution was studied for its use as a stabilizer. Chemical oxidizers, including hydrogen peroxide destroy organic polymers retaining free water thus promoting water release from the structure of sludge particles. On the other hand remains of fine structured oxidized biopolymers can lead to filter clogging, that is, reduce moisture exchange of sludge. Results: The experiment was carried out to find out the correlation between the doses of hydrogen peroxide and the resistivity value of sludge filtration. Discussion: Stabilized active sludge can be used as a fuel for boiler rooms, which in its turn will reduce natural gas consumption for the enterprise needs.

  16. Engineering Work Plan for Development of Sludge Pickup Adapter for Fuel Cleanliness Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The plan for developing an adapter to suction up sludge into a calibrated tube for fuel cleanliness inspection activities is described. A primary assessment of fuel cleanliness to be performed after processing through the Primary Cleaning Machine is whether the volume of any remaining canister sludge in or on a fuel assembly exceeds the allowable 14 cm 3 limit. It is anticipated that a general visual inspection of the sludge inventory after fuel assembly separation will usually suffice in making this assessment, but occasions may arise where there is some question as to whether or not the observed quantity of sludge exceeds this limit. Therefore a quantitative method of collecting and measuring the sludge volume is needed for these borderline situations. It is proposed to develop an adapter that fits on the end of the secondary cleaning station vacuum wand that will suction the material from the sludge collection tray into a chamber marked with the limiting volume to permit a direct go/no-go assessment of the sludge quantity

  17. INFLUENCE OF SLUDGE RECIRCULATION ON NUTRIENT REMOVAL IN SUBMERGED MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Casamitjanaa Causa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane bioreactors (MBR technology is a well-developed wastewater treatment process; however, the integrated operation between biological reactions and physical filtration has been poorly studied. Among other operational parameters, optimal control of sludge recirculation can enhance nitrogen and phosphorous removal processes, but the effects on sludge filterability is not clear. In this paper, different recirculation flow rates were tested to evaluate consequences on sludge filterability and nutrient removal in a MBR-UCT pilot plant treating real municipal wastewater. Three distinct sludge recirculation flows were studied during 10 weeks [external recirculation (from the membrane tank to the anoxic reactor, anoxic recirculation (from the aerobic to the anoxic reactor and anaerobic recirculation (from the anoxic to the anaerobic reactor]. The obtained results have shown that anaerobic recirculation affected nutrient removal in an inversely proportional way, whereas anoxic recirculation had a directly proportional effect. Referring sludge characteristics, filterability and capillarity suction time (CST remained independent of sludge recirculation, whereas CST is proportional to transmembrane pressure (TMP, which seems to depend on external and anoxic sludge recirculation.

  18. A review on alum sludge reuse with special reference to agricultural applications and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, K B; Jayasinghe, G Y; Surapaneni, A; Hetherington, C

    2015-04-01

    Alum salts are commonly used in the water industry to promote coagulation in the production of clean drinking water, which results in the generation and accumulation of 'waste' by-product 'alum sludge' in large volumes. Effective and efficient management of alum sludge in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner remains a significant social and environmental concern with ever increasing demand for potable water as a result of rapidly escalating world population and urban expansion. Various intensive practices have been employed to reuse the alum sludge in an attempt to figure out how to fill the gap between successful drinking water treatment process and environmentally friendly alum sludge management for over the years. This paper primarily aimed at comprehensive review of the existing literature on alum sludge characteristics, its environmental concerns and their potential utilization, especially in agricultural and horticultural sectors leading to update our recent state of knowledge and formulate a compendium of present and past developments. Different types of alum sludge utilizations in various fields were recognized and examined. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and potential risks of alum sludge reuse options with particular reference to agriculture were highlighted and knowledge gaps were identified. Research priorities and future challenges that will support in the development of effective alumsludgemanagement practices in agriculture with multi-prong strategies were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fate and distribution of pharmaceuticals in wastewater and sewage sludge of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) and advanced membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, Jelena; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damià

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we report on the performances of full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment and two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in eliminating various pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) belonging to different therapeutic groups and with diverse physico-chemical properties. Both aqueous and solid phases were analysed for the presence of 31 pharmaceuticals included in the analytical method. The most ubiquitous contaminants in the sewage water were analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen (14.6-31.3 microg/L) and acetaminophen (7.1-11.4 microg/L), antibiotic ofloxacin (0.89-31.7 microg/L), lipid regulators gemfibrozil (2.0-5.9 microg/L) and bezafibrate (1.9-29.8 microg/L), beta-blocker atenolol (0.84-2.8 microg/L), hypoglycaemic agent glibenclamide (0.12-15.9 microg/L) and a diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (2.3-4.8 microg/L). Also, several pharmaceuticals such as ibuprofen, ketoprofen, diclofenac, ofloxacin and azithromycin were detected in sewage sludge at concentrations up to 741.1, 336.3, 380.7, 454.7 and 299.6 ng/g dry weight. Two pilot-scale MBRs exhibited enhanced elimination of several pharmaceutical residues poorly removed by the CAS treatment (e.g., mefenamic acid, indomethacin, diclofenac, propyphenazone, pravastatin, gemfibrozil), whereas in some cases more stable operation of one of the MBR reactors at prolonged SRT proved to be detrimental for the elimination of some compounds (e.g., beta-blockers, ranitidine, famotidine, erythromycin). Moreover, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine and diuretic hydrochlorothiazide by-passed all three treatments investigated. Furthermore, sorption to sewage sludge in the MBRs as well as in the entire treatment line of a full-scale WWTP is discussed for the encountered analytes. Among the pharmaceuticals encountered in sewage sludge, sorption to sludge could be a relevant removal pathway only for several compounds (i.e., mefenamic acid, propranolol, and loratidine). Especially in the

  20. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  1. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  2. Cleaning IBL secondary sludge in the tubular plate steam generators; IBL Limpieza de lodos en el secundario de la placa tubular de las generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro de Frutos, E.; Gonzalez Carballo, S.

    2012-07-01

    After cleanings Sludge Lancing using 250bar made from the center lane, identifies an area of solidified remaining sludge on the tube plate. Since late 2010, IBERDROLA-SAVAC has developed Inner System Bundle Lancing (IBL), which locally involves shooting a jet of water at high pressure 590bar directly impacting sludge areas within the tube bundle hard to detach and break into small pieces that can be extracted from GV through a closed circuit suction.

  3. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety

  4. Growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Immaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-06-09

    Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piquillo) grown in the greenhouse. Two doses of ATAD (15 and 30% v/v) and three of composted sludge (15, 30, and 45%) were applied to a peat-based potting mix. Unamended substrate was included as control. ATAD and composted sludge increased leaf, shoot, and root dry matter, as well as fruit yield, mainly due to a higher number of fruits per plant. There was no effect of sludge on fruit size (dry matter per fruit and diameter). The concentrations of Zn and Cu in fruit increased with the addition of sewage sludges. Nevertheless, the levels of these elements remained below toxic thresholds. Pepper fruits from sludge-amended plants maintained low concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, thus indicating low pungency level, in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Control Board of "Lodosa Piquillo peppers" Origin Denomination. The application of sludges did not modify the concentration of vitamin C (ASC) in fruit, whereas the highest doses of composted sludge tended to increase the content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, without change in the GSH/GSSG ratio. There were no effects of sludge on the transcript levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of vitamin C, l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) or in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR). Results suggest that the synthesis and degradation of ASC and GSH were compensated for in most of the

  5. Thermophilic versus Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge: A Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew D. Gebreeyessus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During advanced biological wastewater treatment, a huge amount of sludge is produced as a by-product of the treatment process. Hence, reuse and recovery of resources and energy from the sludge is a big technological challenge. The processing of sludge produced by Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs is massive, which takes up a big part of the overall operational costs. In this regard, anaerobic digestion (AD of sewage sludge continues to be an attractive option to produce biogas that could contribute to the wastewater management cost reduction and foster the sustainability of those WWTPs. At the same time, AD reduces sludge amounts and that again contributes to the reduction of the sludge disposal costs. However, sludge volume minimization remains, a challenge thus improvement of dewatering efficiency is an inevitable part of WWTP operation. As a result, AD parameters could have significant impact on sludge properties. One of the most important operational parameters influencing the AD process is temperature. Consequently, the thermophilic and the mesophilic modes of sludge AD are compared for their pros and cons by many researchers. However, most comparisons are more focused on biogas yield, process speed and stability. Regarding the biogas yield, thermophilic sludge AD is preferred over the mesophilic one because of its faster biochemical reaction rate. Equally important but not studied sufficiently until now was the influence of temperature on the digestate quality, which is expressed mainly by the sludge dewateringability, and the reject water quality (chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, and pH. In the field of comparison of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion process, few and often inconclusive research, unfortunately, has been published so far. Hence, recommendations for optimized technologies have not yet been done. The review presented provides a comparison of existing sludge AD technologies and the gaps that need to be filled so

  6. Remaining Calm in the Midst of Chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Ryan, Grant W.; Young, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    At the DOE Hanford site in Washington State, Fluor Hanford, Inc is in the process of developing and, procuring systems to remove and disposition sludge from the 100 Area K Basins. The K Basins were used to store spent fuel from the operating reactors at the Hanford Site. The sludge is a by-product from th corrosion of the fuel and fuel storage canisters. The sludge removal project is very dynamic involving two basins, K East and K West, and has an ambitious schedule for removal and subsequent Basin D and D. The challenge for the safety basis development for this project is how to integrate the analysis with the project schedule and still provide the required project design, development, and regulatory (10CFR830) support. During the development of new project/systems, safety analysis activities are used throughout the design phase to assist in identifying design/safety issues before the design is complete. Control allocation and identification processes assist procurement of equipment during the development phase and a PDSA is required to support the decision to proceed with construction/installation. For the K Basins project, all the safety basis development activities need to be done in the context of new and existing facilities/equipment and an existing safety basis for the K Basins. When schedules are demanding and design, procurement, and safety documentation activities must be completed in parallel, it creates complex issues for maintaining the safety basis current. In addition, developing a safety basis that will cover the lifecycle of the facility creates issues when using it to support the necessary short term decisions at the same time as long term planning. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a safety basis strategy to deal with this situation. This paper discusses the strategy developed to deal with the complexity and project schedule issues and the methods for safety analysis development and documentation being used to assist in maintaining some

  7. Protein Recovery from Secondary Paper Sludge and Its Potential Use as Wood Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Muhammad

    Secondary sludge is an essential part of biosolids produced through the waste treatment plant of paper mills. Globally paper mills generate around 3.0 million ton of biosolids and in the absence of beneficial applications, the handling and disposal of this residual biomass poses a serious environmental and economic proposition. Secondary paper sludges were investigated in this work for recovery of proteins and their use as wood adhesive. After identifying extracellular polymeric substances as adhesion pre-cursors through analytical techniques, studies were carried out to optimize protein recovery from SS and its comprehensive characterization. A modified physicochemical protocol was developed to recover protein from secondary sludge in substantial quantities. The combined effect of French press and sonication techniques followed by alkali treatment resulted in significant improvement of 44% in the yield of solubilized protein compared to chemical methods. The characterization studies confirmed the presence of common amino acids in recovered sludge protein in significant quantities and heavy metal concentration was reduced after recovery process. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed the presence of both low and high molecular weight protein fractions in recovered sludge protein. After establishing the proof-of-concept in the use of recovered sludge protein as wood adhesive, the bonding mechanism of protein adhesives with cellulose substrate was further elucidated in a complementary protein-modification study involving soy protein isolate and its glycinin fractions. The results of this study validated the prevailing bonding theories by proving that surface wetting, protein structure, and type of wood play important role in determining final adhesive strength. Recovered sludge protein was also investigated for its compatibility to formulate hybrid adhesive blends with formaldehyde and bio-based polymers. Apart from chemical

  8. SEWAGE SLUDGE AS AN INGREDIENT IN FERTILIZERS AND SOIL SUBSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, sludge management especially in medium and small sewage treatment plants is still a significant problem. According to data from the Central Statistical Office and the report on the implementation of the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program (in polish KPOŚK land application of sewage sludge remains one of the main methods, although there has been considerable interest known: 'application for other purposes ", where the preparation of composts and fertilizers is included. The use of fertilizer produced from sewage sludge (compost, granules, organic and mineral fertilizers, is regulated by the Act on fertilizers and fertilization, and the relevant implementing rules. For example, they define the test procedure (concerning the quality of fertilizers to enable appropriate permissions to market this type of fertilizers. There is still only several technologies existing on the Polish market dedicated to production of fertilizers in advanced technologies of sewage sludge treatment. Usually the treatment plants are trying to obtain the necessary certificates for generated fertilizers (including composts, or soils substitutes. The advantages of these technologies should be no doubt: the loss of waste status, ability to store the fertilizer and unlimited transportation between areas, sanitization of the product (as a result of the use of calcium or sulfur compounds or temperature should be an alternative for drying technology. While the disadvantages are primarily the investment costs and time consuming certification procedures. However, these solutions enable to maintain the organic matter and phosphorus as well as greater control over possible pollution introduced into the soil.

  9. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    /solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...... was approximately the same. Chemical extraction experiments with acidic solutions showed that 5-10 times more Cd could be extracted from decomposed sludge than from fresh sludge. It is likely that the mobilization of Cd during decomposition of the sludge contributes to the efficient removal of Cd...

  10. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  11. Improved waste-activated sludge dewatering using sludge/oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-07

    Oct 7, 2014 ... Conventional dewatering technologies, such as centrifuges, belt filter presses, and rotary vacuum filters, are not effective methods for treating sewage sludge with high water content. This study evaluated the field-scale feasibility of new technologies that use emulsion, ultrasonication, and microwaves to ...

  12. Removal of secondary sludge from steam generators used in French 900 class nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebouc, B.

