WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual service life

  1. Approaches for Modelling the Residual Service Life of Marine Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the service life design of existing reinforced concrete structures in a marine environment. The general procedure of condition assessment for estimating the residual service life of structures before a repair measure is illustrated. For assessment of the residual service life of structures which have undergone a repair measure a simplified mathematical model of chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system is presented. Preliminary probabilistic calculations demonstrate the effect of various conditions on the residual service life. First studies of the chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system have been conducted using the finite element method. Results of a long-term exposure test are presented to illustrate the performance of two different repair materials. The distribution of residual chlorides after application of a repair material is being studied in laboratory investigations. The residual chlorides migrate from the concrete layer into the new layer immediately after the repair material has been applied to the concrete member. The content and gradient of residual chlorides, along with the thickness and the chloride ingress resistance of both the remaining and the new layer of cover, will determine the residual service life of the repaired structures.

  2. Predicting current serviceability and residual service life of plywood roof sheathing using kinetics-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; P.K. Lebow; J.F. Murphy

    2002-01-01

    Research programs throughout North America are increasingly focusing on understanding and defining the salient issues of wood durability and maintaining and extending the serviceability of existing wood structures. This report presents the findings and implications of a 10-year research program, carried out at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, to...

  3. Determined analysis of safety, viability and residual service life on criteria of crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, Yu.G.

    1997-01-01

    Unified methods used in analysis of reliability, vulnerability, and residual lifetime of equipment with crack damage are considered, an increase in the desired lifetime is proven in the framework of vulnerability concept that allows crack developing with regard to the given level of reliability. The problem of reliability, vulnerability, and the lifetime is shown to be an interrelated problem. Optimal combination of the strength value, plasticity and resistance to crack developing results from the criteria of reliability and vulnerability based, in turn, on the principles of the mechanics of cracks. Structural features of technical systems can hinder the crack developing and prevent drastic damages of the equipment thus increasing the lifetime

  4. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  5. Predicting the residual life of plant equipment - Why worry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaske, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Predicting the residual life of plant equipment that has been in service for 20 to 30 years or more is a major concern of many industries. This paper reviews the reasons for increased concern for residual-life assessment and the general procedures used in performing such assessments. Some examples and case histories illustrating procedures for assessing remaining service life are discussed. Areas where developments are needed to improve the technology for remaining-life estimation are pointed out. Then, some of the critical issues involved in residual-life assessment are identified. Finally, the future role of residual-life prediction is addressed

  6. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  7. NPP service life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    2001-01-01

    Problems of NPP service life management and service life prolongation are reviewed. Methods for the prolongation of the French NPP service life are discussed, priority directions of nuclear block service life management in regard to aging in the context of the European program of investigation into the materials aging are identified. Questions of the provision of the 60 years service life of the Mihama 1 block (Japan) and decision of the problem of the control equipment aging in Great Britain are discussed. Situation with the prolongation of licenses on the NPP operation in the USA and Spain is considered [ru

  8. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  9. Residual life of technical systems; diagnosis, prediction and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses research related to residual life of non-repairable and repairable technical systems. Diagnosis of systems and extension of residual life of technical systems are also presented and discussed. This paper concludes that research published describing determination and extension of residual life as well as methods for diagnosis of non-repairable and repairable technical systems, is somewhat limited. Many papers have a rather pragmatic approach. The authors only describe special cases from their own plant and do not provide any explanation of a more academical nature. The other papers are mainly describing very specific applications of statistical models, leaving the more general case out of consideration. One of the main results of this paper is to point out these facts, and thereby identify the need for future research in this area

  10. A review of experimental methods for determining residual creep life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.J.

    1977-11-01

    Experimental methods available for determining how much creep life remains at a particular time in the high temperature service of a component are reviewed. After a brief consideration of the limitations of stress rupture extrapolation techniques, the application of post-exposure creep testing is considered. Ways of assessing the effect of microstructural degradation on residual life are then reviewed. It is pointed out that while this type of work will be useful for certain materials, there are other materials in which 'mechanical damage' such as cavitation will be more important. Cavitation measurement techniques are therefore reviewed. The report ends with a brief consideration of the use of crack growth measurements in assessing the residual life of cracked components. (author)

  11. Managing rail service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Popović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The service life of rails depends especially on the operational loads and speeds on the railway lines, as well as on the rail maintenance policy. There are multiple aspects of rail maintenance optimization. The following article considers optimisation of rail maintenance activities relating to rail head surface condition in order to reduce corrective work on track geometry, as well as to minimize the overall costs for track maintenance. The objects of this research are issues and challenges related to rail and track maintenance in curves on modern conventional railway lines for mixed traffic.

  12. Residual services and power increases for components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, W.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the moratorium in Switzerland work in nuclear power stations has been concentrating more on increasing capacity, reducing radiation levels to which personnel is exposed and extending the service life of existing plants. This has meant the requalification, repair or replacement of components and systems some of which have been in operation for more than 20 years. In addition to the classic role of manufacturer, the industry which acts as both supplier and manufacturer of these components also has to be the expertise holder, documentation pool and analysts. The examples described in this article show that close cooperation with operators leads to solutions which fully ensure the safe and successful operation of the plants, even in the second section of their service life. 4 refs

  13. Estimation of residual life of boiler tubes using steamside oxide scale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikrant, K.S.N.; Ramareddy, G.V.; Pavan, A.H.V.; Singh, Kulvir

    2013-01-01

    In thermal power plants, remaining-life-estimation of boiler tubes is required at regular intervals for a safer and a better functionality of boilers. In this paper, a new method is proposed for the residual life estimation of service exposed boiler tubes using Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Oxide scale thickness measurements, average metal temperature and creep master curve. While steady state conduction heat transfer equations are solved to calculate the average metal temperature, creep master curve is generated from short term stress rupture data of rupture life less than 5000 h on a virgin material. In the present study, the residual life of T22 (2.25Cr-1Mo) service exposed Platen Superheater tube is estimated using two master creep curves, i.e. Larson-Miller Parametric (LMP) method of standard ASME T22 creep data and Wilshire approach of short term stress rupture data of T22. As the residual life is calculated from fundamental conduction heat transfer theory and creep rupture data, the proposed method can be applied for different grades of boiler materials. -- Highlights: ► Residual life is calculated from non-destructive oxide scale thickness, creep master curve and average metal temperature. ► A new method is proposed for calculating residual life using above parameters and from conduction heat transfer principles. ► The method can be applied to different boiler grades for estimating residual life and hence the method is generic

  14. Child life services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jerriann M

    2006-10-01

    Child life programs have become standard in most large pediatric centers and even on some smaller pediatric inpatient units to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. The child life specialist focuses on the strengths and sense of well-being of children while promoting their optimal development and minimizing the adverse effects of children's experiences in health care or other potentially stressful settings. Using play and psychological preparation as primary tools, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might prove overwhelming otherwise. Play and age-appropriate communication may be used to (1) promote optimal development, (2) present information, (3) plan and rehearse useful coping strategies for medical events or procedures, (4) work through feelings about past or impending experiences, and (5) establish therapeutic relationships with children and parents to support family involvement in each child's care, with continuity across the care continuum. The benefits of this collaborative work with the family and health care team are not limited to the health care setting; it may also optimize reintegration into schools and the community.

  15. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline....... For the suggested model, some covariate effects are allowed to be time-varying. To estimate the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the large sample properties of the resulting estimators are established. In addition, to assess the adequacy of the model, we investigate a goodness...

  16. Semiparametric regression for restricted mean residual life under right censoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    is not observed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose the proportional restricted mean residual life model for fitting survival data under right censoring. For inference on the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the asymptotic properties...... of the proposed estimators are established. In addition, a class of goodness-of-fit test is presented to assess the adequacy of the model. The finite sample behavior of the proposed estimators is evaluated through simulation studies, and the approach is applied to a set of real life data collected from...

  17. Assessment of residual life of fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a loop type sodium cooled fast reactor and has been in operation since 1985. As a part of regulatory requirement for relicensing, residual life assessment had to be carried out. The systems are made of SS 316, and designed for creep and fatigue. The design life for creep is 100,000 h at 550°C. The design fatigue cycle for operation from shutdown to full power varies from component to component. In general, most of the components are designed for 2000 cycles. The reactor has operated mostly below the design temperatures. It is seen that enough creep-fatigue life is available for the non-replaceable, permanent components. The residual life was found to be governed by the residual ductility of the Grid Plate supporting the core after neutron irradiation. Fast flux measurements were carried out at the grid plate location. Samples were irradiated and tensile tested. Results indicate the allowable dpa for a 10% residual ductility criterion as 4.37. This gave a residual life of ~ 6 Effective Full Power Years for the reactor as of Feb 2012. Measures to reduce the neutron dose on the grid plate are being taken. (author)

  18. Residual life estimation of electrical insulation system for rotating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishtha, Y.D.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Verma, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Residual life assessment gains significance towards the end of designed life for granting plant life extensions and resource planning for costly equipment replacement. A critical review of all the diagnostic techniques presently used to assess either health of insulation system or to infer qualitatively the remaining life for rotating machines is presented. However more emphasis is required on developing quantitative methods. This paper also formulates the experimental plan for progressively censored ageing tests, measurement of partial discharge parameters, micro-structural study for delamination and electrical tree growth and measurement of electrical breakdown strength. Partial discharge (PD) patterns, electrical tree growth and time to failure data shall be taken as training set for the neural network learning which can be useful to predict residual life with only one candidate parameter i.e. PD patterns. (author). 9 refs

  19. Residual Fatigue Properties of Asphalt Pavement after Long-Term Field Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peide Cui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt pavement is widely used for expressways due to its advantages of flexibility, low cost, and easy maintenance. However, pavement failures, including cracking, raveling, and potholes, will appear after long-term service. This research evaluated the residual fatigue properties of asphalt pavement after long-term field service. Fatigue behavior of specimens with different pavement failure types, traffic load, service time, and layers were collected and characterized. Results indicate that after long-term field service, surface layer has a longer fatigue life under small stress levels, but shorter fatigue life under large stress levels. Longer service time results in greater sensitivity to loading stress, while heavier traffic results in shorter fatigue life. Surface and underneath layers present very close fatigue trend lines in some areas, indicating that the fatigue behavior of asphalt mixture in surface and underneath layers are aged to the same extent after eight to ten years of field service.

  20. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1998-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Preservation properties for the discrete mean residual life ordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Al-Babtain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove several preservation properties of stochastic comparisons based on the discrete mean residual life ordering d-MRL under the reliability operations of convolutions, mixtures. Fi…nally we introduce a discrete renewal process application

  3. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs

  4. Evaluation of creep residual life for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel based on Omega method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Isamu; Torihata, Shoji; Kihara, Shigemitu; Umaki, Hideo; Maruyama, Kouichi.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the accuracy of creep residual life prediction by the Omega method which is based on creep deformation, a series of creep tests on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were conducted at 500degC, 550degC and 600degC, and the Omega method was applied to the residual life estimation. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) There was a obvious linear portion, which corresponded to the tertiary creep, in the relationship between logarithm of strain and strain. So it was easy to define the Omega value as a gradient of linear portion. (2) It was proved that the Omega value depended on stress and temperature in such a way as it was the larger, the lower the stress and the lower the temperature. (3) By using the Omega value and strain rate which were determined experimentally, the residual life could be predicted within a factor of 1.5 at the stage of 50% and 80% of actual life. It was confirmed that the accuracy of this method was higher than that of the former method based on rupture time. (4) To apply this method to the residual life evaluation of operating plant materials, the Omega value has to be determined in the lower stress condition. So it is important to develop the extrapolation method of the Omega value based on the laboratory acceleration test to the longer service life. (author)

  5. Assessment of the Residual Life of Steam Pipeline Material beyond the Computational Working Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Sroka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of durability for the material of repair welded joints made from (13HMF 14MoV6-3 steel after long-term service, and from material in the as-received condition and after long-term service. Microstructure examinations using a scanning electron microscope, hardness measurements and creep tests of the basic material and welded joints of these steels were carried out. These tests enabled the time of further safe service of the examined repair welded joints to be determined in relation to the residual life of the materials. The evaluation of residual life and disposable life, and thus the estimation and determination of the time of safe service, is of great importance for the operation of components beyond the design service life. The obtained test results are part of the materials’ characteristics developed by the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy for steels and welded joints made from these steels to work under creep conditions.

  6. Residual life estimation of cracked aircraft structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimović, Mirko S.; Vasović, Ivana V.; Maksimović, Katarina S.; Trišović, Nataša; Maksimović, Stevan M.

    2018-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is focused on developing computation procedure for strength analysis of damaged aircraft structural components with respect to fatigue and fracture mechanics. For that purpose, here will be defined computation procedures for residual life estimation of aircraft structural components such as wing skin and attachment lugs under cyclic loads of constant amplitude and load spectrum. A special aspect of this investigation is based on using of the Strain Energy Den...

  7. Residual life assessment of thick wall boiler parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, M.; Rayatpour, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thick wall components of boiler, such as headers, main steam lines and hot reheat lines, operate at high temperature and stress condition. This condition makes various failure mechanisms to activate during service exposure that gradually deteriorate the microstructure of components. Consequently, knowing about metallurgical condition and remaining life sensitive components particularly in power plants with at least 100,000 her life time is of considerable importance. In this regard, to eliminate unexpected interruptions and reduce the repairing costs, life assessment technology is being used. Various life assessment methods have been developed for power plants components and entered industrial fields. In the present work, remaining life of drums, headers and main steam lines of a power plant were evaluated, using microstructural, hardness changes and dimensional checking methods with non destructive tests. The results show that, the components have appropriate condition according to their service life. Further more, it was revealed that hardness evaluation technique is not a reliable evaluation criteria and various methods should be used for accurate life assessment

  8. Estimating residual life of alloy 600 RPV penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.; White, G.A.; Pathania, R.; Arey, M.L.; Whitaker, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetrations PWR in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads has become a significant economic concern worldwide. PWSCC of these penetrations has led to extended maintenance outages, expensive inspections and repairs, and in some cases, replacement of the entire vessel head. This paper describes methodology developed to predict the remaining life of Alloy 600 penetrations in reactor vessel heads. Predictions of remaining life are an important input to planning models used by utilities to select a strategy for responding to the PWSCC issue at the lowest life cycle cost with an acceptably low risk of leakage. The remaining life of RPV penetrations is determined using the results of inspections of penetrations and statistical methods to predict future degradation. The analysis takes into account the effects of material properties, welding residual stresses, and operating temperature on PWSCC initiation and growth. The probability of developing cracks of various depths is assessed using Monte Carlo methods which provide for uncertainties in the input assumptions. For plants which have not yet performed inspections, remaining life predictions are based on inspection results from similar plants which have performed inspections with corrections made for known differences in design details, material properties and operating conditions

  9. The prediction of reliability and residual life of reactor pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Antalovsky, S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of PWR pressure components reliability and residual life evaluation and prediction. A physical model of damage cumulation which serves as a theoretical basis for all considerations presents two major aspects. The first one describes the dependence of the degree of damage in the crack leading-edge in pressure components on the reactor system load-time history, i.e. on the number of transient loads. Both stages, fatigue crack initiation and growth through the wall until the critical length is reached, are investigated. The crack is supposed to initiate at the flaws in a strength weld joint or in the bimetallic weld of the base ferritic steel and the austenitic stainless overlay cladding. The growth rates of developed cracks are analysed in respect to different load-time histories. Important cyclic properties of some steels are derived from the low-cycle fatigue theory. The second aspect is the load-time history-dependent process of precipitation, deformation and radiation aging, characterized entirely by the critical crack-length value mentioned above. The fracture point, defined by the equation ''crack-length=critical value'' and hence the residual life, can be evaluated using this model and verified by in-service inspection. The physical model described is randomized by considering all the parameters of the model as random. Monte Carlo methods are applied and fatigue crack initiation and growth is simulated. This permits evaluation of the reliability and residual life of the component. The distributions of material and load-time history parameters are needed for such simulation. Both the deterministic and computer-simulated probabilistic predictions of reliability and residual life are verified by prior-to-failure sequential testing of data coming from in-service NDT periodical inspections. (author)

  10. Service life prediction and cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklund Larsen, E.

    The present Ph.D.thesis describes and discusses the applicability of a systematic methodology recommended by CIB W80/RILEM-PSL for sevice life prediction. The report describes the most important inherent and environmental factors affecting the service life of structures of cementitious composites....... On the basis of this discription of factors and experience from a test programme described in SBI Report 222, Service life prediction and fibre reinforced cementitious composites, the applicabillity of the CIB/RILEM methodology is discussed....

  11. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  12. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-21

    Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation

  13. Residual fatigue life evaluation of rail at squats seeds using 3D explicit finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling procedure to predict the residual fatigue life of rail at squats seeds is developed in this article. Two models are involved: a 3D explicit Finite Element (FE) model to compute the stress and strain at squats in rail, and the J-S fatigue damage model to determine the residual fatigue life

  14. Cultural services remediated in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Danish Public Libraries conducted an experiment in establishing a library in the virtual world Second Life. The Info Island DK provided the framework for a number of online library services and cultural events. This study, based on interviews with most of the active participants...... in the project, discusses the experiences in remediating conventional library services into the new medium and in understanding and redefining the role of the librarian in an online virtual world....

  15. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  16. Software life after in-service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, M.; Eng, P.

    1993-01-01

    Software engineers and designers tend to conclude a software project at the in-service milestone of the software life cycle. But the reality is that the 'life after in-service' is significantly longer than other phases of the life cycle, typically 20 years or more depending on the maintainability of the hardware platform and the designed life of the plant. During this period, the software asset (as with other physical assets in the plant) continues to be upgraded to correct deficiencies, meet new requirements, cope with obsolescence of equipment and so on. The software life cycle ends with a migration of the software to a different platform. It is typical in a software development project to put a great deal of emphasis on design methodologies, techniques, tools, development environment, standard procedures, and project management to ensure quality product is delivered on schedule and within budget. More often than not, a disproportion of emphasis is placed on the issues and needs of the in-service phase. Once the software is in-service, the designers move on to other projects, while the maintenance and support staff must manage the software. This paper examines the issues in three steps. First it presents a view of software from maintenance and support staff perspectives, including complexity of software, suitability of documentation, configuration management, training, difficulties and risks associated with making changes, required skills and knowledge. Second, it identifies the concerns raised from these viewpoints, including costs of maintaining the software, ability to meet additional requirements, availability of support tools, length of time required to engineer and install changes, and a strategy for the migration of software asset. Finally it discusses some approaches to deal with the concerns. (Author) 5 refs., fig

  17. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-02-22

    Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these

  18. Analytical tools and methodologies for evaluation of residual life of contacting pressure tubes in the early generation of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rupani, B.B.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    In-service life of a contacting Zircaloy-2 pressure tube (PT) in the earlier generation of Indian PHWRs, is limited mainly due to the accelerated hydrogen pick-up and nucleation and growth of hydride blister(s) at the cold spot(s) formed on outside surface of pressure tube as a result of its contact with the calandria tube (CT). The activities involving development of the analytical models for simulating the degradation mechanisms leading to PT-CT contact and the methodologies for the revaluation of their safe life under such condition form the important part of our extensive programme for the life management of contacting pressure tubes. Since after the PT-CT contact, rate of hydrogen pick-up and nucleation and growth of hydride blisters govern the safe residual life of the pressure tube, two analytical models (a) hydrogen pick-up model ('HYCON') and (b) model for the nucleation and growth of hydride blister at the contact spot ('BLIST -2D') have been developed in-house to estimate the extent of degradation caused by them. Along with them, a methodology for evaluation of safe residual life has also been formulated for evaluating the safe residual life of the contacting channels. This paper gives the brief description of the models and the methodologies relevant for the contacting Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes. (author)

  19. Actual service life prediction of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Niels-Jørgen; Brandt, Erik; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability and life cycle cost in the construction industry have been given great attention in many countries due to the heavy climatic and environmental impact from this sector. In Denmark, a sustainability certification scheme for buildings has been developed including....... Finally, it is discussed how to adjust the model for practical purposes, and a scheme for actual service life for selected building components important for analysis of sustainability is linked. The schemes are now being implemented as basis for sustainability certification of new buildings in Denmark....

  20. Fatigue life prediction of oil ducts under service loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meggiolaro, Marco A.; Castro, Jaime T.P. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A methodology to calculate the residual initiation and propagation lives of fatigue cracks in oil pipelines with corrosion-like defects is proposed and applied to predict the residual life of an old duct made of API 5L Gr. B steel, in service for more than 40 years. Since its inauguration, this pipeline has carried several heated products under variable temperatures and pressures. The calculated (nominal) service stresses are very high, due to thermal loads that induce significant bending in curved parts of the duct, with peaks close to the yield strength of the steel. The elastic- plastic fatigue damage at a notch or a corrosion pit root is calculated using the {epsilon}N method, and the effects of surface semi-elliptical cracks in its internal (or external) wall is studied considering appropriate stress intensity factor expressions and the actual service loads. In the presence of surface flaws associated to stress concentration factors of the order of three, a fatigue crack likely will initiate in the pipeline. However, if these surface cracks are small compared to the duct wall thickness, their predicted propagation rates are very low. (author)

  1. Advances in through-life engineering services

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Rajkumar; Shaw, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This edited book offers further advances, new perspectives, and developments from world leaders in the field of through-life engineering services (TES). It builds up on the earlier book by the same authors entitled: “Through-life Engineering Services: Motivation, Theory and Practice.” This compendium introduces and discusses further, the developments in workshop-based and 'in situ' maintenance and support of high-value engineering products, as well as the application of drone technology for autonomous and self-healing product support. The links between ‘integrated planning’ and planned obsolescence, risk and cost modelling are also examined. The role of data, information, and knowledge management relative to component and system degradation and failure is also presented. This is supported by consideration of the effects upon the maintenance and support decision by the presence of 'No Fault Found' error signals within system data. Further to this the role of diagnostics and prognostics is also discusse...

  2. Service life optimization and extension of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornet, P.; Venturini, V.; Persoz, M.; Debost-Eymard, I.; Meister, E.

    1998-01-01

    In order to justify its power plants safety which conditions their service life, EDF uses a deterministic approach until now. A probabilistic approach also exists which has a decisive advantage because it quantifies risk and makes it possible to optimize maintenance volume. The application of this approach is illustrated on the case of a reactor vessel; a coupling between the Code Aster tool and a probabilistic analysis software is necessary. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretthold, J.K.; Stithem, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system

  4. A residual life prediction model based on the generalized σ -N curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongwen AN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate change rule of the residual life of structure under random repeated load, firstly, starting from the statistic meaning of random repeated load, the joint probability density function of maximum stress and minimum stress is derived based on the characteristics of order statistic (maximum order statistic and minimum order statistic; then, based on the equation of generalized σ -N curved surface, considering the influence of load cycles number on fatigue life, a relationship among minimum stress, maximum stress and residual life, that is the σmin(n- σmax(n-Nr(n curved surface model, is established; finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by a practical case. The result shows that the proposed model can reflect the influence of maximum stress and minimum stress on residual life of structure under random repeated load, which can provide a theoretical basis for life prediction and reliability assessment of structure.

  5. Relation Between Residual and Hoop Stresses and Rolling Bearing Fatigue Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Rolling-element bearings operated at high speed or high vibration may require a tight interference fit between the bore of the bearing and shaft to prevent rotation of the bearing bore around the shaft and fretting damage at the interfaces. Previous work showed that the hoop stresses resulting from tight interference fits can reduce bearing lives by as much as 65 percent. Where tight interference fits are required, case-carburized steel such as AISI 9310 or M50 NiL is often used because the compressive residual stresses inhibit subsurface crack formation and the ductile core inhibits inner-ring fracture. The presence of compressive residual stress and its combination with hoop stress also modifies the Hertz stress-life relation. This paper analyzes the beneficial effect of residual stresses on rolling-element bearing fatigue life in the presence of high hoop stresses for three bearing steels. These additional stresses were superimposed on Hertzian principal stresses to calculate the inner-race maximum shearing stress and the resulting fatigue life of the bearing. The load-life exponent p and Hertz stress-life exponent n increase in the presence of compressive residual stress, which yields increased life, particularly at lower stress levels. The Zaretsky life equation is described and is shown to predict longer bearing lives and greater load- and stress-life exponents, which better predicts observed life of bearings made from vacuum-processed steel.

  6. Indicators for functional service life of building structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, R.; Teuffel, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Estimated Service Life, ESL, is of a major influence in many building assessments. The comparison and optimization of design alternatives depend on the accuracy of this ESL. More and more the Functional Service Life rather than the Technical Service Life is decisive in how long a building can be

  7. A Model for Service Life Control of Selected Device Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieja Mariusz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a way of determining distribution of limit state exceedence time by a diagnostic parameter which determines accuracy of maintaining zero state. For calculations it was assumed that the diagnostic parameter is deviation from nominal value (zero state. Change of deviation value occurs as a result of destructive processes which occur during service. For estimation of deviation increasing rate in probabilistic sense, was used a difference equation from which, after transformation, Fokker-Planck differential equation was obtained [4, 11]. A particular solution of the equation is deviation increasing rate density function which was used for determining exceedance probability of limit state. The so-determined probability was then used to determine density function of limit state exceedance time, by increasing deviation. Having at disposal the density function of limit state exceedance time one determined service life of a system of maladjustment. In the end, a numerical example based on operational data of selected aircraft [weapon] sights was presented. The elaborated method can be also applied to determining residual life of shipboard devices whose technical state is determined on the basis of analysis of values of diagnostic parameters.

  8. The development of techniques for determining the residual life time prediction on NPP equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, Alexander V.; Dagaev, Alexander V.; Volnikov, Ivan S.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of determining the residual life prediction of NPP equipment is presently highly pressing. NPP residual life resources are 30 years, but for particular equipment it is much less. Thus, residual life resource for equipment of control and protection system of NPP unit is 5-10 years. The NPP equipment is expensive and its replacing requires much expense. Hence an urgent problem is to study residual life resources of equipment on the basis of statistic information obtained during operation. Deterministic approach of determining residual life resources for particular equipment is widely known in the literature. Physical and statistical models are also being developed for determining the residual life, e.g. the model (loading-bearing capability). The present work offers the techniques of the residual life determination reasoning from statistic information of functioning objects in the process of operation. To put the techniques into effect it is necessary to have information about the time of operation of a group of objects of the same type, the number of failures; it is desirable to know failure operating time, order of the object replacement and the reason which caused the replacement (failure or planned preventive maintenance). Metrics is based on studying the parameters for the series of failures resulted from real statistic data. Then we can proceed to distribution density of the failure working time. For this purpose the Voltarra's equation of the second order is solved f(t) = ω(t) + ∫ 0 t f(t - τ)ω(τ)dτ. Since statistics of data sampling related to failure is small due to difficulties in solution of Voltaire's equation, the authors offer moderate method of solution for the above equation. After distribution density of the failure working time is determined the calculation of equipment residual life is made by the following formula: T τ (t) 1/P(τ)∫ 0 ∞ P(t)dt. The proposed techniques are realised as the software. In the course of working

  9. Maintenance optimization and prognostics of residual life - A state of the art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystad, Bent

    2006-01-15

    In many industries a huge part of the daily operational costs are related to maintenance. One key function in cutting costs is in optimization of the maintenance efforts. A major task is to change the work culture and work processes from being repair oriented, with focus on repairing breakdowns, to being proactive and maintain critical parts/systems before failures occur. Estimation of residual life distributions is of great need to obtain an optimum preventive maintenance strategy. In this report two approaches for estimation of residual life are discussed. The first model assumes that the residual life follows a Weibull distribution where the parameters are dependent on expert judgement, inspection data, repair data, and technical health trends. The second model is based on a continuous time Markov chain. In maintenance optimization a quantitative approach like the mean residual life estimation is needed in addition to a qualitative approach like the Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) methodology to give support for e.g. optimization of the maintenance overhaul intervals.The use of residual life knowledge in opportunistic maintenance is also discussed.(auth)

  10. On residual stress prescriptions for fitness for service assessment of pipe girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao; Kim, Myung H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a detailed assessment of some of the existing residual stress profiles stipulated in widely used fitness-for-service assessment codes and standards, such as BS 7910 Appendix Q and API 579 RP Annex E, by taking advantage of some comprehensive residual stress studies that have recently become available. After presenting a case study on which residual stress measurements are available for validating finite element based residual stress analysis procedure, residual stress profiles stipulated in BS 7910 for pipe girth welds are selected for detailed evaluation by comparing residual stress distribution characteristics shown in parametric finite element results. A shell theory based full-field residual stress profile estimation scheme is then presented to illustrate how an improved estimation of residual stress profiles can be achieved in light of some of the deficiencies in BS 7910 and API 579 identified in this study. - Highlights: • Critically assessed girth weld residual stress profiles in major FFS Codes and Standards. • Identified deficiencies in relating to pipe geometry, heat input, and axial distance from weld. • Presented a shell theory based scheme for prescribing full-field residual stress profiles

  11. Evaluation of residual life of material of power plant construction elements after long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osasyuk, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Existing methods are analyzed for estimation of residual resource of elements of constructions, working in creep conditions. A suggested and experimentally verified new method of residual durability forecasting is described permitting the value of the supplementary resource to be specified according to the real state of the material after preoperation. Evaluation results are given for residual life of steam lines received by different methods and advantages of the technique proposed are shown. Reliability of the new technique is confirmed by steam line operation at thermal power plants

  12. Fatigue life estimation of welded components considering welding residual stress relaxation and its mean stress effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Ho; Han, Jeong Woo; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation on their fatigue strengths should be considered quantitatively, which are often regarded to be equivalent to the effects of mean stresses by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which is composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is proved that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  13. The prediction of the residual life of electromechanical equipment based on the artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskiy, Yu L.; Korolev, N. A.; Babanova, I. S.; Boikov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This article is devoted to the prediction of the residual life based on an estimate of the technical state of the induction motor. The proposed system allows to increase the accuracy and completeness of diagnostics by using an artificial neural network (ANN), and also identify and predict faulty states of an electrical equipment in dynamics. The results of the proposed system for estimation the technical condition are probability technical state diagrams and a quantitative evaluation of the residual life, taking into account electrical, vibrational, indirect parameters and detected defects. Based on the evaluation of the technical condition and the prediction of the residual life, a decision is made to change the control of the operating and maintenance modes of the electric motors.

  14. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Fatigue life estimation considering welding residual stress and hot-spot stress of welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. H.; Lee, T. K.; Shin, B. C.

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation have to be considered quantitatively which are equivalent to mean stress by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can be reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which are composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is confirmed that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  16. Subjective residual life expectancy in health self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2006-07-01

    Applying socioemotional selectivity theory to the domain of health, we examined the interplay of social-cognitive predictors of physical exercise in two groups of people who perceived their remaining lifetime as either expansive or limited (based on subjective longevity ratings). Individuals (N = 370) who were prescribed physical exercise were assessed at discharge from orthopedic rehabilitation as well as 6 and 12 months later. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed differences in latent means, interrelations of predictors, and amount of explained variance. Individuals who perceived their time as limited reported a less favorable profile on social-cognitive variables and less exercise goal attainment. We give first insights on how health self-regulation differs in these groups, and we discuss avenues for intervention based on socioemotional selectivity theory. In contrast to chronological age, subjective life expectancy can be targeted by intervention.

  17. Experience in determining the residual life expectancy of conventional thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1990-01-01

    A combination of computer analysis, degree of damage and approximate conversion to residual life expectancy gives acceptable results. There is considerable uncertainty in converting degree of damage to residual life expectancy, since structural component characteristics play a major role here. Structure damages play a major part in establishing the degree of damage. Damage categories are given, together with action if operations are to continue. Exhaustion calculations to TRD 508 are to be taken as conservative and as possible evidence of trends. 14 figs., 12 refs

  18. The effect of residual stresses induced by prestraining on fatigue life of notched specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeler, R.; Ozel, A.; Kaymaz, I.; Totik, Y.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of tensile prestraining-induced residual stress on the fatigue life of notched steel parts was investigated. The study was performed on AISI 4140 steel. Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on semicircular notched specimens with different notch radii in the as-quenched and tempered conditions. Metallography of the specimens was performed by means of light optical microscopy. The finite-element method was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution near the notch region. Fatigue tests revealed fatigue life improvement for notched specimens, which changes depending on the notch radii and applied stress. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the fracture surfaces of the specimens.

  19. Improved computation method in residual life estimation of structural components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Stevan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the numerical computation methods and procedures for the fatigue crack growth predicting of cracked notched structural components. Computation method is based on fatigue life prediction using the strain energy density approach. Based on the strain energy density (SED theory, a fatigue crack growth model is developed to predict the lifetime of fatigue crack growth for single or mixed mode cracks. The model is based on an equation expressed in terms of low cycle fatigue parameters. Attention is focused on crack growth analysis of structural components under variable amplitude loads. Crack growth is largely influenced by the effect of the plastic zone at the front of the crack. To obtain efficient computation model plasticity-induced crack closure phenomenon is considered during fatigue crack growth. The use of the strain energy density method is efficient for fatigue crack growth prediction under cyclic loading in damaged structural components. Strain energy density method is easy for engineering applications since it does not require any additional determination of fatigue parameters (those would need to be separately determined for fatigue crack propagation phase, and low cyclic fatigue parameters are used instead. Accurate determination of fatigue crack closure has been a complex task for years. The influence of this phenomenon can be considered by means of experimental and numerical methods. Both of these models are considered. Finite element analysis (FEA has been shown to be a powerful and useful tool1,6 to analyze crack growth and crack closure effects. Computation results are compared with available experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 174001

  20. Solid Propulsion Systems, Subsystems, and Components Service Life Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor

    2011-01-01

    The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.

  1. Residual life assessment of French PWR vessel head penetrations through metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, C.; Boudot, R.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.