    1982-09-01

    The objective is to remove magnetite deposits which have formed on a steam generator tubesheet during plant operation. The deposits are separated from the tubesheet by spraying water at high pressure (about 200 bar at lance nozzle outlets) on each tube bundle ligament, i.e. the spaces between steam generator tubes. The water is recovered in suction lines and then filtered in two seperate units. The residue obtained after settling is removed in the form of solid waste. This paper presents the sludge lancing technique (spray lances, sludge recovery, liquid waste, cooling). A typical operating sequence is detailed (duration, personnel). Specifications for the equipment used are given

  13. Filterability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge: impacts of polyelectrolytes and mixing with conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Cinar, Ozer; Kitis, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the filterability of MBR sludge and its mixture with conventional activated sludge (CAS). In addition, the impacts of type and dose of various polyelectrolytes, filter type and sludge properties on the filterability of both MBR and Mixed sludges were determined. Specific cake resistance (SCR) measured by the Buchner funnel filtration test apparatus and the solids content of the resulting sludge cake were used to assess the dewaterability of tested sludges. The type of filter paper used in Buchner tests affected the results of filterability for MBR, CAS and Mixed sludges. SCR values and optimum polyelectrolyte doses increased with increasing MLSS concentrations in the MBR, which suggested that increase in MLSS concentrations accompanied by increases in EPS and SMP concentrations and a shift toward smaller particles caused poorer dewaterability of the MBR sludge. The significant differences observed among the filterability of CAS and MBR sludges suggested that MLSS alone is not a good predictor of sludge dewaterability. Combining CAS and MBR sludges at different proportions generally improved their dewaterability. Combining MBR sludges having typically high MLSS and EPS concentrations with CAS having much lower MLSS concentrations may be an option for full-scale treatment plants experiencing sludge dewaterability problems. Better filterability and higher cake dry solids were achieved with cationic polyelectrolytes compared to anionic and non-ionic ones for all sludge types tested.

  14. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  15. Utilization of alum sludge as chromium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Zulkifli, Muhammad Azmeer Asyraf; Hua, Chua Kok; Jalil, Nurulhidayah Abdul

    2017-09-01

    The amount of alum sludge produced at water treatment plant has become a problem where it is highly costly in order to dispose them. Various research was conducted to find the most suitable and economic alternative to recycle and reused of alum sludge. In this study, alum sludge was retrieved from Waterworks where it was dewatered, dried, grounded and sieved to obtain smallest particle sizes of alum sludge. The synthetic water was prepared at the laboratory in as it was used to imitate the properties of real water contaminated with chromium. This study was conducted to determine the percentage reduction of chromium concentration in synthetic water by using alum sludge as absorbent. The percentage reduction of chromium was observed under the effect of initial concentration of chromium and the height of alum sludge. The result indicates that chromium concentration reduction was the highest at the lowest initial concentration and at the highest height of alum sludge and vice versa.

  16. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  17. Comprehensive utilization of activated sludge for the preparation of hydrolytic enzymes, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and water-retaining organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, He; Fan, Xiao-Min; Guo, Hao-Ning; Liang, Jian-Hua; Li, Qing-Rong; Yang, Liu; Li, Hui; Li, Hai-Hang

    2017-07-03

    The urban wastewater treatment industry produces a large amount of excess activated sludge which is mainly composed of microbial biomass and costly to be disposed. In this research, a comprehensive utilization of activated sludge was developed by sequentially extracting hydrolytic enzymes and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and the residue was used to prepare water-retaining organic fertilizer. The sludge was extracted with fourfold H 2 O-containing 1% Triton X-100 with the yield of 66.7% protease activity. The enzyme solution was precipitated in 80% acetone and vacuum dried at 40°C at the dried enzyme yield of 2.4 g/kg wet sludge. The enzyme product contains collagenase, lipase, amylase, and cellulase activities, which are good compound enzymes to feed. The PHAs were extracted with 30% sodium hypoclorite:chloroform (1:3). The PHA solution was decolored and dried, and pure white PHAs were obtained at the yield of 70.1 g/kg wet sludge. The residue was used to prepare water-retaining organic fertilizer at the optimal condition. The fertilizer absorbs 131.3-fold distilled water and had good performance in water retention and can effectively slow down the loss of soil moisture when added into soil. This work provides a simple and practical approach for comprehensive utilizing activated sludge with significant economic benefits.

  18. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-01-01

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  19. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  20. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    . Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  1. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C

  2. Thermal analysis of kieselguhr sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s currently necessary to clarify the mechanisms of thermodynamic and mass transfer processes in capillary porous media. In this paper we obtain the thermogravimetric curves of evaporation drying kieselguhr sludge. It is also an analysis of the curves, allowing to choose the optimum conditions of drying.

  3. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  4. Hydrogen sulphide removal in the anaerobic digestion of sludge by micro-aerobic processes: pilot plant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdz-Polanco, M; Díaz, I; Pérez, S I; Lopes, A C; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    H(2)S removal from biogas produced in anaerobic digestion of sludge through the introduction of oxygen under micro-aerobic conditions is studied. Research was carried out in two pilot plant reactors (working volume, 200 L each) treating sludge from WWTP with HRT of 20 days. Mixing was provided via sludge or biogas recirculation. Introduction of very low oxygen flow (0.013-0.024 L/L(reactor) d) successfully removed H(2)S content in biogas with an efficiency above 99%. Reactor performance during micro-aerobic operation in terms of biogas production, methane yield and COD removal were not affected by the amount of oxygen supplied, remaining stable and similar to the anaerobic behaviour. Sludge recirculation ( approximately 50 L/h) and biogas recirculation ( approximately 3.5 L/min) as mixing methods were found not significant in H(2)S removal from biogas while biogas recirculation reduced by 10 times dissolved sulphide concentration compared to sludge recirculation.

  5. Hexavalent chromium removal using aerobic activated sludge batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: activated sludge alone; activated sludge with an external electron donor (5 g/. of lactose); activated sludge with PAC addition (4 g/.); activated sludge with both PAC and lactose; and PAC alone. The results reported here showed that activated sludges are capable of ...

  6. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, Agnes Y. [Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., 1471 Lionel-Boulet Boulevard, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1P7 (Canada)]. E-mail: arenoux@sanexen.com; Rocheleau, Sylvie [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sarrazin, Manon [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sunahara, Geoffrey I. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada)]. E-mail: geoffrey.sunahara@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca; Blais, Jean-Francois [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS-ETE), Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne street, Quebec, Quebec G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca

    2007-01-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45 {+-} 0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79 {+-} 0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82 {+-} 1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. - Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on metal bioavailability as measured by metal speciation, toxicity and bioaccumulation.

  7. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, Agnes Y.; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Sarrazin, Manon; Sunahara, Geoffrey I.; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45 ± 0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79 ± 0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82 ± 1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. - Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on metal bioavailability as measured by metal speciation, toxicity and bioaccumulation

  8. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  9. EVALUATION OF FERRIC CHLORIDE AND ALUM EFFICIENCIES IN ENHANCED COAGULATION FOR TOC REMOVAL AND RELATED RESIDUAL METAL CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia, M. T. Rafiee, F. Vaezi and A. H. Mahvi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the removal of colloidal particles continues to be an important reason for using coagulation, a newer objective, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM to reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs, is growing in importance. Enhanced coagulation is thus introduced to most water utilities treating surface water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of alum and ferric chloride in removing DBPs precursors from eight synthetic water samples, each representing a different element of the USEPA’s 3×3 enhanced coagulation matrix. The effect of enhanced coagulation on the residual metal (aluminum/iron concentration in the treated water was assessed as well. The removal of total organic carbon (TOC was dependent on the coagulant type and was enhanced with increasing coagulant dose, but the latter had no further considerable effect in case of increasing to high levels. For all the treated samples coagulation with ferric chloride proved to be more effective than alum at similar doses and the mean values of treatment efficiencies were 51% and 32% for ferric chloride and alum, respectively. Ferric chloride was therefore considered the better chemical for enhancing the coagulation process. Besides, due to less production of sludge by this coagulant, it would be predicted that treatment plants would be confronted to fewer problems with respect to final sludge disposal. Measurements of residual metal in treated water indicated that iron and aluminum concentrations had been increased as expected but the quality of water concerning the residual metal deteriorated much more in cases of under-dosing. Despite expecting high residual Al and Fe concentrations under enhanced coagulation, metal concentrations were frequently remained low and were not increased appreciably.

  10. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  11. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  12. Sequential extraction of heavy metals during composting of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Soumia; Hafidi, Mohamed; Merlina, Georges; Revel, Jean-Claude

    2005-05-01

    The major limitation of soil application of sewage sludge compost is the total heavy metal contents and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system. This study was conducted to determine the heavy metal speciation and the influence of changing the physico-chemical properties of the medium in the course of composting on the concentrations, bioavailability or chemical forms of Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in sewage sludge. Principal physical and chemical properties and FTIR spectroscopical characterization of sludge compost during treatment show the stability and maturity of end product. The total metal contents in the final compost were much lower than the limit values of composts to be used as good soil fertilizer. Furthermore, it was observed by using a sequential extraction procedure in sludge compost at different steps of treatment, that a large proportion of the heavy metals were associated to the residual fraction (70-80%) and more resistant fractions to extraction X-NaOH, X-EDTA, X-HNO3 (12-29%). Less than 2% of metals bound to bioavailable fractions X-(KNO3+H2O). Heavy metal distribution and bioavailability show some changes during composting depending on the metal itself and the physico-chemical properties of the medium. Bioavailable fractions of all elements tend to decrease except Ni-H2O. Zn and mainly Cu present more affinity to organic and carbonate fractions. In contrast, Pb is usually preferentially bound to sulfide forms X-HNO3. Nickel shows a significant decrease of organic form. Significant degrees of correlation were found between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected variables (e.g. pH, ash, organic matter, humic substance) during the course of composting. Mobile fractions of metals are poorly predictable from the total content. The R2 value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as the amount of organic matter (OM) and pH.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for each...

  14. Thermal cracking in charcoal and ceramics of pyrolysis liquid from sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, O. M.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The three products are formed as result of sewage sludge pyrolysis: solid residue, liquid fraction and non-condensable gases. The major product is the pyrolysis liquid (53 wt%). Pyrolysis liquid produced from sewage sludge is studied in present time yet. It has a relatively high calorific value, but it is stratified into fractions, contains a large amount of water and has an acid reaction of the medium, which complicates the process of its energy use. Therefore many researches of pyrolysis process is conducted to avoid producing of liquid fraction and obtain more gas fraction. This paper falls into this studies. To avoid pyrolysis liquid thermal cracking of it is used. The temperature in cracking zone is 1000 °C. The medium for cracking is charcoal and ceramics. In this paper it is presented the mass balances of pyrolysis and pyrolysis with cracking of sewage sludge, comparison of specific volume, degree of energy conversion, composition of gases mixtures obtained.

  15. Response surface methodology for the optimization of sludge solubilization by ultrasonic pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingyue; Zhang, Xiaohui; Lu, Peng; Cao, Qiguang; Yuan, Yuan; Yue, Mingxing; Fu, Yiwei; Wu, Libin

    2018-02-01

    The present study examines the optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment conditions with response surface experimental design in terms of sludge disintegration efficiency (solubilisation of organic components). Ultrasonic pre-treatment for the maximum solubilization with residual sludge enhanced the SCOD release. Optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment was conducted through a Box-Behnken design (three variables, a total of 17 experiments) to determine the effects of three independent variables (power, residence time and TS) on COD solubilization of sludge. The optimal COD was obtained at 17349.4mg/L, when the power was 534.67W, the time was 10.77, and TS was 2%, while the SE of this condition was 28792J/kg TS.

  16. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; LIU,J.; QIAN,M.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies.

  17. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  18. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-08-22

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, D&D requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution.

  19. Co-combustion of sewage sludge; Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft

    1998-09-01

    Thermal sewage disposal pursues the following aims: destruction of organic pollutants contained in the sludge; concentration and removal or almost complete fixation of inorganic pollutants in the residue matrix; minimisation of the mass solid residue; production of useful products; utilisation of the caloric content. The thermal treatment chain should be as short as possible; intermediate stages in separate reactors such as digestion, drying, degasification or gasification should be avoided if the material is ultimately to be combusted. The present paper examines and assesses the co-combustion of sewage sludge. [Deutsch] Mit der thermischen Klaerschlammentsorgung werden folgende Ziele verfolgt: - Zerstoerung der im Schlamm enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe, - Konzentration und Ausschleusung oder weitestgehende Fixierung der anorganischen Schadstoffe in die Reststoffmatrix, - Minimierung der Masse an festen Restabfaellen, - Herstellung verwertbarer Produkte, - Nutzung des Waermeeinhalts. Die thermische Behandlungskette sollte moeglichst kurz sein; Zwischenschritte wie Faulung, Trocknung, Ent- oder Vergasung in getrennten Reaktoren sollten vermieden werden, wenn letztendlich doch verbrannt wird. Das Verfahren der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm wird hier untersucht und bewertet. (orig./SR)

  20. Calcined paper sludge -- pozzolanic admixture to improve sulfate resistance of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rols, S.; Ambroise, J.; Pera, J.; Chabannet, M. [National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon (France)

    2000-07-01

    A new admixture, calcined paper sludge, is described. It is a mixture of metakaolin and calcium carbonate which is used to improve the resistance of both portland cement and ground-granulated blast-furnace cement to ammonium sulfate solution, a substance which is harmful to concrete as it reacts with calcium hydroxide to form expansive gypsum in the presence of aluminates. Five concrete samples were subjected to repeated sulfate attack in alternate wetting-drying cycles. After four cycles only the concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement presented measurable residual strength, however, the presence of calcined paper sludge did not appear to have any significant effect. However, after five cycles the presence of at least 20 per cent calcined paper sludge increased the durability of concrete and limited mass loss. Expansion levels were measurable only in concrete specimen containing at least 20 per cent calcined paper sludge, the expansion level moving inversely with the calcined sludge content. Microstructural studies showed the presence of gypsum after a sulfate attack with the size of the gypsum crystals depending upon the type of binder used. These results led to the conclusion that the addition of calcined paper sludge limited the amount of calcium hydroxide in the matrix, which in turn influenced the formation of gypsum as a result of reaction with ammonium sulfate. It was also shown that the sludge (in amounts higher than 20 per cent) can be used to control the expansion level and enhance durability of the concrete.10 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs.

  1. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  2. An Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined.

  3. Interaction between digestion conditions and sludge physical characteristics and behaviour for anaerobically digested primary sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.; Lettinga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between digestion conditions and the sludge physical characteristics and behaviour was investigated for anaerobically digested primary sludge in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). The CSTRs were operated to maintain sludge retention times (SRTs) of 10, 15, 20 and 30 days and

  4. Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined

  5. Use of a water treatment sludge in a sewage sludge dewatering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Justyna; Cimochowicz-Rybicka, Małgorzata; Kryłów, Małgorzata

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research study was to determine whether a sewage sludge conditioning had any impact on sludge dewaterability. As a conditioning agent a water treatment sludge was used, which was mixed with a sewage sludge before a digestion process. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific filtration resistance (SRF) were the measures used to determine the effects of a water sludge addition on a dewatering process. Based on the CST curves the water sludge dose of 0.3 g total volatile solids (TVS) per 1.0 g TVS of a sewage sludge was selected. Once the water treatment sludge dose was accepted, disintegration of the water treatment sludge was performed and its dewaterability was determined. The studies have shown that sludge dewaterability was much better after its conditioning with a water sludge as well as after disintegration and conditioning, if comparing to sludge with no conditioning. Nevertheless, these findings are of preliminary nature and future studies will be needed to investigate this topic.

  6. Phage-host associations in a full-scale activated sludge plant during sludge bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruyin; Qi, Rong; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xinchun; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter; Yang, Min

    2017-08-01

    Sludge bulking, a notorious microbial issue in activated sludge plants, is always accompanied by dramatic changes in the bacterial community. Despite large numbers of phages in sludge systems, their responses to sludge bulking and phage-host associations during bulking are unknown. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of viral metagenomes and bacterial 16S rRNA genes were employed to characterize viral and bacterial communities in a sludge plant under different sludge conditions (sludge volume index (SVI) of 180, 132, and 73 ml/g). Bulking sludges (SVI > 125 ml/g) taken about 10 months apart exhibited similar bacterial and viral composition. This reflects ecological resilience of the sludge microbial community and indicates that changes in viral and bacterial populations correlate closely with each other. Overgrowth of "Candidatus Microthrix parvicella" led to filamentous bulking, but few corresponding viral genotypes were identified. In contrast, sludge viromes were characterized by numerous contigs associated with "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis," suggesting an abundance of corresponding phages in the sludge viral community. Notably, while nitrifiers (mainly Nitrosomonadaceae and Nitrospiraceae) declined significantly along with sludge bulking, their corresponding viral contigs were identified more frequently and with greater abundance in the bulking viromes, implying that phage-mediated lysis might contribute to the loss of autotrophic nitrifiers under bulking conditions.

  7. Utilizing waste activated sludge for animal feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beszedits, S.

    1981-01-01

    Activated sludge has a high protein content and is a good source of B-group vitamins and generally also of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and K). Propionibacterium freudenreichii can be readily incorporated into the activated sludge to synthesize vitamin B12, particularly high vitamin yields being obtained with sewage mixed with dairy waste. Numerous examples of successful use of activated sludge in animal feeding are given.

  8. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  9. Design of automated oil sludge treatment unit

    OpenAIRE

    Chukhareva, Natalia Vyacheslavovna; Korotchenko, Tatiana Valerievna; Yurkin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article provides the feasibility study of contemporary oil sludge treatment methods. The basic parameters of a new resource-efficient oil sludge treatment unit that allows extracting as much oil as possible and disposing other components in efficient way have been outlined. Based on the calculation results, it has been revealed that in order to reduce the cost of the treatment unit and the expenses related to sludge disposal, it is essential to apply various combinations of the existing t...

  10. Design of automated oil sludge treatment unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhareva, N.; Korotchenko, T.; Yurkin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the feasibility study of contemporary oil sludge treatment methods. The basic parameters of a new resource-efficient oil sludge treatment unit that allows extracting as much oil as possible and disposing other components in efficient way have been outlined. Based on the calculation results, it has been revealed that in order to reduce the cost of the treatment unit and the expenses related to sludge disposal, it is essential to apply various combinations of the existing treatment methods.

  11. Image analysis, methanogenic activity measurements, and molecular biological techniques to monitor granular sludge from an EGSB reactor fed with oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M A; Roest, K; Stams, A J M; Akkermans, A D L; Amaral, A L; Pons, M N; Ferreira, E C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2003-01-01

    Morphological changes in anaerobic granular sludge fed with increasing loads of oleic acid were quantified by image analysis. The combination of this technique with data on the accumulation of adsorbed long chain fatty acid and with the molecular characterization of microbial community gave insight into the mechanisms of sludge disintegration, flotation and washout. It was found that the bacterial domain was more affected than the archaeal domain during this process. However, no acetoclastic activity and onlya residual hydrogenotrophic activity were detected in the sludge at the end of the operation.

  12. Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge.

  13. The Use of Fly Ash and Lime Sludge as Partial Replacement of Cement in Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand of drinking water and power has led huge generation of water treatment plant residue i.e. sludge and the thermal power plant by-product such as fly ash. Large quantities of sludge and fly ash are produced in India and disposed off by landfilling or dumping in and around sites. In this study fly ash and water softening sludge (lime sludge has been utilized in mortar. Two types of mortar (type I and II with four binder combinations have been tried. Binder I consists of 70% fly ash (FA and 30% lime sludge (LS , 0 % gypsum (G, binder II is 70% FA, 30% LS and 1% G, binder III is 50% FA, 30% LS and 20% cement and the binder IV is 40% FA, 40% LS with 20% cement. The effect of various combinations on strength has been discussed here. This paper outlines the composition of the composite material, method of preparation of mortar specimen, testing procedure and salient results thereof.

  14. Recovery of municipal waste incineration bottom ash and water treatment sludge to water permeable pavement materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Ho, Hsiu-Mai

    2006-01-01

    Water treatment plant sludge and municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash are non-hazardous residues, and they can be reprocessed to produce useful materials for city public works. In this study, an effort was endeavored to investigate the properties of water permeable bricks made of water treatment sludge and bottom ash without involving an artificial aggregate step. The water treatment plant sludge was dried and ground, and the bottom ash was subjected to magnetic separation to remove ferrous metals. Both sludge and bottom ash were ground and sieved to a size of bottom ash and the blocks were molded under a pressure of 110 kg/cm2. Thereafter, the molded blocks were sintered at temperatures of 900-1200 degrees C for 60-360 min. The compressive strength, permeability and water absorption rate of the sintered brick were examined and compared to relevant standards. The amount of bottom ash added in the mixture with water treatment sludge affects both the compressive strength and the permeability of the sintered bricks. The two effects are antonymous as higher bottom ash content will develop a beehive configuration and have more voids in the brick. It is concluded that a 20% weight content of bottom ash under a sintering condition of 1150 degrees C for 360 min can generate a brick with a compressive strength of 256 kg/cm2, a water absorption ratio of 2.78% and a permeability of 0.016 cm/s.

  15. Leachate Treatment from Sarimukti Landfill Using Ozone with Sludge from Water Treatment Plant as a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudha Ramdhani Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is the liquid waste from anaerobic decomposition in a landfill. The ozonation process can be used for leachate treatment. Sludge from sedimentation in water treatment plant contains 5.96% of Al and 9.35% of Si which can affect of its cation exchange capacity and affects the active site in the catalyst. This study aims to determine the effectivity of sludge in the ozonation process to treat leachate. A 1,5 L semi-batch reactor containing 1 L sample was used in this experiment with the rate of oxygen supply was at 4 L/min taken from ambient air. Two groups of sludge weighing 1.5 grams, 3.0 grams and 4.5 grams were used and activate with physically and chemically activated. The best result was obtained by the physically activated sludge with mass of 4.5 gram O3-L-4,5 AF. The differences of removal efficiency between O3-L-4,5 AF with the control (O3 for turbidity were respectively 13.02% and 7.81%, for EC were 10.57% and 8.29%, for COD were 49.44% and 37.50%, and for residual ozone concentration at the end of contact time were 7.6 mg/L and 9.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that activaed sludge and ozonation can be used as a catalyst in leachate treatment.

  16. Effects of alkali types on waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Peng, Yongzhen; Li, Baikun; Wu, Changyong; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Yaqian

    2017-11-01

    The effects of two alkali agents, NaOH and Ca(OH) 2 , on enhancing waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were studied in semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (semi-CSTR) at different sludge retention time (SRT) (2-10 d). The optimum SRT for SCFAs accumulation of NaOH and Ca(OH) 2 adding system was 8 d and 10 d, respectively. Results showed that the average organics yields including soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), protein, and carbohydrate in the NaOH system were as almost twice as that in the Ca(OH) 2 system. For Ca(OH) 2 system, sludge hydrolysis and protein acidification efficiencies were negatively affected by Ca 2+ precipitation, which was revealed by the decrease of Ca 2+ concentration, the rise of zeta potential and better sludge dewaterability in Ca(OH) 2 system. In addition, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the main microbial functional groups in both types of alkali systems. NaOH system obtained higher microbial quantities which led to better acidification. For application, however, Ca(OH) 2 was more economically feasible owning to its lower price and better dewaterability of residual sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical and surgical management of gallbladder sludge and mucocoele development in a Miniature Schnauzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Saunders

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The factors enhancing mucocoele development in dogs remain poorly understood. A 7-year-old female spayed Miniature Schnauzer was presented to the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for progressive lethargy, inappetance and abdominal discomfort. Initial physical examination findings revealed a moderate degree of cranial abdominal pain, with subsequent diagnostic tests confirming the patient as having diabetes mellitus, with a concurrent marked hypertriglyceridaemia. In an attempt to localise the source of pain, an ultrasound examination of the abdomen was performed, revealing a marked degree of gallbladder sludge. With appropriate medical management including ursodeoxycholic acid and insulin therapy, the patient stabilised and was discharged. With persistence of clinical signs three months later, progression of the gallbladder sludge towards mucocoele development was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was instigated, and an emergency cholecystectomy was performed. This case report therefore entails a suspected gallbladder mucocoele that developed in a diabetic patient with previously diagnosed biliary sludge. A unique feature of this case report is the presence of diabetes mellitus, which has been suggested to be a causative factor in the development of gallbladder mucocoeles. It is also hypothesised that gallbladder sludge and mucocoeles are associated, however it is yet to be ascertained whether this association is causal or contributory. The authors examined the possible relationship between this endocrinopathy and biliary sludge, and their possible effects on mucocoele development. Specific associated factors to sludge formation are also examined. The medical and surgical management of gallbladder mucocoeles is discussed.

  18. Properties and Beneficial Uses of (BioChars, with Special Attention to Products from Sewage Sludge Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Callegari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Residual sludge disposal costs may constitute up to, and sometimes above, 50% of the total cost of operation of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP and contribute approximately 40% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with its operation. Traditionally, wastewater sludges are processed for: (a reduction of total weight and volume to facilitate their transfer and subsequent treatments; (b stabilization of contained organic material and destruction of pathogenic microorganisms, elimination of noxious odors, and reduction of putrefaction potential and, at an increasing degree; (c value addition by developing economically viable recovery of energy and residual constituents. Among several other processes, pyrolysis of sludge biomass is being experimented with by some researchers. From the process, oil with composition not dissimilar to that of biodiesels, syngas, and a solid residue can be obtained. While the advantage of obtaining sludge-derived liquid and gaseous fuels is obvious to most, the solid residue from the process, or char (also indicated as biochar by many, may also have several useful, initially unexpected applications. Recently, the char fraction is getting attention from the scientific community due to its potential to improve agricultural soils’ productivity, remediate contaminated soils, and supposed, possible mitigation effects on climate change. This paper first discusses sludge-pyrolysis-derived char production fundamentals (including relationships between char, bio-oil, and syngas fractions in different process operating conditions, general char properties, and possible beneficial uses. Then, based on current authors’ experiments with microwave-assisted sludge pyrolysis aimed at maximization of liquid fuel extraction, evaluate specific produced char characteristics and production to define its properties and most appropriate beneficial use applications in this type of setting.

  19. Rheological properties of disintegrated sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of the sludge provides information about the capacity and the flow, which in the case of project tasks for the hydraulic conveying installation is an important control parameter. Accurate knowledge of the rheological properties of sludge requires the designation of rheological models. Models single and multiparameter (Ostwald, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley'a, and others) allow an approximation of flow curves, and the determination of the boundaries of the flow of modified sludge allows you to control the process compaction or are dewatered sludge undergoing flow. The aim of the study was to determine the rheological parameters and rheological models of sludge conditioned by physical methods before and after the process of anaerobic digestion. So far, studies have shown that the application of conditioning in the preparation of sewage sludge increases shear stress, viscosity as well as the limits of flow in relation to the untreated sludge. Offset yield point by the application of a conditioning agent is associated with decreased flowability tested sludge, which has also been observed by analyzing the structure of the prepared samples. Lowering the yield point, and thus the shear stress was recorded as a result of the fermentation test of disintegrated sludge.

  20. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  1. Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörsing, Maritha; Ledin, Anna; Grabic, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentr......Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal...

  2. Determination of uranium metal concentration in irradiated fuel storage basin sludge using selective dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Sinkov, S.I.; Chenault, J.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Pool, K.N.; Welsh, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiated uranium metal fuel was stored underwater in the K East and K West storage basins at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The uranium metal under damaged cladding reacted with water to generate hydrogen gas, uranium oxides, and spalled uranium metal particles which intermingled with other particulates to form sludge. While the fuel has been removed, uranium metal in the sludge remains hazardous. An expeditious routine method to analyze 0.03 wt% uranium metal in the presence of >30 wt% total uranium was needed to support safe sludge management and processing. A selective dissolution method was designed based on the rapid uranium oxide dissolution but very low uranium metal corrosion rates in hot concentrated phosphoric acid. The uranium metal-bearing heel from the phosphoric acid step then is rinsed before the uranium metal is dissolved in hot concentrated nitric acid for analysis. Technical underpinnings of the selective dissolution method, including the influence of sludge components, were investigated to design the steps and define the reagents, quantities, concentrations, temperatures, and times within the selective dissolution analysis. Tests with simulant sludge proved the technique feasible. Tests with genuine sludge showed a 0.0028 ± 0.0037 wt% (at one standard deviation) uranium metal analytical background, a 0.011 wt% detection limit, and a 0.030 wt% quantitation limit in settled (wet) sludge. In tests using genuine K Basin sludge spiked with uranium metal at concentrations above the 0.030 wt% ± 25 % (relative) quantitation limit, uranium metal recoveries averaged 99.5 % with a relative standard deviation of 3.5 %. (author)

  3. Biogas of manure and sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, F.; Gundermann, J.; Kofoed, E.; Nielsen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Biogas production from farmyard manures and sewage sludges is based on anaerobic processes (methane-bacteria) and aerobic processes (fermentative bacteria). Biogas product has high calorific value and a number of small, pilot-scale and full-scale municipal systems of biogas production is described inclusive technological solutions and cost-benefit analysis. Experience of electric power generators fueled by biogas is evaluated from the view point of competitiveness with other fuels.