    1994-01-01

    In September 1991, a vessel head penetration was found leaking at Bugey 3 plant during the hydrotest included in the framework of decennial In Service Inspections. Non destructive examinations performed afterwards on several other plants have shown some cracked penetrations. Destructive expertise confirmed quickly that again this new problem is related to stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 used as base material. During the last 15 years, similar cracking have been met in steam generator tubes and secondly in pressurizer instrumentation tubes. In spite of all the work performed since that time an extension appears to be necessary for explaining the features of this new event; however material sensitivity, stress and temperature still remain the key parameters governing the behavior of Alloy 600 in PWR environment. In this paper, only the material sensitivity of vessel head penetrations is examined through metallurgical analysis in relation with SCC tests. On the basis of vessel head field experience in combination with thermomechanical process used for fabrication of original bars criteria for a sensitivity ranking of penetrations are proposed. Metallurgical investigations and SCC tests were carried out to support this sensitivity ranking. The final aim is to use such information among those quoted above for assessment of vessel heads residual life. This document is an overview of the work performed in France concerning the material sensitivity of forged Alloy 600. It represents an important part of the assessments and investigations undertaken in France on the stress corrosion cracking phenomenon affecting the reactor vessel head penetrations in PWR's

  2. A residual life prediction model based on the generalized σ -N curved surface

    OpenAIRE

    Zongwen AN; Xuezong BAI; Jianxiong GAO

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate change rule of the residual life of structure under random repeated load, firstly, starting from the statistic meaning of random repeated load, the joint probability density function of maximum stress and minimum stress is derived based on the characteristics of order statistic (maximum order statistic and minimum order statistic); then, based on the equation of generalized σ -N curved surface, considering the influence of load cycles number on fatigue life, a relation...

  3. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement; Gestion de vida remanente. Mejora del mantenimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainero Garcia, J; Hevia Ruperez, F

    1996-12-31

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme`s subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  4. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.

  5. The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranius, Thomas; Hämäläinen, Aino; Egnell, Gustaf; Olsson, Bengt; Eklöf, Karin; Stendahl, Johan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sténs, Anna; Felton, Adam

    2018-03-01

    We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization

  6. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  7. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  8. Residual stress evaluation and fatigue life prediction in the welded joint by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Keun Bong; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2009-01-01

    In the fossil power plant, the reliability of the components which consist of the many welded parts depends on the quality of welding. The residual stress is occurred by the heat flux of high temperature during weld process. This decreases the mechanical properties as the strength of fatigue and fracture or occurs the stress corrosion cracking and fatigue fracture. The residual stress of the welded part in the recently constructed power plants has been the cause of a variety of accidents. The objective of this study is measurement of the residual stress by X-ray diffraction method and to estimate the feasibility of this application for fatigue life assessment of the high-temperature pipeline. The materials used for the study is P92 steel for the use of high temperature pipe on super critical condition. The test results were analyzed by the distributed characteristics of residual stresses and the Full Width at Half Maximum intensity (FWHM) in x-ray diffraction intensity curve. Also, X-ray diffraction tests using specimens simulated low cycle fatigue damage were performed in order to analyze fatigue properties when fatigue damage conditions become various stages. As a result of X-ray diffraction tests for specimens simulated fatigue damages, we conformed that the ratio of the FWHM due to fatigue damage has linear relationship with fatigue life ratio algebraically. From this relationships, it was suggested that direct expectation of the life consumption rate was feasible.

  9. Development of residual stress analysis procedure for fitness-for-service assessment of welded structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun; Dong, P.; Prager, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a state of art review of existing residual stress analysis techniques and representative solutions is presented in order to develop the residual stress analysis procedure for Fitness-For-Service(FFS) assessment of welded structure. Critical issues associated with existing residual stress solutions and their treatments in performing FFS are discussed. It should be recognized that detailed residual stress evolution is an extremely complicated phenomenon that typically involves material-specific thermomechanical/metallurgical response, welding process physics, and structural interactions within a component being welded. As a result, computational procedures can vary significantly from highly complicated numerical techniques intended only to elucidate a small part of the process physics to cost-effective procedures that are deemed adequate for capturing some of the important features in a final residual stress distribution. Residual stress analysis procedure for FFS purposes belongs to the latter category. With this in mind, both residual stress analysis techniques and their adequacy for FFS are assessed based on both literature data and analyses performed in this investigation

  10. Computational models for residual creep life prediction of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, G.S.; Singh, A.K.; Ramamoortry, M.

    2006-01-01

    All high temperature - high pressure power plant components are prone to irreversible visco-plastic deformation by the phenomenon of creep. The steady state creep response as well as the total creep life of a material is related to the operational component temperature through, respectively, the exponential and inverse exponential relationships. Minor increases in the component temperature can thus have serious consequences as far as the creep life and dimensional stability of a plant component are concerned. In high temperature steam tubing in power plants, one mechanism by which a significant temperature rise can occur is by the growth of a thermally insulating oxide film on its steam side surface. In the present paper, an elegantly simple and computationally efficient technique is presented for predicting the residual creep life of steel components subjected to continual steam side oxide film growth. Similarly, fabrication of high temperature power plant components involves extensive use of welding as the fabrication process of choice. Naturally, issues related to the creep life of weldments have to be seriously addressed for safe and continual operation of the welded plant component. Unfortunately, a typical weldment in an engineering structure is a zone of complex microstructural gradation comprising of a number of distinct sub-zones with distinct meso-scale and micro-scale morphology of the phases and (even) chemistry and its creep life prediction presents considerable challenges. The present paper presents a stochastic algorithm, which can be' used for developing experimental creep-cavitation intensity versus residual life correlations for welded structures. Apart from estimates of the residual life in a mean field sense, the model can be used for predicting the reliability of the plant component in a rigorous probabilistic setting. (author)

  11. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Butera, Stefania; Kosson, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens......Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis......, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system...

  12. Determining the residual lifetime for the main RBMK components in frame of life extension of power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, V.D.; Petrov, A.A.; Potapov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    At present time 11 power units of NPPs with RBMK reactors produce annually 140 billion kWh of electricity, which is about half of all electricity generated at Russian NPPs. Commissioned during the period of 1973 to 1990, they have the specified service life of 30 years. The power units have been regularly upgraded during operation to raise their safety and reliability. As the result now they meet modem requirements in terms of safety and their lifetime can considerably exceed their specified service life. The task of the plant life extension becomes more urgent. The main nonreplaceable RBMK reactor components that determine the reactor life, are graphite stack and metal support structures. The aging of these structures is monitored and the structures residual lifetime is predicted in accordance with procedures approved by regulatory authorities. The lead unit among all RBMK power units is Leningrad NPP Unit 1 commissioned in 1973. A complex of activities was performed for this power unit in 2002-2003 to prove the feasibility of its life extension. In terms of defining the residual lifetime of the reactor components, the activities were performed in three major areas: - examination of the state of the reactor structures; - materials studies of irradiated metal and graphite specimens in hot chambers; - performing the calculation and prediction evaluations. The results of examining the metal structures and studying specimens have shown that: 1)The metal and the welds do not have visible defects. The state of protective coatings is largely satisfactory. 2)The ultimate strength and hardness of steel have grown. 3)The brittle fracture transition temperature shift is at the allowable level. 4)The leak-tightness of the metal structures has not been violated. The results of the graphite stack examination have shown that the graphite is at the hardening stage. No tendency for deterioration of mechanical properties has been recorded. According to the results of measuring the

  13. End-of-Life Inventory Decisions of Service Parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pourakbar (Morteza)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWith the spurt of technology and innovation the life cycles of parts and products have become shorter and service parts enter their final phases earlier. Final phase of a typical service part starts once the part production is ceased and ends when the last service or warranty contract

  14. A procedure for evaluating residual life of major components in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Fujimori, H.; Ibe, E.; Kuniya, J.; Hayashi, M.; Fuse, M.; Yamauchi, K.

    1995-01-01

    A computer program for evaluating residual life of major components in boiling water reactors is proposed. It divides the stress corrosion cracking process into two stages; a probabilistic crack generation stage and a deterministic crack propagation one. The minimum period of the crack generation stage is evaluated assuming an exponential distribution of the stage. The crack propagation rate is calculated by the slip-dissolution/film-rupture model. The neutron flux and fluence dependence of the neutron radiation effects on material properties was evaluated by using theoretical models of radiation damage. The computer program works on an engineering work station. Evaluated results are displayed as a map of the residual life, or as graphs of crack length evolution

  15. Reliability residual-life prediction method for thermal aging based on performance degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shuhong; Xue Fei; Yu Weiwei; Ti Wenxin; Liu Xiaotian

    2013-01-01

    The paper makes the study of the nuclear power plant main pipeline. The residual-life of the main pipeline that failed due to thermal aging has been studied by the use of performance degradation theory and Bayesian updating methods. Firstly, the thermal aging impact property degradation process of the main pipeline austenitic stainless steel has been analyzed by the accelerated thermal aging test data. Then, the thermal aging residual-life prediction model based on the impact property degradation data is built by Bayesian updating methods. Finally, these models are applied in practical situations. It is shown that the proposed methods are feasible and the prediction accuracy meets the needs of the project. Also, it provides a foundation for the scientific management of aging management of the main pipeline. (authors)

  16. Residual Stress Estimation and Fatigue Life Prediction of an Autofrettaged Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyung Jin; Kim, Eun Kyum; Koh, Seung Kee [Kunsan Nat’l Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Fatigue failure of an autofrettaged pressure vessel with a groove at the outside surface occurs owing to the fatigue crack initiation and propagation at the groove root. In order to predict the fatigue life of the autofrettaged pressure vessel, residual stresses in the autofrettaged pressure vessel were evaluated using the finite element method, and the fatigue properties of the pressure vessel steel were obtained from the fatigue tests. Fatigue life of a pressure vessel obtained through summation of the crack initiation and propagation lives was calculated to be 2,598 cycles for an 80% autofrettaged pressure vessel subjected to a pulsating internal pressure of 424 MPa.

  17. Study on predicting residual life of elevator links by fracture mechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Helin; Zhang Yi; Deng Zengjie [China National Petroleum Corp., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China). Tubular Goods Research Center; Jin Dazeng [Xi`an Jiaotong Univ., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of investigation, failure and fracture analysis of elevator links, residual life prediction of links using fracture mechanics approach is studied, and mechanical properties, fracture toughness value K{sub IC} and fatigue crack propagation rage da/dN of the steel for elevator links are determined. Using the relation between stress intensity factor K{sub I} and the strain-energy release rate, the two-dimensional conversion thickness finite element method has been used to calculate the stress intensity factors K{sub I} for dangerous sections in the ring part of links. Furthermore, the reliability of calculations of the finite element stress intensity factors K{sub I} for dangerous sections of elevator links and the residual life computation for links are verified by fatigue tests of actual links. Finally, the experimental verification of computed results by 150T link fractured at site indicates that the computed critical crack lengths and residual life tally well with those measured and meet the needs of oil drilling.

  18. On changing points of mean residual life and failure rate function for some generalized Weibull distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, M.; Goh, T.N.; Tang, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The failure rate function and mean residual life function are two important characteristics in reliability analysis. Although many papers have studied distributions with bathtub-shaped failure rate and their properties, few have focused on the underlying associations between the mean residual life and failure rate function of these distributions, especially with respect to their changing points. It is known that the change point for mean residual life can be much earlier than that of failure rate function. In fact, the failure rate function should be flat for a long period of time for a distribution to be useful in practice. When the difference between the change points is large, the flat portion tends to be longer. This paper investigates the change points and focuses on the difference of the changing points. The exponentiated Weibull, a modified Weibull, and an extended Weibull distribution, all with bathtub-shaped failure rate function will be used. Some other issues related to the flatness of the bathtub curve are discussed

  19. Bayesian nonparametric inference on quantile residual life function: Application to breast cancer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taeyoung; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae Won

    2012-08-15

    There is often an interest in estimating a residual life function as a summary measure of survival data. For ease in presentation of the potential therapeutic effect of a new drug, investigators may summarize survival data in terms of the remaining life years of patients. Under heavy right censoring, however, some reasonably high quantiles (e.g., median) of a residual lifetime distribution cannot be always estimated via a popular nonparametric approach on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. To overcome the difficulties in dealing with heavily censored survival data, this paper develops a Bayesian nonparametric approach that takes advantage of a fully model-based but highly flexible probabilistic framework. We use a Dirichlet process mixture of Weibull distributions to avoid strong parametric assumptions on the unknown failure time distribution, making it possible to estimate any quantile residual life function under heavy censoring. Posterior computation through Markov chain Monte Carlo is straightforward and efficient because of conjugacy properties and partial collapse. We illustrate the proposed methods by using both simulated data and heavily censored survival data from a recent breast cancer clinical trial conducted by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Influence of service life on Life Cycle Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, H.; Hendriks, N.A.; Erkelens, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental assessment is part of present decision making. But, because of difficulties the assessments are not as profound as could be. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a cradle-to-grave approach and consequently a time factor is embedded. Until now this time factor is fixed and calculations are

  1. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  2. Through-life engineering services motivation, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrating the latest research and analysis in the area of through-life engineering services (TES), this book utilizes case studies and expert analysis from an international array of practitioners and researchers – who together represent multiple manufacturing sectors: aerospace, railway and automotive – to maximize reader insights into the field of through-life engineering services. As part of the EPSRC Centre in Through-life Engineering Services program to support the academic and industrial community, this book presents an overview of non-destructive testing techniques and applications and provides the reader with the information needed to assess degradation and possible automation of through-life engineering service activities . The latest developments in maintenance-repair-overhaul (MRO) are presented with emphasis on cleaning technologies, repair and overhaul approaches and planning and digital assistance. The impact of these technologies on sustainable enterprises is also analyzed. This book wil...

  3. The Service Life Evaluation for Concrete Structure of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Min; Kim, Seong Soo; Bae, Sung Hwan; Sik, Yoon Eui

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to the marine environment degrades the durability of concrete and shortens the service life of concrete due to degradation factors such as chloride, carbonation, freezing and thawing, sulfate. Therefore, many country's organizations like the Korea Concrete Institute (KCI), the American Concrete Institute (ACI), the International Federation for Structural Concrete (FIB), the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) which recognized the seriousness of this deterioration proposed equation models to evaluate the service life for the concrete structures. As a result, this paper is to especially consider the service life evaluation using these equation models for concrete structure of NPP in Korea compared with 60 years as a design service life. The concrete durability evaluation for Shin-Hanul NPP units 1 and 2 is carried out by using typically proposed assessment models in domestic and foreign standard. It is confirmed that the service life of concrete durability for each of deterioration factors is significantly higher than 60 years as a design service life. As a result, the study of combined deterioration for the concrete structures of NPP in future is positively necessary and maintenance control through regular monitoring should be conducted to secure safety margin basis

  4. Determination of Activated Carbon Residual Life using a Microwave Cavity Resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, A; Wylie, S; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Thomas, A; Keele, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the continuation of work conducted jointly between Dstl and LJMU. This unique body of work has been, largely, concerned with detecting the residual life of high performance filter materials using electromagnetic (EM) waves within a resonant cavity. Past work has considered both HEPA [1] and ASZM-TEDA[2] activated carbon filter materials. This paper continues the later work, considering the response of ASZM-TEDA activated carbon through the co-ageing of two distinct batches of the material. The paper briefly introduces activated carbon, discusses theory relevant to the work and the methodology used for investigation. A comprehensive set of results is included which seek to validate this technique for determining the residual lifespan of activated carbon.

  5. Student-Life Stress in Education and Health Service Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascavage, Victoria; Winterman, Kathleen G.; Buot, Max; Wies, Jennifer R.; Lyzinski, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the effects of student-life stress on Education and Health Service majors (n = 195) at a private, religious, Midwestern university in the USA, we assessed student perception of overall stress level and physical stress level using the Student-life Stress Inventory. The targeted sample consisted of students with…

  6. Service life and sustainable design methods: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc Duling, J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The design life of hospitals normally varies between 50 to 60 years. This paper presents a case study of a major academic hospital that reached the end of its service life only 30 years after commissioning due to a combination of unsustainable...

  7. Life cycle management of service water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, Geoffrey R.; Besuner, Philip M.; Mahajan, Sat P.

    2004-01-01

    As nuclear plants age, more attention must focus on age and time dependent degradation mechanisms such as corrosion, erosion, fatigue, etc. These degradation mechanisms can best be managed by developing a life cycle management plan which integrates past historical data, current conditions and future performance needs. In this paper we present two examples of life cycle management. In the first example, the 20-year maintenance history of a sea water cooling system (cement-lined, cast iron) is reviewed to develop attributes like maintenance cost, spare part inventory, corrosion, and repair data. Based on this information, the future expected damage rate was forecast. The cost of managing the future damage was compared with the cost to replace (in kind and with upgraded materials. A decision optimization scheme was developed to choose the least cost option from: a) Run as-is and repair; b) replace in kind; or c) replace with upgraded material and better design. In the second example, life cycle management techniques were developed for a ceilcote lined steel pipe cooling water system. Screens (fixed and traveling), filters, pumps, motors, valves, and piping were evaluated. (author)

  8. Extending the Service Life of Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendt, Ivan

    2018-03-01

    The cost of road construction and expenditures on the maintenance of pavements, i.e., their whole life cost, represents a lot of money. The paper describes a procedure for a pavement management system with degradation models and estimates the length of time for the rehabilitation of an asphalt pavement. Using a theory of pavement mechanics, we calculated the stresses and strains on the layers of two pavement models. High modulus asphalt concrete, an asphalt mix with a high binder content, and an asphalt mix with binder modifications are new road building materials. Prolonging the time for the rehabilitation of pavements is possible.

  9. DEPENDENCIES TO DETERMINE THE MEASURE OF DAMAGE AND CALCULATION OF RESIDUAL LIFE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE, EXPOSED TO SALT CORROSION

    OpenAIRE

    SAATOVA NODIRA ZIYAYEVNA

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the current method of determining the measure of damage of concrete and reinforcement. The proposed dependence measures of damage, convenient for use in predicting the life of structures superstructures.The practical method of calculation determination of residual resource of the exploited superstructures developed. The main source of data for calculating the residual life are the parameters defined by the technical diagnosis.

  10. Forecasts on service life by fracture mechanics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.

    1985-01-01

    The service life of many component parts can frequently be divided into the stages up to the formation of a crack and of crack propagation. This holds good of fatigue crack, stress corrosion crack, and also in many cases of creep. But often the crack propagation stage is the only one of interest for service life forecasts if cracks must be reckoned with already on putting parts into service. Cracks in welding constructions are typical examples. Crack- and -fracture mechanics deal with the laws underlying crack propagation and provide quantitative information on crack propagation behaviour. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Quality of services and quality of life from service providers' perspectives: analysis with focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, C; Vega, V; Flores, N; Cruz, M

    2013-06-01

    Concepts such as support, quality of life and quality of services are customary in services for people with intellectual disabilities. The identification of the different ways of conceiving, prioritising and implementing these concepts by service providers can help to drive changes to achieve better personal outcomes for this population. The current study aims to identify service providers' perceptions regarding the quality of life of their clients and the quality of services they provide. It also aims to identify similarities and differences of appraisals among professionals, and to identify associations between supports, quality of life and quality of services. Data were collected from 22 service providers who attended three focus groups (professionals, direct support staff, and managers) from whom 424 comments were analysed. Service providers were asked about the required support for users, the meaning of quality of life for those users, and about features that should characterise quality services. Thematic analysis was employed and transcripts of the sessions were coded according to the dimensions of models on supports, quality of life and quality of services. Chi-squared tests were utilised to test for potential differences among groups. Each professional group has its own priorities concerning required supports. Among the organisation different and potentially conflicting perceptions regarding the meaning of experiencing quality of life coexist. Concerning quality of services, only managers mentioned personal outcomes. Finally, institutionalisation has a negative impact on supports, quality of life and quality of services. It is necessary to move beyond a shared awareness of the negative impact of institutionalisation towards the transformation of services in search of personal quality outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  12. Quality of Services and Quality of Life from Service Providers' Perspectives: Analysis with Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, C.; Vega, V.; Flores, N.; Cruz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concepts such as support, quality of life and quality of services are customary in services for people with intellectual disabilities. The identification of the different ways of conceiving, prioritising and implementing these concepts by service providers can help to drive changes to achieve better personal outcomes for this…

  13. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The application of probabilistic fracture analysis to residual life evaluation of embrittled reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Simonen, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology on which current NRC regulatory requirements for pressurized water reactor vessel integrity evaluation are based. Computer codes such as OCA-P and VISA-11 perform probabilistic fracture analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability that occurs as the vessel material accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. The results of such analyses, when compared with limits of acceptable failure probabilities, provide an estimation of the residual life of a vessel. Such codes can be applied to evaluate the potential benefits of plant-specific mitigating actions designed to reduce the probability of failure of a reactor vessel

  15. The application of probabilistic fracture analysis to residual life evaluation of embrittled reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Simonen, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis is a major element of comprehensive probabilistic methodology on which current NRC regulatory requirements for pressurized water reactor vessel integrity evaluation are based. Computer codes such as OCA-P and VISA-II perform probabilistic fracture analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability that occurs as the vessel material accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. The results of such analyses, when compared with limits of acceptable failure probabilities, provide an estimation of the residual life of a vessel. Such codes can be applied to evaluate the potential benefits of plant-specific mitigating actions designed to reduce the probability of failure of a reactor vessel. 10 refs

  16. Residual creep life assessment by change of martensitic lath structure in modified 9Cr-1Mo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Kota; Takeda, Masaaki; Maruyama, Kouichi; Komine, Ryuji; Nagae, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel has a martensitic lath structure. Recovery of the lath structure takes place in the course of creep. Microstructural degradation due to the recovery results in the acceleration of creep rate and the subsequent failure of a specimen. Change of lath width during creep of the steel was quantitatively investigated to propose a residual life assessment methodology based on the recovery process. Since the steel was tempered at 1053 K, the lath structure is thermally stable at the testing temperatures (848 K - 923 K). However, recovery of lath structure readily takes place during creep, indicating that the recovery is induced by creep deformation. Lath width d increases with creep strain and saturates to a value d s determined by creep stress. The increase of d is faster at a higher stress and temperature. A normalized change in lath width, Δd/Δd s , was introduced to explain the variation of lath growth rate with creep stress and temperature. Δd is the change in lath width from the initial value d 0 , and Δd s is the difference between d s , and d 0 . Δd/Δd s is uniquely related to creep strain ε and the relationship is independent of creep stress as well as creep temperature. This Δd/Δd s -ε relationship obtained by an accelerated creep test at a higher temperature or stress is applicable to any creep condition including service conditions of engineering plants. Creep strain can be evaluated from the measurement of Δd/Δd s based on the Δd/Δd s -ε relationship. A creep curve under any creep condition can readily be calculated by creep data of the steel. Combining these information one can assess residual life of a structural component made of the steel. (author)

  17. Service life prediction and fibre reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklund Larsen, E.

    The present Ph.D.thesis addresses the service life concept on the fibre reinforced cementitious composites. The advantages and problems of adding fibre to a cementitious matrix and the influence on service life are described. In SBI Report 221, Service life prediction and cementitious somposites......, the factors affecting the pure cementitious composite are described. Different sizes and types of fibre reinforced crmentitious composites have been chosen to illustrate different ageing and deterioration mechanisms. Some ageing mechanisms can be accelerated and others cannot which is demonstrated in a test...... programme. Moisture, micro structural and mechanical properties were measured before, during and after ageing, with the purpose of giving a detailed "picture" of the materials during ageing....

  18. Service life prediction of exterior plastics vision for the future

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jon; Chapin, J

    2015-01-01

    This book defines the current state-of-the-art for predicting the lifetime of plastics exposed to weather and outlines future research needed to advance this important field of study. Coverage includes progress in developing new science and test methods to determine how materials respond to weather exposure. This book is ideal for researchers and professionals working in the field of service life prediction. This book also: Examines numerous consensus standards that affect commercial products allowing readers to see the future of standards related to service life prediction Provides the scientific foundation for the latest commercially viable instruments Presents groundbreaking research, including the blueprint of a new test method that will significantly shorten the service life prediction process time Covers two of the latest verified predictive models, which demonstrate realized-potential to transform the field

  19. Reinforcement Corrosion: Numerical Simulation and Service Life Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander

    defects and b) define the end of service life once reinforcement corrosion is initiated neglecting corrosion processes during the propagation stage. The goal of this work was to develop a framework for the service life prediction of reinforced concrete covering initiation and propagation of chloride......Modelling of deterioration processes in concrete structures plays an increasing role in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Large sums are spent every year to ensure the durability of concrete structures, especially towards reinforcement corrosion. Improved durability provides increased...... structural reliability, economical improvements in form of less need for maintenance and repair as well as increased sustainability due to an increased energy and resource efficiency. Several service life prediction models dealing with reinforcement corrosion in concrete structurescan be found...

  20. Analytical evaluation of the roller bearing service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsupov Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method has been developed for the design evaluation of the service life of roller bearings by the criterion of contact endurance of elements that does not require carrying out the experimental studies. It is based on the kinetic approach to the description of the solids destruction process and the theory of parametric reliability of machine parts. In contradistinction to the standard empirical dependence, which is currently used, the method allows one to take into account the effect of the material properties, and basic design and operational parameters on the service life. The results of the theoretical studies of the service life of roller bearing No. 212 (DIN 5412 T1 are presented for the quantitative assessment of this effect. They showed that the temperature-force loading conditions or material properties that were not taken into account might result in the prediction error of 1.5 or more times.

  1. Machine and component residual life estimation through the application of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, M.A.; Marwala, T.; Heyns, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the use of neural networks for predicting the residual life of machines and components. In addition, the advantage of using condition-monitoring data to enhance the predictive capability of these neural networks was also investigated. A number of neural network variations were trained and tested with the data of two different reliability-related datasets. The first dataset represents the renewal case where the failed unit is repaired and restored to a good-as-new condition. Data were collected in the laboratory by subjecting a series of similar test pieces to fatigue loading with a hydraulic actuator. The average prediction error of the various neural networks being compared varied from 431 to 841 s on this dataset, where test pieces had a characteristic life of 8971 s. The second dataset were collected from a group of pumps used to circulate a water and magnetite solution within a plant. The data therefore originated from a repaired system affected by reliability degradation. When optimized, the multi-layer perceptron neural networks trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and the general regression neural network produced a sum-of-squares error within 11.1% of each other for the renewal dataset. The small number of inputs and poorly mapped input space on the second dataset meant that much larger errors were recorded on some of the test data. The potential for using neural networks for residual life prediction and the advantage of incorporating condition-based data into the model was nevertheless proven for both examples

  2. Service Life and Maintenance Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Recent research in the area of assessment and maintenance of reinforced concrete bridge decks is presented in this paper. Three definitions of service lifetime are introduced and the difficult problem of assessing the service life is discussed. A stochastic modelling of corrosion and corrosion...... cracking is introduced and the site dependency of corrosion is stressed. Finally, a recently developed optimal repair strategy for bridges is briefly explained....

  3. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: the importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Butera, S; Kosson, D S; Van Zomeren, A; Van der Sloot, H A; Astrup, T F

    2015-04-01

    Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results of the study, recommendations are provided regarding the use of leaching data in LCA studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Butera, S. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kosson, D.S. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 1831 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Van Zomeren, A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Department of Environmental Risk Assessment, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Van der Sloot, H.A. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721 BV Langedijk (Netherlands); Astrup, T.F. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Relevance of metal leaching in waste management system LCAs was assessed. • Toxic impacts from leaching could not be disregarded. • Uncertainty of toxicity, due to background activities, determines LCA outcomes. • Parameters such as pH and L/S affect LCA results. • Data modelling consistency and coverage within an LCA are crucial. - Abstract: Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results

  5. Fracture mechanics and residual fatigue life analysis for complex stress fields. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.

    1975-07-01

    This report reviews the development and application of an influence function method for calculating stress intensity factors and residual fatigue life for two- and three-dimensional structures with complex stress fields and geometries. Through elastic superposition, the method properly accounts for redistribution of stress as the crack grows through the structure. The analytical methods used and the computer programs necessary for computation and application of load independent influence functions are presented. A new exact solution is obtained for the buried elliptical crack, under an arbitrary Mode I stress field, for stress intensity factors at four positions around the crack front. The IF method is then applied to two fracture mechanics problems with complex stress fields and geometries. These problems are of current interest to the electric power generating industry and include (1) the fatigue analysis of a crack in a pipe weld under nominal and residual stresses and (2) fatigue analysis of a reactor pressure vessel nozzle corner crack under a complex bivariate stress field

  6. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase...... layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals...... and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment...

  7. Effect of residual stresses induced by prestressing on rolling element fatigue life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    A mechanical prestress cycle suitable to induce compressive stress beneath the surface of the inner race of radially loaded 207-size bearings was determined. Compressive residual stress in excess 0.69 x 10 to the 9th power N/sq m (100,000 psi), as measured by X-ray diffraction, were induced at the depth of maximum shearing stress. The prestress cycle consisted of running the bearings for 25 hours at 2750 rpm at a radial load which produced a maximum Hertz stress of 3.3 x 10 to the 9th power N/sq m (480,000 psi) at the contact of the inner race and the heaviest loaded ball. Bearings subjected to this prestress cycle and subsequently fatigue tested gave a 10 percent fatigue life greater than twice that of a group of baseline bearings.

  8. Inspection procedure of buildings for the purpose of subsequent assessment of their residual life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers and asserts the need to obtain the results of inspection of a building at the stage of its commissioning in order to apply comprehensive methodology for assessing its residual life. The author proposes to build regression relationship by correlating the levels of the time series dynamics of stress at certain points of the object calculation scheme considering the results of subsequent surveys. It allows estimating the wear rate of structural elements. The assessment of the reliability and durability of the building frame in a deterministic form is based on the limit states method. The application of this method allows taking into account the random nature of not only the combination of existing loads, but also the strength properties of construction materials by creating a system of safety factors.

  9. Empirical likelihood based detection procedure for change point in mean residual life functions under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Ning, Wei; Gupta, Arjun K

    2016-05-01

    The mean residual life (MRL) function is one of the basic parameters of interest in survival analysis that describes the expected remaining time of an individual after a certain age. The study of changes in the MRL function is practical and interesting because it may help us to identify some factors such as age and gender that may influence the remaining lifetimes of patients after receiving a certain surgery. In this paper, we propose a detection procedure based on the empirical likelihood for the changes in MRL functions with right censored data. Two real examples are also given: Veterans' administration lung cancer study and Stanford heart transplant to illustrate the detecting procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Serviceability modeling : predicting and extending the useful service life of FRT-plywood roof sheathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2000-01-01

    One of the most, if not the most, efficient methods of extending our existing forest resource is to prolong the service life of wood currently in-service by using those existing structures to meet our future needs (Hamilton and Winandy 1998). It is currently estimated that over 7 x 109 m3 (3 trillion bd. ft) of wood is currently in service within the United States of...

  11. Life Cycle Characteristics of Small Professional Service Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, E.; van Montfort, C.A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Our study of professional services firms clearly revealed that firms change over the course of their life cycles. During the first three stages, diversification in sales, the differentiation in labor force, and the level of labor productivity increase. In the last stage, diversification in sales,

  12. Pre-Service Teachers in Second Life: Potentials of Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Jase

    2012-01-01

    An in-depth qualitative study with nine secondary pre-service teachers from an undergraduate "Language and Literacy" class was conducted to examine the potential of simulation using Second Life (SL) in teacher education. Games and simulations were operationally defined in the broadest sense to distinguish key characteristics between…

  13. Threats Management Throughout the Software Service Life-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlend Andreas Gjære

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Software services are inevitably exposed to a fluctuating threat picture. Unfortunately, not all threats can be handled only with preventive measures during design and development, but also require adaptive mitigations at runtime. In this paper we describe an approach where we model composite services and threats together, which allows us to create preventive measures at design-time. At runtime, our specification also allows the service runtime environment (SRE to receive alerts about active threats that we have not handled, and react to these automatically through adaptation of the composite service. A goal-oriented security requirements modelling tool is used to model business-level threats and analyse how they may impact goals. A process flow modelling tool, utilising Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN and standard error boundary events, allows us to define how threats should be responded to during service execution on a technical level. Throughout the software life-cycle, we maintain threats in a centralised threat repository. Re-use of these threats extends further into monitoring alerts being distributed through a cloud-based messaging service. To demonstrate our approach in practice, we have developed a proof-of-concept service for the Air Traffic Management (ATM domain. In addition to the design-time activities, we show how this composite service duly adapts itself when a service component is exposed to a threat at runtime.

  14. Effect of laser shock peening on residual stress and fatigue life of clad 2024 aluminium sheet containing scribe defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, M.; Toparli, M.B.; Smyth, N.; Cini, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Irving, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of laser peen intensity on local residual stress fields in 2024 aluminium. ► Peening induces significant changes in surface topography and local hardness. ► Residual stress at peen spot centre in tension, spot overlap in compression. ► Notched fatigue lives increased; crack morphology correlated to residual stress field. ► Large peening power densities can cause fatigue life reduction in notched samples. - Abstract: Laser peening at a range of power densities has been applied to 2 mm-thick sheets of 2024 T351 aluminium. The induced residual stress field was measured using incremental hole drilling and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Fatigue samples were subjected to identical laser peening treatments followed by scribing at the peen location to introduce stress concentrations, after which they were fatigue tested. The residual stresses were found to be non-biaxial: orthogonal to the peen line they were tensile at the surface, moving into the desired compression with increased depth. Regions of peen spot overlap were associated with large compression strains; the centre of the peen spot remaining tensile. Fatigue lives showed moderate improvement over the life of unpeened samples for 50 μm deep scribes, and slight improvement for samples with 150 μm scribes. Use of the residual stress intensity K resid approach to calculate fatigue life improvement arising from peening was unsuccessful at predicting the relative effects of the different peening treatments. Possible reasons for this are explored.

  15. ESTIMATION MODEL OF RESIDUAL LIFE-TIME OF LOCOMOTIVE FRAME BOGIE WITH ALLOWANCE FOR CREEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Skalskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of determining the residual life of frame bogie elements of locomotives is a great importance for predicting their work safely and avoidance potential failures on the track. This especially concern cases when such elements have creep-fatigue cracks which grow under action of cyclic loading with excerpts T1 in the cycle and reach their critical size. Here the question of the propagation of such defects (cracks arises, their kinetics and about the period of subcritical cracks growth. The aim is to develop a calculation model for determination the period of subcritical creep-fatigue cracks growth in the bogies frames of electric locomotive. The model takes into account the basic parameters of load, geometry of the construction element and cracks. Methodology. The calculation model for determination the period of subcritical creep-fatigue cracks growth in structural elements of frame under conditions of variable load time has been formulated. It is based on the first law of thermodynamics concerning to mechanics of solids slow fracture at low temperature creep and variable loadings. It is assumed that the period of unsteady creep dominates here (the first section of the creep curve. Low-temperature creep is creep of materials at temperatures T0 < 0,5Tmp, where Tmp − the melting point of the material. Findings. The analytical formula for the determination of the stress intensity factor of truck bolster with technological hole has been obtained. It is shown that by experimentally established constants of the material using the proposed analytical relations can easily determine residual resource of the bogie frame elements. Originality. The new mathematical model for describing the kinetics of creep-fatigue cracks growth in the frames bogies of electric locomotive under variable in time loadings with various time excerpts and on this base the period determination of subcritical crack growth has been proposed. Practical value

  16. On the change points of mean residual life and failure rate functions for some generalized gamma type distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mean residual life and failure rate functions are ubiquitously employed in reliability analysis. The term of useful period of lifetime distributions of bathtub-shaped failure rate functions is referred to the flat rigion of this function and has attracted authors and researchers in reliability, actuary, and survival analysis. In recent years, considering the change points of mean residual life and failure rate functions has been extensively utelized in determining the optimum burn-in time. In this paper we investigate the difference between the change points of failure rate and mean residual life functions of some generalized gamma type distributions due to the capability of these distributions in modeling various bathtub-shaped failure rate functions.