  4. A two-step leaching method designed based on chemical fraction distribution of the heavy metals for selective leaching of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb from metallurgical sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Yu, Junxia; Xiong, Wanli; Xu, Yuanlai; Chi, Ru-An

    2018-01-01

    For selective leaching and highly effective recovery of heavy metals from a metallurgical sludge, a two-step leaching method was designed based on the distribution analysis of the chemical fractions of the loaded heavy metal. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as a leaching agent in the first step to leach the relatively labile heavy metals and then ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to leach the residual metals according to their different fractional distribution. Using the two-step leaching method, 82.89% of Cd, 55.73% of Zn, 10.85% of Cu, and 0.25% of Pb were leached in the first step by 0.7 M HCl at a contact time of 240 min, and the leaching efficiencies for Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were elevated up to 99.76, 91.41, 71.85, and 94.06%, by subsequent treatment with 0.2 M EDTA at 480 min, respectively. Furthermore, HCl leaching induced fractional redistribution, which might increase the mobility of the remaining metals and then facilitate the following metal removal by EDTA. The facilitation was further confirmed by the comparison to the one-step leaching method with single HCl or single EDTA, respectively. These results suggested that the designed two-step leaching method by HCl and EDTA could be used for selective leaching and effective recovery of heavy metals from the metallurgical sludge or heavy metal-contaminated solid media.

  5. Suppression of Native Soil Organic Matter Decomposition by Post-Fermentation Sludge in Agriculture Soil as Assessed by 13C Natural Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, W.; Bieganowski, A.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic wastes results in the production of biogas and post-fermentation sludge. Post-fermentation sludge, which is rich in nutrients and contains more easily accessible inorganic-N than comparable composts, can be used as an alternative fertilizer in organic agriculture systems. While the effects of post fermentation sludge application on crop health and productivity have been extensively studied, little is known about its effects on soil parameters and long-term soil health. Thus, the main aim of this study was to determine the effects of post-fermentation sludge fertilization on agriculture soil quality. Specifically, it examined the efficiency and sequence of sludge utilisation by microorganisms and its influence on the utilisation/stabilization of native soil organic matter (SOM).To determine changes in SOM turnover after the addition of sludge, we utilized a natural stable carbon isotope labelling approach. Sludge produced from C4 plant residues (e.g. maize) was applied to soil under C3 cropping, resulting in distinct stable isotope signatures of fertilizer and SOM. Measuring the carbon isotope composition of CO2 produced in this microcosm experiment permitted accurate determination of the proportion of CO2 fluxes arising from both C sources. The addition of post-fermentation sludge increased the CO2 emissions from the soil by 30%. δ13C analysis of the total CO2 efflux revealed that post-fermentation sludge decreased SOM decomposition by 42% compared to control. Only 34% of the post-fermentation sludge had been mineralized after two months of incubation in the soil.The collective results of our study reveal that application of post-fermentation sludge suppresses SOM decomposition, suggesting its use as a fertilizer could positively influence long-term soil quality. Finally, the success of the natural abundance microcosm labeling approach in our study supports its use as an effective method of analyzing the effects of various

  6. Avaliação de desempenho de lagoa de polimento para pós-tratamento de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura Evaluation of the performance of a polishing pond for the post-treatment of the effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor treating swine wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de uma lagoa de polimento, no tratamento de efluentes de águas residuárias de suinocultura de um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB. O sistema foi composto de decantador, reator UASB, em escala real, e lagoa de polimento em escala experimental. As análises físico-químicas realizadas foram: temperatura, pH, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, sólidos suspensos totais (SST e sólidos suspensos voláteis (SSV, nitrogênio total kjedhal (NTK, nitrogênio amoniacal (N-am. e orgânico (N-org., fósforo total (Pt, coliformes totais e termotolerantes. A lagoa de polimento apresentou alto desempenho, com remoção média de 58,9% de DBO, 60,1% de NTK, 57% de N-am. e 95,34% de coliformes termotolerantes.The performance of a polishing pond for treating swine wastewater from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor was evaluated. The system was assembled with a slat settler, followed by an UASB reactor, on a real scale, and a post-treatment pond, on a demonstration scale. The following parameters were analyzed: temperature, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, volatile suspended solids (VSS, total Kjedahl nitrogen (NTK, ammonia nitrogen (N-am., organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total and thermotolerant coliforms. The polishing pond was highly efficient, removing an average of 58.9% of BOD, 60.1% of NTK, 57% of N-am., and 95.34% of thermotolerant coliforms.

  7. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  8. Tratamento anaeróbio de águas residuárias do beneficiamento de café por via úmida em reatores UASB em dois estágios Anaerobic treatment of wastewater from coffee pulping in upflow anaerobic sludge blanquet (UASB in two stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência do tratamento de águas residuárias do beneficiamento de café por via úmida em reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB, em dois estágios, em escala de bancada, submetidos a tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH de 4,0; 5,2 e 6,2 dias e cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV de 5,8; 3,0 e 3,6 g DQO total (L d-1, no primeiro reator (R1, e TDH de 2,0; 2,6 e 3,1 dias e COV de 5,8; 0,5 e 0,4 g DQO total (L d-1, no segundo reator (R2. Os valores médios de DQO do afluente variaram de 15.440 a 23.040 mg O2 L-1. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQO total e SST foram de 66 a 98% e de 93 a 97%, respectivamente, nos reatores UASB, em dois estágios. O teor médio de metano no biogás variou de 69 a 89%, no reator R1, e de 52 a 73%, no reator R2. A produção volumétrica máxima de metano de 0,708 L CH4 (L reator d-1 foi obtida com COV de 3,6 g DQO (Ld-1 e TDH de 6,2 d, no reator R1. Os valores médios de pH variaram de 4,7 a 7,7 e de 4,9 a 8,0 nos efluentes dos reatores R1 e R2, respectivamente. As concentrações de ácidos voláteis totais nos efluentes mantiveram-se estáveis com valores inferiores a 100 mg L-1, com TDH de 5,2 e 6,2 dias, no reator R1, e TDH de 2,6 e 3,1 dias, no reator R2. As concentrações médias de fenóis totais no afluente variaram de 80 a 97 mg L-1 e as eficiências médias de remoção nos reatores UASB, em dois estágios, foram de 72 a 90%.In this work, it was evaluated the efficiency of two stage up flow anaerobic sludge blanquet (UASB reactors, in bench scale, treating a liquid effluent from the coffee pulping, submitted to hydraulic detention time (HDT of 4.0; 5.2 and 6.2 days, resulting in organic loading rate (OLR of 5.8; 3.6 and 3.0 g COD (L d-1 in the first reactor (R1 and HDT of 2.0; 2.6 and 3.1 days with OLR of 5.8; 0.5 and 0.4 g DQO total (L d-1 in the second reactor (R2. The medium values of total COD affluent varied from 15,440 to 23,040 mg

  9. Desempenho de processo anaeróbio em dois estágios (reator compartimentado seguido de reator UASB para tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura Performance of two-stage anaerobic process (baffled reactor (ABR followed by an upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating swine wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracie F. R. Fernandes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito das águas residuárias de suinocultura com concentrações de sólidos suspensos totais em torno de 6.000 mg L-1 (DQOtotal variando de 7.557 a 11.640 mg L-1 no desempenho de processo anaeróbio em dois estágios compostos por reator compartimentado (ABR e reator de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB, instalados em série, em escala-piloto (volumes de 530 e 120 L, respectivamente, submetidos a tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH de 56 a 18 h no primeiro reator e de 13 a 4 h no segundo reator. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQOtotal variaram de 71,1 a 87,5% no reator ABR e de 41,5 a 50,1% no reator UASB, resultando em valores médios de 86,8 a 94,9% para o sistema de tratamento anaeróbio em dois estágios com carga orgânica volumétrica (COV, na faixa de 5,05 a 10,12 kg DQOtotal (m³ d-1, no reator ABR, e de 2,83 a 9,63 kg DQOtotal (m³ d-1, no reator UASB. As eficiências de remoção de SST e SSV foram da ordem de 95,6%. O teor de metano no biogás manteve-se acima de 70% para os dois reatores. A produção volumétrica de metano máxima de 0,755 m³ CH4 (m³ d-1 ocorreu no reator 1, com COV de 10,12 kg DQOtotal (m³ d-1 e TDH de 18 h. Os valores médios de pH variaram na faixa de 7,2 a 8,0 para os efluentes dos reatores 1 e 2. Os ácidos voláteis totais mantiveram-se estáveis com concentrações abaixo de 200 mg L-1. Com variações abruptas e acentuadas de concentrações de SST e DQOtotal do afluente, os reatores mantiveram as eficiências de remoção de DQO e sólidos suspensos, em torno de 70%, e a qualidade do biogás, com 80% de CH4.In this work it was evaluated the effect of swine wastewater with total suspended solid (TSS concentration around 6000 mg L-1 (CODtotal from 7557 to 11640 mg L-1 on the performance of two stage anaerobic process constituted of anaerobic baffled reactors (ABR and an upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASB installed in series, in pilot scale testing (volumes of 530 L and

  10. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the conventional activated sludge treatment process: fate and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2005-01-01

    The fate and the mass balance of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the conventional activated sludge treatment process were investigated in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The POPs of interest were 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 19 organochlorine pesticides. Target compounds were determined at six different points across the treatment system: the influent, the effluent of the primary sedimentation tank, the effluent of the secondary sedimentation tank, the primary sludge, the activated sludge from the recirculation stream, and the digested/dewatered sludge. The distribution of POPs between the dissolved and the adsorbed phases of wastewater and sludge was investigated. A good linear relationship between the distribution coefficients, K d , and the octanol-water partition coefficients, K ow , of the solutes was observed only in raw wastewater, suggesting that other factors affect the phase distribution of organic compounds in treated wastewater. For all POPs, a significant increase in partitioning with a decreasing solids concentration was observed, revealing an effect from non-settling microparticles remaining in the 'dissolved' phase during the separation procedure. A good linear relationship was also revealed between logK d and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of wastewater, suggesting that DOC favors the advective transport of POPs in the dissolved phase. Almost all POPs showed good mass balance agreements at both the primary and the secondary treatment. The losses observed for some species could be attributed to biodegradation/biotransformation rather than volatilization. The relative distribution between the treated effluent and the waste sludge streams varied largely among different compounds, with p-p'-DDE being highly accumulated in the waste sludge (98%) but almost 60% of α-HCH remaining in the treated effluent

  11. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  12. Sludge dewatering and disposal practices for small activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziconstantinou, G J; Efstathiou, H

    2003-01-01

    Sludge dewatering is a decisive step in the reduction of waste sludge volume, thus considerably affecting total sludge treatment and disposal costs. The construction of sludge dewatering facilities in small WwTPs though, is generally not cost effective. In this paper some experimental evidence is presented, that waste sludge dewatering in small WwTPs of the activated sludge extended aeration type, can be effectively achieved by a centrifuge type of equipment withdrawing sludge directly from the aeration tank; an economic evaluation of the possibility to employ a transportable type of similar equipment mounted on a truck, to serve a number of small WwTPs located in remote or isolated areas is also presented and discussed.

  13. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  14. Evaluation of irradiated sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin C, A.

    1994-01-01

    The residual muds are produced by a separation process in the black waters treatment constituted by a solid phase whose origin is the accumulation of pollutant matter that has been extended to the water for anthropogenic and/or natural activities. The present work has the purpose to carry out a technical evaluation for the irradiation process of residual muds for their possible application like alternative of treatment and final disposal. The results obtained for the Evaluation of the irradiation of residual muds are bounded with the federative entities in the study, on the number of treatment plants of residual waters by diverse methods, discharge types, system location, residual muds production and muds treatment, uses and final disposal. The results show in the several entities,a great variety and versatility of industrial branches with diverse systems for treatment of waters and scarceness in the systems for residual muds treatment. (Author)

  15. Characterization of sludge generated from the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with tannin-based coagulant

    OpenAIRE

    Taluana Delakis Recanello; Amanda Shizuka Fujimura; Carlos de Barros Junior; Lucila Akiko Nagashima

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the sludge resulting from the leachate treatment generated at sanitary landfill with tannin-based coagulant, denominated Tanfloc SG® supplied by TANAC SA Company. The effluent treatment was performed at pH 7.4 and [Tanfloc SG] = 2700 mg/L, considered as optimum condition in COD and turbidity removal, however. Metal fractionation chemical analyses were done through simple and sequential extractions, with results indicating the solid residue is constit...

  16. Basis for Selection of a Residual Waste Retrieval System for Gunite and Associated Tank W-9 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E

    2000-10-23

    Waste retrieval and transfer operations at the Gunite{trademark} and Associated Tanks (GAATs) Remediation Project have been successfully accomplished using the Tank Waste Retrieval System. This system is composed of the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm, Houdini Vehicle, Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System, Hose Management Arm, and Sludge Conditioning System. GAAT W-9 has been used as a waste-consolidation and batch-transfer tank during the retrieval of sludges and supernatants from the seven Gunite tanks in the North and South tank farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Tank W-9 was used as a staging tank for the transfers to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). A total of 18 waste transfers from W-9 occurred between May 25, 1999, and March 30, 2000. Most of these transfers were accomplished using the PulsAir Mixer to mobilize and mix the slurry and a submersible retrieval-transfer pump to transfer the slurry through the Sludge Conditioning System and the {approx}1-mile long, 2-in.-diam waste-transfer line to the MVSTs. The transfers from W-9 have consisted of low-solids-content slurries with solids contents ranging from {approx}2.8 to 6.8 mg/L. Of the initial {approx}88,000 gal of wet sludge estimated in the GAATs, a total of {approx}60,451 gal have been transferred to the MVSTs via tank W-9 as of March 30, 2000. Once the waste-consolidation operations and transfers from W-9 to the MVSTs are completed, the remaining material in W-9 will be mobilized and transferred to the active waste system, Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tank W-23. Tank W-23 will serve as a batch tank for the final waste transfers from tank W-9 to the MVSTs. This report provides a summary of the requirements and recommendations for the final waste retrieval system for tank W-9, a compilation of the sample analysis data for the sludge in W-9, and brief descriptions of the various waste-retrieval system concepts that were considered for this task. The recommended residual waste retrieval

  17. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  18. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Agnès Y; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Sarrazin, Manon; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Blais, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45+/-0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79+/-0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82+/-1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls.

  19. Uptake of heavy metals by Brachiaria Decumbens and its mutant as a remediation agent for soil contaminated with oil sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Latiffah Noordin; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2006-01-01

    The Malaysian petroleum industry produces thousands of tonnes of oil sludge per year. Oil sludge is the residue accumulated during processing of petroleum at petroleum processing plants. Besides soil, mud and sand, oil sludge is often rich in radioactive substances, heavy metals and other toxic materials from hydrocarbon group which could contaminate and environment. In the present study the pasture grass Brachiaria decumbens and its mutant B. decumbens Kluang Comel were evaluated on their effectiveness as remediation agents for contaminated soils. The contaminating agent tested was the oil sludge with its hydrocarbons vaporised, obtained from the Waste Management Centre, MINT. Amongst the indicators for an effective remediation agent is the ability to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues without affecting their growth. This trial was conducted at MINT glasshouse, whereby the test plants were planted in pots in soil added with vaporised oil sludge. Analysis of heavy metals was through Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). This paper discusses the accumulation of heavy metals by B. decumbens and its mutant Kluang Comel and their growth performance, hence assessing their suitability as remediation agent in soil contaminated with oil sludge. (Author)

  20. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  1. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges. PT Slatter. Department of Civil Engineering, Cape Technikon, PO Box 652, Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract. Industries which pump sludges are under continuous pressure to decrease water content, and increase concentration.