  17. Residual life assessment of overhead transmission lines 110 kV and above and determination of their reconstruction terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uteuliyev Bauyrzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is given a method for assessment the residual life of overhead transmission lines on reinforced concrete supports with centrifuged poles. Reinforced concrete poles of supports, wires and lightning protection cables are adopted as the main elements. The intensity of change in the actual state parameters of these elements is determined by the laws of random variables distribution that allow predicting the residual life and the timing of repairs and reconstruction of overhead transmission lines. The parameters of natural climatic conditions and other external factors are considered by including of coefficients into the formula for changing the actual state parameters.

  18. A Liquid work-life under public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    for staff, however, are only poorly understood in current theory and research on public service contracting through partial concepts and a tendency to focus merely on negative outcomes. Against this shortfall, the aim in this paper is to build a conceptually and empirically richer and more authentic account......A part of the reality behind public service contracting in Denmark as well as in many other countries is that a growing number of people are employed in uncertain and temporary conditions and relations in what can be characterized as ‘liquidized’ work-lives. This reality and its consequences...... of staffs’ work-life under public service contracting. The paper relies empirically on focus group interviews in two cases of staff transfers in public service contracting with different levels of liquefaction. it is found that staff transfer is a composite experience for staff with differential outcomes...

  19. Solid radioactive waste: evaluation of residual activity in nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabarse, Frederico G.; Xavier, Ana M.; Magalhaes, Maisa H.; Guerrero, Jesus S.P.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental programme to estimate, with a better degree of accuracy, the activity that remains adsorbed in flasks and syringes used in Nuclear Medicine Services for the administration of radionuclides to patients submitted to diagnostic or therapy is been conducted under the coordination of the Radioactive Waste Division of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN. The adopted recommendation in Brazil to allow an expedite solid waste management in nuclear medicine facilities, up to the present, is to consider that 2% of the initial activity remains adsorbed in the solid waste, which easily allows the calculation of the storage time to achieve regulatory clearance levels by decay. This research evaluates 17 different kinds of radiopharmaceuticals and three radioisotopes: 99m Tc, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Results obtained by means of a weighting method to estimate the residual mass in flasks show that the ratio of the mass of the liquid that remains in the solid waste to the mass of the empty flask is constant. This suggests that the residual activity depends on the initial activity concentration of radiopharmaceutical contained in each flask, as assumed by the regulatory body. Additionally, results obtained by determining the remaining activity in flasks, shortly after the injection of its radionuclide contents in patients, indicate that an average value for the residual activity of the order of 10% of the initial activity contained in the flasks or syringes should be adopted to determine the decay storage time before the release of solid waste in the urban conventional land fill disposal system. The 'rule of thumb' of 10 half-lives for storage before clearance is also discussed in the present work. (author)

  20. Evaluation of residual activity of solid waste generated in nuclear medicine services of Porto Alegre - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Ana M.; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Magalhaes, Maisa Haiidamus; Guerrero, Jesus Salvador Perez

    2008-01-01

    An experimental programme to estimate, with a better degree of accuracy, the activity that remains adsorbed in flasks and syringes used in Nuclear Medicine Services for the administration of radionuclides to patients submitted to diagnostic or therapy was conducted under the coordination of the Radioactive Waste Division of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The adopted recommendation in Brazil to allow an expedite solid waste management in nuclear medicine facilities, up to the present, is to consider that 2% of the initial activity remains adsorbed in the solid waste, which easily allows the calculation of the storage time to achieve regulatory clearance levels by decay. This research evaluates 17 different kinds of radio pharmaceuticals and three radioisotopes: 99m Tc, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Results obtained by means of a weighting method to estimate the residual mass in flasks show that the ratio of the mass of the liquid that remains in the solid waste to the mass of the empty flask is constant. This suggests that the residual activity depends on the initial activity concentration of radiopharmaceutical contained in each flask, as assumed by the regulatory body. Additionally, results obtained by determining the remaining activity in flasks, shortly after the injection of its radionuclides contents in patients, indicate that an average value for the residual activity of the order of 10% of the initial activity contained in the flasks or syringes can be adopted instead of the previously assumed 2%. It is suggested that the more conservative average value obtained in the present work for the activity that remains in flasks and syringes, that is, 10% of the initial activity, could be adopted to determine the decay storage time before the release of solid waste in the urban conventional land fill disposal system. (author)

  1. Bioethanol production from corn stover residues. Process design and Life Cycle Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, I.; Dinnino, G.; Braccio, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the mass and energy balance along with a land-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is described for a corn stover-to-ethanol industrial process assumed to consist of the main technologies being researched at ENEA TRISAIA: pretreatment by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. The modelled plant has a processing capacity of 60kt/y (dimensioned on realistic supplying basins of residues in Italy); biomass is pre-treated by acid catalyzed-steam explosion; cellulose and hemicelluloses are hydrolyzed and separately fermented; enzymes are on-site produced. The main target was to minimize the consumption of fresh water, enzymes and energy. The results indicate that the production of 1kg bio ethanol (95.4 wt%) requires 3.5 kg biomass dry matter and produces an energy surplus up to 740 Wh. The main purpose of the LCA analysis was to assess the environmental impact of the entire life cycle from the bio ethanol production up to its end-use as E10 blended gasoline. Boustead Model was used as tool to compile the life cycle inventory. The results obtained and discussed in this reports suffer of some limitations deriving from the following main points: some process yields have been extrapolated according to optimistic development scenarios; the energy and steam recovery could be lower than that projected because of lacks in the real systems; water recycle could be limited by the yeast tolerance toward the potential accumulation of toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the detailed process analysis here provided has its usefulness in: showing the challenging targets (even if they are ambitious) to bet on to make the integrated process feasible; driving the choice of the most suitable technologies to bypass some process bottlenecks [it

  2. Life cycle assessment of innovative technology for energy production from automotive shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Caterina; Masoni, Paolo; Salvati, Fabio; Tolve, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) is a problematic waste material remaining after shredding and recovery processes of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Its heterogeneous grain size and composition make difficult its recovery or disposal. Although ASR accounts for approximately 20% to 25% of the weight of an ELV, the European Union (EU)'s ELV Directive (2000/53/EC) requires that by 2015 a minimum 95% of the weight of an ELV must be reused or recovered, including a 10% weight energy recovery. The quantity of ASR is relevant: Approximately 2.4 million tons are generated in the EU each year and most of it is sent to landfills. This article describes a life cycle model of the "TEKNE-Fluff" process designed to make beneficial use of ASR that is based on the results of an experimental pilot plant for pyro-gasification, combustion, cogeneration, and emissions treatment of ASR. The goal of the research was the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to identify the environmental hot spots of the "TEKNE system" and use scenario analysis to check solutions to improve its environmental profile, supporting the design and industrialization process. The LCA was conducted based on data modeled from the experimental campaign. Moreover, different scenarios on shares of electricity and thermal energy produced by the cogeneration system and alternative treatment processes for the waste produced by the technology were compared. Despite the limitation of the research (results based on scaling up experimental data by modeling), impact assessment results are promising and sufficiently robust, as shown by Monte Carlo analysis. The TEKNE technology may become an interesting solution for the problem of ASR management: Besides representing an alternative to landfill disposal, the energy produced could avoid significant impacts on fossil resources depletion (a plant of 40,000 tons/y capacity could produce ∼ 147,000 GJ/yr, covering the annual need of ∼ 13,500 households). © 2015

  3. Computational Everyday Life Human Behavior Model as Servicable Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi

    A project called `Open life matrix' is not only a research activity but also real problem solving as an action research. This concept is realized by large-scale data collection, probabilistic causal structure model construction and information service providing using the model. One concrete outcome of this project is childhood injury prevention activity in new team consist of hospital, government, and many varieties of researchers. The main result from the project is a general methodology to apply probabilistic causal structure models as servicable knowledge for action research. In this paper, the summary of this project and future direction to emphasize action research driven by artificial intelligence technology are discussed.

  4. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Service Life Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses high-efficiency particulate air filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as bacteria filter elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. segment in the flight 4R assembly level. The preflight service life prediction of 1 yr for the BFEs is based upon engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS program resources. Testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are provided.

  5. Reliability and service life of wood structures and buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Service life of constructions and buildings of wood is dependent on temperature and moisture conditions in layers of the building cladding where the wood framework is built in. Temperature/moisture conditions or the corresponding equilibrium moisture content (EMC of the construction show considerable effects on the functional reliability of the whole building from the viewpoint of mechanical resistance and stability (ER1, energy savings and thermal protection (ER6 and hygiene, health and environment protection (ER3. To ensure the reliability of constructions and buildings for the period of their supposed service life a more profound analysis of constructions is necessary from the aspect of a global thermal/technical evaluation.

  6. Assessment of a residual life evaluation tool for gas turbine blades and vanes based on microstructural evolution of a NiCoCrAlY+Re coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbareschi, E.; Bonadei, A.; Costa, A.; Guarnone, P.; Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Life management of hot gas path components is a fundamental topic in gas turbine for power generation. The gas turbine components have to withstand severe service conditions in term of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and creep-fatigue. The resistance to environmental conditions is assured by metallic coatings of the MCrAlY family. {beta} phase, NiAl, present as secondary phase, is the source of protection against oxidation. Among MCrAlY coatings, NiCoCrAlY + Re have a complex microstructure with a higher number of phases than the standard ones; these phases are subjected to transformations during service. The addition of Re is effective against the diffusion of protective elements, as Al and Cr, toward the base material. For the estimation of residual life a first approach has been developed using the decrease of {beta} phase amount after static oxidation test at high temperature and for long time. This type of prediction tool is not complete for the assessment of the hot gas path components life management and a deep study focused on the transformation of the other phases is necessary. Experimental tests have been performed to identify the phase stability range by annealing at different temperatures and durations. Moreover after static oxidation tests a systematic data collection of phase evolution has been carried out through EDS, XRD and EBSD techniques in order to define the kinetic laws that rule the phase transformations. The tuning of thermodynamic and kinetic results allows to build up another residual life tool that, even if it is more complex, is more reliable in temperature evaluation in GT components. Both models have been applied to a component after service and a comparison between the different models evaluation has been conducted. (orig.)

  7. Service life evaluation of non-metallic containment seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    A Service Life Evaluation Program (SLEP) was successfully completed for expansion joint seals used in the pressure relief duct of Pickering NGS, an eight unit CANDU station. These seals are part of the containment boundary, are difficult to replace and then only during station outages which are scheduled at ten year intervals. The SLEP, consisting of an accelerated aging program and a qualification test, was undertaken to determine the service life of the seals such that they would be capable of remaining functional following a combination of service life, a design basis accident and a subsequent seismic event. The Arrhenius model of aging was used for the accelerated aging program. Samples of seal material were subjected to oven aging at five temperatures, 150, 160, 170, 180 and 190 deg C. Tensile properties and hardness were measured at various aging times and Arrhenius plots constructed. Based on changes in elongation, activation energies of 1.2 eV and 1.1 eV were calculated for the reinforcing fabric and the silicone cover rubber, respectively. Hardness measurements were also taken but as expected, no precise quantitative aging relationship could be determined from material hardness. For the qualification test a representative length of seal was installed and field-spliced in a test frame built to simulate the installed configuration of the seal. It then underwent accelerated aging equivalent to the service life, followed by LOCA irradiation exposure to LOCA conditions of humidity, temperature and pressure and a design-basis seismic event. Finally, a pressure test to approximately five times design pressure was successfully performed to demonstrate the remaining margin of safety. Periodic air leakage tests indicated no deterioration in sealing performance and no physical deterioration was apparent. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Reliability and service life of wood structures and buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeňka Havířová; Pavel Kubů

    2005-01-01

    Service life of constructions and buildings of wood is dependent on temperature and moisture conditions in layers of the building cladding where the wood framework is built in. Temperature/moisture conditions or the corresponding equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the construction show considerable effects on the functional reliability of the whole building from the viewpoint of mechanical resistance and stability (ER1), energy savings and thermal protection (ER6) and hygiene, health and e...

  9. Probabilistic residual life assessment of high temperature pipings in nuclear power plants against creep fatigue damage: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Residual life assessment of components of nuclear power plants is essential for their operational safety, reliability and financial viability. The high risks involved in the event of failures in nuclear power plants have led to the development of design philosophies that incorporate extreme conservatism in design. The implications of such conservatism in design leads to more frequent maintenance operations than necessary

  10. Tools for in service monitoring and testing of riser to prevent failure and extend service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Haakon; Bondevik, Jon Olav; Skjerve, Haavard; Tveit, Oeyvind [SeaFlex AS, Asker (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Exploration and development of new oil and gas fields is heavily dependant on use of flexible pipes and many field developments would not have been possible without them. The number of flexible risers in service is constantly increasing since relatively few offshore projects have reached the estimated operational life and the operational lifetime of several fields in-service has been extended due to new and improved technology. Many risers have been in service over a large number of years. Some risers have been operated under demanding conditions such as severe dynamic loads, high pressure and temperatures. One may in some cases find that risers actually have shorter service life than estimated in the design phase due to the severe operational conditions. In order to extend the use of the riser, some risers may have to be modified and re-terminated and prepared for a new and less demanding application. In order to operate risers safely, it is important to re-assess the fatigue life in order to prevent potential riser failure. The operator should implement methods and tools for in-service monitoring and testing. This paper addresses efficient and reliable methods and tools for monitoring of critical operational parameters as well as in-service riser testing. A brief description of structural failure modes will also be given in order to understand how to interpret test results in view of potential failure modes. (author)

  11. Reactor coolant pump service life evaluation for current life cycle optimization and license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshuk, B.W.; Berto, D.S.; Robles, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of the plant life cycle management and license renewal program, Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG and E) has completed a service life evaluation of their reactor coolant pumps, funded jointly by EPRI and performed by ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power. Two of the goals of the BG and E plant life cycle management and license renewal program, and of this current evaluation, are to identify actions which would optimize current plant operation, and ensure that license renewal remains a viable option. The reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) at BG and E's Calvert Cliffs Units 1 and 2 are Byron Jackson pumps with a diffuser and a single suction. This pump design is also used in many other nuclear plants. The RCP service life evaluation assessed the effect of all plausible age-related degradation mechanisms (ARDMs) on the RCP components. Cyclic fatigue and thermal embrittlement were two ARDMs identified as having a high potential to limit the service life of the pump case. The pump case is a primary pressure boundary component. Hence, ensuring its continued structural integrity is important

  12. Development project for a residual life evaluation system in LWR NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervia, F.; Francia, L.

    1995-01-01

    Economic and safety factors have stimulated the interest of Spanish NPPs towards the optimisation of NPP Residual Life Management, and consequently the need to have access to tools to support such management. This requirement has been the subject of a project, the main objectives of which are the identification of the most significant ageing factors in NPPs and their corresponding parameters, and the development of an associated integrated monitoring system. Work on the project was started by UNESA in September 1992 and is partly financed from PIE funds. This paper gives a general description of the objectives and activities of Phase 1, the Definition of the Core Project, which is nearing completion, and Phase 2, the Application of the Integrated System in a Pilot Plant. Phase 1 has confirmed the technical feasibility of the system and its suitability as a tool for the continuous evaluation of the plant condition. Furthermore, it has raised issues of great interest to NPPs. The results and conclusions of Phase 1 are currently being used to define the most suitable scope for the development and implementation of the system in the pilot plant (Phase 2), so that all the main functions of the system are tested without incurring unnecessary costs

  13. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam

    2015-05-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonparametric Bayesian inference for mean residual life functions in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor, Valerie; Kottas, Athanasios

    2018-01-19

    Modeling and inference for survival analysis problems typically revolves around different functions related to the survival distribution. Here, we focus on the mean residual life (MRL) function, which provides the expected remaining lifetime given that a subject has survived (i.e. is event-free) up to a particular time. This function is of direct interest in reliability, medical, and actuarial fields. In addition to its practical interpretation, the MRL function characterizes the survival distribution. We develop general Bayesian nonparametric inference for MRL functions built from a Dirichlet process mixture model for the associated survival distribution. The resulting model for the MRL function admits a representation as a mixture of the kernel MRL functions with time-dependent mixture weights. This model structure allows for a wide range of shapes for the MRL function. Particular emphasis is placed on the selection of the mixture kernel, taken to be a gamma distribution, to obtain desirable properties for the MRL function arising from the mixture model. The inference method is illustrated with a data set of two experimental groups and a data set involving right censoring. The supplementary material available at Biostatistics online provides further results on empirical performance of the model, using simulated data examples. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Cumulative damage and estimation of residual life in metallic alloys under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, T.L. da.

    1980-07-01

    The mechanical behavior and fracture characteristics have been determined for a group of materials tested under conditions of creep, and the ability of various models detailed in the literature to describe these observed characteristics discussed. The parametric methods employed in formulating the indices which define the allowable stresses for design codes have been analysed, and a method of Minimum Standard Deviation (MSD) for construction of reference curves has been proposed. The constitutive equations used in the methods of analysis of creep stresses have been discussed. Finally, the accumulated damage by creep in a particular structure which had been in extended service has been characterized and, based on these observations, the methods for estimation of remaining life in industrial equipment have been analysed. (Author) [pt

  16. Fatigue life evaluation based on welding residual stress relaxation and notch strain approach for cruciform welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Woo; Han, Seung Ho; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue strength of welded joint is influenced by the welding residual stress which is relaxed depending on local stress distributed in vicinity of stress raisers, eg. under cut, overlap and blow hole. To evaluate its fatigue life the geometry of the stress raisers and the welding residual stress should be taken into account. The several methods based on notch strain approach have been proposed in order to consider the two factors above mentioned. These methods, however, have shown considerable differences between analytical and experimental results. It is due to the fact that the amount of the relaxed welding residual stress evaluated by the cyclic stress-strain relationship do not correspond with that occurred in reality. In this paper the residual stress relaxation model based on experimental results was used in order to reduce the discrepancy of the estimated amount of the relaxed welding residual stress. Under an assumption of the superimposition of the relaxed welding residual stress and the local stress, a modified notch strain approach was proposed and verified to the cruciform welded joint

  17. Identifying profiles of service users in housing services and exploring their quality of life and care needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitter, N.A.; Roeg, D.P.K.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Van Weeghel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Housing services aim to support people with mental illness in their daily life and recovery. As the level of recovery differs between service users, the quality of life and care needs also might vary. However, the type and amount of care and support that service users receive do not

  18. Effective technical service in the life cycle of heavy dumpers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Валерійович Помазков

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the known systems of technical reliability of heavy dumpers functionality has been made. It has been stated that the previously proposed methods to determine the optimal service life of heavy-duty dumpers are not effective enough and do not take into account the whole range of factors specific to the operation of heavy dumpers in the current economic realities of industrial enterprises. Based on the analysis results, a mechanism of determining the optimal service life of heavy-duty dumpers and their constituent technical systems ensuring the operational reliability of heavy-duty dumpers has been offered. The article takes into account the analysis of resource factors, general description of system logistic tasks, the main provisions of serviceability, the resource forming in route charts at ore mining and metallurgical enterprises, the use of theoretical developments in practice. Heavy dumpers generalized description modelling shown in the article, the principle of resource use by using interchangable work at different intensity routes has received confirmation in the dumpers’ work schedule

  19. Residual strength and crack propagation tests on C-130 airplane center wings with service-imposed fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.

  20. Quality of life evaluation of workers for diagnostic radiology services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Ivani Martins

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of diagnostic radiology services workers at a hospital of Sao Paulo city. It aimed also to draw the profile of these workers identifying the variables, as its influence on their quality of life. A descriptive exploratory study with qualitative and quantitative approaches was carried out. The data were collected using the questionnaires: the abbreviated instrument for the assessment of the QOL, World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument bref (WHOQOL-bref) and a questionnaire including the social demographic variables, work conditions and the variables that express the lifestyle of individuals, both questionnaires self-applied. The sample was formed by 118 workers, among them: physicians, technologists/technicians in radiology, nurses, technicians and assistants in nursing, and others health professionals. The data analysis included descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and the use of a linear regression model. The reliability of the instrument for the studied sample was verified by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient (α). The WHOQOL-bref proved to be an adequate instrument, with a good level of internal consistency (α=0.884), being easily and quickly administrated for the evaluation of the QOL. The study provided an overview of the perception of quality of life of the studied group. (author)

  1. Cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of syngas electricity from woody biomass residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Bergman

    2017-01-01

    Forest restoration and fire suppression activities in the western United States have resulted in large volumes of low-to-no value residues. An environmental assessment would enable greater use while maintaining environmental sustainability of these residues for energy products. One internationally accepted sustainable metric tool that can assess environmental impacts...

  2. Lifestyle risk factors and residual life expectancy at age 40: a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanrong; Hüsing, Anika; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-04-07

    Cigarette smoking, adiposity, unhealthy diet, heavy alcohol drinking and physical inactivity together are associated with about half of premature deaths in Western populations. The aim of this study was to estimate their individual and combined impacts on residual life expectancy (RLE). Lifestyle and mortality data from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort, comprising 22,469 German adults ≥40 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at recruitment (1994-1998), were analyzed with multivariable Gompertz proportional hazards models to predict lifetime survival probabilities given specific baseline status of lifestyle risk factors. The life table method was then used to estimate the RLEs. For 40-year-old adults, the most significant loss of RLE was associated with smoking (9.4 [95% confidence interval: 8.3, 10.6] years for male and 7.3 [6.0, 8.9] years for female heavy smokers [>10 cigarettes/day]; 5.3 [3.6, 7.1] years for men and 5.0 [3.2, 6.6] years for women smoking ≤10 cigarettes/day). Other lifestyle risk factors associated with major losses of RLE were low body mass index (BMI 4 drinks/day, 3.1 [1.9, 4.0] years for men), and high processed/red meat consumption (≥120 g/day, 2.4 [1.0, 3.9] years for women). The obesity-associated loss of RLE was stronger in male never smokers, while the loss of RLE associated with low BMI was stronger in current smokers. The loss of RLE associated with low leisure time physical activity was moderate for women (1.1 [0.05, 2.1] years) and negligible for men (0.4 [-0.3, 1.2] years). The combined loss of RLE for heavy smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol drinking and high processed/red meat consumption, versus never smoking, optimal BMI (22.5 to 24.9), no/light alcohol drinking and low processed/red meat consumption, was 17.0 years for men and 13.9 years for women. Promoting healthy lifestyles, particularly no cigarette smoking and maintaining healthy body weight, should be the core component of public health approaches to

  3. mORCA: ubiquitous access to life science web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Del-Pino, Sergio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Falgueras, Juan

    2018-01-16

    Technical advances in mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets have produced an extraordinary increase in their use around the world and have become part of our daily lives. The possibility of carrying these devices in a pocket, particularly mobile phones, has enabled ubiquitous access to Internet resources. Furthermore, in the life sciences world there has been a vast proliferation of data types and services that finish as Web Services. This suggests the need for research into mobile clients to deal with life sciences applications for effective usage and exploitation. Analysing the current features in existing bioinformatics applications managing Web Services, we have devised, implemented, and deployed an easy-to-use web-based lightweight mobile client. This client is able to browse, select, compose parameters, invoke, and monitor the execution of Web Services stored in catalogues or central repositories. The client is also able to deal with huge amounts of data between external storage mounts. In addition, we also present a validation use case, which illustrates the usage of the application while executing, monitoring, and exploring the results of a registered workflow. The software its available in the Apple Store and Android Market and the source code is publicly available in Github. Mobile devices are becoming increasingly important in the scientific world due to their strong potential impact on scientific applications. Bioinformatics should not fall behind this trend. We present an original software client that deals with the intrinsic limitations of such devices and propose different guidelines to provide location-independent access to computational resources in bioinformatics and biomedicine. Its modular design makes it easily expandable with the inclusion of new repositories, tools, types of visualization, etc.

  4. Two-Stage Residual Inclusion Estimation in Health Services Research and Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terza, Joseph V

    2018-06-01

    Empirical analyses in health services research and health economics often require implementation of nonlinear models whose regressors include one or more endogenous variables-regressors that are correlated with the unobserved random component of the model. In such cases, implementation of conventional regression methods that ignore endogeneity will likely produce results that are biased and not causally interpretable. Terza et al. (2008) discuss a relatively simple estimation method that avoids endogeneity bias and is applicable in a wide variety of nonlinear regression contexts. They call this method two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI). In the present paper, I offer a 2SRI how-to guide for practitioners and a step-by-step protocol that can be implemented with any of the popular statistical or econometric software packages. We introduce the protocol and its Stata implementation in the context of a real data example. Implementation of 2SRI for a very broad class of nonlinear models is then discussed. Additional examples are given. We analyze cigarette smoking as a determinant of infant birthweight using data from Mullahy (1997). It is hoped that the discussion will serve as a practical guide to implementation of the 2SRI protocol for applied researchers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Stator winding service life analysis of wet winding motor RCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh Eingyee; Li Linsen; Wang Ziguan; Shen Feng

    2017-01-01

    The reactor coolant pump type RUV of KSB is specially designed for the Westinghouse AP1000 reactor. It is hermetically sealed, wet winding motor pump. This wet winding motor concept has higher efficiency as compared to a canned motor since there are no eddy current losses, but this makes the stator cable insulator face the challenge of degradation by γ-irradiation in coolant. Radiation dose at the RUV is evaluated in interest from the material degradation point of view and the service life of stator winding in RUV is preliminarily analyzed. The values obtained are less than the dose rate and the dose which change the mechanical properties of the insulator material. According to the preliminary analysis, it can be concluded that the degradation of cable insulator of stator winding by γ-irradiation in coolant is negligible for the 60 years' service life of reactor coolant pump. This result also ensures crosslinked polyethylene used as cable insulator of stator winding is reliable in reactor coolant pump. (author)

  6. Residual stress analysis in linear friction welded in-service Inconel 718 superalloy via neutron diffraction and contour method approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M. [University of British Columbia – Okanagan, School of Engineering, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, Canada V1V 1V7 (Canada); Levesque, J.-B. [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Québec (IREQ), 1800 Lionel-Boulet Blvd., Varennes, Canada J3X 1S1 (Canada); Bichler, L., E-mail: lukas.bichler@ubc.ca [University of British Columbia – Okanagan, School of Engineering, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, Canada V1V 1V7 (Canada); Sediako, D. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Building 459, Station 18, Chalk River, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Gholipour, J.; Wanjara, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Aerospace 5145 Decelles Ave., Montreal, Canada H3T 2B2 (Canada)

    2017-04-13

    In this study, an analysis of elastic residual stress in Inconel{sup ®} 718 (IN 718) linear friction welds (LFWs) was carried out. In particular, the suitability of LFW for manufacturing and repair of aero engine components was emulated by joining virgin and in-service (extracted from a turbine disk) materials. The evolution in the residual strains and stresses in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and dynamically recrystallized zone (DRX) of the weld was characterized using the neutron diffraction and contour methods. The results provided insight into diverse challenges in quantitative analysis of residual stresses in welded IN 718 using diffraction techniques. Specifically, judicious selection of the beam width, height and stress-free lattice spacing were seen to be crucial to minimize measurement error and increase accuracy. Further, the contour method – a destructive technique relying on capturing the stress relaxation after electrical discharge machining – was used to characterize the residual stress distribution on two-dimensional plane sections of the welds. Both techniques suggested an increasing magnitude of residual stress originating from the base metal that reached a peak at the weld interface. Both methods indicated that the peak magnitude of residual stresses were below the yield stress of IN 718.

  7. Combined cycle power plants: A comparison between two different dynamic models to evaluate transient behaviour and residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benato, Alberto; Stoppato, Anna; Bracco, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two procedures aimed at simulating the dynamic behaviour of power plants are compared. • They both are aimed at predicting the residual life of plant devices. • A single pressure gas-steam combined plant has been modelled. • A good correspondence has been found despite the different approaches used. - Abstract: The deregulated energy market and the increasing quota of electrical capacity covered by non-predictable renewable sources require strongly irregular and discontinuous operation of thermoelectric plants to satisfy users demand and compensate the variability of renewable sources. As a consequence, due to thermo-mechanical fatigue, creep and corrosion, a lifetime reduction of the most critical components occurs. The availability of a procedure able to predict the residual life of plant devices is necessary to assist the management decisions about power plants’ operation and maintenance scheduling. The first step of this procedure is the capability of simulating the plant behaviour versus time by evaluating the trends of the main thermodynamic parameters that describe the plant operation during different transient periods. In this context, the main contribution of the present paper is to propose a complete procedure able to simulate the plant dynamic behaviour and estimate the residual life reduction of some components. Indeed, two different models, developed by two different research groups, of the same single pressure heat recovery steam generator unit are presented and utilized to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the above mentioned power plant. The main thermodynamic variables during different transient operation conditions are predicted and good correspondence between the two methods is obtained. It can be also noted that, when the geometry and size of the devices are considered, the thermal inertia related to heat exchangers tubes, pipes and other physical masses causes a delay in the system response. Moreover, a residual life

  8. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...... extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production...

  9. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  10. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  11. Modeling of the fatigue damage accumulation processes in the material of NPP design units under thermomechanical unstationary effects. Estimation of spent life and forecast of residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriushin, A.I.; Korotkikh, Yu.G.; Gorodov, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The estimation problems of spent life and forecast of residual life of NPP equipment design units, operated at unstationary thermal force loads are considered. These loads are, as a rule, unregular and cause rotation of main stress tensor platforms of the most loaded zones of structural elements and viscoelastic plastic deformation of material in the places of stresses concentrations. The existing engineering approaches to the damages accumulation processes calculation in the material of structural units, their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. For the processes of fatigue damages accumulation a model is proposed, which allows to take into account the unregular pattern of deformation multiaxiality of stressed state, rotation of main platforms, non-linear summation of damages at the loading mode change. The model in based on the equations of damaged medium mechanics, including the equations of viscoplastic deformation of the material and evolutionary equations of damages accumulation. The algorithms of spent life estimation and residual life forecast of the controlled equipment and systems zones are made on the bases of the given model by the known real history of loading, which is determined by real model of NPP operation. The results of numerical experiments on the basis of given model for various processes of thermal force loads and their comparison with experimental results are presented. (author)

  12. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; calving had superior efficiency ratios as cows. Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  13. Nutrient retention capabilities of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS) waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    Nile tilapia were evaluated as a bio-regenerative sub-process for reducing solid waste potentially encountered in bio-regenerative life support systems. Ten juvenile Nile tilapia (mean weight = 2.05 g) were stocked into triplicate aquaria and fed one of seven experimental diets consisting of vegetable, bacterial, or food waste for a period of seven weeks. Weight gain (g), specific growth rate (mg/d), and daily consumption (g) was significantly higher ( p diet (37.99 and 68.54, respectively) followed by fish fed the wheat bran/wheat germ diet (23.19 and 63.67, respectively). Nitrogen, sulfur, and crude protein retention was significantly higher ( p diet (23.68, 21.89, and 23.68, respectively). A general loss of minerals was observed among all groups. Strong associations were observed between crude lipid retention and sulfur retention ( r2 = 0.94), crude lipid retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.92), WG and fiber content of dietary treatments ( r2 = 0.92), WG and carbon retention and ( r2 = 0.88), WG and lysine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.86), crude protein retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.84), sulfur retention and crude protein retention ( r2 = 0.84), and total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) content of residues and WG ( r2 = 0.81). Weaker associations existed between WG and crude lipid retention ( r2 = 0.77), crude fiber content and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.76), and WG and methionine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.75). Additional research is needed to improve the nutritional quality of fibrous residues as a means to improve tilapia's ability to utilize these residues as a food source in bio-regenerative support systems.

  14. Life cycle assessment of integrated solid state anaerobic digestion and composting for on-farm organic residues treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Manandhar, Ashish; Li, Guoxue; Shah, Ajay

    2018-03-20

    Driven by the gradual changes in the structure of energy consumption and improvements of living standards in China, the volume of on-farm organic solid waste is increasing. If untreated, these unutilized on-farm organic solid wastes can cause environmental problems. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of different on-farm organic waste (which includes dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residue) treatment strategies, including anaerobic digestion (AD), composting, and AD followed by composting. The input life cycle inventory data are specific to China. The potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies were assessed based on their acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ecotoxicity potential (ETP), and resource depletion (RD). The results show that the preferred treatment strategy for dairy manure is the one that integrated corn stover and tomato residue utilization and solid state AD technologies into the system. The GWP of integrated solid state AD and composting was the least, which is -2900 kg CO 2 eq/ t of dairy manure and approximately 14.8 times less than that of current status (i.e., liquid AD of dairy manure). Solid state AD of dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residues is the most favorable option in terms of AP, EP and ETP, which are more than 40% lower than that of the current status (i.e., AP: 3.11 kg SO 2 , EP: -0.94 kg N, and ETP: -881 CTUe (Comparative Toxic Units ecotoxicity)). The results also show that there is a significant potential for AP, EP, ETP, and GWP reduction, if AD is used prior to composting. The scenario analysis for transportation distance showed that locating the AD plant and composting facility on the farm was advantageous in terms of all the life cycle impact categories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality of life in Nepalese patients with low vision and the impact of low vision services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Gyawali

    2012-10-01

    Conclusions: Low vision patients have poor quality of life as measured with the NEI VFQ-25. Low vision service is associated with improved visual function, better quality of life and high rate of patient satisfaction.

  16. In-Service Aircraft Transmission Life Modeling for Improved Flight Safety, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop an accurate, in-service transmission life-estimation system for the prediction of remaining component and system life for a helicopter...