  2. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deposition of rough papers, plastics, bottles and other non- biodegradable household refuse (Still and Foxon, 2012). It has been reported that household refuse can contribute, on average, to a 15% increase in the sludge accumulation rate in pit latrines. (Still, 2002). Sludge accumulation rates vary between countries.

  3. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  4. Pathogen reduction in sludges by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    There is international interest in the use of ionizing radiation in waste water and sludge treatment. Results of programs to study effects of radiation on disease-causing microbes commonly found in wastewater sludges will be discussed. Although emphasis will be on the work conducted at Sandia Laboratories, the discussion will include work in progress in West Germany, France, South Africa, and other countries

  5. Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousada-Ferreira, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis entitled “Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors” aims at explaining the relation between Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration, the amount of solids in the wastewater being treated, also designated as sludge, and filterability, being the ability of

  6. Recycling of phosphorus in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Tore; Sogn, Trine A.; Asdal, Aasmund; Saeboe, Arne

    2003-07-01

    In order to examine the fertilizing effect of P in different sewage sludge a pot experiment with rye grass growing in a moraine and a clay soil with application of different kinds of sewage sludge was carried out. Data on pH, water extractable P and ammonium acetate lactate extractable P in soil, and yield P content showed that Sewage sludge application significantly influenced the soil pH and may thereby indirectly influence the plants' general access to essential nutrients in the soil. Beside of the purification history of the sewage sludge, both the soil content of available P and the P adsorption capability of the soil must be considered when advising sludge application to crop production. Biological purification without chemical additives and Ca treatment of the sludge gave the highest amount of plant available P and also the best utilization of the P applied as sludge. Although low concentrations of water extractable P after addition of sewage sludge the considerable accumulation of total P in the surface soil (50-95% increase) must be considered a potential environmental risk due to possible surface P runoff by erosion. (author)

  7. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  8. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time laboratory results demonstrating electrodialytic removal of Cd from wastewater sludge, which is a method originally developed for soil remediation. During the remediation a stirred suspension of wastewater sludge was exposed to an electric dc field. The liqu...

  9. Impact of sludge deposition on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzetti, Sergio; van der Spoel, David

    2015-11-01

    Sludge deposition in the environment is carried out in several countries. It encompasses the dispersion of treated or untreated sludge in forests, marsh lands, open waters as well as estuarine systems resulting in the gradual accumulation of toxins and persistent organic compounds in the environment. Studies on the life cycle of compounds from sludge deposition and the consequences of deposition are few. Most reports focus rather on treatment-methods and approaches, legislative aspects as well as analytical evaluations of the chemical profiles of sludge. This paper reviews recent as well as some older studies on sludge deposition in forests and other ecosystems. From the literature covered it can be concluded that sludge deposition induces two detrimental effects on the environment: (1) raising of the levels of persistent toxins in soil, vegetation and wild life and (2) slow and long-termed biodiversity-reduction through the fertilizing nutrient pollution operating on the vegetation. Since recent studies show that eutrophication of the environment is a major threat to global biodiversity supplying additional nutrients through sludge-based fertilization seems imprudent. Toxins that accumulate in the vegetation are transferred to feeding herbivores and their predators, resulting in a reduced long-term survival chance of exposed species. We briefly review current legislation for sludge deposition and suggest alternative routes to handling this difficult class of waste.

  10. Electron beam disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Electron beam treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge for safe reutilization was performed. Ranges of total bacterial counts and total coliforms in the sludge were from 1.5 x 10 8 to 1.6 x 10 9 and from 2.2 x 10 7 to 1.5 x 10 8 per wet gram, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased about 5 log cycles after irradiating 5 kGy and irradiation with 2 kGy was enough to kill all coliforms in sewage sludge. The survival curves of total bacteria, obtained by irradiation in oxygen atmosphere, approached to that in nitrogen atmosphere with the increase of sludge thickness. No effects of dose rate and electron energy were found when the sludge layers were thin enough. Continuous disinfection of sewage sludge cake, with the maximum feed rate of 300 kg-sludge/hr, was successfully performed with a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator, a sludge pump and a flat nozzle. (J.P.N.)

  11. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  12. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  13. Using Ecosan sludge for crop production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jimenez, B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available of 10(6) CFU/9 TS and Salmonella spp. of 10(5) CFU/g TS was used for this purpose. Applying different rates of sludge to spinach and carrots resulted in an increase in bacterial and helminth ova count's in crops as the quantity of sludge increased...

  14. Bioflocculation of mesophilic and thermophilic activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Keizer, de A.; Spijker, S.; Lettinga, G.

    2005-01-01

    Thermophilic activated sludge treatment is often hampered by a turbid effluent. Reasons for this phenomenon are so far unknown. Here, the hypothesis of the temperature dependency of the hydrophobic interaction as a possible cause for diminished thermophilic activated sludge bioflocculation was

  15. Pesticides residues in water treatment plant sludge: validation of analytical methodology using liquid chromatography coupled to Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); Residuos de agrotoxicos em lodo de estacao de tratamento de agua: validacao de metodologia analitica utilizando cromatografia liquida acoplada a espectrometria de massas em Tandem (LC-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moracci, Luiz Fernando Soares

    2008-07-01

    The evolving scenario of Brazilian agriculture brings benefits to the population and demands technological advances to this field. Constantly, new pesticides are introduced encouraging scientific studies with the aim of determine and evaluate impacts on the population and on environment. In this work, the evaluated sample was the sludge resulted from water treatment plant located in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The technique used was the reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Compounds were previously liquid extracted from the matrix. The development of the methodology demanded data processing in order to be transformed into reliable information. The processes involved concepts of validation of chemical analysis. The evaluated parameters were selectivity, linearity, range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The obtained qualitative and quantitative results were statistically treated and presented. The developed and validated methodology is simple. As results, even exploring the sensitivity of the analytical technique, the work compounds were not detected in the sludge of the WTP. One can explain that these compounds can be present in a very low concentration, can be degraded under the conditions of the water treatment process or are not completely retained by the WTP. (author)

  16. Detection of Viable Bacteria during Sludge Ozonation by the Combination of ATP Assay with PMA-Miseq Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaonan Tian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using sludge obtained from municipal sewage treatment plants, the response of viable bacterial populations during the sludge ozonation process was investigated by a combination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP assay and propidium monoazide (PMA-Miseq sequencing. The ATP assay was first optimized for application on sludge samples by adjusting the sludge solid contents and reaction time. PMA-modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also optimized by choosing the suitable final PMA concentration. The quantity and composition of viable bacterial populations during sludge ozonation were further elucidated using the optimized ATP and PMA-modified PCR methods. The results indicated that after the sludge was exposed to ozone (O3 at 135 mg·O3/g total suspended solids (TSS, the viable biomass displayed a substantial decrease, with a reduction rate reaching 70.89%. The composition of viable bacterial communities showed a faster succession, showing that an ozone dosage of 114 mg·O3/g TSS is enough to significantly change the viable bacterial population structure. Floc-forming genera, such as Zoogloea, Ferruginibacter, Thauera and Turneriella, are sensitive to ozonation, while the relative abundances of some functional bacterial genera, including SM1A02, Nitrospira and Candidatus Accumulibacter, remained constant or increased in the viable bacterial population during sludge ozonation, indicating that they are more resistant to ozonation.

  17. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Closed Single-Shell Tanks and Other Waste Forms Associated with the Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the release of contaminants from the various waste forms that are anticipated to be associated with closure of the single-shell tanks. These waste forms include residual sludge or saltcake that will remain in the tanks after waste retrieval. Other waste forms include engineered glass and cementitious materials as well as contaminated soil impacted by previous tank leaks. This chapter also describes laboratory testing to quantify contaminant release and how the release data are used in performance/risk assessments for the tank waste management units and the onsite waste disposal facilities. The chapter ends with a discussion of the surprises and lessons learned to date from the testing of waste materials and the development of contaminant release models

  18. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  19. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge.

  20. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge digested ...

  1. The beneficial usage of water treatment sludge as pottery product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposal of sludge from water treatment operations has become a major problem in Malaysia. The problem becomes acute because of scarcity of space for installation of sludge treatment facilities and disposal of treated sludge. Traditionally, treated sludge from water treatment plant will be sent to landfill for disposal.

  2. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  3. Physical property characterization of 183-H Basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the characterization of 183-H Basin sludge physical properties, e.g. bulk density of sludge and absorbent, and determination of free liquids. Calcination of crucible-size samples of sludge was also done and the resulting 'loss-on-ignition' was compared to the theoretical weight loss based on sludge analysis obtained from Weston Labs

  4. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  5. Soil application of sewage sludge stabilized with steelmaking slag and its effect on soil properties and wheat growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Eftihia; Matsi, Theodora; Balidakis, Athanasios

    2017-10-01

    The effect of sewage sludge, stabilized with steelmaking slag, on soil chemical properties and fertility and on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth was evaluated. Dewatered sewage sludge [75% (wet weight basis)] stabilized with steelmaking slag (25%) and three soils with different pH values were used in a pot experiment with winter wheat. The following treatments were applied: (i) sludge addition of 30gkg -1 (≈ 120Mgha -1 , rate equivalent to the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat, based on sludge's water soluble NO 3 -N), (ii) sludge addition of 10gkg -1 (≈ 40Mgha -1 , rate equivalent to the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat, based on sludge's Kjeldahl-N), (iii) addition of the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat (120kgNha -1 ) as NH 4 NO 3 , (iv) control (no fertilizer, no sludge). Sludge application at both rates to all soils resulted in a significant increase of pH, electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (EC se ) and soil available NO 3 -N and P, in comparison to the other two treatments and this increase remained constant till the end of the pot experiment. In sludge treatments pH did not exceed the critical value of 8.5, whereas EC se , although it did not reach the limit of 4dSm -1 , exceeded the value of 2dSm -1 at the rate of 30gkg -1 . Concentrations of heavy metals, which regulate the agronomic use of sewage sludge according to the established legislation, ranged from not detectable to lower than the respective permissible levels. Both rates of sludge's addition in all soils improved wheat's growth, as judged by the significant increase of the aboveground biomass yield and the total plant uptake of almost all nutrients, compared to the other two treatments. It was concluded that sewage sludge stabilized with steelmaking slag could be used in agriculture, applied at rates based on sludge's Kjeldahl-N content and crop's demand for N. However, potential environmental impacts must also be considered. Copyright © 2017

  6. Assessment of heavy metal pollution with applications of sewage sludge and city compost for maximizing crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Ramachandran, V.; Raghu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Land application of municipal sewage sludge and city compost as organic manures make it imperative to assess heavy-metal pollution in soils and crops. Greenhouse experiments, conducted on maize in a vertisol and an ultisol amended with various doses of dry sewage sludge and city compost from Mumbai, indicated significant increases in dry matter-yields only in the vertisol. Significantly higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni and Cd were obtained in plants grown in the amended ultisol, but not in the amended vertisol. As Cd is the most toxic, experiments were conducted with four contrasting soils amended with varying doses of Cd-enriched sewage sludge and city compost. Results showed significant reductions in dry-matter yields of maize shoots at the higher rates of sludge or compost in the ultisol and an alfisol, but with no significant effects in the vertisol or an entisol. The levels of Cd and Zn were significantly elevated in plants in all four soil types. There were negative residual effects from the sludge and compost amendments: dry-matter yields of a succeeding maize crop were decreased in the ultisol and alfisol. Experiments with soils amended with sludge enriched with either Cd or Zn at 80 mg kg -1 indicated significant reductions in dry matter in all soils with Cd, but not with Zn. The results demonstrate that sewage sludges and city composts may be effectively used for maximizing crop yields, especially in vertisols and entisols. However, caution has to be exercised when using sludges containing even relatively low levels of Cd, or high levels of Zn, depending upon soil type. (author)

  7. Extraction of DNA from Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; McMahon, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of DNA from skeletal remains can be a delicate process. With the advent of improved extraction buffers that provide complete demineralization of the osseous materials, extraction of total genomic DNA from nearly any skeletal element is possible. This chapter describes both traditional organic and more newly developed inorganic extraction methods for fresh and dried skeletal remains.

  8. EDITORIAL MALARIA DIAGNOSIS Malaria remains the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-02

    Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.