  17. In-Service Aircraft Transmission Life Modeling for Improved Flight Safety, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop an accurate, in-service transmission life-use estimation system for the prediction of remaining component and system life for a helicopter...

  18. Enhanced design, operation and maintenance practices for a longer plant service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, E.; Courcoux, A.

    2004-01-01

    Plant service life problems have been under detailed investigation in France and the experience acquired by our company over the past 25 years in the design, construction and maintenance of Pressurized Water Reactors has contributed to develop skills, equipment and capabilities available for efficient plant aging management and component service life extension. The service life of a nuclear power plant is deeply dependant of the provisions made during the design stage, directly linked to good operating conditions and adequate maintenance practices. This paper presents the importance of these three steps (design, operation and maintenance) for plant service life concern. (author)

  19. Regression models for the restricted residual mean life for right-censored and left-truncated data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Holmboe, Stine A.; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    The hazard ratios resulting from a Cox's regression hazards model are hard to interpret and to be converted into prolonged survival time. As the main goal is often to study survival functions, there is increasing interest in summary measures based on the survival function that are easier to inter......The hazard ratios resulting from a Cox's regression hazards model are hard to interpret and to be converted into prolonged survival time. As the main goal is often to study survival functions, there is increasing interest in summary measures based on the survival function that are easier...... to interpret than the hazard ratio; the residual mean time is an important example of those measures. However, because of the presence of right censoring, the tail of the survival distribution is often difficult to estimate correctly. Therefore, we consider the restricted residual mean time, which represents...... a partial area under the survival function, given any time horizon τ, and is interpreted as the residual life expectancy up to τ of a subject surviving up to time t. We present a class of regression models for this measure, based on weighted estimating equations and inverse probability of censoring weighted...

  20. A proposal of parameter determination method in the residual strength degradation model for the prediction of fatigue life (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Jang, Seong Soo

    2001-01-01

    The static and fatigue tests have been carried out to verify the validity of a generalized residual strength degradation model. And a new method of parameter determination in the model is verified experimentally to account for the effect of tension-compression fatigue loading of spheroidal graphite cast iron. It is shown that the correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical prediction on the statistical distribution of fatigue life by using the proposed method is very reasonable. Furthermore, it is found that the correlation between the theoretical prediction and the experimental results of fatigue life in case of tension-tension fatigue data in composite material appears to be reasonable. Therefore, the proposed method is more adjustable in the determination of the parameter than maximum likelihood method and minimization technique

  1. Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Francesca; Eastin, Ivan L; Ganguly, Indroneil

    2018-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery. A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for the residual woody biomass-based bio-jet fuel and compared against the cradle-to-grave LCA of petroleum-based jet fuel. This paper also discusses the differences in the environmental impacts of the residual biomass-based bio-jet fuel using two different approaches, mass allocation and system expansion, to partition the impacts between the bio-fuel and the co-products, which are produced in the bio-refinery. The environmental assessment of biomass-based bio-jet fuel reveals an improvement along most critical environmental criteria, as compared to its petroleum-based counterpart. However, the results present significant differences in the environmental impact of biomass-based bio-jet fuel, based on the partitioning method adopted. The mass allocation approach shows a greater improvement along most of the environmental criteria, as compared to the system expansion approach. However, independent of the partitioning approach, the results of this study reveal that more than the EISA mandated 60% reduction in the global warming potential could be achieved by substituting petroleum-based jet fuel with residual woody biomass-based jet fuel. Converting residual woody biomass from slash piles into bio-jet fuel presents the additional benefit of avoiding the impacts of slash pile burning in the forest, which

  2. Technique for the residual life assessment of high temperature components based on creep-rupture testing on welded miniature specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzillo, A.; Guardamagna, C.; Moscotti, L.; Ranzani, L. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Following the present trend in the development of advanced methodologies for residual life assessment of high temperature components operating in power plants, particularly in non destructive methods, a testing technique has been set up at ENEL-CRAM based on creep-rupture testa in an argon on welded miniature specimens. Five experimental systems for creep-rupture tests in an argon atmosphere have been set up which include high accuracy systems, vacuum chambers and exrwnsometer devices. With the aim of establishing and validating the suitability of the experimental methodology, creep-rupture and interrupted creep testing programmes have been performed on miniature specimens (2 mm diameter and 10 mm gauge lenght). On the basis of experience gathered by various European research laboratories, a miniature specimen construction procedure has been developed using a laser welding technique for joining threaded heads to sample material. Low alloy ferritic steels, such as virgin 2.25CrlMo, 0.5Cr 0.5Mo 0.25V, and IN 738 superalloy miniature specimens have been investigated and the results, compared with those from standard specimens, show a regular trend in deformation vs time. Additional efforts to provide guidelines for material sampling from each plant component will be required in order to reduce uncertainties in residual life prediction.

  3. Prediction of residual life of low-cycle fatigue in austenitic stainless steel based on indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezu, Akio; Touda, Yuya; Kim, HakGui; Yoneda, Keishi; Sakihara, Masayuki; Minoshima; Kohji

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a method to predict residual life of low-cycle fatigue in austenitic stainless steel (SUS316NG) was proposed based on indentation test. Low-cycle fatigue tests for SUS316NG were first conducted based on uniaxial tensile-compressive loading under the control of true strain range. Applied strain ranges were varied from about 3 to 12%. Their hysteresis loops of stress and strain were monitored during the fatigue tests. Plastic deformation range in hysteresis loop at each cycle could be roughly expressed by bi-linear hardening rule, whose plastic properties involve yield stress and work-hardening coefficient. The cyclic plastic properties were found to be dependent on the number of cycles and applied strain range, due to work-hardening. We experimentally investigated the empirical relationship between the plastic properties and number of cycles for each applied strain range. It is found that the relationship quantitatively predicts the applied strain range and number of cycles, when the plastic properties, or yield stress and work-hardening coefficient were known. Indentation tests were applied to the samples subjected to low cycle fatigue test, in order to quantitatively determine the plastic properties. The estimated properties were assigned to the proposed relationship, yielding the applied strain range and the cycle numbers. The proposed method was applied to the several stainless steel samples subjected to low cycle fatigue tests, suggesting that their residual lives could be reasonably predicted. Our method is thus useful for predicting the residual life of low-cycle fatigue in austenitic stainless steel. (author)

  4. Optimization of NPP performance and service life in a competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Spielgelberg - Planner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses how the competitive electricity market has influenced nuclear power plant operations, with a focus on optimisation of NPP performance and plant service life, and how the IAEA programme has addressed some of this issues. The definitions of Plant Life, Operational Life, Design Life and Periodical Safety Reviews are developed in the paper in order to differentiate between the terms and to show the significance in terms of Plant Life Management

  5. The procedure for determining the residual life of high-temperature aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, A. S.; Prihodko, E. V.; Kinzhibekova, A. K.; Karmanov, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    One of the main reasons for the withdrawal of high-temperature aggregates for repairs is the destruction of enclosing structures due to the occurrence of temperature stresses. A wide range of refractory materials used, a large number of product names, a difference in the operation of even the same aggregates makes it impossible to apply general principles for determining the residual resource of high-temperature aggregates, which is based, as a rule, on the determination of temperature stresses. In the article there is suggested a technique based on the method of simulation modeling, allowing to estimate the remaining resource and reliability of the operating equipment. There are given data on the calculation of these indicators for a 25-ton steel-casting ladle. The values obtained make it possible to evaluate the rationality of the further operation of the high-temperature unit by the condition of reliability of the enclosing structures.

  6. Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers on Student Burnout, Occupational Anxiety and Faculty Life Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoglu, Muhammet Emin; Cansoy, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of pre-service teachers on burnout, occupational anxiety and faculty life quality were investigated in this research. The research group consisted of 461 pre-service teachers in total studying at Afyon Kocatepe University faculty of education. "Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Form," "Faculty Life Quality Scale"…

  7. Service life of 1-W, 0.985-μm solitary heterolasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkov, A A; Konyaev, V P

    2001-01-01

    The service life of solitary heterolasers at a temperature of 50 0 C (P = 1W, λ = 0.98 - 0.99 μm) is studied. The maximum service life of heterolasers under such working conditions is 60000 hours for an average pumping current 1.5 A. (lasers and amplifiers)

  8. Laser shock peening of steam turbine blade for enhanced service life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Fretting-fatigue is an important factor influencing service life of turbine blades. The present paper describes laser shock peening of potential crack nucleation site in the root region of steam turbine blade for its enhanced service life. The experimental study, performed with an in-house developed 2.5 J/7 ns ...

  9. Successful outsourcing: improving quality of life through integrated support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Sharratt, Martin; King, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the way that non-clinical support services are provided in healthcare settings through outsourcing partnerships. The integrated support services model and benefits to patient experience and safety as well as organizational efficiency and effectiveness are explored through an examination of services at a busy urban community hospital.

  10. [THE COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF DETECTION OF MINIMAL RESIDUAL DISEASE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND MARROW IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUCOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaur, G A; Riger, T O; Popov, A M; Nasedkina, T V; Kustanovich, A M; Solodovnikov, A G; Streneva, O V; Shorikov, E V; Tsvirenko, S V; Saveliev, L I; Fechina, L G

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of minimal residual disease is an important prognostic factor under acute lymphoblastic leucosis in children and adults. In overwhelming majority of research studies bone marrow is used to detect minimal residual disease. The comparative characteristic of detection of minimal residual disease in peripheral blood and bone marrow was carried out. The prognostic role of occurrence of minimal residual disease in peripheral blood and bone marrow under therapy according protocol MLL-Baby was evaluated. The analysis embraced 142 pair samples from 53 patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis and various displacements of gene MLL younger than 365 days. The minimal residual disease was detected by force of identification of chimeric transcripts using polymerase chain reaction in real-time mode in 7 sequential points of observation established by protocol of therapy. The comparability of results of qualitative detection of minimal residual disease in bone marrow and peripheral blood amounted to 84.5%. At that, in all 22 (15.5%) discordant samples minimal residual disease was detected only in bone marrow. Despite of high level of comparability of results of detection of minimal residual disease in peripheral blood and bone marrow the occurrence of minimal residual disease in peripheral blood at various stages of therapy demonstrated no independent prognostic significance. The established differences had no relationship with sensitivity of method determined by value of absolute expression of gene ABL. Most likely, these differences reflected real distribution of tumor cells. The results of study demonstrated that application of peripheral blood instead of bone marrow for monitoring of minimal residual disease under acute lymphoblastic leucosis in children of first year of life is inappropriate. At the same time, retention of minimal residual disease in TH4 in bone marrow was an independent and prognostic unfavorable factor under therapy of acute lymphoblastic

  11. Biomass Residues to Renewable Energy: A Life Cycle Perspective Applied at a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Neri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy, like every country member of the European Union (EU, will have to achieve the objectives required by the Energy Roadmap 2050. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of residue recovery arising from the management of public and private green feedstocks, activity of the cooperative “Green City” in the Bologna district, and usage in a centralized heating system to produce thermal energy for public buildings. Results, obtained using the ReCipe impact assessment method, are compared with scores achieved by a traditional methane boiler. The study shows some advantages of the biomass-based system in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and consumption of non-renewable fuels, which affect climate change (−41% and fossil resources depletion (−40%, compared to the use of natural gas (NG. Moreover, scores from network analysis denote the great contribution of feedstock transportation (98% of the cumulative impact. The main reason is attributable to all requirements to cover distances, in particular due to stages involved in the fuel supply chains. Therefore, it is clear that greater environmental benefits could be achieved by reducing supply transport distances or using more sustainable engines.

  12. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO x emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO 2 -eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO 2 -eq, with 294 kg CO 2 -eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO x process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available

  13. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  14. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extending service life of steam generators by sleeving tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzwiller, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Steam generator tubes that are failing due to IGA in the tubesheet crevice can be kept in service by using the basic sealable sleeve design developed by BandW. Variations of the present sleeve design could significantly reduce the number of tubes that must be plugged each year. Sleeving had the potential of keeping 28 percent more tubes in service during 1979. Lowering the overall rate at which tubes are removed from service by plugging will reduce the probability of having to derate the plant or replace the steam generator. Considering tomorrow's replacement power costs, sleeving to keep tubes in service is a practical and sound investment

  16. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Xue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energy- and carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability and sensitivity were evaluated, the carbon intensity of the local electricity grid and the efficiency of electricity production by the co-digestion with the energy recovery process were the most important for determining the relative global warming potential results.

  17. Residual life assessment of major LWR components: NPAR approach and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Weidenhamer, G.H.; Vora, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) program is systematically addressing the technical issues associated with understanding and managing aging of major LWR components. Twenty-one major components have been identified and prioritized according to their relevance to plant safety. Qualitative aging assessment has identified pertinent design features, materials, stressors, environments, aging mechanisms. and failure modes for each of the components. Emerging inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods to characterize aging damage and mitigation methods to reduce the damage are currently being assessed. The results of all these assessments are used to develop life-assessment procedures for the components and are included in appropriate documents supporting the regulatory requirements for license renewal. (author)

  18. Bioenergy from crops and biomass residues: a consequential life-cycle assessment including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Biofuels are promising means to reduce fossil fuel depletion and mitigate greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. However, recent studies questioned the environmental benefits earlier attributed to biofuels, when these involve land-use changes (direct/indirect, i.e., dLUC/iLUC) (1-5). Yet, second...... to represent the actual environmental impacts. This study quantified the GHG emissions associated with a number of scenarios involving bioenergy production (as combined-heat-and-power, heating, and transport biofuel) from energy crops, industrial/agricultural residues, algae, and the organic fraction...... of municipal solid waste. Four conversion pathways were considered: combustion, fermentation-to-ethanol, fermentation-to-biogas, and thermal gasification. A total of 80 bioenergy scenarios were assessed. Consequential life-cycle assessment (CLCA) was used to quantify the environmental impacts. CLCA aimed...

  19. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource...... of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher...... with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it is constrained by limited information available about the composition of flows in the system as well as about secondary production...

  20. Exercise Training Improves Exercise Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients with Inoperable or Residual Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, Jochen; Ehlken, Nicola; Fischer, Christine; Reichenberger, Frank; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training in patients with inoperable or residual chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with invasively confirmed inoperable or residual CTEPH (16 women;19 men; mean age 61±15 years, mean pulmonary artery pressure, 63±20 mmHg; primary inoperable n = 33, persisting pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy n = 2) on stable disease-targeted medication received exercise training in-hospital for 3 weeks and continued at home for 15 weeks. Medication remained unchanged during the study period. Efficacy parameters have been evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 15 weeks by blinded-observers. Survival rate has been evaluated in a follow-up period of median 36.4 months (interquartile range 26.6–46.6 months). Results All patients tolerated exercise training without severe adverse events. Patients significantly improved the mean distance walked in 6 minutes compared to baseline by 61±54 meters after 3 weeks (p<0.001) and by 71±70 meters after 15 weeks (p = 0.001), as well as scores of quality-of-life questionnaire, peak oxygen consumption and maximal workload. NT-proBNP improved significantly after 3 weeks of exercise training (p = 0.046). The 1-year survival rate was 97%, 2-year survival rate was 94% and the 3-year-survival 86% respectively. Conclusion Training as add-on to medical therapy may be effective in patients with CTEPH to improve work capacity, quality of life and further prognostic relevant parameters and possibly improves the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate. Further multicentric randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398345 PMID:22848542

  1. Probabilistic Design and Management of Sustainable Concrete Infrastructure Using Multi-Physics Service Life Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepech, Michael; Geiker, Mette; Michel, Alexander

    This paper looks to address the grand challenge of integrating construction materials engineering research within a multi-scale, inter-disciplinary research and management framework for sustainable concrete infrastructure. The ultimate goal is to drive sustainability-focused innovation and adoption...... cycles in the broader architecture, engineering, construction (AEC) industry. Specifically, a probabilistic design framework for sustainable concrete infrastructure and a multi-physics service life model for reinforced concrete are presented as important points of integration for innovation between...... design, consists of concrete service life models and life cycle assessment (LCA) models. Both types of models (service life and LCA) are formulated stochastically so that the service life and time(s) to repair, as well as total sustainability impact, are described by a probability distribution. A central...

  2. Caregivers' quality of life and quality of services for children with cancer: a review from iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Homeira; Vameghi, Meroe; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Khodaeiardekani, Mohammadreza

    2013-03-04

    Caregivers of cancer patients are exposed to different types of psychosocial stress which influence their quality of life. The purposes of this study were to assess quality of life in caregivers of children with cancer and to investigate the relationship between the caregivers' quality of life and quality of services in the social work section. 125 caregivers were recruited. Quality of life was measured by the Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and data concerning service quality were obtained from the Iranian version of the SERVQUAL questionnaire. Scores in physical health, psychological status and environmental conditions for caregivers of children with cancer were significantly lower than the general population. There was a negative correlation between the tangible domain of SERVQUAL and the psychological status and environmental conditions of quality of life. The tangible dimension was the only aspect of service quality to predict caregivers' quality of life regarding psychological status and environmental conditions. Caregivers of children with a disease are care consumers and, like all consumers, they expect good service. Delivering high quality services consistently is difficult but profitable for a service organization. In other words, trying to deliver more appropriate services than patients expect to receive from their social work care is one of the most reliable ways to promote caregivers' satisfaction and quality of life.

  3. Caregivers’ Quality of Life and Quality of Services for Children with Cancer: A Review from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Homeira; Vameghi, Meroe; Ghazinour, Mehdi; KhodaeiArdakani, Mohammadreza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caregivers of cancer patients are exposed to different types of psychosocial stress which influence their quality of life. The purposes of this study were to assess quality of life in caregivers of children with cancer and to investigate the relationship between the caregivers’ quality of life and quality of services in the social work section. Method: 125 caregivers were recruited. Quality of life was measured by the Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and data concerning service quality were obtained from the Iranian version of the SERVQUAL questionnaire. Findings: Scores in physical health, psychological status and environmental conditions for caregivers of children with cancer were significantly lower than the general population. There was a negative correlation between the tangible domain of SERVQUAL and the psychological status and environmental conditions of quality of life. The tangible dimension was the only aspect of service quality to predict caregivers’ quality of life regarding psychological status and environmental conditions. Conclusion: Caregivers of children with a disease are care consumers and, like all consumers, they expect good service. Delivering high quality services consistently is difficult but profitable for a service organization. In other words, trying to deliver more appropriate services than patients expect to receive from their social work care is one of the most reliable ways to promote caregivers’ satisfaction and quality of life. PMID:23618487

  4. Service Life Of Main Piping Component Due To Low Thermal Stresses.Fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnik, R.; Jeager, A.; Ben Haim, H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with estimating the service life of the power station Main piping component and describing the repair process for extending of its service life. After a long period of service, several circular fatigue cracks have been discovered at the bottom of the Main piping component chamber. Finite element analyses of transient thermal stresses, caused by power station startup, are carried out in the paper. The calculation results show good agreement between the theoretical locations of the maximum stresses and the actual locations of the cracks. There is a good agreement between theoretical evaluation and actual service life, as well. The possibility of machining out the cracks in order to prevent their growing is examined here. The machining enables us to extend the power station component's life service

  5. Impact of climate variability on N and C flux within the life cycle of biofuels produced from crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhashem, G.; Block, P. J.; Adler, P. R.; Spatari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels from agricultural feedstocks (lignocellulose) are under development to meet national policy objectives for producing domestic renewable fuels. Using crop residues such as corn stover as feedstock for biofuel production can minimize the risks associated with food market disruption; however, it demands managing residue removal to minimize soil carbon loss, erosion, and to ensure nutrient replacement. Emissions of nitrous oxide and changes to soil organic carbon (SOC) are subject to variability in time due to local climate conditions and cultivation practices. Our objective is to investigate the effect of climate inputs (precipitation and temperature) on biogeochemical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O and SOC expressed as CO2) within the life cycle of biofuels produced from agricultural residues. Specifically, we investigate the impact of local climate variability on soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes over a 20-year biorefinery lifetime where biomass residue is used for lignocellulosic ethanol production. We investigate two cases studied previously (Pourhashem et al, 2013) where the fermentable sugars in the agricultural residue are converted to ethanol (biofuel) and the lignin byproduct is used in one of two ways: 1) power co-generation; or 2) application to land as a carbon/nutrient-rich amendment to soil. In the second case SOC losses are mitigated through returning the lignin component to land while the need for fertilizer addition is also eliminated, however in both cases N2O and SOC are subject to variability due to variable climate conditions. We used the biogeochemical model DayCent to predict soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes considering soil characteristics, tillage practices and local climate (e.g. temperature and rainfall). We address the impact of climate variability on the soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes by implementing a statistical bootstrap resampling method based on a historic data set (1980 to 2000). The ensuing probabilistic outputs from the

  6. ICT Services for Life Improvement for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rico, Alejandro; Garel, Pascal; Notarangelo, Isabella; Quintana, Marcos; Hernández, Gustavo; Asteriadis, Stylianos; Popa, Mirela; Vretos, Nicholas; Solachidis, Vassilis; Burgos, Marta; Girault, Ariane

    2017-01-01

    Integrated care ICT Platform to support patients, care-givers and health/social professionals in the care of dementia and Parkinson's disease with training, empowerment, sensor-based data analysis and cooperation services based on user-friendly interfaces.

  7. Identifying profiles of service users in housing services and exploring their quality of life and care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Neis A; Roeg, Diana P K; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2016-11-23

    Housing services aim to support people with mental illness in their daily life and recovery. As the level of recovery differs between service users, the quality of life and care needs also might vary. However, the type and amount of care and support that service users receive do not always match their recovery. In order to improve the quality of care, this study aims to explore whether subgroups of service users exist based on three dimensions of recovery and to examine and compare the quality of life and care needs of the persons in these subgroups. Latent class analysis was performed with data from 263 service users of housing services in the Netherlands. Classes were based on three variables: personal recovery (Mental Health Recovery Measure), social recovery (Social Functioning Scale), and clinical recovery (Brief Symptom Inventory). Subsequently, the quality of life (MANSA) and care needs (CANSAS) of the different classes were analysed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Three classes could be distinguished. Class 1 (45%) comprised of people who score the highest of the three classes in terms of personal and social recovery and who experience the least number of symptoms. People in class 2 (44%) and class 3 (11%) score significantly lower on personal and social recovery, and they experience significantly more symptoms compared to class 1. The distinction between class 2 and 3 can be made on the significantly higher number of symptoms in class 3. All three classes differ significantly on quality of life and unmet needs. The quality of life of service users of housing services needs improvement, as even persons in the best-recovered subgroup have a lower quality of life than the average population. Workers of housing services need to be aware of the recovery of a client and what his or her individual needs and goals are. Furthermore, better care (allocation) concerning mental and physical health and rehabilitation is needed. Care should be

  8. Residual life and strength estimates of aircraft structural components with MSD/MED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Park, Jai H.; Atluri, Satya N.

    1994-01-01

    Economic and safe operation of the flight vehicles flying beyond their initial design life calls for an in-depth structural integrity evaluation of all components with potential for catastrophic damages. Fuselage panels with cracked skin and/or stiffening elements is one such example. A three level analytical approach is developed to analyze the pressurized fuselage stiffened shell panels with damaged skin or stiffening elements. A global finite element analysis is first carried out to obtain the load flow pattern through the damaged panel. As an intermediate step, the damaged zone is treated as a spatially three-dimensional structure modeled by plate and shell finite elements, with all the neighboring elements that can alter the stress state at the crack tip. This is followed by the Schwartz-Neumann alternating method for local analysis to obtain the relevant crack tip parameters that govern the onset of fracture and the crack growth. The methodology developed is generic in nature and aims at handling a large fraction of problem areas identified by the Industry Committee on Wide-Spread Fatigue Damage.

  9. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  10. Associated and mediating variables related to quality of life among service users with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to identify variables associated with quality of life (QoL) and mediating variables among 338 service users with mental disorders in Quebec (Canada). Data were collected using nine standardized questionnaires and participant medical records. Quality of life was assessed with the Satisfaction with Life Domains Scale. Independent variables were organized into a six-block conceptual framework. Using structural equation modeling, associated and mediating variables related to QoL were identified. Lower seriousness of needs was the strongest variable associated with QoL, followed by recovery, greater service continuity, gender (male), adequacy of help received, not living alone, absence of substance use or mood disorders, and higher functional status, in that order. Recovery was the single mediating variable linking lower seriousness of needs, higher service continuity, and reduced alcohol use with QoL. Findings suggest that greater service continuity creates favorable conditions for recovery, reducing seriousness of needs and increasing QoL among service users. Lack of recovery-oriented services may affect QoL among alcohol users, as substance use disorders were associated directly and negatively with QoL. Decision makers and mental health professionals should promote service continuity, and closer collaboration between primary care and specialized services, while supporting recovery-oriented services that encourage service user involvement in their treatment and follow-up. Community-based organizations should aim to reduce the seriousness of needs particularly for female service users and those living alone.

  11. Stress and Fatigue Life Modeling of Cannon Breech Closures Including Effects of Material Strength and Residual Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, John

    2000-01-01

    ...; overload residual stress. Modeling of applied and residual stresses at the location of the fatigue failure site is performed by elastic-plastic finite element analysis using ABAQUS and by solid...

  12. review on hardfacing as method of improving the service life

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    soft base metal surface to enhance resistance to different wear mechanisms. .... shape and distribution of primary and eutectic carbides ... C-Si-Mn-B electrode resulted in an average hardness of ... blade material .... This consists of weld beads that run parallel to each ..... [54] Wallin, J. “Five basic steps to extend the life of.

  13. Computer Aided Product Service Systems Design : Service CAD and Its integration with Life Cycle Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Integration of product design into service design, or vice versa, is considered to bring more efficient and effective value addition. Besides EcoDesign tools and methods, a methodology to design such an integration of products and services from a systemic perspective, or product-service systems

  14. Evaluation of operating experience for service life of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Sunder, R.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of the operating experience of German light-water reactor components based on licensee event reports indicates that a large part of the defects and failures are caused by fatigue and/or corrosion type mechanisms. Actions have been taken to eliminate the causes by redesigning systems, replacement of components and change of operating procedures. The interaction of fatigue and corrosion mechanisms are not understood in all details today, further research is still necessary. To establish a more realistic data base of the local loading and water chemistry condition for all loading conditions the application of advanced monitoring systems is proposed. The benefits of these systems are that the operating procedures can be further optimized, the actual used life time fraction can be calculated regularly and the data base can be used for life time extension. (orig.) [de

  15. Limited post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal resection of residual tumour in non-seminomatous testicular cancer: complications, outcome and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Hartmann; Høyer, Morten; Jensen, Bent Frode Skov

    2018-01-01

    , complications, working ability and quality of life (QOL) following a limited surgical procedure performed to resect residual masses in non-seminomatous testicular cancer patients after chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A consecutive patient cohort of 109 patients having surgery between 1993 and 2013...

  16. Family Quality of Life: A Key Outcome in Early Childhood Intervention Services--A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopti, Anoo; Brown, Ted; Lentin, Primrose

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to identify factors influencing the quality of life of families of children with disability. The review also explored the scales used to measure family quality of life (FQOL) as an outcome in early childhood intervention services (ECIS). Multiple databases were searched from 2000 to 2013 to include studies pertinent…

  17. Service life assessment of timber highway bridges in USA climate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw; Thomas G. Williamson; P. David Jones; Matthew S. Smith; Travis K. Hosteng; David L. Strahl; Lola E. Coombe; V.J. Gopu

    2014-01-01

    As engineers begin to estimate life-cycle costs and sustainable design approaches for timber bridges, there is a need for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This...

  18. Recreation as a Related Service: Focusing on the Quality of Life of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodati, Melissa R.

    2017-01-01

    Leisure participation is influential on the quality of life of individuals. Individuals with disabilities can face barriers in leisure participation, impacting their quality of life. IDEA (2004) recognizes recreation as a related service as one way to enhance the leisure experiences for students with disabilities. The purpose of this embedded case…

  19. Tackling the work-life balance challenge in Professional Service Firms: the impact of projects, organizing and service characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noury, L.C.; Gand, Sébastien; Sardas, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Professional Service Firms (PSFs) are currently under considerable pressure for economic reasons (low growth, pressure on cost), but also from the emergence of individual demands for work-life balance (WLB) from professionals, which challenge traditional ways of organizing both projects and careers.

  20. Structural and mechanical factors of construction strength and service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhutov, N.A.; Romanov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    The methods are considered of solution of strength and long-term stability probems of fabricated structures on the basis of proper mechanical characteristics of materials determined by material composition and structure. The principle equations of structural mechanics, the theories of elasticity, plasticity, creep and strength are used in the analysis of structural strength. The initial parameters of these equations are geometric and service characteristics of structures and the properties of structural materials determined by laboratory specimen testing

  1. Measuring the Effect of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Further Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Janet D.; Sirgy, M. Joseph; Uysal, Muzaffer

    2004-01-01

    lication and extension study provided additional validational support of the original tourism services satisfaction measure in relation to QOL-related measures.Neal, Sirgy and Uysal (1999) developed a model and a measure to capture the effect of tourism services on travelers' quality of life (QOL). They hypothesized that travelers' overall life…

  2. Experimental methods for consideration of concrete cracking in service life design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    .e., concrete with cracks at start of service) and to more accurately estimate time-to-cracking due to reinforcement corrosion based on experimental measurements. This paper presents two non-destructive measurement techniques with potential to quantify the impact concrete cracks have on service life...

  3. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, B.M.; Schalkwijk, A.; Pelzer, B.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures

  4. Measuring Service-Mindedness and Its Relationship with Spirituality and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashak, Travis J.; Laughter, Tim C.

    2012-01-01

    A self-report measure of service-mindedness was designed in order to fill in a gap in the literature and evaluate a potential link between spirituality and satisfaction with life. A sample of 133 undergraduate students at a Catholic university in the Mid-west completed the Service-Mindedness Scale (SMS), along with the Spiritual Involvement and…

  5. Using life strategies to explore the vulnerability of ecosystem services to invasion by alien plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente, J.; Pinro, A.; Araujo, M.; Lomba, A.; Randin, C.; Guisan, A.; Honrado, J.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plants can have different effects on ecosystem functioning and on the provision of ecosystem services, with the direction and magnitude of such effects depending on the service and ecosystem being considered, but also on the life strategies of the invaders. Strategies can influence

  6. Home care clients in the last year of life: is material deprivation associated with service characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Donna; Buckley, Alan; Marko, Josh; Steeves, Megan; Turner, Hollie; Whitehead, Steve

    2011-09-01

    To compare demographic, social, medical, and health care characteristics of home care clients in the last year of life by quintile of deprivation and examine associations between material deprivation and service characteristics. This retrospective study used administrative data for 700 clients who died while receiving home care services. Outcome measures were the receipt of supportive or palliative home care. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Material deprivation was not associated with either the hours of home care received or the receipt of supportive home care services. Clients with dementia or stroke, those were older than 80 years and those who were single were less likely to receive palliative care services than other groups. Inequalities in allocation of home care services based on age, diagnosis, and marital status, but not material deprivation, suggest the need to carefully match service with need at the end of life.

  7. Shift work to balance everyday life - a salutogenic nursing perspective in home help service in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosti, Madelaine Törnquist; Andersson, Ingemar; Ejlertsson, Göran; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    Nurses in Sweden have a high absence due to illness and many retire before the age of sixty. Factors at work as well as in private life may contribute to health problems. To maintain a healthy work-force there is a need for actions on work-life balance in a salutogenic perspective. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of resources in everyday life to balance work and private life among nurses in home help service. Thirteen semi-structured individual interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with home help service nurses in Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was used for the analyses. In the analyses, six themes of perceptions of recourses in everyday life emerged; (i) Reflecting on life. (ii) Being healthy and taking care of yourself. (iii) Having a meaningful job and a supportive work climate. (iv) Working shifts and part time. (v) Having a family and a supporting network. (vi) Making your home your castle. The result points out the complexity of work-life balance and support that the need for nurses to balance everyday life differs during different phases and transitions in life. In this salutogenic study, the result differs from studies with a pathogenic approach. Shift work and part time work were seen as two resources that contributed to flexibility and a prerequisite to work-life balance. To have time and energy for both private life and work was seen as essential. To reflect on and discuss life gave inner strength to set boundaries and to prioritize both in private life and in work life. Managers in nursing contexts have a great challenge to maintain and strengthen resources which enhance the work-life balance and health of nurses. Salutogenic research is needed to gain an understanding of resources that enhance work-life balance and health in nursing contexts.

  8. Citizen and Resident Satisfaction with Public Services in Qatar : And the impact on quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Benmansour, Nada Abdelkader , [بن منصور، ندى عبد القادر

    2016-01-01

    In Qatar notable differences in public service satisfaction exist across individual state services, across nationality groupings, and across demographic categories. Among all citizens and residents, however, there is an empirical link between satisfaction with state services and overall perceptions of quality of life. Policymakers should thus study efforts to collect regular and systematic data on the performance of key public institutions, including through the collection of consumer feedbac...

  9. Creep deformation, creep damage accumulation and residual life prediction for three low alloyed CrMo-steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondyr, A.; Sandstroem, R.; Samuelsson, A.

    1979-02-01

    A detailed analysis of creep strain results for three low alloyed steels of type 0.5 Mo, 1 Cr-0.5 Mo and 2.25 Cr-1 Mo has been undertaken. The results show that, excluding the primary stage, the true strain rate can be described by a simple analytical expression dE/dt = Aexp(B.E) where A and B are constants at constant stress and temperature. A is approximately equal to the minimum strain rate and B inversly proportional to the fracture strain. Furthermore, 1/AB equals the time t sub(r) to rupture. The residual life fraction in creep can be expressed as exp(-B.E) = 1-t/t sub(r) and a creep damage function μ is introduced as μ = 1-ABt. The expressions for strain rate and damage are shown to be a special case of the Rabotnov-Kachanov equations. The analysis has been generalized to account for multiaxial stress states, and as an example creep in a tube with internal pressure is considered. (author)

  10. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving the service life and performance of CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, A.R.; Cheadle, B.A.; Coleman, C.E.; Price, E.G.

    1997-01-01

    The development objective for CANDU fuel channels is to produce a design that can operate for 40 years at 90% capacity. Steady progress toward this objective is being made. The factors that determine the life of the channel are reviewed and the processes necessary to achieve the objectives identified. Performance of future fuel channels will be enhanced by reduced operating costs, increased safety margins to postulated accident conditions, and reduced retubing costs compared to current channels. The approaches to these issues are discussed briefly in the paper. (author)

  12. Improving the service life and performance of CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, A.R.; Cheadle, B.A.; Coleman, C.E.; Price, E.G.

    1996-02-01

    The development objective for CANDU fuel channels is to produce a design that can operate for 40 years at 90% capacity. Steady progress toward this objective is being made. The factors that determine the life of a CANDU fuel channel are reviewed and the processes necessary to achieve the objectives identified. Performance of future fuel channels will be enhanced by reduced operating costs, increased safety margins to postulated accident conditions, and reduced retubing costs compared with those for current channels. The approaches to these issues are discussed briefly in this report. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  13. Improving the service life and performance of CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Cheadle, B.A.; Causey, A.R.; Doubt, G.L.; Fong, R.W.L.; Venkatapathi, S.

    1996-03-01

    The development objective for CANDU fuel channels is to produce a design that can operate for 40 years at 90% capacity. Steady progress toward this objective is being made. The factors that determine the life of a CANDU fuel channel are reviewed and the processes necessary to achieve the objectives are identified. Performance of future fuel channels will be enhanced by reduced operating costs and increased safety margins to postulated accident conditions compared with those for current channels. The approaches to these issues are discussed briefly in this report. (author)

  14. Prediction of the Service Life of a Reinforced Concrete Column under Chloride Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K. Alkam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, service life of a reinforced concrete column exposed to chloride environment has been predicted. This study has been based on numerical simulation of chloride ion diffusion in a concrete column during its anticipated life span. The simulation process has included the concrete cover replacement whenever chloride ion concentration has reached the critical threshold value at the reinforcement surface. Repair scheduling of the concrete column under consideration has been discussed. Effects of the concrete cover thickness and the water cement ratio on the service life of the concrete column at hand have been presented. A new approach for arranging locations of reinforcement steel bars has been introduced. This approach is intended to prolong the service life of the concrete column under consideration against chloride induced corrosion.

  15. BioCatalogue: a universal catalogue of web services for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Jiten; Tanoh, Franck; Nzuobontane, Eric; Laurent, Thomas; Orlowski, Jerzy; Roos, Marco; Wolstencroft, Katy; Aleksejevs, Sergejs; Stevens, Robert; Pettifer, Steve; Lopez, Rodrigo; Goble, Carole A

    2010-07-01

    The use of Web Services to enable programmatic access to on-line bioinformatics is becoming increasingly important in the Life Sciences. However, their number, distribution and the variable quality of their documentation can make their discovery and subsequent use difficult. A Web Services registry with information on available services will help to bring together service providers and their users. The BioCatalogue (http://www.biocatalogue.org/) provides a common interface for registering, browsing and annotating Web Services to the Life Science community. Services in the BioCatalogue can be described and searched in multiple ways based upon their technical types, bioinformatics categories, user tags, service providers or data inputs and outputs. They are also subject to constant monitoring, allowing the identification of service problems and changes and the filtering-out of unavailable or unreliable resources. The system is accessible via a human-readable 'Web 2.0'-style interface and a programmatic Web Service interface. The BioCatalogue follows a community approach in which all services can be registered, browsed and incrementally documented with annotations by any member of the scientific community.

  16. How Do Mobile Information Services Improve Quality of Life? The Case of Japanese Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ghyas, Qazi Mahdia; Kondo, Fumiyo N.

    2016-01-01

    Every technology should be geared to improve the quality of users’ lives. Our study aims to understand how mobile information services (MIS) contribute to quality of life (QoL) for young mobile users. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive analysis of relationship between two variables: the contribution of MIS in 15 specific life domains and the contribution of MIS to overall quality of life (QoL). We examined bottom-up spillover theory with original and our additional life domains. E...

  17. Shift work to balance everyday life - a salutogenic nursing perspective in home help service in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Agosti, Madelaine T?rnquist; Andersson, Ingemar; Ejlertsson, G?ran; Janl?v, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses in Sweden have a high absence due to illness and many retire before the age of sixty. Factors at work as well as in private life may contribute to health problems. To maintain a healthy work–force there is a need for actions on work-life balance in a salutogenic perspective. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of resources in everyday life to balance work and private life among nurses in home help service. Methods: Thirteen semi-structured individual interviews...

  18. Effect of home care service on the quality of life in patients with gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Demet; Terzioglu, Fusun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of home care service on the quality of life in patients with gynecological cancer. This randomized case control study was carried out in a womans hospital between September 2011 and February 2012. Women undergoing gynecological cancer treatment were separated into intervention and control groups, of 35 patients each. The intervention group was provided with nursing care service through hospital and home visits (1st, 12th weeks) within the framework of a specifically developed nursing care plan. The control group was monitored without any intervention through the hospital routine protocols (1st, 12th weeks). Data were collected using An Interview Form, Home Visit Monitoring Form and Quality of Life Scale/Cancer Survivors. Effects of home care service on the quality of life in gynecological cancer patients were investigated using chi-square tests, McNemar's test, independent t-test and ANOVA. This study found that the intervention group receiving home care service had a moderately high quality of life (average mean: 6.01±0.64), while the control group had comparatively lower quality (average mean: 4.35±0.79) within the 12 week post- discharge period (phome care services to be efficient in improving the quality of life in patients with gynecological cancer.

  19. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life

  20. A Life Dedicated to Public Service: The Lady L Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth P. Bentillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study featured how a lady local politician rose to power as a barangay captain. It aimed to: describe her leadership orientation before she became a barangay captain, analyze the factors of her success stories in political leadership, extrapolate her values based on the problems/challenges met in the barangay, unveil her initiatives to address these problems, and interpolate her enduring vision for the future of the barangay. Through a biographical research design, with purposive sampling, a key female informant named as Lady L was chosen with the sole criteria of being a female Barangay Captain of Cebu City. Interview guides were utilized in the generation of Lady L’s biographic information about her political career.Lady L’s experiences in waiting for the perfect time and working in the private sector destined her to have a successful political career enhanced with passion and family influence. Encountering problems concerning basic education and unwanted migrants in Barangay K did not discourage her choice to run for re-election, because of her dedication to public service. Her ways to reach out and collaborate with welfare groups mitigate the problems of parental neglect and informal settlers in her barangay. The story of Lady L implies that in Cebu City, issues arise as a result of the practice of partisan politics, gender issues have minor bearing, and she envisioned a healthy and welleducated barangay, with an improved wellness and child care development.

  1. Inflatable door seals - reduced maintenance and longer service-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuran, S.; Wensel, R.; Lazic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Inflatable door seals, designed more than a quarter of a century ago, have given good service in Canadian and overseas CANDU reactors. These thin-walled elastomeric seals have been exposed to many thousands of cycles of inflation and deflation, various types of aging (temperature, radiation and time), ozone degradation, abrasion, pinching, stiction, cracking and installation damage. The fact that they have operated successfully as part of the reactor building containment structure - subjected to the same pressures and temperatures as those for the thick reinforced concrete walls and steel doors highlights the achievement of these thin rubber seals. However, in the last decade, the rubber industry has developed new compounds that are more resistant to radiation, temperature, and time-dependent aging. Components manufactured from such compounds are less prone to hardening, stress cracking and permanent set; thereby saving on replacement costs, inventory and overall maintenance. This paper discusses development and testing of recent material and design changes to inflatable seals, and addresses various practical issues faced by the operations engineers and maintainers using these seals. (author)

  2. Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment, Part I: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    If life cycle oriented methods are to encourage sustainable development, they must account for the role of ecosystem goods and services, since these form the basis of planetary activities and human well-being. This article reviews methods that are relevant to accounting for the role of nature and that could be integrated into life cycle oriented approaches. These include methods developed by ecologists for quantifying ecosystem services, by ecological economists for monetary valuation, and life cycle methods such as conventional life cycle assessment, thermodynamic methods for resource accounting such as exergy and emergy analysis, variations of the ecological footprint approach, and human appropriation of net primary productivity. Each approach has its strengths: economic methods are able to quantify the value of cultural services; LCA considers emissions and assesses their impact; emergy accounts for supporting services in terms of cumulative exergy; and ecological footprint is intuitively appealing and considers biocapacity. However, no method is able to consider all the ecosystem services, often due to the desire to aggregate all resources in terms of a single unit. This review shows that comprehensive accounting for ecosystem services in LCA requires greater integration among existing methods, hierarchical schemes for interpreting results via multiple levels of aggregation, and greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in supporting human activities. These present many research opportunities that must be addressed to meet the challenges of sustainability.

  3. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  4. A Review of Perspectives on Frameworks for Ethical Theories in Public Service Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoram Sing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the dynamic and changing interwoven and intertwined internal and external environments impacting on public service life, establishing and promoting a proper ethical foundation in public service life, has in itself emerged as a profound and daunting challenge, a worldwide phenomenon. The role of frameworks for ethical theories  –  such as teleological, deontological, virtue-based, and learning and growth, is crucial to dealing with this challenge. It is the view of the author that a keen grasp and application of the various frameworks, as well as their various components, could project their viewing and that of their components, not in isolation, but in an interconnected and intertwined manner. This could enhance the clarification of ethical and moral alternatives, as well as facilitate the spreading and diffusion of techniques for ethical reasoning and moral awareness, throughout public service life.

  5. Simulating the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Rogge, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance......A novel method for risk-based optimization of inspection and repair strategies for deteriorating structural systems has recently been proposed. The method defines heuristics at the system level to reduce the number of possible strategies. For each defined strategy, it computes the updated system...... failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs...

  6. Development of laboratory acceleration test method for service life prediction of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M. S.; Song, Y. C.; Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, D. K.

    1999-01-01

    Service life prediction of nuclear power plants depends on the application of history of structures, field inspection and test, the development of laboratory acceleration tests, their analysis method and predictive model. In this study, laboratory acceleration test method for service life prediction of concrete structures and application of experimental test results are introduced. This study is concerned with environmental condition of concrete structures and is to develop the acceleration test method for durability factors of concrete structures e.g. carbonation, sulfate attack, freeze-thaw cycles and shrinkage-expansion etc

  7. Determination of service lives under varying loading using a life-fraction rule. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, L.

    1986-01-01

    Previously the attempt has been made to improve the often accuracy of the life-fraction rule (Robinson), applied to calculate the service lives under varying loading, by introducing constants into the mathematical representation of the rule which take into account the influence of the material and the conditions of loading. Therefore, the calculated service lives are not real predictions. In this work description based on constants is dispensed with and only one boundary condition is indicated for the life-fraction rule which is necessary and sufficient to calculate correctly any fractional damage and hence any service life under varying loading. The abbreviated wording of this boundary condition is: To calculate a fractional damage, the life fraction tsub(i) must be devided by a service life tsub(m,i), the structural condition Gsub(i) being the same. The specimen (X10NiCrTi1616 steel) will rupture as soon as the sum of fractional damages has attained unity: Σsub(i)(tsub(i)/tsub(m,i)) sub(Gsub(i)) = 1. (orig./GSCH)

  8. Place of Death and Use of Health Services in the Last Year of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Grande, Gunn E.; McKerral, Angela; Addington-Hall, Julia M.; Todd, Chris J.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether health service input in the last year of life differs between cancer patients who die at home versus those dying in inpatient care. Methods: Post hoc exploratory case-control study of 127 home deaths and 200 inpatient deaths. Retrospective electronic record linkage of patients' community and inpatient care during the last year of life. Results: Patients who died at home began their home nursing care closer to death than those who died as inpatients. Their first con...

  9. Integrating mental health services into primary HIV care for women: the Whole Life project.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, Sally; Nuehring, Elane M.; Blaney, Nancy T.; Blakley, Theresa; Lizzotte, Jean-Marie; Lopez, Myriam; Potter, JoNell E.; O'Sullivan, Mary J.

    2004-01-01

    The high rate of mental health problems in HIV-infected women jeopardizes the health of this vulnerable population, and constitutes a mandate for integrating mental health services into HIV primary care. The Whole Life project-a collaboration of the departments of Psychiatry and Obstetrics/Gynecology at the University of Miami School of Medicine-successfully integrated mental health services into primary HIV care for women. This article describes the conceptual framework of the integration, i...

  10. Methodologies for assessment of the service life of pressure tubes in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.; Sharma, A.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Sinha, S.K.; Malshe, U.D.

    1997-01-01

    For estimating safe service life of pressure tubes in Indian PHWRs, analytical methodologies have been developed to evaluate creep deformation, deuterium pick-up rate, blister growth at cold spot, and operating domain required for achieving leak-before-break. The paper provides an overview of these methodologies, and results of some studies carried out towards evolution of proposed fitness-for-service criteria for a pressure tube in contact with its calandria tube. (author)

  11. Influence of coating quality on the service life of land-based gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The land-based gas turbine blades operate at severe operating conditions: higher metal temperatures and stresses, and severe duty cycles. Metallic coatings with or without a top ceramic coating have been used to protect the turbine blades. The durability of the coating system is one of the prime life-limiting factors of modem gas turbine blades. The quality of the coating plays a critical role on the coating life. This paper discusses the failure mechanisms of the coatings and describes how the quality of the coating affects the service life of a gas turbine blade. A few case studies are presented in the paper. (orig.)

  12. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  13. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    One of the critical non-replaceable systems of a long-term manned orbital station is the propulsion system. Since the propulsion system operates beginning with the launch of station elements into orbit, its service life determines the service life of the station overall. Weighing almost a million pounds, the International Space Station (ISS) is about four times as large as the Russian space station Mir and about five times as large as the U.S. Skylab. Constructed over a span of more than a decade with the help of over 100 space flights, elements and modules of the ISS provide more research space than any spacecraft ever built. Originally envisaged for a service life of fifteen years, this Earth orbiting laboratory has been in orbit since 1998. Some elements that have been launched later in the assembly sequence were not yet built when the first elements were placed in orbit. Hence, some of the early modules that were launched at the inception of the program were already nearing the end of their design life when the ISS was finally ready and operational. To maximize the return on global investments on ISS, it is essential for the valuable research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. This paper describes the work performed to extend the service life of the ISS propulsion system. A system comprises of many components with varying failure rates. Reliability of a system is the probability that it will perform its intended function under encountered operating conditions, for a specified period of time. As we are interested in finding out how reliable a system would be in the future, reliability expressed as a function of time provides valuable insight. In a hypothetical bathtub shaped failure rate curve, the failure rate, defined as the number of failures per unit time that a currently healthy component will suffer in a given future time interval, decreases during infant-mortality period, stays nearly constant during the service

  14. Flexible pavement rehabilitation design based on pavement service life time span left

    OpenAIRE

    Gamelyak, I.; Shevchuk, V.

    2005-01-01

    The design of flexible pavement rehabilitation is analysed in terms of durability-cost. A notion of the remaining service life span is described. the model of rehabilitation strategy selection is presented for both design project and operation stages. the results can be used in the pavement management system.

  15. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  16. Services and Supports, Partnership, and Family Quality of Life: Focus on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Brady, Sara E.; Summers, Jean Ann; Haines, Shana J.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the moderating effects of partnership on the relationship between services and supports adequacy and family quality of life (FQOL) for families of children with deaf-blindness ages birth to 21. A social-ecological approach enabled examining the impact of disability on the family system. A survey, consisting of…

  17. Remediating cultural services in Second Life: The case of Info Island DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Info Island DK was created as a virtual library in Second Life. This is an account of how library services of the physical library and the net library were remediated into a 3-D virtual world. The Info Island DK library was not widely adopted by any of the intended target groups, even if...

  18. Impact of Child Life Services on Children and Families Admitted to Start the Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Sutter, Lindsay; Doerrer, Sarah C; Haney, Courtney A; Turner, Zahava

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally the ketogenic diet is started as an inpatient admission to the hospital. Starting in January 2015, child life services were made formally available during ketogenic diet admissions to help families cope. One-page surveys were then provided to 15 parents on the day of discharge and again after 3 months. Every family believed that the child life services were helpful. Children who were developmentally appropriate/mildly delayed had higher parent-reported anxiety scores than those who were moderate to severely delayed (4.4 vs 1.0, P = .02). At 3 months, child life services were deemed very helpful for the parents (mean score: 8.9, range: 5-10), and were more helpful for the parent than the child (mean 6.2, range 1-10, P = .047). One of the most helpful services was a prior phone call to parents 1 week prior. In this small pilot study, child life involvement during the start of the ketogenic diet was highly useful.

  19. On the need for data for the verification of service life models for frost damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Engelund, Sven

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to draw the attention to the need for the verification of service life models for frost attack on concrete and the collection of relevant data. To illustrate the type of data needed the paper presents models for internal freeze/thaw damage (internal cracking including...

  20. Web-service architecture for tools supporting life-long e-Learning platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimov, Alexander; Stefanov, Krassen

    2009-01-01

    Dimov, A., & Stefanov, K. (2008). Web-service architecture for tools supporting life-long e-Learning platforms. In R. Koper, K. Stefanov & D. Dicheva (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International TENCompetence Open Workshop "Stimulating Personal Development and Knowledge Sharing" (pp. 67-71).

  1. Effect of corrosion on the fatigue service-life on steel and reinforced concrete beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, R.P.; van Breugel, K.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion is a point of big concern in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. To monitor the actual health and to predict the remaining service-life of structures, it is important to understand the structural behaviour and the failure mechanism of structures exposed to chlorides under

  2. Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongchul

    This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life of Rural Clients Seeking Telepsychology Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Tarlow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty million US residents live in rural areas, but health policies and interventions developed from an urban mindset often fail to address the significant barriers to health experienced by these local communities. Telepsychology, or psychological services delivered by distance via technology, is an emerging treatment modality with special implications for underserved rural areas. This study found that a sample of rural residents seeking telepsychology services (n=94 had low health-related quality of life (HRQOL, often due to cooccurring physical and mental health diagnoses including high rates of depression. However, a brief telepsychology treatment delivered to rural clients (n=40 was associated with an improvement in mental health-related quality of life (d = 0.70,  P<.001. These results indicate that despite the complex health needs of these underserved communities, telepsychology interventions may help offset the disparities in health service access in rural areas.

  4. Investigation of surface residual stress profile on martensitic stainless steel weldment with X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of residual stresses during fabrication is inevitable and often neglected with dire consequences during the service life of the fabricated components. In this work, the surface residual stress profile following the martensitic stainless steel (MSS pipe welding was investigated with X-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed the presence of residual stresses equilibrated across the weldment zones. Tensile residual stress observed in weld metal was balanced by compressive residual stresses in the parent material on the opposing sides of weld metal. Keywords: Residual stress, Weld, Stainless steel, X-ray, HAZ

  5. The development of socially responsible life-sciences teachers through community service learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Rian de Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, polices in higher education are urging tertiary institutions to produce graduates who are socially responsible citizens. One method of achieving this is through service-learning initiatives. Zoos as community partners can provide exciting educational opportunities for students to do animal behaviour studies and to develop their social responsibility. A sample of 58 preservice life-sciences teachers from a South African university completed a questionnaire on their animal behaviour studies. This study sought to determine how animal behaviour studies could successfully be incorporated as a community service-learning project in a zoo setting, what the educational value of these studies was and what the benefits were of incorporating this community service-learning component in the life-sciences course. The incorporation of the service-learning component into the zoology course led to the students’ personal and professional development, knowledge about themselves, sensitivity to cultural diversity, civic responsibility and insights into the ways in which communities operate. For a successful service-learning project, lectures, students and community partners should all have a sense of engagement. A number of suggestions are made to improve the incorporation of this service-learning component into the existing zoology course.

  6. Residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: service providers' perceptions of change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; McPherson, Amy; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Stewart, Debra; Glencross-Eimantas, Tanya; Jones-Galley, Kimberlea; Morrison, Andrea; Isihi, Ana Maria; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2015-05-01

    Residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs are designed to equip youth with physical disabilities with the foundational life skills required to assume adult roles. The objective was to determine RILS service providers' perceptions of the active ingredients of the intervention change process. Thirty-seven service providers from various disciplines completed measures to assess expertise status and participated in qualitative interviews. Qualitative themes were derived, and similarities and differences in themes were identified for blinded groups of novices, intermediates, and experts. The three main themes, reflecting change processes, were: (a) creating a supportive program atmosphere with multiple opportunities for learning, (b) using strategies to support, encourage, and engage youth, and (c) intentionally fostering youth experiences of skill development, social interaction, and pride in accomplishment. In contrast to the novices, experts displayed a more holistic perspective and paid attention to higher-order issues such as providing opportunities and enabling youth. The findings indicate how RILS service providers work to create a program atmosphere and employ strategies to intentionally foster particular youth experiences. The findings explicate service providers' theories of practice, the intentional design of RILS program environments to bring about client change, and the value of service provider expertise. Implications for Rehabilitation Service providers of youth independence-oriented life skills programs can intentionally create a learning-oriented and supportive program atmosphere by using non-directive, coaching/guiding, and engagement strategies Youth experiences of skill development, shared experience with others, and pride in accomplishment can be cultivated by providing a range of learning opportunities, including choice making, problem-solving, and skill mastery Compared to more novice service providers, experts discussed managing the

  7. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  8. Risk based service life prediction of underground cast iron pipes subjected to corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Q.; Mahmoodian, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aging and deterioration of underground cast iron pipes is inevitable after their long time in service, with corrosion being the most predominant mechanism for pipe failures. Although considerable research has been undertaken in the past few decades, more is on the effects of corrosion on structural capacity of pipes than that on the prediction of their service life. This paper presents a methodology to quantitatively assess the risk of pipe collapse and predict its remaining service life using a time-dependent reliability theory. The concept of stress intensity in fracture mechanics is employed to establish the failure criterion of pipe collapse. An empirical model is derived for maximum pit growth of corrosion from the available data based on mathematical regressions. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed method. It is found in the paper that the risk of pipe collapse increases with an increase in the diameter of the pipe for both external and internal corrosion. It is also found that the tougher the pipe is, the smaller the risk of its collapse. The paper concludes that a time-dependent reliability method is a very useful tool to predict the risk of pipe collapse and its remaining service life. The proposed method can help the water industry develop rehabilitation or replacement strategy for existing pipe networks with a view for better management of the pipe asset

  9. The Efficacy of Psychosocial Occupational Therapy Services on Quality of life of Chronic Pschiatric Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Hojjati-Abed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quality of life has recently been recognized as an important goal of health care in psychiatry. In this study quality of life of chronic psychiatric patients was evaluated after psychosocial occupational therapy interventions. Materials & Methods: This study is interventional and quasi experimental. Twoenty four chronic mental patients who had refered to SINA Daily Center as intervention group and fifty chronic mental patients as control group were selected by simle and convenient sampling. The instrument was Wisconsin Quality of Life Client Questionnaire that included 8 subscales. Occupational therapy services consisting group therapy, activity therapy and art therapy, according to center’ plane, were performed during 3 months (2 times in week, 90 minutes in each session for intervention group. Independent T test & Paired T test were used for data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in parts of QOL before intervention, but after intervention, significant differences were observed in mean scores of satisfaction level, occupational activities, psychological well–being, physical health and total quality o life (P<0.001, also social relation (P=0.005 and economic situation (P=0.003.There was no significant difference between two group in symptoms (P=0.277 and activity of daily living (P=0.020 after intervention. Conclusion: Psychosocial occupational therapy services are effective on satisfaction level and quality of life of chronic psychiatric patients.

  10. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wäger, Patrick A.; Hischier, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses

  11. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  12. Automatically exposing OpenLifeData via SADI semantic Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro Rodríguez; Callahan, Alison; Cruz-Toledo, José; Garcia, Adrian; Egaña Aranguren, Mikel; Dumontier, Michel; Wilkinson, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Two distinct trends are emerging with respect to how data is shared, collected, and analyzed within the bioinformatics community. First, Linked Data, exposed as SPARQL endpoints, promises to make data easier to collect and integrate by moving towards the harmonization of data syntax, descriptive vocabularies, and identifiers, as well as providing a standardized mechanism for data access. Second, Web Services, often linked together into workflows, normalize data access and create transparent, reproducible scientific methodologies that can, in principle, be re-used and customized to suit new scientific questions. Constructing queries that traverse semantically-rich Linked Data requires substantial expertise, yet traditional RESTful or SOAP Web Services cannot adequately describe the content of a SPARQL endpoint. We propose that content-driven Semantic Web Services can enable facile discovery of Linked Data, independent of their location. We use a well-curated Linked Dataset - OpenLifeData - and utilize its descriptive metadata to automatically configure a series of more than 22,000 Semantic Web Services that expose all of its content via the SADI set of design principles. The OpenLifeData SADI services are discoverable via queries to the SHARE registry and easy to integrate into new or existing bioinformatics workflows and analytical pipelines. We demonstrate the utility of this system through comparison of Web Service-mediated data access with traditional SPARQL, and note that this approach not only simplifies data retrieval, but simultaneously provides protection against resource-intensive queries. We show, through a variety of different clients and examples of varying complexity, that data from the myriad OpenLifeData can be recovered without any need for prior-knowledge of the content or structure of the SPARQL endpoints. We also demonstrate that, via clients such as SHARE, the complexity of federated SPARQL queries is dramatically reduced.

  13. Effect of the Length of Traffic Flow Records on the Estimate of a Bridge Service Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krejsa Jan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The service life of bridges is significantly affected by fatigue of used material induced by heavy vehicles. Therefore, precise determination of the vehicle weight is of crucial importance for the calculation of fatigue damage and the prediction of the bridge serviceability. This paper investigates accuracy of the determination of fatigue depending on the length of traffic flow recording. The presented data were obtained from the measurements carried out on a bridge of the Prague Highway Ring. The analysis reveals that the optimal length of traffic recording is about 30 days.

  14. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Post-Flight Testing and Service Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; von Jouanne, R. G.; Turner, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station uses high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. Segment. The pre-flight service life prediction of 1 year for the BFEs is based upon performance engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS Program resources. Thus testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are discussed. Recommendations for realizing significant savings to the ISS Program are presented.

  15. Influence of flexible pin for planets on service life of wind turbine gearboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Jun; Lee, Geun Ho; Nam, Yong Yun; Kim, Jeong Kil

    2012-01-01

    An overhung mounted carrier with flexible pins is applied to the planetary gear train of a wind turbine gearbox to investigate the influence of the self aligning effect by means of the deflection of the planet spindle and the flexible pin on the lifetime of the planet gear for a wind turbine gearbox. To analyze the load distribution of planet gears, both Euler theory and commercial software are employed. By applying an overhung mounted carrier with flexible pins in the wind turbine gearbox, we can improve the misalignment performance, face load factor, and service life of the planet gears. In particular, it was confirmed that a service life of more than 20 years could be realized for wind turbine gearboxes by applying a flexible pin to overhung mounted carrier

  16. Residual-strength tests of L-1011 vertical fin components after 10 and 20 years of simulated flight service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, O. F.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the NASA/ACEE Program was to determine the effect of long-term durability testing on the residual strength of graphite-epoxy cover panel and spar components of the Lockheed L-1011 aircraft vertical stabilizer. The results of these residual strength tests are presented herein. The structural behavior and failure mode of both cover panel and spar components were addressed, and the test results obtained were compared with the static test results generated by Lockheed. The effect of damage on one of the spar specimens was described.

  17. A Comparison of Quality of Life Outcomes for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Employment, Day Services and Employment Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Stephen; Brown, Tony; Akandi, Rachel; Rapley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: Policy objectives for people with intellectual disabilities include day service modernization and the promotion of paid employment and quality of life. Quality of life is under represented as an outcome measure in vocational research. This research compares subjective and objective quality of life, and quality of work environment for…

  18. Advances in Modeling Concrete Service Life : Proceedings of 4th International RILEM PhD Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Gulikers, Joost

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a critical analysis is made on service life models related to reinforcement corrosion. The contributors are on the frontier of knowledge in the field of durability of reinforced concrete. Topics covered in the book include: causes and mechanisms of deterioration, transport mechanisms in concrete, numerical modeling of concrete behavior, durability modeling and prediction, reliability approach to structural design for durability, structural behavior following degradation of concrete structures, deterioration and repair of concrete structures, and corrosion measurement techniques.

  19. Laser shock peening of steam turbine blade for enhanced service life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... study to develop indigenous LSP process for enhanced service life ... DINX10Cr- 0.08–0.13 11.5–12.5 2.2–2.8 0.1–0.5 1.6–1.8 0.6–0.9 0.25–0.4 Balance ... LSP is done by scanning the taped surface of the work piece with a ...

  20. Should the service life of nuclear power plants be limited for technical reasons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomer, E.

    1995-01-01

    German nuclear power plant operating licenses take into account the fact that the design lifetime of the facilities is 40 years. The technological lifetime, however, is governed by actual ageing processes and operational burden. The service life of nuclear power plants can be extended by replacement of the steam generator and by repair or replacement of the reactor pressure vessel or parts thereof. Attention is also paid to the reactor protection systems. (J.B.). 8 figs

  1. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolnay Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  2. Impact of landfill liner time-temperature history on the service life of HDPE geomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, R Kerry; Islam, M Z

    2009-10-01

    The observed temperatures in different landfills are used to establish a number of idealized time-temperature histories for geomembrane liners in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. These are then used for estimating the service life of different HDPE geomembranes. The predicted antioxidant depletion times (Stage I) are between 7 and 750 years with the large variation depending on the specific HDPE geomembrane product, exposure conditions, and most importantly, the magnitude and duration of the peak liner temperature. The higher end of the range corresponds to data from geomembranes aged in simulated landfill liner tests and a maximum liner temperature of 37 degrees C. The lower end of the range corresponds to a testing condition where geomembranes were immersed in a synthetic leachate and a maximum liner temperature of 60 degrees C. The total service life of the geomembranes was estimated to be between 20 and 3300 years depending on the time-temperature history examined. The range illustrates the important role that time-temperature history could play in terms of geomembrane service life. The need for long-term monitoring of landfill liner temperature and for geomembrane ageing studies that will provide improved data for assessing the likely long-term performance of geomembranes in MSW landfills are highlighted.

  3. Evaluation of Service Life of Polystyrene in Tropical Marine Environment by Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the service life of polystyrene (PS under an aggressive environment, the nondimensional expression Z was established from a data set of multiple properties of PS by principal component analysis (PCA. In this study, PS specimens were exposed to the tropical environment on Xisha Islands in China for two years. Chromatic aberration, gloss, tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength were tested to evaluate the aging behavior of PS. Based on different needs of industries, each of the multiple properties could be used to evaluate the service life of PS. However, selecting a single performance variation will inevitably hide some information about the entire aging process. Therefore, finding a comprehensive measure representing the overall aging performance of PS can be highly significant. Herein, PCA was applied to obtain a specific property (Z which can represent all properties of PS. Z of PS degradation showed a slight decrease for the initial two months of exposure after which it increased rapidly in the next eight months. Subsequently, a slower increase of Z value was observed. From the three different stages shown as Z value increases, three stages have been identified for PS service life.

  4. Strategies for the improvement of quality of life and service at the wellsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, G.J.; McCants, K.J.; Klein, M.

    1991-01-01

    The oil industry, particularly exploration and production drilling has always had to contend with a remarkable set of conditions: complicated logistics, remote locations, twenty four hour daily operations, and long and uneven schedules, to mention only a few. Invariably, operations personnel particularly service company personnel are required to perform highly technical, often critical tasks for long periods of time without the benefit of sustained periods of restfulness. This condition is compounded by irregular days-off schedules and the offshore environment itself. Research in other industries has shown that scheduling conditions similar to those experienced in the E and P drilling industry have lowered the standard of life, general health, safety and performance of employees. With the move towards higher technology and even more critical tasks, more demanding employees and an essentially unchanged working environment, the problems are compounded even further. Work related stress and quality of life have become important factors in our employees' career decisions and their ability to work safely. This paper discusses the evaluation of the work schedule and work/living conditions of the wellsite measurement and services personnel of Anadrill Schlumberger, and concludes with methods to improve the safety, health and general quality of life of those personnel and the service quality they can deliver

  5. Analysis and modeling of hot extrusion die for its service life enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Syed Sohail

    Aluminum extrusion finds extensive application in the construction, automobile and aerospace industries. High pressures, elevated temperatures, complex and intricate section geometries lead to repeated mechanical and thermal stresses in the die and affiliated tooling. Product rework and rejects can be traced back to various defects spread over the die life cycle: die design, die manufacture and heat treatment, process parameters, inprocess die maintenance/correction and, billet type and quality. Therefore, improved and efficient service life of die and related tooling used in the extrusion press is one the most important factors in maximizing productivity and minimizing cost for ensuring the economical efficiency of an aluminum extrusion plant. How often a die has to be scrapped and replaced with a new one directly contributes to the commercial viability of producing a certain profile. The focus of the current work is on three distinct yet inter-related studies pertaining to the improvement of aluminum extrusion die. Study-A (Die Failure Analysis) is an investigation of various modes and critical failure types based on industrial data (Chapter-2 ), examination of failed dies and finite element simulation for identification of critical process parameters and design features in die fatigue-life (Chapter-3). In Study-B (Die Surface Hardening Treatment), two-stage controlled gas nitriding process for H13 steel is evaluated, both experimentally and numerically, in terms of nitrided case morphology and properties (Chapter-4) followed by experimental and numerical investigation of the effects of repeated nitriding (Chapter-5), pre-nitriding surface preparation (Chapter-6) and die profile geometry (Chapter-7) on nitriding performance in regard to die service life. In Study-C (Effect of Billet Quality on Die Life), the effect of billet quality and related influencing extrusion parameters on the die service life is investigated based on industrial data and some regression

  6. The sustainability effects of Product/Service-System design validated through Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt Dreijer, Leise; Birkved, Morten; Howard, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    and lifts. The major research question for the case is how the supplier’s continued ownership of the building materials influences the sustainability of such buildings. By using a PSS design approach in the early design stages, the architects involved in the case project were able to make design decisions......Temporary buildings are generally considered to be unsustainable due to a short life span of the materials applied in the building. The construction materials typically have a longer use life than the required use life of the building, thus functioning building materials are often discarded after...... the demolition. In an attempt to improve the sustainability of temporary buildings, a Product/Service-System (PSS) strategy is here applied to a case project. The case project concerns a temporary building made of leased materials and building components such as shipping containers, scaffolding materials...