  9. Process performance and change in sludge characteristics during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Rajeev; Komatsu, Kazuya; Yasui, Hidenari; Harada, Hidenari

    2003-07-01

    A new process configuration combining anaerobic digestion with ozonation, arid operated at long SRT, was studied with the objective of on-site reduction in sludge quantity and improving biogas recovery. The process performance with respect to solid reduction efficiency and other important process parameters like accumulation of inorganic solids, changes in sludge viscosity and dewatering characteristics were evaluated from the data of long term pilot scale continuous experiments conducted using a mixture of primary and secondary municipal sewage sludge. Due tu sludge ozonation and long SRT, high VSS degradation efficiency of approximately 80% was achieved at a reactor solid concentration of 6.5%. A high fraction of inorganic solid (>50%) consisting mainly of acid insoluble and iron compounds was found to accumulate in the reactor. The high inorganic content accumulated in the digested sludge did not, however contribute to the observed increase in sludge viscosity at high solid concentration. The sludge viscosity was largely found to depend on the organic solid concentration rather than the total solid content. Moreover, higher inorganic content in the digested sludge resulted in better sludge dewaterability. For a quick assessment of the economic feasibility of the new process, an economic index based on the unit cost of digested sludge disposal to unit electric cost is proposed. (author)

  10. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations

  11. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

  12. Isolation and identification of oil sludge degrading bacteria from production tank Number 9 Masjed Soleiman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Sheyni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: “Bioremediation” is one of the most effective methods to remove petroleum contaminants. The aim of the present study is to isolate the indigenous bacteria from the waste petroleum in the Masjed Soleiman No. 9 production tank and to examine the effect of their application on the elimination of petroleum heavy chain hydrocarbons and converting them into light compounds .   Materials and methods: Two percent of petroleum sludge was inoculated to the mineral basal medium and after proliferation of its indigenous bacteria, they were inoculated into the mixture of oil sludge and sand at level of 5%, and the amount of total hydrocarbons and residual oil were measured and compared. The isolates were identified based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Optimization of nitrogen and phosphate sources was done based on growth curves of selected isolates. Gas chromatography was used to determine degradation of sludge hydrocarbons.   Results: In this study, 10 bacterial isolates were isolated from petroleum sludge . Measurement of petroleum total hydrocarbons, using Soxhlet-extraction method, showed that two isolates named MIS1 and MIS2 are able to decompose oil sludge hydrocarbons within 7 days, with the yields of 62% and 72%, respectively. Furthermore, the two isolates reach the end of the logarithmic phase at 48 and 120 hrs, respectively. The best source of nitrogen and phosphate for both isolates was ammonium nitrate and potassium di ­hydrogen phosphate, respectively. The isolates were identified as Arthrobacter aurescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , respectively. In gas chromatography analysis it was revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more potent in degradation of heavy chain hydrocarbons and their conversion to light chain compounds.   Discussion and conclusion: Resident bacteria are present in the oil sludge and are able to degrade the heavy petroleum compounds and convert them into light compounds. These

  13. Unified understanding of physico-chemical properties of activated sludge and fouling propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Larsen, Poul; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2017-09-01

    A range of parameters affecting floc characteristics, sludge composition and filtration properties was investigated by analyzing 29 sludge samples from municipal and industrial conventional activated sludge systems and municipal membrane bioreactors (MBR). Samples were characterized by physico-chemical parameters, composition of ions and EPS, degree of flocculation, settling properties, dewatering properties, and filtration properties. By analyzing the interplay between various metrics instead of single parameters, a unified understanding of the influence of sludge composition and characteristics was developed. From this, a conceptual model was proposed to describe the interplay between sludge composition, characteristics, and filtration properties. The article shows three major results contributing to describe the interplay between sludge characteristics and fouling propensity: First, the degree of flocculation could be quantified by the ratio between floc size and residual turbidity and was a key parameter to assess fouling propensity. Second, extracted EPS to polyvalent cations ratio was used as an indicator of the flocculation. A high ratio combined with a high concentration of EPS resulted in large, loosely bound, and weak flocs that were easily deformed, hence giving compressible fouling layers. Finally, high amounts of carbohydrates in both total and extracted EPS resulted in more pronounced fouling, which may be explained by carbohydrates forming poorer flocs than humic substances and proteins. Accordingly, samples with high humic content showed lower specific resistance to filtration due to better floc structure. The amount of carbohydrates in EPS correlated positively to the influent COD/N ratio, which may explain why systems with high influent COD/N ratio demonstrated higher fouling propensity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  15. Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds. Effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Lillemor; Hollert, Henner; Jonsson, Sofie; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2007-05-01

    Sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since January, 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. One common method in the USA and parts of Europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. The capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is not fully elucidated. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was therefore treated in artificial reed beds and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of many pharmaceuticals and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Recently performed studies have also showed that embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are sensitive to nitroaromatic compounds. Therefore, we tested the sludge passing through constructed wetlands in order to detect any changes in levels of embryotoxicity, genotoxicity and dioxin-like activity (AhR-agonists). We also compared unplanted and planted systems in order to examine the impact of the root system on the fate of the toxicants. An industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics was added daily to small-scale constructed wetlands (vertical flow), both unplanted and planted with Phragmites australis. Sludge with an average dry weight of 1.25%, was added with an average hydraulic loading rate of 1.2 L/day. Outgoing water was collected daily and stored at -20 degrees C. The artificial wetland sediment was Soxhlet extracted, followed by clean-up with multi-layer silica, or extracted by ultrasonic treatment, yielding one organic extract and one water extract of the same sample. Genotoxicity of the extracts was measured according to the ISO protocol for the umu-C genotoxicity assay (ISO/TC 147/SC 5/ WG9 N8), using

  16. Qualification testing and full-scale demonstration of titanium-treated zeolite for sludge wash processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, W.J.

    1997-06-30

    Titanium-treated zeolite is a new ion-exchange material that is a variation of UOP (formerly Union Carbide) IONSIV IE-96 zeolite (IE-96) that has been treated with an aqueous titanium solution in a proprietary process. IE-96 zeolite, without the titanium treatment, has been used since 1988 in the West Valley Demonstration Project`s (WVDP) Supernatant Treatment System (STS) ion-exchange columns to remove Cs-137 from the liquid supernatant solution. The titanium-treated zeolite (TIE-96) was developed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Following successful lab-scale testing of the PNL-prepared TIE-96, UOP was selected as a commercial supplier of the TIE-96 zeolite. Extensive laboratory tests conducted by both the WVDP and PNL indicate that the TIE-96 will successfully remove comparable quantities of Cs-137 from Tank 8D-2 high-level radioactive liquid as was done previously with IE-96. In addition to removing Cs-137, TIE-96 also removes trace quantities of Pu, as well as Sr-90, from the liquid being processed over a wide range of operating conditions: temperature, pH, and dilution. The exact mechanism responsible for the Pu removal is not fully understood. However, the Pu that is removed by the TIE-96 remains on the ion-exchange column under anticipated sludge wash processing conditions. From May 1988 to November 1990, the WVDP processed 560,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive supernatant waste stored in Tank 8D-2. Supernatant is an aqueous salt solution comprised primarily of soluble sodium salts. The second stage of the high-level waste treatment process began November 1991 with the initiation of sludge washing. Sludge washing involves the mixing of Tank 8D-2 contents, both sludge and liquid, to dissolve the sulfate salts present in the sludge. Two sludge washes were required to remove sulfates from the sludge.

  17. Sulfidation of zinc plating sludge with Na2S for zinc resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, D.; Fukuta, T.; Onyango, M.S.; Matsuda, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high amount of zinc disposed in the landfill sites as a mixed-metal plating sludge represents a valuable zinc source. To recover zinc from the plating sludge, a sulfidation treatment is proposed in this study, while it is assumed that ZnS formed could be separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was conducted by contacting simulated zinc plating sludge with Na 2 S solution at S 2- to Zn 2+ molar ratio of 1.5 for a period of 1-48 h, while changing the solid to liquid (S:L) ratio from 0.25:50 to 1.00:50. The conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS was determined based on the consumption of sulfide ions. The reaction products formed by the sulfidation of zinc were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result, it was found that the conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS increased with an increase in S:L ratio. A maximum conversion of 0.809 was obtained at an S:L ratio of 1.00:50 after 48 h. However, when the zinc sludge treated at S:L ratio of 1.00:50 for 48 h was subjected to XRD analyses, only ZnS was identified in the treated zinc sludge. The result suggested that the rest of zinc sludge remained unreacted inside the agglomerates of ZnS. The formation behavior of ZnS was predicted by Elovich equation, which was found to describe the system satisfactorily indicating the heterogeneous nature of the sludge

  18. Is anaerobic digestion effective for the removal of organic micropollutants and biological activities from sewage sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, L; Papa, M; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Pedrazzani, R; Bertanza, G; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge has been widely reported; nevertheless, their fate during sludge treatment remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the fate of OMPs during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD), the most common processes used for sludge stabilization, by using raw sewage sludge without spiking OMPs. Moreover, the results of analytical chemistry were complemented with biological assays in order to verify the possible adverse effects (estrogenic and genotoxic) on the environment and human health in view of an agricultural (re)use of digested sludge. Musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB), ibuprofen (IBP) and triclosan (TCS) were the most abundant compounds detected in sewage sludge. In general, the efficiency of the AD process was not dependent on operational parameters but compound-specific: some OMPs were highly biotransformed (e.g. sulfamethoxazole and naproxen), while others were only slightly affected (e.g. IBP and TCS) or even unaltered (e.g. AHTN and HHCB). The MCF-7 assay evidenced that estrogenicity removal was driven by temperature. The Ames test did not show point mutation in Salmonella typhimurium while the Comet test exhibited a genotoxic effect on human leukocytes attenuated by AD. This study highlights the importance of combining chemical analysis and biological activities in order to establish appropriate operational strategies for a safer disposal of sewage sludge. Actually, it was demonstrated that temperature has an insignificant effect on the disappearance of the parent compounds while it is crucial to decrease estrogenicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska

    2016-01-01

    The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...

  20. The role of lipids in activated sludge floc formation

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Liza Kretzschmar; Mike Manefield

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge is widely used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater globally and the formation of activated sludge flocculates (flocs) underpins the ability to separate sludge from treated water. Despite the importance of activated sludge flocs to human civilization there have been precious few attempts to rationally design fit for purpose flocs using a bottom-up approach based on a solid scientific foundation. Recently we have been developing experimental models for activated sludge...

  1. Research Note Tebuthiuron residues remain active in soil for at least ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated patterns of emergence and survival of monocotyledonous oats (Avena sativa) and dicotyledonous cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in soils collected from bare patches resulting from the application of tebuthiuron between two and eight years earlier. Untreated soils provided a control. Both oats and ...

  2. Feasibility Study of Neutron Multiplicity Assay for a Heterogeneous Sludge Sample containing Na, Pu and other Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Nakamichi, H.; Mukai, Y.; Yoshimoto, K.; Beddingfield, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce radioactivity of liquid waste generated at PCDF, a neutralization precipitation processes of radioactive nuclides by sodium hydroxide is used. We call the precipitate a 'sludge' after calcination. Pu mass in the sludge is normally determined by sampling and DA within the required uncertainty on DIQ. Annual yield of the mass is small but it accumulates and reaches to a few kilograms, so it is declared as retained waste and verified at PIV. A HM-5-based verification is applied for sludge verification. The sludge contains many chemical components. For example, Pu (-10wt%), U, Am, SUS components, halogens, NaNO 3 (main component), residual NaOH, and moisture. They are mixed together as an impure heterogeneous sludge sample. As a result, there is a large uncertainty in the sampling and DA that is currently used at PCDF. In order to improve the material accounting, we performed a feasibility study using neutron multiplicity assay for impure sludge samples. We have measured selected sludge samples using a multiplicity counter which is called FCAS (Fast Carton Assay System) which was designed by JAEA and Canberra. The PCDF sludge materials fall into the category of 'difficult to measure' because of the high levels of impurities, high alpha values and somewhat small Pu mass. For the sludge measurements, it was confirmed that good consistency between Pu mass in a pure sludge standard (PuO 2 -Na 2 U 2 O 7 , alpha=7) and the DA could be obtained. For unknown samples, using 14-hour measurements, we could obtain quite low statistical uncertainty on Doubles (-1%) and Triples (-10%) count rate although the alpha value was extremely high (15-25) and FCAS efficiency was relatively low (40%) for typical multiplicity counters. Despite the detector efficiency challenges and the material challenges (high alpha, low Pu mass, heterogeneous matrix), we have been able to obtain assay results that greatly exceed the accountancy requirements for retained waste materials. We have

  3. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  4. Utilization of urban sewage sludge: Chinese perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Yan, S-H; Ye, Z-L; Meng, H-J; Zhu, Y-G

    2012-06-01

    Urbanization and industrialization in China has resulted in a dramatic increase in the volume of wastewater and sewage sludge produced from wastewater treatment plants. Problems associated with sewage sludge have attracted increasing attention from the public and urban planners. How to manage sludge in an economically and environmentally acceptable manner is one of the critical issues that modern societies are facing. Sludge treatment systems consist of thickening, dewatering, and several different alternative main treatments (anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, drying, composting, and incineration). Agricultural application, landfill, and incineration are the principal disposal methods for sewage sludge in China. However, sewage sludge disposal in the future should focus on resource recovery, reducing environmental impacts and saving economic costs. The reuse of biosolids in all scenarios can be environmentally beneficial and cost-effective. Anaerobic digestion followed by land application is the preferable options due to low economic and energy costs and material reuse. It is necessary to formulate a standard suitable for the utilization of sewage sludge in China.

  5. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelsen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  6. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  7. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1989-05-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137 Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  8. Bio THELYS: A new sludge reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauzy, Julien; Cretenot, Didier; Patria, Lucie; Fernandes, Paulo; Sauvegrain, Patrick; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    New technologies for reducing the sludge production of municipal or industrial WWTP have been appeared during the last few years. One of these innovative processes, Bio THELYS, consists in enhancing the biodegradability of sludge by a stage of thermal hydrolysis. The hydrolysed sludge could then be sent upstream to a biological step either aerobic or anaerobic. The objective is to increase the global mineralisation of the pollution entering the WWTP in order to decrease the waste leaving it, i.e. mainly the sludge. A 2500 population equivalent prototype was installed on a WWTP, in Champagne - France. Thermal hydrolysis is carried out under a temperature of 150-185{sup o}C, a pressure of 10-15 bar with an hydraulic retention time of 30-60 minutes. Thermal hydrolysis is implemented on a secondary recycling loop on the biological basin. Trials started in 1999 and are still on operation. A close monitoring of the WWTP was set up focusing especially on sludge characteristics, treated water quality, yield of sludge production reduction and plant operation. Bio THELYS could achieve a reduction in sludge production up to 70% on the plant. (author)

  9. Cost and effectiveness comparisons of various types of sludge irradiation and sludge pasteurization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation from 137 Cs, a major constituent of nuclear fuel reprocessing waste, can be used to sterilize sewage sludge. This paper compares the effectiveness and cost of heat pasteurization, irradiation, and thermoradiation (simultaneous heating/irradiation), three competing methods of sludge disinfection. The cost of irradiation and thermoradiation is slightly higher than heat pasteurization costs for liquid sludges, although minor changes in oil availability or prices could change this. If the viral destruction could be done easily by other means, a 500-kilorad irradiation dose would be effective and less costly. For dry sewage sludges, irradiation is as effective and much less costly than any of the liquid sludge disinfection processes. Irradiation of compost appears to be cheaper and more practical than any heat pasteurization process for the dry sludge (the insulating property of the compost makes heating difficult). 6 tables, 2 fig

  10. Environmental Assessment of Sewage Sludge Management – Focusing on Sludge Treatment Reed Bed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam

    ; however, in the late 1980s, sludge treatment reed bed (STRB) systems were intro-duced in Denmark and in 2016, more than 100 STRB systems were operating in the country. Sludge treatment in STRB systems is often considered more environmentally friendly compared to mechanical sludge treatment technologies......, albeit only a few life cycle assess-ments (LCAs) comparing the environmental performances of sludge treatment technologies include STRB systems. Furthermore, as data on the STRB system technology suitable for LCA are scarce, the results of these LCAs are unreliable. The project aimed at generating data...... in treated sludge when applied to the land. The overall goal of the project was to perform an LCA comparing the environmental performance of the STRB system technology with a conventional technology based on mechanical dewatering of sludge on a decanter centrifuge and subsequent storage. Geographically...

  11. Comparison and analysis of membrane fouling between flocculent sludge membrane bioreactor and granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs, two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates.

  12. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  13. Micro-distribution and mechanical characteristics analysis of remaining oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the water drive reservoir enters extra high water cut stage (greater than 80%, remaining oil distribution becomes increasingly dispersed. Research on micro residual oil in pore appears particularly important for reservoir development at extra high water cut stage. Oil occurrence characteristics recognition helps to understand the distribution of remaining oil and the mechanical characteristics of oil is the guide for tapping the remaining oil. On the basis of pore scale oil–water two phase flow experiments, micro distribution of remaining oil is divided into four occurrence states in accordance with oil features at different stage of water flooding, the flake of remaining oil, oil column, oil droplet and oil film. A quantitative characterization method of remaining oil occurrence states is established. By using micro numerical simulation method, change rules of four occurrence states of remaining oil during the process of water displacement and the mechanical characteristics of different occurrence state of remaining oil are analyzed. Results show that the continuous oil phase gradually transforms to discontinuous phase and even to dispersed phases during the water flooding process. At extra high water cut stage, most of remaining oil are dispersed oil columns, oil droplets and oil films, which are the main target of remaining oil to be tapped. By changing water flow direction or increasing the displacement pressure gradient, the surface adsorption force acting on oil columns are overcome, and then the oil columns begin to move and finally to be produced out. Oil droplets in pore-throat center are scoured and carried out by water as the increase of the injection volume, while the oil droplets in blind ends and the oil films are extracted out by adding chemicals to reduce the interfacial tension, so as to enhance oil recovery. For water flooding reservoir, the corresponding tapping measures for four types of oil occurrence states brought

  14. Advances in Nonylphenols Residues and Their Behaviors in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ting-yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol, a kind of substances similar to environmental hormone, has biological toxicity, and prevalent in various environ-mental media, such as water, sludge and sediment. It can pose a threat to food safety, but we still lack of knowledge about the residual level of nonylphenol in soil. In this paper, the sources and residual status of nonylphenol in soil and other environmental media were summarized. The behavior processes of nonylphenol in soil were also analyzed, including adsorption and desorption, metabolic degradation, leaching and mi-gration, etc. Future work were also proposed to provide reference for further soil pollution survey and evaluation studies.

  15. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  16. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melmed, L.N.; Comninos, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, thermoradiation, and radiation combined with oxygenation was investigated in experimentation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disinfection. Experimentation and methodology are explained. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0.5 kGy radiation was applied at 50..cap alpha..C to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0.4 kGy radiation was applied at 55..cap alpha..C to a sludge with 20% solids. (1 drawing, 5 graphs, 4 photos, 4 tables)

  17. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongpat, S.; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)

  18. Control of Microthrix parvicella and sludge bulking by ozone in a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levén, Lotta; Wijnbladh, Erik; Tuvesson, Malin; Kragelund, Caroline; Hallin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Bulking and rising sludge are common problems in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are primarily caused by increased growth of filamentous bacteria such as Microthrix parvicella. It has a negative impact on sludge settling properties in activated sludge (AS) process, in addition to being responsible for foam formation. Different methods can be used to control sludge bulking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dosage of on-site generated ozone in the recycled AS flow in a full-scale WWTP having problems caused by M. parvicella. The evaluation of the experiment was assessed by process data, microscopic analysis and microbial screening on the experimental and control line before, during and after the period of ozone dosage. The ozone treatment resulted in decreased abundance of M. parvicella and improved the settling properties, without impairing the overall process performance. Both chemical oxygen demand (COD)- and N-removal were unaffected and the dominant populations involved in nitrification, as analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, remained during the experimental period. When the ozone treatment was terminated, the problems with sludge bulking reappeared, indicating the importance of continuous evaluation of the process.

  19. The production of sludge in anaerobic purification treatments; Produccion de fangos en la depuracion anaerobica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E. del R.; Mejia Sanchez, G.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Ambiental, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan (Mexico)

    1996-04-01

    One of the characteristics of anaerobic processes is the low level of sludge production. However it is important to maintain a certain concentration of biomass in the system to ensure sufficient removal of organic matter. As organic matter degrades, part of it is transformed into gas while the rest remains in the system as biomass, it is important to control the concentration of sludge in the system as a way of enchaincing process efficiency. The quality of sludge produced during the anaerobic digestion process is related to the amount of substrate consumed and the amount of gas generated and particularly to the concentration of volatile suspended solids (active biomass). nevertheless, the operating conditions of the digester can modify the distribution of the results of the bacterial metabolism. The present study examines the influence of hydraulic resistance time, organic, load and substrate concentration on sludge production and the relation between sludge production and the amount of substrate consumed by the system for each set of cinditions. The findings were obtained from a experiment in which a modified UASB digester was operated with a slow mixing system. (Author) 7 refs.

  20. Radioresistance of microorganisms in sewage sludge with special regard to the virus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, A.; Mahnel, H.; Brodorotti, H.S. v.; Ottis, K.

    1979-01-01

    Of the viral species present in surface and waste water only entero-, reo-, parvo-, and possibly paramyxoviruses are of relevance. These viruses remain infectious through to the sewage sludge stage, although then only present in small numbers. Bacteria and moulds are present in high concentrations in sewage sludge, the majority being non-pathogenis or only facultative pathogenic species. Of these only Salmonellae are of public health concern. Viruses are considerably more radiation resistant than bacteria and moulds. In sewage sludge a parvo virus was clearly the most resistant towards radiation followed, in order of decreasing resistivity, by reo- and entero-viruses. With the exception of the strongly resistant streptococcus faecalis two enterobacteria and one mould were found to be relatively radiation-sensitive. Gamma radiation is effective for inactivating all viral and bacterial contamination of sewage sludge. The dose required depends upon the radiation resistance and concentration of the individual strain. Enteroviral elimination determines the dose required for viruses and salmonella radiation the dose for bacteria. For practical sewage sludge decontamination a total irradiation dose of 500 krad has been calculated to meet normal requirements, and this dose can be raised to 1 Mrad for more stringent demands. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Dewatering and low-temperature pyrolysis of oily sludge in the presence of various agricultural biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Zhou, Xiehong; Wang, Chuanyi; Jia, Hanzhong

    2017-08-24

    Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of waste oil residues for recovery of petroleum hydrocarbons, and the addition of biomass is expected to improve its dewatering and pyrolysis behavior. In this study, the dewatering and low-temperature co-pyrolysis of oil-containing sludge in the presence of various agricultural biomasses, such as rice husk, walnut shell, sawdust, and apricot shell, were explored. As a result, the water content gradually decreases with the increase of biomass addition within 0-1.0 wt % in original oily sludge. Comparatively, the dewatering efficiency of sludge in the presence of four types of biomasses follows the order of apricot shell > walnut shell > rice husk > sawdust. On the other hand, rice husk and sawdust are relatively more efficient in the recovery of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with walnut shell and apricot shell. The recovery efficiency generally increased with the increase in the biomass content in the range of 0-0.2 wt %, then exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with the increase in the biomass content from 0.2 to 1.0 wt %. The results suggest that optimum amount of biomass plays an important role in the recovery efficiency. In addition, the addition of biomass (such as rice husk) also promotes the formation of C x H y and CO, increasing the calorific value of pyrolysis residue, and controlled the pollution components of the exhaust gas discharged from residue incineration. The present work implies that biomass as addictive holds great potential in the industrial dewatering and pyrolysis of oil-containing sludge.

  2. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  3. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD i nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  4. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-07-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD{sub i}nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  5. Immobilization of heavy metals arising sludge galvanic, in glass ceramic material; Imobilizacao de metais pesados oriundos de lodo galvanico em material vitreo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felisberto, R., E-mail: regina.felisberto@poa.ifrs.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, M.C.; Basegio, T.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The use of galvanic sludge in the glass-ceramic formulation for immobilizing environmentally harmful materials is consolidated in more developed countries as raw material in the formulation of new materials. In this work, we have used galvanic sludge provided by a metallurgical company located in Vale dos Sinos, RS. The sludge was dried at 105°C and mixed with soda-lime glass in proportions of 1, 5, 10 and 20%, relative to the glass mass. Its composition was determined by FRX, and evaluated for leaching (NBR 10005) and solubilization (NBR 10006). The specimens (CPs) were burned at temperatures 750, 800 and 850°C, also submitted to the tests. The sludge, Class I - dangerous, presented Se content greater than provisions of NBR 10004. It was possible to immobilize the heavy metals at a temperature of 850°C for specimens of the F1 formulation, having been thus classified as Class II B Inert Residue. (author)

  6. Progress and perspectives of sludge ozonation as a powerful pretreatment method for minimization of excess sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Libing; Yan, Sangtian; Xing, Xin-Hui; Sun, Xulin; Jurcik, Benjamin

    2009-04-01

    The treatment and disposal of excess sludge represents a bottleneck in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) worldwide, due to environmental, economic, social and legal factors. The ideal solution to the problem of sludge disposal is to combine sludge reduction with the removal of pollution at the source. This paper presents an overview of the potential of ozonation in sludge reduction. The full-scale application of ozonation in excess sludge reduction is presented. Improvements in the biodegradability of the ozonated sludge were confirmed. The introduction of ozonation into activated sludge did not significantly influence effluent quality but improved the settling properties of the sludge. An operation with a suitable sludge wasting ratio seems to be necessary to prevent accumulation of inorganic and inert particles for long-term operation. Sludge ozonation to reduce excess sludge production may be economical in WWTP which have high sludge disposal costs and operational problems such as sludge foaming and bulking. The recommended ozone dose ranges from 0.03 to 0.05 g O(3)/g TSS, which is appropriate to achieve a balance between sludge reduction efficiency and cost. An effort to design and optimize an economic sludge reduction process is necessary.

  7. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive. [Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aimed at improving the process operating characteristics of anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization and SNG production, this study evaluates the effects of a lactobacillus additive under normal, variable, and overload conditions. This whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of L. acidophilus fortified with CoCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. Data indicate that the biochemical additive increases methane yield, gas production rate, and volatile solids reduction; decreases volatile acids accumulation; enhances the digester buffer capacity; and improves the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue. Digester capacities could be potentially doubled when the feed is so treated. Results of field tests with six full-scale digesters confirm observations made with bench-scale digesters.

  8. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    is available in the literature. Nonconventional biomass feedstock may also be applicable for fast pyrolysis processes. Among the forms of nonconventional biomasses: macroalgae, lignin (industrial residue) and sewage sludge may be attractive materials due to their low price, non-competitiveness with food crops......In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s......) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at the CHEC center at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. The reactor is a compact design that uses a low flow rate...

  9. Investigation of sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Izabella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigation of low-temperature sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent. Tests were conducted in a laboratory stand, equipped with a gasification reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. During presented tests, gas mixture with a composition of typical flue gases was used as a gasifying agent. The measuring system ensures online measurements of syngas composition: CO, CO2, H2, CH4. As a result of gasification process a syngas with combustible components has been obtained. The aim of the research was to determine the usability of sewage sludge for indirect cofiring in power boilers with the use of flue gas from the boiler as a gasifying agent and recirculating the syngas to the boiler’s combustion chamber. Results of presented investigation will be used as a knowledge base for industrial-scale sewage sludge gasification process. Furthermore, toxicity of solid products of the process has been determined by the use of Microtox bioassay. Before tests, solid post-gasification residues have been ground to two particle size fractions and extracted into Milli-Q water. The response of test organisms (bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria in reference to a control sample (bacteria exposed to 2% NaCl solution was measured after 5 and 15 minutes of exposure. The obtained toxicity results proved that thermal treatment of sewage sludge by their gasification reduces their toxicity relative to water organisms.

  10. Heavy metals in a degraded soil treated with sludge from water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Sandra Tereza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of water treatment sludge (WTS to degraded soil is an alternative for both residue disposal and degraded soil reclaim. This study evaluated effects of the application of water treatment sludge to a Typic Hapludox soil degraded by tin mining in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondonia, Brazil, on the content of heavy metals. A completely randomized experimental design with five treatments was used: control (n = 4; chemical control, which received only liming (n = 4; and rates D100, D150 and D200, which corresponded to 100, 150 and 200 mg of N-sludge kg-1 soil (n = 20, respectively. Thirty days after liming, period in which soil moisture was kept at 70% of the retention capacity, soil samples were taken and analyzed for total and extractable Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr. The application of WTS increased heavy-metal contents in the degraded soil. Although heavy metals were below their respective critical limits, sludge application onto degraded areas may cause hazardous environmental impact and thus must be monitored.