  7. Residual and working stresses in pipe joints in heterogeneous metals, due to common action of welding and service loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S.N.; Voronin, N.N.; Roshchin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The stresses in the welded joints of cylindrical shells are studied, which are caused by the total effect of the thermal deformation welding cycles, by the preheats connected with the thermal treatment or operation, and by power loads. Studied were the shell joints made of the steels Kh18N10T and St.3, as well as the joints of three shells made of different metals, St.3+18N1aT steel+copper. The schematic diagram showing the residual stresses set up under effect of different factors are presented. The following has been shown by the study: the preheating of the welded joints of the shells made of diverse metals up to the operational temperatures does not result in obviating the residual stresses. If the welded shells are loaded by the internal pressure up to the stresses of (0.8-O.9) sigmasub(T), in certain cases an essential (up to 60-70%) reduction in the residual welding stresses may be obtained. The effectiveness of a variation in the residual stresses is reduced in the joints that have been thermally treated after welding. The working stresses set up in the welded joints of the shells made of different metals under the operational loading may be essentially reduced through initial preheating with the application of a pressure or without it. The preheating temperature and the pressures applied may be chosen so that to create the residual strains and the stresses of inverse sign as compared with the working stresses

  8. A case of industrial safety appraisal for extension of service life of GTK-10-4 gas turbines used at gas transmission stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybnikov, A. I.; Kovalev, A. G.; Kryukov, I. I.; Leont'ev, S. A.; Moshnikov, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    It is shown that the extended life and enhanced operational reliability of parts and subassemblies of the most popular GTK-10-4 gas transmission plants are determined by the enhanced efficiency of the control over technical condition and operational safety of turbine plants in conformity with industrial safety requirements imposed on gas pipeline compressor stations. It has been established that the materials of parts and subassemblies of gas turbine plants with different, especially with maximal operating time, shall be exposed to NDT for the purpose of determining the actual mechanical characteristics of these materials with different operating time and calculating residual life. The analysis of damageability and operating conditions has helped to identify parts and subassemblies for repair or replacement with the highest frequency of unacceptable defects. These parts and subassemblies have been shown to include base members of the axial compressor (AC), a turbine housing, an axial compressor rotor, high- and low-pressure turbine (HPT and LPT) discs, a 12-part holder, the housing of the holder of HPT and LPT guiding blades, a sealed baffler, and working and guiding AC, LPT and HPT blades. The most typical operational defects have been enumerated and analyzed. It has been determined that the primary task of the industrial safety appraisal for extending the life of GTK-10-4 with limit-exceeding operating time is to thoroughly examine HPT and LPT discs with more than 130,000 hours of operating time and establish by DT methods characteristics of materials for evaluation, taking account of their degradation, and residual life of critical turbine elements. In addition, it has been shown that the service life of HP turbine discs can be extended by replacing the disc material (EP-428 12% chromium steel) with a material with a higher linear expansion factor that somewhat exceeds the expansion factor of EI-893 nickel alloy used to melt out working blades.

  9. Associations of Quality of Life with Service Satisfaction in Psychotic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkari, Eleni; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) has gained increasing attention as a desired outcome of psychosocial treatments targeting psychotic patients. Yet, the relationship between the patients’ satisfaction with services and QoL has not been clearly established, perhaps due to the multidimensionality of the QoL concept and the variability in its assessment. Aim This is the first systematic meta-analysis of all available evidence assessing the relationship between QoL and service satisfaction. Methods: In all, 19 studies reporting data of 21 independent samples (N = 5,337) were included in the present meta-analysis. In moderator analyses, effects of age, sex, diagnoses (schizophrenia vs. other psychoses), treatment context (inpatients vs. outpatients), study design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal), and QoL domain (subjective vs. health-related) were examined. Results Analyses revealed a highly significant medium-sized effect (r = .30, p service satisfaction. Effect sizes were significantly stronger for subjective than health-related quality of life (r = .35 vs. r = .14, respectively). Moreover, associations with subjective QoL remained largely robust when accounting for moderating variables, although there was a trend of stronger associations for outpatients compared to inpatients. In contrast, effect sizes for health-related QoL were small and only observable for samples with longitudinal designs. Conclusion Associations between QoL and service satisfaction appear to be robust but are differentiated in regard to QoL domain. Our findings suggest that agents responsible for service design and implementation need to take the patients’ perception of the service adequacy for achieving QoL enhancement into account. PMID:26275139

  10. Impacts of Global Warming and Sea Level Rise on Service Life of Chloride-Exposed Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jian Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming will increase the rate of chloride ingress and the rate of steel corrosion of concrete structures. Furthermore, in coastal (atmospheric marine zones, sea level rise will reduce the distance of concrete structures from the coast and increase the surface chloride content. This study proposes a probabilistic model for analyzing the effects of global warming and sea level rise on the service life of coastal concrete structures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, an improved chloride diffusion model is proposed to determine chloride concentration. The Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the service life in the corrosion initiation stage; Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, a numerical model is proposed to calculate the rate of corrosion, probability of corrosion cracking, and service life. Third, overall service life is determined as the sum of service life in the corrosion initiation and corrosion propagation stages. After considering the impacts of global warming and sea level rise, the analysis results show that for concrete structures having a service life of 50 years, the service life decreases by about 5%.

  11. Determining Service Life of Respirator Cartridges Using a Simple and Practical Method: Case Study in a Car Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Rashidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: For ensuring about proper performance of air-purifying respirators in providing protection against workplace contaminants, it is necessary to change the respirator cartridges before the end of their service life. The aim of this study was determination of service life of organic vapor cartridges using a simple and practical method in a spray painting booth of a car manufacturing industry.   Methods: NIOSH MultiVapor software was used for estimating service life of respirator cartridges based on workplace conditions and cartridge specifications. Efficiency of determined service life was investigated using an apparatus for field testing of cartridges in the workplace.   Results: The results showed that existing schedule for changing the respirator cartridges is not effective and no longer provide adequate protection for sprayers against organic contaminants while working in a painting booth. It is necessary to change the cartridges before their estimated service life (every 4 hours.   Conclusion: NIOSH MultiVapor has acceptable efficiency for determining respirator cartridges service life and could be used as a simple and practical method in the workplace. Moreover, Service life estimated by this software was confirmed by cartridge field test apparatus.

  12. Monitoring the residual life of atomic power station equipment based on the indices of stress-corrosion strength of constructional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of a constructional material determining life are strength, plasticity, and crack resistance. Loss of properties occurs as the result of corrosion, temperature action, actual and residual stresses, and neutron and gamma-radiation. Corrosion leads to a decrease in thickness, loss of density, changes in the composition and structure of the surface layers, and a reduction in strength, plasticity, and crack resistance of constructional materials. The influence of temperature on the loss of properties of materials is revealed as possible phase and structural transformations of the metal and the surface layers and a reduction in the stress-rupture, plastic, and thermal-fatigue properties. The actual and residual stresses not only strengthen the influence of corrosive media but also directly determine the stress-rupture strength and cyclic life. The influence of neutron and gamma-radiation is based o the change in composition of the corrosive medium (radiolysis), radiation embrittlement of the material, and the change in properties of the surface and oxide layers. The authors discuss the concepts and design of automated monitoring systems for determining the fitness of the components of on atomic power plant

  13. Mobile phone use for contacting emergency services in life-threatening circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Olivia; Briggs, Andrew; Kemp, Tom; Gray, Alastair; MacIntyre, Kate; Rowley, Jack; Willett, Keith

    2012-03-01

    The potential health benefits of mobile phone use have not been widely studied, except for telemedicine-type applications. This study seeks to determine whether initial contact with emergency services via a mobile phone in life-threatening situations is associated with potential health benefits when compared to contact via a landline. A record-linkage study was carried out in which data from all emergency dispatches for immediately life-threatening events from a United Kingdom county ambulance service were linked to the Patient Admission System at two major local hospitals. Mortality (at the scene, at the emergency department [ED], and during hospitalization); transfer to the ED; admission (inpatient care, and intensive care unit); and length of stay were analyzed for calls classified as Code Red (immediately life-threatening) by initial exposure (mobile phone vs. landline), while controlling for potential confounding variables. Of 354,199 ambulances dispatched to attend emergency incidents, 66% transported patients to the hospital while 2% stood down due to death at the scene. Mobile phone compared to landline reporting of emergencies resulted in significant reductions in the risk of death at the scene (odds ratio [OR] 0.77), but not for death in the ED or during inpatient admission. The risk of being transferred to the ED and subsequent inpatient admission were significantly lower with reporting from mobile phones compared to landline (OR 0.93 and OR 0.82, respectively). In this study, evidence of statistical association was demonstrated between the use of mobile phones to alert ambulance services in life-threatening situations and improved outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficiency of the life cycle of the gasification of residues in the sawmill 'El Brujo'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme Jaén, René; Rodriguez Ortiz, Leandro Alexei; Oliva Ruiz, Luis Oscar; Peralta Campos, Leonel Grave de; Iglesias Vaillant, Yuniel

    2017-01-01

    Poor gas, the result of biomass gasification with air, can be used in internal combustion engines to generate electricity, however it is necessary to evaluate the net energy production, as well as environmental impacts and in this sense the life cycle analysis is a tool that allows quantifying the potentialities of any technology. In this work, taking as a reference 1682 hours of operation, a life cycle inventory of the waste gasification plant for the generation of electricity at the 'El Brujo' sawmill is carried out. As a result of the work, a ratio between the produced renewable energy and the fossil energy consumed of 4,18 was obtained, showing that the fuel used is renewable and energy efficiency of the life cycle of 11,07 %, with a positive balance of 18 tons of CO2 ceased to emit into the atmosphere. (author)

  15. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffer Gert J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures restricted to the HEMS-physician and procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. Methods Prospective study of a consecutive group of children examined and treated by the HEMS of the eastern region of the Netherlands. Data regarding type of emergency, physiological parameters, NACA scores, treatment, and 24-hour survival were collected and subsequently analysed. Results Of the 558 children examined and treated by the HEMS on scene, 79% had a NACA score of IV-VII. 65% of the children had one or more advanced life support procedures restricted to the HEMS and 78% of the children had one or more procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. The HEMS intubated 38% of all children, and 23% of the children intubated and ventilated by the EMS needed emergency correction because of potentially lethal complications. The HEMS provided the greater part of intraosseous access, as the EMS paramedics almost exclusively reserved this procedure for children in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The EMS provided pain management only to children older than four years of age, but a larger group was in need of analgesia upon arrival of the HEMS, and was subsequently treated by the HEMS. Conclusions The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service of the eastern region of the Netherlands brings essential medical expertise in the field not provided by the emergency medical service. The Emergency Medical Service does not provide a significant quantity of procedures obviously needed by the paediatric patient.

  16. Mechanical property tests in hot gas environment for evaluation of life expectancy of aero-engine turbine blades and for assessment of procedures for prolonging service life. Mechanische Pruefung unter Heissgasatmosphaere zur Ermittlung der Lebenserwartung von Fluggasturbinenschaufeln und zur Bewertung von Verfahren zur Lebensdauerverlaengerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peichl, L

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this programme was the determination and optimization of mechanical testing procedures in order to enable a service life prediction for turbine blades as well as to measure the life consumption of blades which have already been in service. Under these testing conditions procedures were to be investigated which lead to a prolongation of the service life of the blades. The results have shown that the rig test at constant values of load and temperature, which are typical for service conditions, is sufficient for the laboratory simulation. The life consumption of blades run in the engine can be determined by measuring the residual creep life in the rig test. Using the resulting data the life consumption of a particular blade run in the engine can be estimated by the non-destructive measurement of its elongation. The precision of residual life prediction is raised by respecting the master heat and porosity of the blades. From the investigation of high-temperature corrosion resistant coatings it follows that IN 100 can be protected against the attack of sea salt over its whole creep life by coating with a precious metal modified aluminide or by LPPS- or EB-PVD-MCrAlY-coatings. By aluminising, the cooling channels of turbine blades can be protected against oxidation over more than 700 h in the temperature/load cycling test. However, the coating technique used is only applicable under laboratory conditions. In contrary, internal coating by pulse aluminising, which is compatible to production conditions, showed less oxidation resistance.

  17. A simple method to prolong the service life of radioactive sources for external radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingjie; Tian, Yuan; Dai, Jianrong

    2014-07-08

    A radioactive source is usually replaced and disposed after being used for a certain amount of time (usually a half-life). In this study, a simple method is proposed to prolong its service life. Instead of replacing the used source with a new source of full activity, a new source of less activity is added in the source holder in front of the used one, so that the total activity of two sources is equal to the initial activity of the used source or even higher. Similarly, more sources can be added to the previous ones. Attenuation of front source(s) to the back source(s) was evaluated with exponential attenuation equation, and variation of source-focus distance (SFD) with inverse square law for Leksell 4C Gamma Knife, which served as an example of external radiotherapy units. When the number of front sources increased from 1 to 3, the relative air kerma decreased from 36.5% to 5.0%. Both the attenuation effect and SFD variation contributed to the decrease in air kerma, with the former being the major factor. If the height of the source can be decreased in some way, such as increasing the specific activity of sources, the sources can be used more efficiently. The method prolongs the service life of sources by several factors, and reduces the expense of source exchange and reclamation.

  18. Childhood adverse life events, disordered eating, and body mass index in US Military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Jennifer L; Barmine, Marissa; Druskin, Lindsay; Olsen, Cara H; Quinlan, Jeffrey; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2018-03-02

    US service members appear to be at high-risk for disordered eating. Further, the military is experiencing unprecedented prevalence of overweight and obesity. US service members also report a high prevalence of childhood adverse life event (ALE) exposure. Despite consistent links between early adversity with eating disorders and obesity, there is a dearth of research examining the association between ALE exposure and disordered eating and weight in military personnel. An online survey study was conducted in active duty personnel to examine childhood ALE history using the Life Stressor Checklist - Revised, disordered eating using the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire total score, and self-reported body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ). Among 179 respondents, multiple indices of childhood ALE were positively associated with disordered eating. Traumatic childhood ALE and subjective impact of childhood ALE were associated with higher BMI and these associations were mediated by disordered eating. Findings support evaluating childhood ALE exposure among service members with disordered eating and weight concerns. Moreover, findings support the need for prospective research to elucidate these relationships. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor quality of life among financial service employees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sergio; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-01-01

    Workers in the financial services sector are exposed to great stress at work. This study investigates whether exposure to adverse psychosocial work conditions is independently associated with poor health-related physical and mental quality of life among financial services workers. We studied a nationwide representative sample of 2,054 workers of a large Brazilian state bank in 2008. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) scale and the Job content questionnaire (JCQ). Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-12). Poor mental and physical HRQL was defined by the lowest quartiles of the SF-12 final score distributions. Associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. In the multivariate analysis, exposures to low control and lack of social support at work (JCQ) were associated with poor HRQL in the physical domain. Increasing effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment (ERI), on the other hand, were associated with poor HRQL in the mental domain, with a significant statistical trend. Overcommitment was also associated with poor physical HRQL. The results suggest that exposure to adverse psychosocial work conditions has a negative impact on both domains of HRQL among financial service workers. They also indicate that ERI and DC models capture different aspects of job strain.

  20. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....

  1. Influence of Superheated Steam Temperature Regulation Quality on Service Life of Boiler Steam Super-Heater Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates influence of change in quality of superheated steam temperature regulations on service life of super-heater metal. А dependence between metal service life and dispersion value for different steel grades has been determined in the paper. Numerical values pertaining to increase of super-heater metal service life in case of transferring from manual regulation to standard system of automatic regulation (SAR have been determined and in case of transferring from standard SAR to improved SAR. The analysis of tabular data and plotted dependencies makes it possible to conclude that any change in conditions of convection super-heater metal work due to better quality of the regulation leads to essential increase of time period which is left till the completion of the service life of a super-heater heating surface.

  2. Internal curing as a new tool for infrastructural renewal : reducing repair congestion, increasing service life, and improving sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Internal curing has recently been developed as a new concrete technology that has the potential to : dramatically extend the service life of concrete infrastructure elements like bridge decks. Internal curing : uses prewetted lightweight aggregate in...

  3. Service life prediction for 50-year-old buildings in marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sánchez-Deza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel reinforcing bars are often coated with rusts formed during service in reinforced concrete (RC structures. Rust layers growing on steel rebars induce expansive stresses and cause cracking on cover concrete. This study uses steel corrosion rate results measured on reinforced concrete buildings of more than 50 years of age located in marine environments and considers the pressure generated by the volume expansion of corrosion product layers to calculate the service life of the RC structures using a numerical simulation, estimating the time to corrosion cracking of the concrete cover. Akaganeite, goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite and maghemite were identified by X-ray diffraction as crystalline phase constituents of the rust layers.

  4. On the application of thermodynamics of corrosion for service life design of concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    There are unexploited possibilities in the application of thermodynamics of corrosion for service life design (SLD) of concrete structures. Thermodynamics provides means for insightful descriptions of corrosion mechanisms and of corrosion protection mechanisms. Strategies for corrosion protection...... of the application of thermodynamics for SLD and gives examples of two applications: description of corrosion processes and design of countermeasures. Emphasis is set on chloride induced corrosion....... can be based on thermodynamically consistent corrosion mechanisms and evaluation of existing and design of new countermeasures can be performed using thermodynamics. Similarly, materials concepts for embedded electrodes can be designed using thermodynamics. The present paper provides a brief outline...

  5. A Numerical Model for Estimation of Service Life of Tribological Systems of the Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gavrilov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, develops and applies approach of the interaction of rough surfaces for one of the tasks of simulation of tribological systems of the piston engine. In this paper we described the general approach to building a model of interaction between rough surfaces, leading to the analysis of the Markov process. Given the initial data and the method of calculating the trajectory of movable elements on the lubricating layer, we determined the tribological parameters defining the service life of tribological systems of the piston engine on the example of crankshaft bearings.

  6. Prediction of pavement remaining service life based on repetition of load and permanent deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, R. S.; Setyawan, A.; Suprapto, M.

    2018-03-01

    One of the methods which was applied in the assessment of flexible pavement performance was mechanistic method assuming structures of road pavement to become multi-layer structure for flexible pavement, that the vehicle load working on the pavement layer under repetition with power failure worth 1 (one) unit which was assumed as evenly distributed static load, and therefore the pavement material would provide response in the form of stress, strain, and deflection. This is closely related in order to assess the structure of flexible pavement and to predict the remaining service life on the roads of Pulau Indah sta 0 + 000 to sta. 0 + 845 in Kota Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur. The performance appraisal indicator which was used was fatigue cracking happening bottom of the asphalt layer and permanent deformation (rutting) on the surface of subgrade. The strain estimate on the flexible pavement layer structure needs carefulness and high accuracy and therefore a software like KENPAVE which produces horizontal tensile strain of 8,802E-05 and vertical compressive strain of 2,642E-04 was used. By applying equation of The Asphalt Instituteit was obtained repetition of permit load when reaching fatigue cracking (Nf) was 16.071.516 ESAL and permanent deformation (rutting) was 14.703.867 ESAL and also it was predicted the remaining service life of pavement applied the equation of AASTHO 1993 by considering Traffic Multiplier factor (TM 1.8, TM 1.9 and TM 2.0) obtained the remaining life service due to fatigue of 5.51% in the year of 13th (TM 1.8), 7.95% in the year of12th (TM 1.9) and 3.11% (TM 2.0) in the year of 12th, also the remaining service life due to rutting of 4.69% in the year of 12th(TM 1.8), 7.79% in the year of 11th (TM 1.9), and 2.94 in the year of 11th (TM 2.0).

  7. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    of wood moisture are done by in-situ resistance moisture meters (Lindegaard and Morsing 2006). The aim is that the test should form the basis of evaluation of the maintenance requirements and the prediction of service life of the surface treatment and the wood/construction. At the moment 60 test racks...... are exposed. This study examines the data from the first five years of outdoor exposure using data from a test rack with a water-borne acrylic coating and a test rack with ICP coating for case studies. The moisture content data was converted into weekly average and weekly variation values which gave a deeper...

  8. Perceived stress and life satisfaction: social network service use as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qikun; Liu, Yihao; Sheng, Zitong; He, Yue; Shao, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Social Network Service (SNS) has become a buzzword in recent media coverage with the development of the second generation of Web-based communities. In China, SNS has played an increasingly important role in its users' daily lives, especially among students. With a sample of 471 college students, we tested the direct relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction using a regression analysis. Moreover, we found SNS use could buffer the negative effect of perceived stress. This study has practical implications on Internet users' SNS use.

  9. Estimation of the temporary service life of DC arc plasmatron cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulygin, V. M.; Pereslavtsev, A. V.; Tresvyatskii, S. S.

    2017-09-01

    The service life of the cathode of a DC arc plasmatron continuously working with tubular electrodes that operate in the air has been considered using the semi-phenomenological approach. The thermal emission, that ensures the necessary flow of electrons, and the evaporation of the cathode material, which determines its erosion, have been taken as the basic physical phenomena that constitute the workflow. The relationships that enable the estimation of the cathode's operating time have been obtained using the known regularities of these phenomena and experimental data available in the literature. The resulting evaluations coincide satisfactorily with the endurance test results.

  10. Colil: a database and search service for citation contexts in the life sciences domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toyofumi; Yamamoto, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    To promote research activities in a particular research area, it is important to efficiently identify current research trends, advances, and issues in that area. Although review papers in the research area can suffice for this purpose in general, researchers are not necessarily able to obtain these papers from research aspects of their interests at the time they are required. Therefore, the utilization of the citation contexts of papers in a research area has been considered as another approach. However, there are few search services to retrieve citation contexts in the life sciences domain; furthermore, efficiently obtaining citation contexts is becoming difficult due to the large volume and rapid growth of life sciences papers. Here, we introduce the Colil (Comments on Literature in Literature) database to store citation contexts in the life sciences domain. By using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and a newly compiled vocabulary, we built the Colil database and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint. In addition, we developed a web-based search service called Colil that searches for a cited paper in the Colil database and then returns a list of citation contexts for it along with papers relevant to it based on co-citations. The citation contexts in the Colil database were extracted from full-text papers of the PubMed Central Open Access Subset (PMC-OAS), which includes 545,147 papers indexed in PubMed. These papers are distributed across 3,171 journals and cite 5,136,741 unique papers that correspond to approximately 25 % of total PubMed entries. By utilizing Colil, researchers can easily refer to a set of citation contexts and relevant papers based on co-citations for a target paper. Colil helps researchers to comprehend life sciences papers in a research area more efficiently and makes their biological research more efficient.

  11. Accounting for ecosystem services in Life Cycle Assessment, Part II: toward an ecologically based LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    Despite the essential role of ecosystem goods and services in sustaining all human activities, they are often ignored in engineering decision making, even in methods that are meant to encourage sustainability. For example, conventional Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the impact of emissions and consumption of some resources. While aggregation and interpretation methods are quite advanced for emissions, similar methods for resources have been lagging, and most ignore the role of nature. Such oversight may even result in perverse decisions that encourage reliance on deteriorating ecosystem services. This article presents a step toward including the direct and indirect role of ecosystems in LCA, and a hierarchical scheme to interpret their contribution. The resulting Ecologically Based LCA (Eco-LCA) includes a large number of provisioning, regulating, and supporting ecosystem services as inputs to a life cycle model at the process or economy scale. These resources are represented in diverse physical units and may be compared via their mass, fuel value, industrial cumulative exergy consumption, or ecological cumulative exergy consumption or by normalization with total consumption of each resource or their availability. Such results at a fine scale provide insight about relative resource use and the risk and vulnerability to the loss of specific resources. Aggregate indicators are also defined to obtain indices such as renewability, efficiency, and return on investment. An Eco-LCA model of the 1997 economy is developed and made available via the web (www.resilience.osu.edu/ecolca). An illustrative example comparing paper and plastic cups provides insight into the features of the proposed approach. The need for further work in bridging the gap between knowledge about ecosystem services and their direct and indirect role in supporting human activities is discussed as an important area for future work.

  12. METHODS AND RESEARCH CONCERNING SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION OF SUPORTING STRUCTURES OF TRACTION ROLLING STOCK FOR INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is scientifically grounded introduction of the acquired techniques into works for service life extension of the traction and motor rolling stock for industrial transport. Methodology. To achieve the purpose it was analyzed the acquired techniques for service life extension of the traction and motor rolling stock for mainline transport. The acquired techniques during solution of problems concerning the service life extension of rolling stock units were adapted to the locomotives TGM6A and traction aggregates OPE1. Findings. On the basis of experimental and theoretical complex of studies some results were obtained. They gave the ground to determine the possibility of acquired techniques use when solving the problems on service life extension of rolling stock units concerning locomotives TGM6A and traction aggregates OPE1. Originality. On the basis of conducted experimental and theoretical studies scientific maintenance of the works providing extension of service life of traction and motor units of industrial rolling stock was executed. Practical value. Technical solutions and measures, which have to be carried out during operation within the prolonged appointed service life of traction and motor units of industrial rolling stock enterprises using locomotives and traction aggregates to provide the basic technological cycles were developed.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Principal Residual Stress and Fatigue Performance for Turned Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yang; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2018-05-24

    Residual stresses of turned Inconel 718 surface along its axial and circumferential directions affect the fatigue performance of machined components. However, it has not been clear that the axial and circumferential directions are the principle residual stress direction. The direction of the maximum principal residual stress is crucial for the machined component service life. The present work aims to focuses on determining the direction and magnitude of principal residual stress and investigating its influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718. The turning experimental results show that the principal residual stress magnitude is much higher than surface residual stress. In addition, both the principal residual stress and surface residual stress increase significantly as the feed rate increases. The fatigue test results show that the direction of the maximum principal residual stress increased by 7.4%, while the fatigue life decreased by 39.4%. The maximum principal residual stress magnitude diminished by 17.9%, whereas the fatigue life increased by 83.6%. The maximum principal residual stress has a preponderant influence on fatigue performance as compared to the surface residual stress. The maximum principal residual stress can be considered as a prime indicator for evaluation of the residual stress influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Principal Residual Stress and Fatigue Performance for Turned Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hua

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses of turned Inconel 718 surface along its axial and circumferential directions affect the fatigue performance of machined components. However, it has not been clear that the axial and circumferential directions are the principle residual stress direction. The direction of the maximum principal residual stress is crucial for the machined component service life. The present work aims to focuses on determining the direction and magnitude of principal residual stress and investigating its influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718. The turning experimental results show that the principal residual stress magnitude is much higher than surface residual stress. In addition, both the principal residual stress and surface residual stress increase significantly as the feed rate increases. The fatigue test results show that the direction of the maximum principal residual stress increased by 7.4%, while the fatigue life decreased by 39.4%. The maximum principal residual stress magnitude diminished by 17.9%, whereas the fatigue life increased by 83.6%. The maximum principal residual stress has a preponderant influence on fatigue performance as compared to the surface residual stress. The maximum principal residual stress can be considered as a prime indicator for evaluation of the residual stress influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718.

  15. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  16. The influences of patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of medical service, and trust in health delivery system on patient's life satisfaction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liyang

    2012-09-14

    Patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery/assessment of medical service/trust in health delivery system may have significant influence on patient's life satisfaction in China's health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals.The aim of this study was to test whether and to what extent patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery/patient's assessments of various major aspects of medical service/various major aspects of patient's trust in health delivery system influenced patient's life satisfaction in China's health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals. This study collaborated with National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a 2008 national urban resident household survey in 17 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government (N = 3,386), and specified ordered probit models were established to analyze dataset from this household survey. The key considerations in generating patient's life satisfaction involved patient's overall satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of doctor-patient communication, assessment of medical cost, assessment of medical treatment process, assessment of medical facility and hospital environment, assessment of waiting time for medical service, trust in prescription, trust in doctor, and trust in recommended medical examination. But the major considerations in generating patient's life satisfaction were different among low level public hospital, high level public hospital, and private hospital. The promotion of patient's overall satisfaction with medical service delivery, the improvement of doctor-patient communication, the reduction of medical cost, the improvement of medical treatment process, the promotion of medical facility and hospital environment, the reduction of waiting time for medical service, the promotion of patient's trust in prescription, the promotion of patient's trust in doctor, and the promotion of patient's trust in

  17. Quality of Life: Domains for Understanding Maths Anxiety in First Year Pre-Service Teachers through Identity Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety in primary pre-service teachers' affects their future teaching of mathematics and achievement of students. Data collected via Critical Incident Technique were used to investigate this anxiety as perceived and identified by first year pre-service teachers. This paper proposes the application of the Quality of Life conceptual…

  18. The Effects of Different Aspects of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Model Validation, Refinement, and Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Janet Davis

    2000-01-01

    The Effects of Different Aspects of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Model Validation, Refinement, and Extension by Janet Davis Neal ABSTRACT Numerous satisfaction studies have been conducted in both tourism and marketing which have examined various aspects of travelers and/or consumers. Quality of life satisfaction studies look beyond the types of satisfaction experiences that endure for only a short time to those that "spill over" into individuals' life domains ...

  19. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  20. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.

    2012-06-12

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  1. Effects of Crack and Climate Change on Service Life of Concrete Subjected to Carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yong Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonation is among the primary reasons for the initiation of the corrosion of steel rebar in reinforced concrete (RC structures. Due to structural loading effects and environmental actions, inevitable cracks have frequently occurred in concrete structures since the early ages. Additionally, climate change, which entails increases in CO2 concentration and environmental temperature, will also accelerate the carbonation of concrete. This article presents an analytical way of predicting the service life of cracked concrete structures considering influences of carbonation and climate change. First, using a hydration model, the quantity of carbonatable materials and concrete porosity were calculated. Carbonation depth was evaluated considering properties of concrete materials and environmental conditions. Second, the influence of cracks on CO2 diffusivity was examined. Carbonation depth for cracked concrete was evaluated using equivalent CO2 diffusivity. The effects of climate change, for example, growing CO2 concentration and environmental temperature, were considered using different schemes of carbonation models. Third, different climate change scenarios (such as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 8.5 and upper 90% confidence interval of RCP 8.5 and time slices (such as 2000 and 2050 were used for case studies. By utilizing the Monte Carlo method, the influences of various climate change scenarios on the service life loss of concrete structures were highlighted.

  2. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, A A; Neil-Sztramko, S E; Morgan, J; Hodson, S; Weller, S; McRae, T; Campbell, K L

    2016-08-01

    Rigorously applied exercise interventions undertaken in a research setting result in improved health-related quality of life (hrqol) in cancer survivors, but research to demonstrate effective translation of that research to practice is needed. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs in the community on hrqol and on self-reported physical activity and its correlates. After enrolment and 17 ± 4 weeks later, new clients (n = 48) to two fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs completed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (rand-36: rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, U.S.A.), the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and questions about physical activity correlates. Normal fee-for-service operations were maintained, including a fitness assessment and individualized exercise programs supervised in a group or one-on-one setting, with no minimum attendance required. Fees were associated with the assessment and with each exercise session. Of the 48 participants, 36 (75%) completed both questionnaires. Improvements in the physical functioning, role physical, pain, and energy/fatigue scales on the rand-36 exceeded minimally important differences and were of a magnitude similar to improvements reported in structured, rigorously applied, and free research interventions. Self-reported levels of vigorous-intensity (p = 0.021), but not moderate-intensity (p = 0.831) physical activity increased. The number of perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.035) and the prevalence of fatigue as a barrier (p = 0.003) decreased. Exercise self-efficacy improved only in participants who attended 11 or more sessions (p = 0.002). Exercise enjoyment did not change (p = 0.629). Enrolment in fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs results in meaningful improvements in hrqol comparable to those reported by research interventions, among other benefits. The fee-for-service model could be an effective model for

  4. Acceptance towards Goods and Services Tax (GST and Quality of Life: Antecedent and outcome using partial least square method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlinah Abd Rashid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The good and service tax (GST in Malaysia was implemented in 2015 as a tax reform program to generate a stable source of revenue. This study explores the respondents’ behaviour towards GST, a week post-implementation. The partial least square (PLS modelling was used to establish the relationship between acceptance, knowledge and feelings towards GST as well as the household quality of life. There is a positive relationship between the antecedents and the quality of life. Acceptance of GST exerts a significant relationship towards feelings and quality of life. The study concludes that Malaysians, in general, accept GST that ensures a better quality of life in the future.

  5. Life cycle assessment needs predictive spatial modelling for biodiversity and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sim, Sarah; Hamel, Perrine; Bryant, Benjamin; Noe, Ryan; Mueller, Carina; Rigarlsford, Giles; Kulak, Michal; Kowal, Virginia; Sharp, Richard; Clavreul, Julie; Price, Edward; Polasky, Stephen; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Daily, Gretchen

    2017-04-21

    International corporations in an increasingly globalized economy exert a major influence on the planet's land use and resources through their product design and material sourcing decisions. Many companies use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate their sustainability, yet commonly-used LCA methodologies lack the spatial resolution and predictive ecological information to reveal key impacts on climate, water and biodiversity. We present advances for LCA that integrate spatially explicit modelling of land change and ecosystem services in a Land-Use Change Improved (LUCI)-LCA. Comparing increased demand for bioplastics derived from two alternative feedstock-location scenarios for maize and sugarcane, we find that the LUCI-LCA approach yields results opposite to those of standard LCA for greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption, and of different magnitudes for soil erosion and biodiversity. This approach highlights the importance of including information about where and how land-use change and related impacts will occur in supply chain and innovation decisions.

  6. Life cycle assessment needs predictive spatial modelling for biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sim, Sarah; Hamel, Perrine; Bryant, Benjamin; Noe, Ryan; Mueller, Carina; Rigarlsford, Giles; Kulak, Michal; Kowal, Virginia; Sharp, Richard; Clavreul, Julie; Price, Edward; Polasky, Stephen; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Daily, Gretchen

    2017-04-01

    International corporations in an increasingly globalized economy exert a major influence on the planet's land use and resources through their product design and material sourcing decisions. Many companies use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate their sustainability, yet commonly-used LCA methodologies lack the spatial resolution and predictive ecological information to reveal key impacts on climate, water and biodiversity. We present advances for LCA that integrate spatially explicit modelling of land change and ecosystem services in a Land-Use Change Improved (LUCI)-LCA. Comparing increased demand for bioplastics derived from two alternative feedstock-location scenarios for maize and sugarcane, we find that the LUCI-LCA approach yields results opposite to those of standard LCA for greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption, and of different magnitudes for soil erosion and biodiversity. This approach highlights the importance of including information about where and how land-use change and related impacts will occur in supply chain and innovation decisions.

  7. Germany: the government has approved of the extension of the service life of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The German coalition government has decided on 28 september 2009 to expend the service life of the 17 operating nuclear reactors through the approval of the plan 'Energy 2050'. The average extension will be of 12 years. This decision will postpone the shutdown of the last reactor till 2040. The reciprocal arrangement implies that the nuclear plant operators (EON, RWE, Wattenfall and EnBW) will have to pay an annual tax of 2.3*10 9 euros till 2016. The operators will also have to finance a capital for the development of renewable energies: 200*10 6 euros in 2011 and in 2012 then 300*10 6 euros per year between 2013 and 2016 and eventually to pay a tax of 9 euros per MW of nuclear power produced. (A.C.)