  11. Potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havukainen, Jouni; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Hermann, Ludwig; Horttanainen, Mika; Mikkilä, Mirja; Deviatkin, Ivan; Linnanen, Lassi

    2016-03-01

    All life forms require phosphorus (P), which has no substitute in food production. The risk of phosphorus loss from soil and limited P rock reserves has led to the development of recycling P from industrial residues. This study investigates the potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment (ASH DEC) in Finland. An ASH DEC plant could receive 46-76 kt/a of sewage sludge ash to produce 51-85 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P2O5 content of 13-18%, while 320-750 kt/a of manure ash could be supplied to produce 350-830 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P content of 4-5%. The P2O5 potential in the total P-rich product from the ASH DEC process using sewage sludge and manure ash is estimated to be 25-47 kt/a, which is significantly more than the P fertilizer demand in Finland's agricultural industries. The energy efficiency of integrated incineration and the ASH DEC process is more dependent on the total solid content and the subsequent need for mechanical dewatering and thermal drying than on the energy required by the ASH DEC process. According to the results of this study, the treated sewage sludge and manure ash using the ASH DEC process represent significant potential phosphorus sources for P fertilizer production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  13. Heavy metal extraction from PCB wastewater treatment sludge by sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yu-Chung; Lee, I-Hsien; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2010-05-15

    Heavy metals contaminated wastewater sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and needs to be properly treated to prevent releasing heavy metals to the environment. In this study, the wastewater treatment sludge from a printed circuit board manufacturing plant was treated in a batch reactor by sulfuric acid to remove the contained heavy metals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration and solid to liquid ratio on the heavy metal removal efficiencies were investigated. The experimental results showed that the total and individual heavy metal removal efficiencies increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration, but decreased with increasing solid to liquid ratio. A mathematical model was developed to predict the residual sludge weights at varying sulfuric concentrations and solid to liquid ratios. The trivalent heavy metal ions, iron and chromium were more difficult to be removed than the divalent ions, copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium. For 5 g/L solid to liquid ratio, more than 99.9% of heavy metals can be removed from the sludge by treating with 0.5M sulfuric acid in 2h. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Decontamination Process to Remove Metals and Stabilise Montreal Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mercier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Montreal Urban Community (MUC treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (tds/day during physicochemical wastewater treatment. The sludges are burned and contribute to the greenhouse effect by producing atmospheric CO2. Moreover, the sludge emanates a nauseating odour during its thermal stabilisation and retains unpleasant odours for the part (25% that is dried and granulated. To solve this particular problem, the treatment plant authorities are currently evaluating an acidic chemical leaching (sulfuric or hydrochloric acid process at a pH between 2 and 3, using an oxidizing agent such as ferric chloride or hydrogen peroxide (METIX-AC technology, patent pending; [20]. They could integrate it to a 70 tds/day granulated sludge production process. Verification of the application of METIX-AC technology was carried out in a pilot plant set up near the sludge production plant of the MUC. The tests showed that METIX-AC technology can be advantageously integrated to the process used at the MUC. The residual copper (274 ± 58 mg/kg and cadmium (5.6 ± 2.9 mg/kg concentrations in the treated sludge meet legislation standards. The results have also shown that odours have been significantly eliminated for the dewatered, decontaminated, and stabilized biosolids (> 97% compared to the non-decontaminated biosolids. A high rate of odour elimination also was obtained for the liquid leached biosolids (> 93%, compared to the untreated liquid biosolids. The fertilising value (N and P is well preserved by the METIX-AC process. Dissolved organic carbon measurements have showed that little organic matter is brought in solution during the treatment. In fact, the average concentration of dissolved organic carbon measured in the treated liquid phase is 966 ± 352 mg/l, whereas it is 1190 ± 325 mg/l in untreated sludge. The treated sludge was first conditioned with an organic polymer and a coagulant aid. It was successfully dewatered with

  15. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  17. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  18. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  19. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  20. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  1. Basic Study on Sludge Concentration and Dehydration with Ultrasonic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Yuta; Nagashima, Satoshi; Uchida, Takeyoshi; Kawashima, Norimichi; Takeuchi, Shinichi; Akita, Masashi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    We study the condensation of sludge and the improvement of the dehydration efficiency of sludge by acoustic cavitation for efficiency improvement and cost reduction in water treatment. An ultrasound wave was irradiated into activated sludge in the water tank of our ultrasound exposure system and a standing wave acoustic field was formed using a vibrating disk driven by a Langevin-type transducer. The vibrating disk was mounted on the bottom of the water tank. Acoustic cavitation was generated in the activated sludge suspension and the sludge was floated to the water surface by ultrasound exposure with this system. We observed B-mode ultrasound images of the activated sludge suspension before ultrasound exposure and that of the floated sludge and treated water after ultrasound exposure. The ultrasound diagnostic equipment was used for the observation of the B-mode ultrasound images of the sludge. It was found that the sludge floated to the water surface because of adhesion of microbubbles generated by acoustic cavitation to the sludge particles, which decreased the sludge density. It can be expected that the drifting sludge in water can be recovered by the flotation thickening method of sludge as an application of the results of this study. It is difficult to recover the drifting sludge in water by the conventional gravity thickening method.

  2. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  3. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  4. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  5. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...

  6. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  7. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1979-07-01

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-80 0 C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  8. Aluminum recovery from water treatment sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Boaventura, Rui A. Rocha; Duarte, António A. L. Sampaio; Almeida, Manuel F.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate and polyaluminum chloride are widely used as coagulants in water treatment plants. A chemical sludge containing aluminium hydroxide, adsorbed organic matter and other water insoluble impurities is obtained after the flocculation-clarification process. In Portugal, an estimated amount of 66 000 ton/yr. (wet wt.) water treatment sludge is being disposed of on land or at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Government restrictions to this practice as well as increasing deposit...

  9. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  10. Total organic carbon in a soil recovered with sewage sludge and native species of the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara Lima Goulart, Lívia; Amaral Guerrini, Iraê; Fidalgo de Faria, Marianne; Spada, Grasiela; Proença Nalesso, Pedro Henrique; Willian Carlos, Guilherme

    2017-04-01

    The use of organic waste such as sewage sludge, in the recovery of degraded áreas have shown very satisfactory results, because they are constituted by high contentes of organic matter and nutrients, essential to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the total organic carbon (TOC) of a degraded soil, up to a metre deep, after 10 years of application of sewage sludge and planting native species of the Atlantic forest. The experiment was conducted at Fazenda Entre-Rios, owned by Suzano Papel e Celulose, in Itatinga, São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment was designed as randomized block with four replications, six doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1), conventional chemical fertilizer and only with potassium application, totaling eight treatments. Samples were collected every 20 cm (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm) until reaching a metre deep. Ten years after trial deployment, the sewage sludge application in degraded soil was significantly influenced the TOC at all depths sampled. The highest values of the COT were observed in plots that received 15 and 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge, in all depths sampled, except for the layer of 80-100 cm, which presented the highest average COT in the treatment with 10 t ha-1 of residue. As observed for all treatments, the highest TOC averages were observed in the superficial layers of the soil (0-20 and 20-40 cm). The sewage sludge application is useful to recover degraded soils, as it improving their chemical characteristics and showing to be a good alternative to the final destination of this residue.

  11. Avaliação do desempenho do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (uasb em escala laboratorial na remoção da carga orgânica de águas residuárias da suinocultura Performance evaluation of a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB removing organic loading rate from swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o desempenho do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket construído em escala laboratorial na redução da carga orgânica poluidora dos despejos suinícolas brutos. O sistema completo foi composto de um tanque de acidificação e equalização, reator UASB e lagoa aerada facultativa. O tempo de detenção hidráulica (TDH e temperatura adotada para o reator UASB foram de 30 horas e 30 ºC, respectivamente. Os valores médios afluentes de DQO T, ST e SVT foram de 1806, 1810 e 1240 mg.L-1. As eficiências de remoção de DQO T, ST e SVT foram de 84, 58 e 73%, respectivamente. O sistema se apresentou-se estável, com boas condições de tamponamento, retenção e digestibilidade de sólidos, demonstrando que os critérios adotados foram adequados, principalmente aqueles referentes ao TDH, carga orgânica volumétrica (COV e temperatura.The present work was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of a lab scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure without solids separation. The treatment system consisted of one acidification tank, which also equalized the substrate, an UASB reactor, and an aerated facultative pound. The hydraulic retention time (HRT and temperature adopted for the UASB reactor were 30h and 30ºC, respectively. The influent average values of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Solids (TS and Total Volatile Solids (TVS were 1806, 1810 and 1240 mg.L-1. The removal efficiencies were 84, 58 and 73 %, respectively. The system presented good stability and buffering conditions, and also a good solids digestibility, showing that the research criteria adopted was adequate, mainly those parameters referred to the HRT, Volumetric Organic Loading Rate (VOLR and temperature.

  12. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-06-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively.

  13. Phytoremediation of copper and zinc in sewage sludge amended soils using jatropha curcas and hibiscus cannabinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aishah, R.M.; Shamshuddin, J.; Fauziah, C.I.

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to determine the extent of Jatropha curcas and Hibiscus cannabinus efficiency to the remediation of zinc and copper contaminated soils amended with sewage sludge. An Oxisol (Munchong Series) and an Ultisol (Bungor Series) were used in this experiment, which was laid out using a randomized completely block design in six replication. The plants in pots having soil containing 0, 5 and 10% (w/w) sewage sludge were grown for six months. Phytoremediation can take place successfully as shown by the decrease of total Zn and Cu in the treated soils, where the concentrations of Zn and Cu in the tested soils were higher before planting as compared to after planting. Most of the Zn and Cu taken up by the tested plants were stored in the shoots (leaves+ stem). The fractionation of Zn and Cu in sewage sludge, untreated and treated soils was studied before and after planting. The results of the fractionation study showed that the dominant Zn and Cu in the soil were in their residual form. At harvest, the percentages of water soluble and exchangeable fraction were increased, implying that some of the residual fraction may have changed to other forms. In general, there was no significant difference between the different metal fractions in the Oxisol and Ultisol. (author)

  14. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400–800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  15. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline

  16. Reuse of industrial sludge as construction aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Hong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Industrial wastewater sludge and dredged marine clay are high volume wastes that needed enormous space at landfill disposal sites. Due to the limitation of land space, there is an urgent need for alternative disposal methods for these two wastes. This study investigates the possibility of using the industrial sludge in combination with marine clay as construction aggregates. Different proportions of sludge and clay were made into round and angular aggregates. It was found that certain mix proportions could provide aggregates of adequate strength, comparable to that of conventional aggregates. Concrete samples cast from the sludge-clay aggregates yield compressive strengths in the range of 31.0 to 39.0 N/mm2. The results showed that the round aggregates of 100% sludge and the crush aggregates of sludge with up to 20% clay produced concrete of compressive strengths which are superior to that of 38.0 N/mm2 for conventional aggregate. The study indicates that the conversion of high volume wastes into construction materials is a potential option for waste management.

  17. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  18. Co-conditioning of the anaerobic digested sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant with alum sludge : benefit of phosphorus reduction in reject water

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Y.; Zhao, Y.Q.; Babatunde, A.O.; Kearney, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, alum sludge was introduced into co-conditioning and dewatering with an anaerobic digested activated sludge to examine the role of the alum sludge in improving the dewaterbility of the mixed sludge and also in immobilizing phosphorus in the reject water. Experiments have demonstrated that the optimal mix ratio for the two sludges is 2:1 (anaerobic digested sludge: alum sludge; volume basis), and this can bring about 99% phosphorus reduction in the reject water through the adsorp...

  19. ESTIMATION OF THE TEMPERATURE RISE OF A MCU ACID STREAM PIPE IN NEAR PROXIMITY TO A SLUDGE STREAM PIPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-01

    Effluent streams from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) will transfer to the tank farms and to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These streams will contain entrained solvent. A significant portion of the Strip Effluent (SE) pipeline (i.e., acid stream containing Isopar(reg s ign) L residues) length is within one inch of a sludge stream. Personnel envisioned the sludge stream temperature may reach 100 C during operation. The nearby SE stream may receive heat from the sludge stream and reach temperatures that may lead to flammability issues once the contents of the SE stream discharge into a larger reservoir. To this end, personnel used correlations from the literature to estimate the maximum temperature rise the SE stream may experience if the nearby sludge stream reaches boiling temperature. Several calculation methods were used to determine the temperature rise of the SE stream. One method considered a heat balance equation under steady state that employed correlation functions to estimate heat transfer rate. This method showed the maximum temperature of the acid stream (SE) may exceed 45 C when the nearby sludge stream is 80 C or higher. A second method used an effectiveness calculation used to predict the heat transfer rate in single pass heat exchanger. By envisioning the acid and sludge pipes as a parallel flow pipe-to-pipe heat exchanger, this method provides a conservative estimation of the maximum temperature rise. Assuming the contact area (i.e., the area over which the heat transfer occurs) is the whole pipe area, the results found by this method nearly matched the results found with the previous calculation method. It is recommended that the sludge stream be maintained below 80 C to minimize a flammable vapor hazard from occurring

  20. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  1. Reasonable management plan of sludge in sewage disposal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Kyu Jin; Koo, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The compost method, which is widely used as a sewage disposal recycling in Korea, is now basically impossible to recycle sludge to compost by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry announcement. Therefore, the disposal of sludge will be much harder with reducing the amount of sludge used as compost. The amount of sludge other than using as compost is very small, so the development of various sludge recycling and use will be needed with regulations. This study was implemented to help the establishment of sewage sludge recycling policy in Korea. 30 refs., 17 figs., 58 tabs.

  2. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PORJECT -9225

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed ∼ 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of ∼ 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the 'Status of Chemical

  3. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R

    2009-01-06

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the &apos

  4. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, 'Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge'). The purpose of this technical

  5. Análise da biodegradação dos componentes do óleo cítrico por CG/EM e análise da população microbiana de um reator de lodo ativado no tratamento de água residuária de uma indústria cítrica Analysis of biodegradation of citric oil compounds by GC/MSD and analysis of the microbial population of an activated sludge reactor in the treatment of a citric wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Ponezi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Água residuária da indústria cítrica foi utilizada como objeto de estudo de biodegradação através de um sistema de lodo ativado por batelada. As análises realizadas por CG/EM mostraram que os compostos provenientes do óleo de laranja como o limoneno, foram resistentes a biodegradação. A avaliação microbiológica realizada no decorrer do período mostrou que o número e tipo de colônias bacterianas variaram de acordo com o tempo, e pode ser observada uma sucessão de microrganismos durante a biodegradação do efluente cítrico. O microrganismo identificado como LAB-9 (Pseudomonas struzieri e LAB-7 (não identificado prevaleceram durante todo o processo, sugerindo que estes são organismos importantes para remoção da matéria orgânica no processo ou são melhores adaptados ao tipo de água residuária. O sistema de lodo ativado foi eficiente na redução de DBO e DQO, alcançando valores de 79 e 78% respectivamente, num período de 15 h de reação, com uma relação F/M 4:2.Wastewater from citric industry was used to biodegradation study through an activated sludge system. The analyses accomplished by CG/MSD showed that compounds of the orange oil as the limoneno, was resistant to biodegradation. The microbiological evaluation developed during the biodegradation period showed that the number and type of bacteria present in the system varied according to the time, and a succession of microorganisms can be observed. The microrganism identified as LAB-9 (Pseudomonas struzieri and LAB-7 (not identified prevailed during whole the process, suggesting that they were the main responsible for the removal of the organic matter or the better adapted to the type of wastewater. The system of activated sludge was efficient in the reduction of DBO and DQO, reaching values of 79 and 78%, respectively, in a period of 15 h, with a relationship F/M 4:2.

  6. Forensic dentistry: 1. Identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A

    2007-12-01

    For many forensic dentists the identification of found human remains will comprise the majority of their case work. However, there is rarely a typical dental identification. The resilience of teeth and their supporting tissues to peri- and post-mortem assaults provides a wealth of information for those interested in the identity of the deceased. Chemical attack, burning, burial, submersion, and even severe head and neck trauma are all withstood by the dentition to an extent where identification is possible. The lack of a tentative identification or failure to locate dental or similar ante-mortem records is a more common reason for an odontological investigation to fail. The purpose of this review is to describe the techniques employed by forensic dentists to identify human remains and also to provide details of some of the novel developments within this area.

  7. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  8. Explosives