  8. On the value of SHM in the context of service life integrity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimization of structural health monitoring(SHM) before its implementation on the basis of its Value of Information (VoI). The approach for the quantification of the value of SHM builds upon a service life cost assessment and generic structural performance model...... in conjunction with the observation, i.e. monitoring, of deterioration increments. The structural performance is described with a generic deterioration model to be calibrated to the relevant structural deterioration mechanism, such as e.g. fatigue and corrosion. The generic deterioration model allows...... for the incorporation of monitored damage increments and accounts for the precision of the data by considering the statistical uncertainties, i.e. the amount of monitoring data due to the monitoring period, and by considering the measurement uncertainty. The value of structural health monitoring is then quantified...

  9. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  10. Replacement of major nuclear power plant components for service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Problems are discussed associated with replacement of nuclear power plant components with the aim to extend their original scheduled life. The existing foreign experience shows that it is technically feasible to replace practically all basic components for which the necessity of replacement is established. Data is summed up on the replacement of steam generators in US and West German nuclear power plants showing the duration of the job, the total consumption of manhours, the collective dose equivalent and the cost. Attention is also focused on implemented and projected replacements of circulation pipes in nuclear power plants abroad. Based on these figures, the cost is estimated of the replacement of the reactor vessel and the steam generators for WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that even based on a conservative estimate, the extension by 20 years of the service life of a nuclear power plant is economically more effective than the construction of a new plant. (Z.M.) 2 tabs., 15 refs., 3 figs

  11. An End of Service Life Assessment of PMMA Lenses from Veteran Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Khonkar, Hussameldin I.; Herrero, Rebecca; Anton, Ignacio; Johnson, David K.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Deutch, Steve; To, Bobby; Sala, Gabriel; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2017-03-21

    The optical performance of poly(methyl methacrylate) lenses from veteran concentrator photovoltaic modules was examined after the end of their service life. Lenses from the Martin-Marietta and Intersol module designs were examined from the 'Solar Village' site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as the Phoenix Sky Harbor airport, followed by the Arizona Public Service Solar Test and Research (APS-STaR) center in Tempe, Arizona. The various lens specimens were deployed for 20, 27, and 22 years, respectively. Optical characterizations included lens efficiency (Solar Simulator instrument), material transmittance and haze (of coupons cut from veteran lenses, then measured again after their faceted back surface was polished, and then measured again after the incident front surface was polished), and direct transmittance (as a function of detector's acceptance angle, using the Very Low Angular Beam Spread ('VLABS') instrument). Lens efficiency measurements compared the central region to the entire lens, also using hot and cold mirror measurements to diagnose differences in performance. A series of subsequent characterizations was performed because a decrease in performance of greater than 10% was observed for some of the veteran lenses. Surface roughness was examined using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Facet geometry (tip and valley radius) was quantified on cross-sectioned specimens. Molecular weight was compared between the incident and faceted surfaces of the lenses.

  12. Notch fatigue crack propagation - A consistent concept for calculating flawed service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The research report presents a consistent concept of elastic-plastic fatigue fracture mechanics, to be used for numerical description of crack initiation and propagation behaviour within and out of notched areas of circular notched specimens for Woehler tests, two-phase fatigue tests and tests under service conditions. It is shown that a fracture-mechanics approach yields results capable of describing the load history over the whole service life of a structural member. A J-integral-related crack propagation model is derived that takes into account the crack opening and closure behaviour. The model is based on specially developed formulas, algorithms and approximation formulas required for description of crack opening and closure behaviour as well as calculation of the stress intensity factor K and the J-integral of cracks at notches. The values relating to crack opening were compared with experimental data, and those describing the stress intensity factor K and the J-integrals with 2D and 3D elastic-plastic FE calculations. Good and very good agreement of results was achieved. (orig./CB) [de

  13. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  14. Life extension, power upgrade, and return to service work for Pickering NGS and other PWR and CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millman, J.; Idvorian, N.; Schneider, W.

    2002-01-01

    Work on life extension, power upgrade and return to service has been performed and is in progress for a number of PWR and CANDU plants. For PWR plants, power upgrade work has been done for the new replacement steam generators in several cases. This work consists of redoing the formal equipment qualification analysis and reports for the uprated operating conditions to support the application for license adjustment. Life extension assessments have been performed for several CANDU plants. These are highly detailed assessments in which the particular steam generator is reassessed part by part as to the ability of each to sustain full life operation and also extended life operation. Return to service work for Pickering NGSA specifically has included this type of assessment and also specific repair, cleaning and retrofit activities including secondary side inspection, waterlancing, divider plate repair, eddy current inspection, etc. Steam generator modifications and retrofit work have been performed in a number of cases. The paper discusses various life extension, power upgrade, equipment modification and return to service activities all of which are part of the renewed drive in the industry to realise the full potential of nuclear plants by getting more and better performance from the extended service of existing plants. (author)

  15. Filter-based treatment of leachate from an industrial landfill containing shredder residues of end-of-life vehicles and white goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kängsepp, P; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L

    2010-02-01

    A pilot plant was set up to treat leachate from an industrial landfill containing shredder residues of end-of-life vehicles and white goods. The treatment plant consisted of aeration and sedimentation steps for pre-treatment, and a filter. The plant was designed to simultaneously remove various types of pollutants. The efficiencies of pre-treatment and of the main treatment step were investigated over a period of 3 years at the landfill site. By continuous aeration of the leachate the concentrations of Fe and Mn were reduced by 55% and 49%, respectively. By prolonged sedimentation suspended solid content was noticeably reduced (72%). In the filter, consisting of a mixture of peat and carbon-containing ash as a treatment medium, very high reduction of polar organic compounds, e.g. phenol (74%), o-and p-cresol (91%), and 2,4-dimethylphenol (73%), high average reduction of metals, e.g. Pb (78%), Fe (74%), Cu (73%), Mn (56%), Sn (55%), and Zn (47%), and good average reduction of DOC (26%), Tot-N (23%) and NH4-N (46%) were achieved. Sixty non-polar compounds in the leachate, identified by GC-MS screening, occurred at trace level. Most of them were considerably reduced in the filter.

  16. Methodological aspects to be considered in evaluating the economics of service measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bald, M.

    1987-01-01

    For the purposes of the report, service measures is used as a term denoting all those steps which exceed the framework of normal in-service maintenance and repair and serve to improve economics over the normal case. Positive impacts are to be achieved on such parameters as availability, efficiency, and service life. One of the aspects investigated is the effect, if any, of such measures on the residual service life of plants in operation for a long period of time already. Residual service life in this case means the remaining span of effective technical and economic operation which, in these model calculations, also includes part of the period of depreciation. (orig.) [de

  17. Internet Service Cognition and Use, and Their Promotion of Quality of Life in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    The "e-Taiwan Program" implemented by Taiwan government is aimed at showing the e-advantage in people's life and bring about essential benefits. This research follows the e-Life indicators of the Quality of Life measurement system developed by "e-Taiwan Program", which including four major dimensions of e-Daily Life,…

  18. Mathematical modeling of the heat transfer for determining the depth of thawing basin buildings with long service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirditov, Ivan; Stepanov, Sergei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a numerical study of the problem of determining a thawing basin in the permafrost soil for buildings with a long service life is carried out using two methods, with the formulas of set of rules 25.13330.2012 "Soil bases and foundations on permafrost soils" and using a mathematical model.

  19. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  20. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG...

  1. Evaluating weather factors and material response during outdoor exposure to determine accelerated test protocols for predicting service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2005-01-01

    To develop service life prediction methods for the study of sealants, a fully instrumented weather station was installed at an outdoor test site near Madison, WI. Temperature, relative humidiy, rainfall, ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 18 wavelengths, and wind speed and direction are being continuously measured and stored. The weather data can be integrated over time to...

  2. Association between obesity, quality of life, physical activity and health service utilization in primary care patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Herman, K.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of obesity with quality of life, health service utilization and physical activity in a large sample of primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Data were retrieved from the PraxArt project, representing a cohort of 1021 primary care

  3. Athletes Off the Field: A Model for Team Building and Leadership Development through Service Learning. Linking Learning with Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Laurie

    This booklet provides step-by-step guidelines for developing a leadership-through-service-learning component for a school athletic team. It is based on a program called LIFE LINE (Leaders in Football and Education) founded in 1996 as a peer leadership group that would increase team unity and success both on and off the field. The guide summarizes…

  4. The Relationship of Perceptions of Service and Support Adequacy to Family Quality of Life for Families of Children with Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between families' perceptions of supports and services and family quality of life (FQOL) for families of children with deafblindness, and the potential of satisfaction with family-professional partnerships and child age as moderators of this relationship. The study was guided by the Unified Theory of Family…

  5. The effects of composting on the nutritional composition of fibrous bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues and its impact on the growth of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Lowry, Brett A.; Brown, Paul B.; Beyl, Caula A.; Nyochemberg, Leopold

    2009-04-01

    Utilization of bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues as a nutritional source by Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) has proven problematic as a result of high concentrations of fibrous compounds in the plant waste residues. Nutritional improvement of plant waste residues by composting with the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus), and the effects on growth and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia fed such residues were evaluated. Five Nile tilapia (mean weight = 70.9 ± 3.1 g) were stocked in triplicate aquaria and fed one of two experimental diets, cowpea (CP) and composted cowpea (CCP), twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Composting of cowpea residue resulted in reduced concentrations of nitrogen-free extract, hemi-cellulose and trypsin inhibitor activity, though trypsin inhibitor activity remained high. Composting did not reduce crude fiber, lignin, or cellulose concentrations in the diet. No significant differences ( P tilapia fed CP and CCP. These results suggest that P. ostreatus is not a suitable candidate for culture in conjunction with the culture of Nile tilapia. Additional work is needed to determine what, if any, benefit can be obtained from incorporating composted residue as feed for Nile tilapia.

  6. Model for Predicting Traffic Signs Functional Service Life – The Republic of Croatia Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Babić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are the basic elements of communication between the relevant road authorities and road users. They manage, regulate, inform and warn road users to ensure their safe movement throughout transport networks. Traffic signs must be timely visible to all traffic participants in all weather and traffic conditions in order to fulfil their function, which means they must have satisfactory retroreflection properties. This paper presents a research of the deterioration of traffic signs retroreflection. The aim of this article is to develop models that will effectively enable predicting the retroreflection of traffic signs and thus optimize the maintenance activities and replacement of road signs to increase road safety. The research included measurements of retroreflection of retroreflective material Classes I and II (white, red and blue colour and Class III (red and yellow colour. Based on the collected data from the City of Zagreb (Republic of Croatia, the authors developed the models to estimate the functional service life of certain colours and materials used to make traffic signs. Considering that the average coefficient of determination for all the models is between 0.55-0.60, they present an effective tool in the traffic sign maintenance system.

  7. Coupling between cracking and permeability, a model for structure service life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasne, M.; Gerard, B.; Breysse, D.

    1993-01-01

    Many authors have chosen permeability coefficients (permeation, diffusion) as a reference for material durability and for structure service life prediction. When we look for designing engineered barriers for radioactive waste storage we find these macroscopic parameters very essential. In order to work with a predictive model of transfer properties evolution in a porous media (concrete, mortar, rock) we introduce a 'micro-macro' hierarchical model of permeability whose data are the total porosity and the pore size distribution. In spite of the simplicity of the model (very small CPU time consuming) comparative studies show predictive results for sound cement pastes, mortars and concretes. Associated to these works we apply a model of damage due to hydration processes at early ages to a container as a preliminary underproject for the definitive storage of Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). Data are geometry, cement properties and damage measurement of concrete. This model takes into account the mechanical property of the concrete maturation (volumic variations during cement hydration can damage the structures). Some local microcracking can appear and affect the long term durability. Following these works we introduce our research program for the concrete cracking analysis. An experimental campaign is designed in order to determine damage-cracking-porosity-permeability coupling. (authors). 12 figs., 16 refs

  8. Service-life prediction of reinforced concrete structures in subsurface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Jung; Jung, Hae Ryong; Park, Joo Wan [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    This paper focuses on the estimation of durability and service-life of reinforced concrete structures in Wolsong Low- and intermediate-level wastes Disposal Center (WLDC) in Korea. There are six disposal silos located in the saturated environment. The silo concrete is degraded due to reactions with groundwater and chemical attacks, and finally it will lose its properties as a transport barrier. The infiltration of sulfate and magnesium, leaching of potassium hydroxide, and chlorine induced corrosion are the most significant factors for degradation of reinforced concrete structure in underground environment. From the result of evaluation of the degradation time for each factor, the degradation rate of the reinforced concrete due to sulfate and magnesium is 1.308×10{sup -3} cm/yr, and it is estimated to take 48,000 years for full degradation while potassium hydroxide is leached in depth of less than 1.5 cm at 1,000 years after the initiation of degradation. In case of chlorine induced corrosion, it takes 1,648 years to initiate corrosion in the main reinforced bar and 2,288 years to reach the lifetime limit of the structural integrity, and thus it is evaluated as the most significant factor.

  9. How does substrate roughness affect the service life of a superhydrophobic coating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mo, Jiliang; Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2018-05-01

    Although the development of superhydrophobic coatings is rapidly maturing, issues related to their low mechanical durability persist. In this context, the effect of substrate roughness on the service life of superhydrophobic coatings was studied. In this study, superhydrophobic coatings were fabricated on sandpapers of different roughness and reciprocating wear tests were conducted. The wear-resistance number of the superhydrophobic coating, defined as the maximum number of friction cycles after which the superhydrophobic surface started to lose its superhydrophobicity, increased from 50 to 24,000 with an increase in the substrate roughness from 2000 CW to 240 CW (CW is defined as the number of particles arranged in an inch), while it decreased from 24,000 to 17,000 with a further increase in the substrate roughness from 240 CW to 60 CW. Observations of the surface structure and wear analyses indicated that the superhydrophobic material infiltrated the spaces between the sand grains, and the rough peaks could consequently protect the superhydrophobic material during the wear tests. However, this protection weakens when the substrate roughness increases or decreases beyond certain values. Furthermore, these phenomena and results were also verified by applying the superhydrophobic coatings to different types of common substrates.

  10. Analysis on regulation strategies for extending service life of hydropower turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Norrlund, P.; Yang, J.

    2016-11-01

    Since a few years, there has been a tendency that hydropower turbines experience fatigue to a greater extent, due to increasingly more regulation movements of governor actuators. The aim of this paper is to extend the service life of hydropower turbines, by reasonably decreasing the guide vane (GV) movements with appropriate regulation strategies, e.g. settings of PI (proportional-integral) governor parameters and controller filters. The accumulated distance and number of GV movements are the two main indicators of this study. The core method is to simulate the long-term GV opening of Francis turbines with MATLAB/Simulink, based on a sequence of one-month measurements of the Nordic grid frequency. Basic theoretical formulas are also discussed and compared to the simulation results, showing reasonable correspondence. Firstly, a model of a turbine governor is discussed and verified, based on on-site measurements of a Swedish hydropower plant. Then, the influence of governor parameters is discussed. Effects of different settings of controller filters (e.g. dead zone, floating dead zone and linear filter) are also examined. Moreover, a change in GV movement might affect the quality of the frequency control. This is also monitored via frequency deviation characteristics, determined by elementary simulations of the Nordic power system. The results show how the regulation settings affect the GV movements and frequency quality, supplying suggestions for optimizing the hydropower turbine operation for decreasing the wear and tear.

  11. Life cycle assessment needs predictive spatial modelling for biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sim, Sarah; Hamel, Perrine; Bryant, Benjamin; Noe, Ryan; Mueller, Carina; Rigarlsford, Giles; Kulak, Michal; Kowal, Virginia; Sharp, Richard; Clavreul, Julie; Price, Edward; Polasky, Stephen; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Daily, Gretchen

    2017-01-01

    International corporations in an increasingly globalized economy exert a major influence on the planet's land use and resources through their product design and material sourcing decisions. Many companies use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate their sustainability, yet commonly-used LCA methodologies lack the spatial resolution and predictive ecological information to reveal key impacts on climate, water and biodiversity. We present advances for LCA that integrate spatially explicit modelling of land change and ecosystem services in a Land-Use Change Improved (LUCI)-LCA. Comparing increased demand for bioplastics derived from two alternative feedstock-location scenarios for maize and sugarcane, we find that the LUCI-LCA approach yields results opposite to those of standard LCA for greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption, and of different magnitudes for soil erosion and biodiversity. This approach highlights the importance of including information about where and how land-use change and related impacts will occur in supply chain and innovation decisions. PMID:28429710

  12. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between childhood poverty, military service, and later life depression among men: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareis, Natalie; Mezuk, Briana

    2016-12-01

    Childhood poverty has been associated with depression in adulthood, but whether this relationship extends to later life major depression (MD) or is modified by military service is unclear. Data come from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2010 wave, a longitudinal, nationally representative study of older adults. Men with data on military service and childhood poverty were included (N=6330). Childhood poverty was assessed by four indicators (i.e., parental unemployment, residential instability) experienced before age 16. Military service was categorized as veteran versus civilian, and during draft versus all-volunteer (after 1973) eras. Past year MD was defined by the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory. Four in ten men ever served, with 13.7% in the all-volunteer military. Approximately 12% of civilians, 8% draft era and 24% all-volunteer era veterans had MD. Childhood poverty was associated with higher odds of MD (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.38, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.32-4.32) and higher odds of military service (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.58-4.21). Military service was marginally associated with MD (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.98-1.68) and did not moderate the association between childhood poverty and MD. Self-report data is subject to recall bias. The HRS did not assess childhood physical and emotional abuse, or military combat exposure. Men raised in poverty had greater odds of draft and all-volunteer military service. Early-life experiences, independent of military service, appear associated with greater odds of MD. Assessing childhood poverty in service members may identify risk for depression in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  15. A future for nuclear sites beyond their service life. Nuclear site value development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    As the nuclear industry moves into a new development phase, many facilities built in the fifties and sixties are reaching the end of their service life. Dismantling them and rehabilitating the sites on which they stand is a major industrial challenge which will give rise to a number of new projects. AREVA has more than 20 years' experience in these highly technical fields. As more and more sites reach the end of their service life, AREVA considers nuclear site value development as a fully-fledged industrial activity. The group's competencies in this field have been grouped together to form a dedicated entity: the Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit, created in 2008. Several billion euros are invested in site value development projects which are far-reaching and complex, and often last for several decades. Long before work actually begins, lengthy studies and preparations are required to schedule operations, select the techniques to be used and optimize costs and deadlines. The Nuclear Site Value Development BU is currently working on four major projects involving its own facilities and those of the CEA: - La Hague: dismantling of the first generation of used fuel recycling facilities. Between 1966 and 1998, almost 5,000 tons of used fuel from graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors, 4,500 tons of light water reactor fuel, as well as fuel from fast reactors and research reactors, were treated at UP2 400, the very first industrial recycling plant on the La Hague site. - Marcoule: first-time dismantling of a recycling plant. 1,000 rooms to be cleaned up, 30,000 tons of waste to be treated, 30 years of work. - Cadarache: first-time dismantling of a Mox fuel fabrication plant. The Cadarache plant was commissioned in 1962 to fabricate fuel for fast reactors; this was followed by MOX fuel for light water reactors, an activity which continued until the plant was shut down in 2003. - Annecy and Veurey: giving a new lease of life to former industrial sites in built

  16. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  17. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  18. The Chinese community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the Chinese government put a lot of effort into promoting the community patient’s life satisfaction, there still lacked the holistic and systematic approaches to promote the community patient’s life satisfaction in various regions of China. On the basis of the literature, it was found that both the community patient’s assessment of community medical service and trust in community health delivery system were important considerations when the community patient comprehensively evaluated community medical service to generate life satisfaction. So this study was set up to test whether and to what extent the community patient’s assessments of various major aspects of community medical service/various major aspects of the community patient’s trust in community health delivery system influenced life satisfaction in whole China/in various regions of China. Methods In order to explore the situation of China’s community health delivery system before 2009 and provide a reference for China’s community health delivery system reform, the data that could comprehensively and accurately reflect the community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system in various regions of China was needed, so this study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a large-scale 2008 national community resident household survey (N = 3,306) for the first time in China. And the specified ordered probit models were established to analyze the dataset from this household survey. Results Among major aspects of community medical service, the medical cost (particularly in developed regions), the doctor-patient communication (particularly in developed regions), the medical facility and hospital environment (particularly in developed regions), and the medical treatment process (particularly in underdeveloped regions) were all key considerations (ppatient’s life

  19. Ultrasonic assessment of service life of concrete structures subject to reinforcing steel corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udegbunam, Ogechukwu Christian

    were then used to determine the service life of the structure.

  20. Innovating Technological Process for Expanding the Service Life of Underground Power Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabacaru V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a public power distribution operator on low voltage (023/0.4 kV, medium voltage (6 and 20 kV, and high voltage (110 kV in the territory of Galati County, SDEE Galati serves approximately 240,000 consumers (captive and eligible, domestic and non-domestic For this purpose, in the field of medium voltage underground distribution lines, SDEE Galati manages and operates a volume of approx. 500 km UDL/6kV circuit and approximately 630 km UDL/20 kV circuit. Many of these cables which are still in operation, were manufactured with materials and on the technological level of the ’60s,’70s and ‘80s decades and have reached the end of their service life. Evidence does and incident statistics from these networks in which, every year, one of the "tips" is the medium voltage cables damaged "technical wear" normal operating conditions. The current paper will present the main features of an innovating technological process called SPR (Sustained Pressure Rejuvenation, designed for on-site refurbishing of underground power cable insulation medium and high voltage. The process offers a viable alternative that has proven, over the 25 years of application initially on the American content and now on the worldwide, substantially more cost effective than replacing cables. The paper does not propose detailed presentation of the technological process, but to inform the family of energetics NPS about the existence and the benefits of applying this new technological process to the old cable medium and high voltage.

  1. Viscoelastic response of HTPB based solid fuel to horizontal and vertical storage slumping conditions and it's affect on service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Q.; Nizam, F.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of solid fuels as thrust generating energy source in modern day space vehicle systems has created a need to assess their serviceability for long term storage under various conditions. Solid fuel grain, the most important part of any solid fuel system, responds visco elastically to any loading condition. For the assessment of the service life of any solid fuel system, the solid fuel grain has to be structurally evaluated in applied storage conditions. Structural integrity of the grain is exceptionally significant to guarantee the successful operation of the solid fuel system. In this work, numerical simulations have been performed to assess the mechanical stresses and strains induced in an HTPB based solid fuel grain during service life employing ABAQUS standard FEA software using 4-node bilinear quadrilateral elements. For finite element analysis (FEA), typical 2-D and p/nth axisymmetric section of 5-point (n) star grain geometry is considered. Mechanical loads include the horizontal or vertical 1-g (solid fuel weight) storage condition. The simulation results are compared with the analytical results for the same grain geometry. Analytically measured slump deflections in grain segment at various storage times have been found in good relation with the FEA based simulation results. This proves the validity of the procedure adopted and is helpful in assessment of the service life of solid fuel systems. (author)

  2. Organizational performance focused on users' quality of life: The role of service climate and "contribution-to-others" wellbeing beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pătraș, Luminița; Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Estreder, Yolanda; Gracia, Esther; Moliner, Carolina; Peiró, José María

    2018-06-01

    The investigation of organizational factors as precursors of the quality of life (QoL) of service users in organizations for individuals with intellectual disability has been relatively neglected.With this in mind, this study tests the mediation of service climate between employee's "contribution-to-others" wellbeing beliefs (COWBs) and organizational performance focused on the QoL of individuals with intellectual disability. A total of 104 organizations participated in the study. Data were collected from 885 employees and 809 family members of individuals with intellectual disability. The results of the multilevel mediation model supported the hypotheses. When employees believe that their own wellbeing depends on helping others (COWBs) service climate reported by employees is stimulated. Service climate in turn was associated with organizational performance focused on QoL of people with intellectual disability, assessed by family members. The manuscript concludes with theoretical and practical implications of the study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions: A realist review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Helen; Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor; O'Halloran, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Improvements in care and treatment have led to more young adults with life-limiting conditions living beyond childhood, which means they must make the transition from children's to adult services. This has proved a challenging process for both young adults and service providers, with complex transition interventions interacting in unpredictable ways with local contexts. To explain how intervention processes interact with contextual factors to help transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions. Systematic realist review of the literature. Literature was sourced from four electronic databases: Embase, MEDLINE, Science Direct and Cochrane Library from January 1995 to April 2016. This was supplemented with a search in Google Scholar and articles sourced from reference lists of included papers. Data were extracted using an adapted standardised data extraction tool which included identifying information related to interventions, mechanisms, contextual influences and outcomes. Two reviewers assessed the relevance of papers based on the inclusion criteria. Methodological rigor was assessed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. 78 articles were included in the review. Six interventions were identified related to an effective transition to adult services. Contextual factors include the need for children's service providers to collaborate with adult service providers to prepare an environment with knowledgeable staff and adequate resources. Mechanisms triggered by the interventions include a sense of empowerment and agency amongst all stakeholders. Early planning, collaboration between children's and adult service providers, and a focus on increasing the young adults' confidence in decision-making and engaging with adult services, are vital to a successful transition. Interventions should be tailored to their context and focused not only on organisational procedures but on equipping young adults, parents

  4. Landslide risk impact management and web services for improving resilience: the LIFE+IMAGINE project approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congi, Maria Pia; Campo, Valentina; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The increasing damage caused by natural disasters in the last decades points out the need for interoperable added-value services to support environmental safety and human protection, by reducing vulnerability of exposed elements as well as improving the resilience of the involved communities. For this reason, to provide access to harmonized and customized data is only one of several steps towards delivering adequate support to risk assessment, reduction and management. Scope of the present work is to illustrate a methodology under development for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement an infrastructure based on web services for environmental analysis, that integrates in its own architecture specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services will be customized during the project to provide functionalities for supporting the environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure will be applied to landslide risk scenarios, to be developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. More in detail, the landslide pilot will be aimed at providing a landslide risk scenario through the implementation and analysis of: 1) a landslide inventory from available historical databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements (e.g. population, road network, residential area, cultural heritage). The pilot will be implemented in Liguria, Italy, in two different catchment areas located

  5. FUEL SERVICES: Customer focused on Product Support during the whole Life Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberger, J.; Hummel, W.

    2015-07-01

    For more than 40 years, Fuel Services of AREVA has been delivering devices and providing on-site services primary at LWR worldwide. We support our worldwide customers in achieving safe and economic operation of the fuel assemblies (FA) and core components (CC) and have received excellent feedback from them. But the Fuel Services support goes beyond on-site activities. (Author)

  6. Bioethanol production from corn stover residues. Process design and Life Cycle Assessment; Bioetanolo da resuidui della lavorazione del mais: process design e analisi del ciclo di vita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bari, I; Dinnino, G; Braccio, G [Dipartimento Tecnologie per l' Energia, Fonti Rinnovabili e Risparmio Energetico, ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    In this report, the mass and energy balance along with a land-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is described for a corn stover-to-ethanol industrial process assumed to consist of the main technologies being researched at ENEA TRISAIA: pretreatment by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. The modelled plant has a processing capacity of 60kt/y (dimensioned on realistic supplying basins of residues in Italy); biomass is pre-treated by acid catalyzed-steam explosion; cellulose and hemicelluloses are hydrolyzed and separately fermented; enzymes are on-site produced. The main target was to minimize the consumption of fresh water, enzymes and energy. The results indicate that the production of 1kg bio ethanol (95.4 wt%) requires 3.5 kg biomass dry matter and produces an energy surplus up to 740 Wh. The main purpose of the LCA analysis was to assess the environmental impact of the entire life cycle from the bio ethanol production up to its end-use as E10 blended gasoline. Boustead Model was used as tool to compile the life cycle inventory. The results obtained and discussed in this reports suffer of some limitations deriving from the following main points: some process yields have been extrapolated according to optimistic development scenarios; the energy and steam recovery could be lower than that projected because of lacks in the real systems; water recycle could be limited by the yeast tolerance toward the potential accumulation of toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the detailed process analysis here provided has its usefulness in: showing the challenging targets (even if they are ambitious) to bet on to make the integrated process feasible; driving the choice of the most suitable technologies to bypass some process bottlenecks. [Italian] Questo rapporto illustra il bilancio di massa e di energia insieme alla valutazione del Ciclo di vita (LCA) per un processo industriale di produzione di bioetanolo da residui di mais costituito dalle principali tecnologie studiate

  7. Analytical Method to Estimate Fatigue Life Time Duration in Service for Runner Blade Mechanism of Kaplan Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana – Maria Budai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present an analytical method that can be used to determianted fatigue life time duration in service for runner blade mechanism of Kaplan turbines. The study was made for lever button of runer blade mechanism using two analytical relation to calculate the maximum number of stress cycles whereupon the mechanism work without any damage. To estimate fatigue life time duration will be used a formula obtained from one of most comon cumulative damage methodology taking in consideration the real exploatation conditions of a specified Kapaln turbine.

  8. The eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers: Knowledge Manage-ment across the Sourcing Life-cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksonen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Laaksonen, Pekka The eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers: Knowledge Manage-ment across the Sourcing Life-cycle Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, 2011, 42 s. Tietojärjestelmätiede, kandidaatintutkielma Ohjaaja(t): Käkölä, Timo Tässä kandidaatintutkielmassa selvitettiin sitä, miten the eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers-mallin käytännöt (practices) ovat liittyneet tietä-myksenhallinnan neljään prosessiin: tiedon luominen, varastointi/noutaminen, jakamine...

  9. Recruitment, soldiers and the experience of army life: compulsory military service in Peru and Colombia (1919-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Camacho Arango

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies different aspects of mandatory military service in Peru and Colombia from 1919 to 1933 including recruitment; the social, “racial”, and geographical origins of soldiers; and army life in both countries. Documents from military archives in the U.S. and France, as well as writings from Peruvian and Colombian commissioned and non-commissioned officers were the main sources used. The method is comparative and it shows clear features in common, including the scarcity of resources that affected all aspects of service.

  10. Durapgulf, a local service life model for the durability of concrete structures in the South of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekarchi, M.; Ghods, P.; Alizadeh, R.; Chini, M.; Hoseini, M.

    2008-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures were widely constructed in the south of Iran for the infrastructures of ports and oil exploration. Unfortunately, the deterioration of concrete structures in this marine area, which is mainly due to the chloride-induced corrosion of rebars in concrete, imposes hundreds of millions dollars of repair cost every year. During the last decades, extensive studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of different parameters on chloride diffusion into concrete, corrosion initiation, and its propagation. In order to predict the time required for various steps of the corrosion phenomena, many numerical models have been developed. In this paper, development of Durapgulf (a service of life design model), which can predict the corrosion initiation of reinforced concrete (RC) structures in the south of Iran, is described and also the application of this model for service life design of RC structures is demonstrated in a hypothetical example and verified with other experimental results in this region. (author)

  11. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  12. Methodology for the Life Cycle Assessment of a Car-sharing Service

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, circular economy is becoming more relevant in society. In the context of the automotive industry, we no longer simply work on emissions emitted during the vehicle use phase but rather on the environmental impacts induced during all phases of the vehicle's life cycle (manufacturing, logistics, use, maintenance and end of life). For this purpose, many automakers, including the Group PSA, use life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine these environmental impacts. Also, the economy of sha...

  13. Control of the Onboard Microgravity Environment and Extension of the Service Life of the Long-Term Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of control of the on-board microgravity environment in order to extend the service life of the long-term space station has been discussed. Software developed for the ISS and the results of identifying dynamic models and external impacts based on telemetry data have been presented. Proposals for controlling the onboard microgravity environment for future long-term space stations have been formulated.

  14. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Project Qualification Propellant Throughput Milestone: Performance, Erosion, and Thruster Service Life Prediction After 450 kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 28,500 hr of operation and processed 466 kg of xenon throughput--more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  15. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  16. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Biodiversity and ecosystem services in life cycle impact assessment – Inventory objects or impact categories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    P's, namely ‘biodiversity’ and ‘ecosystem services’. The AoP biodiversity has more emphasis on intrinsic (existence) values than on utilitarian, functional value perceptions that are covered by the AoP ecosystem services. Ecosystem services can in some aspects be substituted or restored, whereas certain...

  18. Counseling and Connecting with the Military Undergraduate: The Intersection of Military Service and University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Ted C.; Domenici, Paula L.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of military undergraduates at universities are National Guard and Reserve personnel and prior-service military veterans, all difficult to identify on campus. These students face unique cultural challenges. Though the academic literature primarily addresses disability services and administrative programs often focus on "wounded…

  19. Service-learning abroad: a life-changing experience for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Janice Evans; Vialet, Channel L

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating service-learning experiences into nursing education is one way to help prepare students for practice in a global, culturally diverse society. Partnering with a church with a long-term mission program in El Salvador offers the nursing school at Old Dominion University opportunity to develop a service-learning program and support healthcare missions.

  20. A full-field residual stress estimation scheme for fitness-for-service assessment of pipe girth welds: Part II – A shell theory based implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Shaopin; Dong, Pingsha; Pei, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    With the two key controlling parameters identified and their effectiveness demonstrated in Part I of this study series for constructing a continuous residual stress profile at weld region, a classical shell theory based model is proposed in this paper (Part II) for describing through-thickness residual stress distributions of both axial and hoop components at any axial location beyond weld region. The shell theory based model is analytically constructed through an assembly of two parts: One represents weld region and the other represents the remaining component section away from weld. The final assembly of the two parts leads to a closed form solution to both axial and hoop residual stress components as a function of axial distance from weld toe position. The effectiveness of the full-field residual stress estimation scheme is demonstrated by comparing with a series of finite element modeling results over a broad range of pipe weld geometries and welding conditions. The present development should provide a consistent and effective means for estimating through-thickness residual stress profile as a continuous function of pipe geometry, welding heat input, as well as material characteristics. - Highlights: • A shell theory based two-part assembly model is developed for generalizing residual stress distributions. • A full-field estimation of through-thickness residual stress profiles can be achieved. • The proposed estimation scheme offers both consistency and mechanics basis in residual stress profile generation. • An estimation scheme for welding-induced plastic zone size is proposed and validated. • The shell theory based estimation scheme can also provide a reasonable estimate on distortion in radial direction

  1. The effect of quality circles on job satisfaction and quality of work-life of staff in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinabadi, Reza; Karampourian, Arezou; Beiranvand, Shoorangiz; Pournia, Yadollah

    2013-10-01

    Quality circles, as a participatory management technique, offer one alternative for dealing with frustration and discontent of today's workers. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of implementation of quality circles on nurses' quality of work-life and job satisfaction. In this study, two emergency medical services (EMS) of Hamedan province were selected and randomly assigned as the experimental and control groups. After the experimental group was trained and quality circles were established in this group, the levels of quality of work-life and job satisfaction were measured in the two groups. Then, the statistical analyses were performed using t-test. After the intervention, the results showed significant differences between the scores of motivational factors (p=0.001), the total scores of job satisfaction (p=0.003), and the scores of some quality of work life (QWL) conceptual categories including the use and development of capacities (p=0.008), the total space of life (p=0.003), and the total scores of QWL (p=0.031) in the experimental group compared to those in the control group. This study confirms the effectiveness of quality circles in improving quality of work-life and job satisfaction of nurses working in EMS, and offers their application as a management method that can be used by EMS managers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of low vision services on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients’ perspectives on the impact of clinical interventions have been recognised as critical elements in patient care. Quality-of-life instruments are designed to measure these perspectives. We used the National Eye Institute’s 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ to measure the impact of optical low vision devices on the quality of life of 22 low vision patients who obtained and were using low vision devices from a secondary low vision clinic in the Eastern Region, Ghana. The study employed a pre- and post-intervention technique. We found statistically significant improvements in measured visual acuity and NEI VFQ scores in 8 of the 10 domains evaluated. We conclude that optical low vision devices have a positive impact on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana. Keywords: low vision; quality of life; visual acuity; visual impairment; Ghana

  3. "It Gave Me My Life Back": An Evaluation of a Specialist Legal Domestic Abuse Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J; Callaghan, Lynne

    2016-05-01

    Community-based advocacy services are important in enabling victims to escape domestic abuse and rebuild their lives. This study evaluated a domestic abuse service. Two phases of research were conducted following case-file analysis (n = 86): surveys (n = 22) and interviews (n = 12) with victims, and interviews with key individuals (n = 12) based in related statutory and community organizations. The findings revealed the holistic model of legal, practical, mental health-related, and advocacy components resulted in a range of benefits to victims and enhanced interagency partnership working. Core elements of a successful needs-led, victim-centered service could be distilled. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez, Jordi; Hornbostel, M.; Albritton, John R.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2007-10-31

    samples suffered less than 1% in when exposed to contaminants such as HCl(g), Hg(g), and Zn(g), and SbO(g) at levels of 8 ppm and above. AsH3 vapor at 0.5 ppm did not affect the electrical performance of an SOFC sample even after 1000 h at 750°C. In Phase II of the program, long-term tests will be performed with multiple contaminants at a temperature range of 750° to 850°C. These tests will be at contaminant levels typical of coal-derived gas streams that have undergone gas cleanup using Selexol technology. The chemical nature of the contaminant species will be identified at the operating temperature of SOFC and compare them with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The results of the testing will be used to recommend the sensitivity limits for SOFC operation and to assess the reduction in the service life of the SOFC for trace level contaminants.

  5. A Comparative Assessment of Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hypothetical Electric Airport Transportation Services in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiwanit, J.

    2018-05-01

    Global warming is an increase of average temperature in the atmosphere, which causes adverse effects on the environment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from transportation sector is one of the main contributors of the overall greenhouse gases (GHG). To cope with this issue, electric car services are increasingly seen as popular alternative modes of green transportation especially for urban cities as it is more flexible, more environmentally-friendly, and less expensive than the use of conventional vehicles. The study analyses and compare the hypothetical electric car systems from airport transportation services. Center of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML) 2001, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method, is applied to convert life cycle inventory data into environmental impacts. The observed results showed that the electric shuttle bus had the highest impact in global warming potential (GWP) compared to other transportation types. Alternatively, this Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study that evaluated different transportations provided important information for decision makers on quantifying the differences between each scenario.

  6. Factors influencing the end of the service life of protective gloves used in car repair shops: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilia, Irzmańska; Agnieszka, Stefko; Katarzyna, Dyńska-Kukulska

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an end-of-service-life study on 2 kinds of protective gloves designed for workplaces in which workers are exposed to mineral oils and mechanical factors. The authors developed their own end-of-service-life study method that takes into account factors occurring during real-life use of protective gloves. The examined gloves were subjected to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors. The objective of the study was to compare the protective in new gloves subjected to a laboratory simulation test and in gloves used at workplaces in car repair shops. A further goal was to design a glove assessment procedure that would ensure comprehensive analysis of the actual level of performance provided by gloves exposed to selected chemical and mechanical factors as well as subjected to the influence of temperature and humidity, mechanical damage, and chemical degradation of material. The results lead to the conclusion that simultaneous exposure of protective gloves to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors significantly decreases their performance levels. Furthermore, similar performance levels were obtained for gloves subjected to laboratory simulation tests and for those used in the workplace.

  7. Use of life cycle assessment as decision-support tool for water reuse and handling of residues at a Danish industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kim; Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    . Heavy metals originate from the dirt in the workwear that is washed in the laundry. It is further concluded that the studied water treatment technologies satisfy both the need of clean water for recycling and simultaneously help controlling a safe disposal of pollutants by concentration of the residues...

  8. Development and advance of methodological basis of the determination of remaining life of reinforced concrete construction of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matchenko, T.Yi.; Shamyis, L.B.; Pervushova, L.F.; Matchenko, O.T.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis is made of the existing methodological basis on determination of the technical state and residual service life of building constructions with categories of responsibility 1 and 2. The absent norms parameters for estimation of the state and service life of constructions are determined. Components for the decision of this problem are analyzed also.

  9. Prediction of fatigue life under service loading using the relative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, A.

    1982-01-01

    Fatigue life estimates obtained with the local strain approach (LSA) and with the conventional nominal stress approach (NSA) were compared with experimental results obtained on notched AlCuMg2 aircraft material specimens with flight simulation random tensile loading. The effect of change of the reference stress, of the loading program and of some changes in the loading frequency distribution, on the ratio Nsub(exp)/Nsub(pred) was investigated. A material strain-life curve, a cyclic stress-strain curve. The Neuber-Topper rule Ksub(sigma) x Ksub(epsilon) = K 2 = const. and a K value estimated with an exact two-parameter notch factor formula for the case R = 0, N = 10 7 were used for life predictions. (orig./RW) [de

  10. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  11. Effectiveness of various public private partnership pavement rehabilitation treatments: A big data informatics survival analysis of pavement service life : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Past research efforts have used a wide variety of methodological approaches to analyze pavement performance indicators, pavement rehabilitation treatments, and pavement service life. Using big data informatics methods, the intent of this study is to ...

  12. Influence of accessibility of services on Quality of Life of school children with Cerebral Palsy in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibule L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of accessibility of services and health related factors on Quality of Life (QoL of school children with Cerebral Palsy (CP in Latvia. 80 children 47 boys and 33 girls with CP and their parents from all regions of Latvia took part in the study. Mean age of participants was 11,7 (SD± 3,5 years. 50 children without diagnosed chronic diseases formed the control group. Validated evaluation tools were used in the study (KIDSCREEN-52, GMFCS- E&R. The results show lower QoL in children with CP in comparison with their healthy peers and European children. QoL is influenced by the level of gross motor functions, lack of coordination of services, lack of rehabilitation infrastructure and presence of environmental barriers in Latvia.

  13. Structure and hot-rolled reinforcement rods properties evolution in the process of long service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikryukov, V.R.; Syomin, A.P.; Konovalov, S.V.; Ivanov, Yu.F.; Gromov, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The physical nature of mechanical properties of hot-rolled reinforcement rods degradation during long-life operation is established by methods of transmission diffraction electron microscopy. It is shown that strength and plasticity properties decrease is due to cementite plates cutting and dissolution, microcracks formation process as a result of interstitial phase inclusions creation in the near-surface layer of material

  14. Structure and hot-rolled reinforcement rods properties evolution in the process of long service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikryukov, V R [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Syomin, A P [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Konovalov, S V [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yu F [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Gromov, V E [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-25

    The physical nature of mechanical properties of hot-rolled reinforcement rods degradation during long-life operation is established by methods of transmission diffraction electron microscopy. It is shown that strength and plasticity properties decrease is due to cementite plates cutting and dissolution, microcracks formation process as a result of interstitial phase inclusions creation in the near-surface layer of material.

  15. Integrating Speech-Language Pathology Services in Palliative End-of-Life Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollens, Robin D.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may receive referrals to consult with teams serving patients who have a severe and/or terminal disease. Palliative care focuses on the prevention or relief of suffering to maximize quality of life for these patients and their families. This article describes how the role of the SLP in palliative care…

  16. Multi-objective optimization of swash plate forging process parameters for the die wear/service life improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. F.; Wang, L. G.; Wu, H.; Liu, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    For the forging process of the swash plate, the author designed a kind of multi-index orthogonal experiment. Based on the Archard wear model, the influences of billet temperature, die temperature, forming speed, top die hardness and friction coefficient on forming load and die wear were numerically simulated by DEFORM software. Through the analysis of experimental results, the best forging process parameters were optimized and determined, which could effectively reduce the die wear and prolong the die service life. It is significant to increase the practical production of enterprise, especially to reduce the production cost and to promote enterprise profit.

  17. Treatment for cases of violence by Brazilian emergency services focusing on family relationships and life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2017-09-01

    This article analyzes data regarding cases of domestic violence treated by the emergency services through the following: the sociodemographic characteristics of the people who were treated; the events themselves; the evolution of care (from childhood to old age by gender); and the factors that differentiate cases of domestic violence compared to those committed by non-family members. Data from 24 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District were analyzed, comprising 86 emergency services: a total of 4,893 individuals were surveyed. Of those people who were treated by emergency services, 26.6% suffered domestic violence: 40.0% were children/adolescents, 57.2% were adults and 2.8% were elderly. The adjusted model, which compared victims of violence committed by other family members with those who were not family members, showed that males were less likely to suffer from domestic violence; those that had fewer years of education were at increased risk; and that women were more likely to commit domestic violence compared to the category of "both genders". This study reinforces the fact that health sector professionals need to be able to deal with domestic violence by providing support, performing good practices, abiding by care protocols, taking care of injuries, and facilitating access to other services.

  18. Self-rated health and quality of life in adults attending regional disability services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boland, Máirín C

    2009-04-01

    There is limited background information on self-rated health in people with disability in Ireland. This paper examines self-rated health scores and dimensions of functioning in people attending disability services and compares scores to the general population in Ireland, which has not been done before.

  19. Water for Life: The Impact of the Privatization of Water Services on Child Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Schargrodsky, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    While most countries are committed to increasing access to safe water and thereby reducing child mortality, there is little consensus on how to actually improve water services. One important proposal under discussion is whether to privatize water provision. In the 1990s Argentina embarked on one of the largest privatization campaigns in the world,…

  20. A Shifting Paradigm of Work-Life Balance in Service Context-An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    A.K.M.Mominul Haque Talukder

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examined the effect of various ‘work-life balance’ determinants such as employee benefits, work environment, workload, flextime and discrimination on work culture and job satisfaction. Introduction: In the second half of the last century, tremendous environmental, economic, political, and socio cultural changes contributed to the restructuring of couples in their relation to work. Literature review: Several fundamental changes in family and work structures, such as the part...

  1. Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  2. Guidelines for evaluating the environmental performance of Product/Service-Systems through life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pigosso, Daniela C. A.; McAloone, Tim C.

    2018-01-01

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) such as integrated solutions, performance-based contracts or sharing systems are often proposed as means to enable improved environmental sustainability. However, PSS are not necessarily environmentally benign compared to conventional systems. Quantitative environmen......Product/Service-Systems (PSS) such as integrated solutions, performance-based contracts or sharing systems are often proposed as means to enable improved environmental sustainability. However, PSS are not necessarily environmentally benign compared to conventional systems. Quantitative....... In this article, we propose a set of guidelines consisting of six steps, which elaborates the LCA process with respect to the specific consideration for PSS assessment. The guidelines were developed based on identified challenges for the application of LCA on PSS, a review of existing LCAs on PSS case studies...

  3. Quality of working life and workload in home help services: a review of the literature and a proposal for a research model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, S.E.J.; Kerkstra, A.; Zee, J. van der; Huyer Abu-Saad, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this literature review, several models for quality of working life and workload appropriate for home help services are presented. The aim was to develop a model for assessing the psychological and physical outcomes of working in home help services. Although the models described in this review

  4. A study comparing changes in loading conditions of an extended service life system using aluminum 2024-T351

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Roger Zack

    The current fiscally austere environment prevalent in the military and industry is driving extreme measures to save money. In the United States Air Force, this has driven enormous efforts to trim sustainment spending on extended life aircraft. The challenge to the aerospace engineer is to ensure flight safety in the midst of this economic pressure. One method of cutting costs is to increase the time an aircraft is in service by delaying the point when the aircraft is taken out of service for depot maintenance. To ensure flight safety, in depth fatigue and fracture analysis needs to be accomplished to assess increasing the inspection interval. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of Aluminum 2024-T351 alloy, a common material used in tension dominated aerospace applications, to two different loading spectra---one that is aggressive and the other that is benign. This was accomplished by conducting five different combinations of the two spectra, developing computer simulations using the AFGROW software and comparing with the measured data. The results showed that the material demonstrated significantly different behavior between the two spectra. These results provide a valuable tool for the aerospace engineer for fatigue life prediction and inspection interval evaluation.

  5. Role of compostable tableware in food service and waste management. A life cycle assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieschi, Maurizio; Pretato, Ugo

    2018-03-01

    It is estimated that in Europe 88-100 million tonnes of food waste are generated every year, with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of around 227 MT of CO 2 equivalents generated for their collection and disposal. A 12% of this waste is estimated to arise from food service within the hospitality sector, which includes quick service restaurants, casual and fine dining, contract catering (canteens, prisons, hospitals, schools etc.) as well as indoor and outdoor events and exhibitions. Given this considerable amount and that the mixed unsorted collection is often the only practicable way to handle such waste flows, the choice of tableware and cutlery can make a big difference in facilitating waste collection as well as in reducing the overall environmental impact of food waste management. This study compares the environmental performance of using biodegradable & compostable single use tableware with organic recycling of food waste through composting against a traditional scenario using fossil-based plastic tableware and disposal of the waste flows through incineration and landfill. The study has taken into account the main requirements of the recently published Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) methodology of the European Commission. The results confirm that the use of biodegradable and compostable tableware combined with organic recycling is the preferred option for catering in quick service restaurants, contract catering and events, since it reduces significantly the carbon, water and resource footprint and is fully in line with the principles of a circular economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. System innovation and life cycle management in service packaging 230: Tarjoilupakkausten systeemi- innovaatio ja elinkaaren hallinta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, T. [McDonald' s Oy, Helsinki. (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    International fast food restaurant company McDonald's Oy operates its 87 restaurants in Finland at 38 different communities. An integral part of its environmental work is material flow management. Material flow is homogenous due to the centralized supply of food, service packages, and other utensils. However, different local waste regulations make it extremely challenging to standardize material flow on company level. The project initiated in 1.4.2002 and ended 31.12.2003. Its main target was to increase recycling of used service packaging either as material or as energy. The possibility to develop an efficient recycling system for the whole company was studied. The introduced system consists of (1) the optimized amount of fractions, (2) the selection of recyclable materials, especially service packaging material, (3) the customer friendly sorting station at dining area, (4) means to reach fraction purity at the acceptable level, (5) the efficient fraction logistics, as well as (6) the minimizing amount of landfill waste. This report summarizes the key findings and future challenges identified in the project. (orig.)

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO IMPROVE SERVICE QUALITY IN PT MANULIFE LIFE INSURANCE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriswanto Chriswanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Customer Relationship Management System (CRMS Development in order to improve service quality in PT. AJ. Manulife Indonesia is done by comprehending the performance model of the company and the factors that are affecting the company performance improvement and the quality of the decision to be taken by top management. System Dynamic is a method that can be used to stimulate complex systems. System Dynamics approach is expected to build a model of corporate performance that can be used to evaluate the quality of service to customers so that they can make decisions quickly and accurately. This study proves that the model is built with standard models used as changing targets and it can simulate a target quality of service to customers by delivering current and future achievement. Achievement in the future is influenced by the value of achievement of SLA, Response Time, and Defect, where the greater value of control, the greater value of the correction rate so that the GAP will be smaller. Correction rate which is determined in this study was 10%, 20%, and 30% of GAP (CB

  8. Behavioral and quality-of-life outcomes in different service models for methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nong, Vuong Minh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-02-02

    Integrating HIV/AIDS and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services with existing health care delivery system is critical in sustaining efforts to fight HIV/AIDS in large injection-driven epidemics. However, efficiency of different integrative service models is unknown. This study assessed behavioral and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of MMT in four service delivery models and explored factors associated with these outcomes of interest. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two HIV epicenters in Vietnam: Hanoi and Nam Dinh Province. All patients in five selected MMT clinics were invited to participate, and 1016 were interviewed (80-90% response rate). Respondents had a mean age of 35.8, taken MMT for average 16.5 months and 3.3% on MMT for 36-60 months. The MMT integrated with rural district health center (DHC) has the highest prevalence of concurrent drug use (11.3%). The percentage of condom use (last sexual intercourse) with primary and casual partners was lowest in the MMT at urban DHCs. Patients at the rural DHC reported very high proportions of pain/discomfort (37.8%), anxiety/depression (43.1%), and mobility (13.3%). In regression models, poorer HRQOL outcomes were found in MMT models in the rural areas or without general health care, and among those patients who were HIV positive, reported concurrent drug use, and had higher numbers of previous drug rehabilitation episodes. Mobility and anxiety/depression are factors that increased the likelihood of concurrent drug use among MMT patients. Outcomes of MMT were diverse across different integrative service models. Policies on rapid expansion of the MMT program in Vietnam should also emphasize on the integration with comprehensive health care services including psychological supports for patients.

  9. LifeSteps: An Evidence-based Health Promotion Program for Underserved Populations – A Community Service Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Austin-McCain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the United States. Chronic diseases represent the leading causes of death and are experienced at higher rates by minority populations (CDC, 2012. Innovative community-based health promotion programs are recommended that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations (Yeary, et al., 2011. LifeSteps is being developed as an evidence-based health promotion program focusing on health and wellness, a domain area defined within the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF, 2008. LifeSteps will utilize a client-centered approach to coach individuals in making health behavior changes. Fieldwork and service-learning components are incorporated integrating clinical practice, academic study, and collaboration with community providers. Program evaluation measures based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM have been identified to address all phases of program planning. The LifeSteps health promotion program aligns with local, national, and international objectives and addresses the need for programs that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations. Occupational therapists are in a unique position for implementing community-based interventions that promote health and contribute to a healthier society.

  10. Semiempirical Methodology for Estimating the Service Life of Concrete Deck Panels Strengthened with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon-Kyoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of concrete bridge decks affects their durability, safety, and function. It is therefore necessary to conduct structural rehabilitation of damaged concrete decks by strengthening them with fiber-reinforced polymer. Of the recent studies on the strengthened structures, most have focused on static behavior; only a few studies have investigated fatigue behavior. Accurate analysis of fatigue in concrete deck performance requires a more realistic simulated moving load. This study developed a theoretical live-load model to reflect the effect of moving vehicle loads, based on a statistical approach to the measurement of real traffic loads over various time periods in Korea. It assessed the fatigue life and strengthening effect of bridge decks strengthened with either carbon fiber sheets or grid carbon fiber polymer plastic using probabilistic and reliability analyses. It used extrapolations and simulations to derive maximum load effects for time periods ranging from 1 day to 75 years. Limited fatigue tests were conducted and probabilistic and reliability analyses were carried out on the strengthened concrete bridge deck specimens to predict the extended fatigue life. Analysis results indicated that strengthened concrete decks provide sufficient resistance against increasing truck loads during the service life of a bridge.

  11. Value Retention, Service Life, Use Intensity and Long-Term Productivity of Wood Chippers as Obtained from Contractor Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Spinelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging the absence of up-to-date empirical data on the value retention, service life and annual use of chipping machinery, in 2017 the authors surveyed the records kept by 50 contractors offering biomass chipping services. The machine fleet and operations in this survey could be taken as representative for most of Europe, where the biomass sector is well established and is facing further expansion. Data collection included the whole chipping unit, comprised of chipper, carrier and loader. Manually-fed units were excluded from the survey. The data pointed at a service life up to and exceeding 10,000 h and 10 years, which relieved any concerns about poor durability. Value retention was good, and may exceed that of other mainstream forestry equipment. Engine power was the main explanatory variable in any models to predict purchase price and productivity. The effect of this variable could explain most of the variability (>80% in the purchase price and productivity data. Results also pointed at the essential equivalence in price and productivity between PTO-driven (i.e., tractor powered and independent-engine chippers, once differences in engine power are accounted for. However, the distribution of purchase price between different components of the chipping unit was different between the two unit types, with the chipper accounting for a larger proportion of the total investment in independent-engine units. Machine power was also different, with most PTO-driven units being significantly smaller than independent-engine units, due to the limitations of existing tractors. Furthermore, half of the carriers assigned to a PTO-driven unit were subject to flexible use, i.e., they were not solely used for chipping work.

  12. Service life monitoring of the main components at the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, J.; Vincour, D.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge and experience gained from the introduction and periodical implementation of life assessment of the major components of the Temelin nuclear power plant is summarized. The initial Soviet technical design of the plant did not incorporate lifetime monitoring and evaluation, therefore it was completed with demonstrative strength and lifetime calculations from Czech companies. Moreover, a Westinghouse primary circuit diagnosis and monitoring system, including the monitoring of temperature and pressure cycles for low-cycle fatigue evaluation, was installed at the plant. The DIALIFE code for the calculation of mainly the low-cycle fatigue of the key pressure components, was developed and installed subsequently as a superstructure to the monitoring system. (author)

  13. Composite Service Life Prediction via Fiber Bundle Testing. Evaluation of Testing Equipment and Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    strength critical application for modern composites were filament-wound pressure vessels using glass fibers. What has highly motivated the effort of...stiffness to weight ratios the use of which is of cruisial importance in the aerospace industry. Another highly motivating aspect was the very high...single filament r’iber testing and can become more 29 3> C o - Pwo PwS ?w4 Pw3 Pw2 Pwl PSD Ps5 PS4 Ps3 Ps2 PS! homoiogous correspondence t ~ to Life ( Laqt

  14. Physical-chemical purification of power metal optics for increasing its service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filin, S. A.; Rogalin, V. E.; Kaplunov, I. A.; Zingerman, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to increase the resource of power metal optics, the features of the choice of solvents for its physical and chemical cleaning are investigated. During cleaning, on the contaminated surface there remain visually observed white film of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, insoluble by this class of solvents, and iridescent bands from the interaction of hydrocarbons with metal, and this degrades optical properties and reduces the life of mirrors. It is demonstrated that, with the use of solvents, it is necessary to inhibit the interaction of hydrocarbons with mirrors by the stabilization of solvents or by selection of cleaning regimes.

  15. The Interrelation of Prayer and Worship Service Attendance in Moderating the Negative Impact of Life Event Stressors on Mental Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, G

    2017-09-13

    The interrelation of worship service attendance and private prayer in moderating the negative impact of life event stressors on mental well-being is examined using hierarchical multiple regressions on a national sample of 2601 Americans. A theoretical model is proposed in which stressful life events are made less distressing under conditions in which exposure to pro-social content at worship services is internalized through frequent private prayer. Interactive models controlling for a block of potential confounds are run to confirm that the stress-moderating effects of worship service attendance are noted only when attendance is complemented by relatively frequent engagement in private prayer.

  16. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, M.

    2006-12-01

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  17. Public health approaches to end-of-life care in the UK: an online survey of palliative care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sally; Sallnow, Libby

    2013-06-01

    The public health approach to end-of-life care has gained recognition over the past decade regarding its contribution to palliative care services. Terms, such as health-promoting palliative care, and compassionate communities, have entered the discourse of palliative care and practice; examples exist in the UK and globally. This scoping study aimed to determine if such initiatives were priorities for hospices in the UK and, if so, provide baseline data on the types of initiatives undertaken. An online survey was designed, piloted and emailed to 220 palliative care providers across the four UK countries. It included a total of six questions. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. There was a 66% response rate. Of those providers, 60% indicated that public health approaches to death, dying and loss were a current priority for their organisation. Respondents identified a range of work being undertaken currently in this area. The most successful were felt to be working with schools and working directly with local community groups. The findings demonstrate the relevance of a public health approach for palliative care services and how they are currently engaging with the communities they serve. Although the approach was endorsed by the majority of respondents, various challenges were highlighted. These related to the need to balance this against service provision, and the need for more training and resources to support these initiatives, at both national and community levels.

  18. The effect of service satisfaction and spiritual well-being on the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfredi, Mariangela; Candini, Valentina; Buizza, Chiara; Ferrari, Clarissa; Boero, Maria E; Giobbio, Gian M; Goldschmidt, Nicoletta; Greppo, Stefania; Iozzino, Laura; Maggi, Paolo; Melegari, Anna; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Rossi, Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2014-05-15

    Quality of life (QOL) has been considered an important outcome measure in psychiatric research and determinants of QOL have been widely investigated. We aimed at detecting predictors of QOL at baseline and at testing the longitudinal interrelations of the baseline predictors with QOL scores at a 1-year follow-up in a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs). Logistic regression models were adopted to evaluate the association between WHOQoL-Bref scores and potential determinants of QOL. In addition, all variables significantly associated with QOL domains in the final logistic regression model were included by using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). We included 139 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum. In the final logistic regression model level of activity, social support, age, service satisfaction, spiritual well-being and symptoms' severity were identified as predictors of QOL scores at baseline. Longitudinal analyses carried out by SEM showed that 40% of QOL follow-up variability was explained by QOL at baseline, and significant indirect effects toward QOL at follow-up were found for satisfaction with services and for social support. Rehabilitation plans for people with schizophrenia living in RFs should also consider mediators of change in subjective QOL such as satisfaction with mental health services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-02

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail.

  2. End-of-Life Care and Discussions in Japanese Geriatric Health Service Facilities: A Nationwide Survey of Managing Directors' Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Asako; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Yokoya, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    Geriatric health service facilities (GHSFs) play important roles as intermediate care facilities for elderly individuals temporarily when they need rehabilitation before returning home. However, the number of residents spending their end-of-life (EOL) period in such facilities is increasing. To improve the quality of EOL care, end-of-life discussions (EOLDs) are recommended by some guidelines and studies. This study aimed to clarify the current practice of EOL care and EOLDs in GHSFs in Japan. We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey by mailing questionnaires about EOL care and EOLDs to 3437 GHSF managing directors. The questionnaire was developed through a literature review and discussion among the researchers and experts. Descriptive statistics summarized the data. We also analyzed the factors related to GHSFs conducting EOLDs using Fisher exact tests. The response rate was 20.7% (713 of 3437). Among the respondents, 75.2% (536 of 713) of GHSFs provided EOL care and 73.1% (521 of 713) conducted EOLDs. The most common reasons for difficulties in providing EOL care included the lack of EOL education for nurses and care workers, and their fear about caring for dying residents. End-of-life discussions were mostly initiated after the deterioration of a resident's condition and were conducted with families by physicians. Statistically significant factors of GHSFs conducting EOLDs included providing EOL education for nurses and care workers, availability of private room for critically ill residents, emergency on-call doctors, and EOL care. Adequate practical staff education programs for EOL care including EOLDs may be crucial for quality of end-of-life care in aged care facilities.

  3. Service life prediction. Development of models for predicting the service life of power plant components subject to thermomechanical creep fatigue; Lebensdauervorhersage. Entwicklung von Modellen zur Lebensdauervorhersage von Kraftwerksbauteilen unter thermisch-mechanischer Kriechermuedungsbeanspruchung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.; Scholz, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde; Hartrott, P. von; Schlesinger, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Extensive use is made of massive components of heat resistant and highly heat resistant materials in installations of the power and heating industry. These components are exposed to varying thermomechanical stress as a result of ramping-up and down processes. In this research project two computer-assisted methods of predicting service life until crack initiation were extended to include cases of thermomechanical multi-axis stress conducive to creep fatigue and of superposition of high-cycle stress on power plant components. Investigations were limited to rotor steel of type X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1. Complex thermomechanical multi-axis experiments were performed on round, notched and cruciform test specimens of close-to-life dimensions in order to demonstrate by experiment the validity of these models. The results of these calculations showed an acceptable degree of agreement between experiment and simulation for both models. Calculations on earlier TMF experiments performed at IfW on hollow specimens of 1%CrMoNiV showed good predictability for both the SARA and the ThoMat programme. Calculations on experiments performed at MPA Stuttgart on model bodies consisting of the same 1%CrMoNiV showed a predictability of acceptable variability considering the complexity of the stresses involved. A further outcome of this project is that the use of SARA appears universally suitable for the construction of new plants and in the service area, while the use of ThoMat appears suited for detail optimisation in the development process.

  4. Urinary incontinence symptoms and impact on quality of life in patients seeking outpatient physical therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappattu, Meryl; Neville, Cynthia; Beneciuk, Jason; Bishop, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the frequency and types of urinary incontinence (UI) in patients seeking outpatient physical therapy for neuro-musculoskeletal conditions. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. A convenience sample of patients that positively responded to a UI screening question was included in this study. Data were collected for age, sex, and primary treatment condition classified into one of the following (i.e., urinary dysfunction, fecal dysfunction, pelvic pain, spine, neurological disorders, or extremity disorders); UI type (i.e., mixed, urge, stress, or insensible); UI symptom severity; and quality of life (QoL) impact. Frequency of UI type, symptom severity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impact, and pad use were compared between treatment groups. The mean age of the sample (n = 599) was 49.8 years (SD = 18.5) and 94.7% were female. The urinary dysfunction group comprised 44.2% of the total sample, followed by the spine group with 25.7% and pelvic pain with 17.2%. The urinary dysfunction group scored significantly higher on UI symptom severity and impact on QoL compared to the pelvic pain and spine groups, but not compared to the extremity disorders, fecal dysfunction, or neurological disorder group. These preliminary data indicate that UI is a condition afflicting many individuals who present to outpatient physical therapy beyond those seeking care for UI. We recommend using a simple screening measure for UI and its impact on HRQoL as part of a routine initial evaluation in outpatient physical therapy settings.

  5. Life Saving Apps: Linking Cardiac Arrest Victims to Emergency Services and Volunteer Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim Choi Keung, Sarah N; Khan, Mohammed O; Smith, Christopher; Perkins, Gavin; Murphy, Paddie; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2016-01-01

    In cases of emergency, such as out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, the first few minutes are crucial for victims to receive care and have a positive outcome. However, emergency services often arrive on scene after those first few minutes, making any bridging solutions key. Finding a defibrillator or accessing a trained volunteer responder are some of the technological solutions that are being developed to support the chain of survival. This paper looks at technologies, in particular those linked to mobile apps that have been used to locate defibrillators and responder apps that enable responders to attend to nearby emergencies. We review a selection of apps and also assess the challenges and considerations for such apps.

  6. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Haighton

    Full Text Available Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over.Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51-90 years and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50-95 years were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent.Participants' alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people.Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced alcohol problems themselves.

  7. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  8. Sheet GT3-2. General approach of life phases on a long term for uranium mining residues storages and comparison with other storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document aims at specifying the short term, middle term and long term boundaries for a sustainable management and rehabilitated ancient uranium mining sites and of uranium mining residue storage sites. It presents a general overview of site evolution in time, and then, more precisely, the different functions (rehabilitation management, corrective actions, control and monitoring, and so on) and equipment (confinement works, measurement system) at stake in the management of these sites and the control of their impacts. Functions and equipment implemented on such a site, as well as time scales corresponding to different approaches are compared with those of other types of storage. The peculiarity of ancient uranium mining sites and its implications in terms of management on a long term are discussed

  9. Cloud-Based Service Information System for Evaluating Quality of Life after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yun Kao

    Full Text Available Although recent studies have improved understanding of quality of life (QOL outcomes of breast conserving surgery, few have used longitudinal data for more than two time points, and few have examined predictors of QOL over two years. Additionally, the longitudinal data analyses in such studies rarely apply the appropriate statistical methodology to control for censoring and inter-correlations arising from repeated measures obtained from the same patient pool. This study evaluated an internet-based system for measuring longitudinal changes in QOL and developed a cloud-based system for managing patients after breast conserving surgery.This prospective study analyzed 657 breast cancer patients treated at three tertiary academic hospitals. Related hospital personnel such as surgeons and other healthcare professionals were also interviewed to determine the requirements for an effective cloud-based system for surveying QOL in breast cancer patients. All patients completed the SF-36, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30 and its supplementary breast cancer measure (QLQ-BR23 at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The 95% confidence intervals for differences in responsiveness estimates were derived by bootstrap estimation. Scores derived by these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation before and after surgery.All breast cancer surgery patients had significantly improved QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 subscale scores throughout the 2-year follow-up period (p<0.05. During the study period, QOL generally had a negative association with advanced age, high Charlson comorbidity index score, tumor stage III or IV, previous chemotherapy, and long post-operative LOS. Conversely, QOL was positively associated with previous radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Additionally, patients with high scores for preoperative QOL tended to have high scores for QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23 and SF-36 subscales. Based on the results of usability testing

  10. Challenges in the Licensing of New Nuclear Power Plant, Service Life Extension of Operating Ones (Safeguards-Safety-Security Aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, K.

    2016-01-01

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA), as the Hungarian nuclear regulator is faced with dual challenges meant by the licensing of the planned construction of two AES-2006 type nuclear power plant units and the licensing of the service life extension of the existing units that have been operating for more than 30 years. The HAEA has full regulatory competence; its mission is to oversee the safety and security of all the peaceful applications of atomic energy. Accordingly, the licensing scope covers safeguards, safety as well as security. The paper shows the current status of the Hungarian nuclear programme and the future plans, as well as summarizes the regulatory approach followed by HAEA. (author)

  11. The effect of crack width on the service life of reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Nguyen; Viet Hung, Vu; Viet, Tran Bao

    2018-04-01

    Reinforced concrete has become a widely used construction material around the world. Nowadays, the assessment of deterioration and life expectancy of reinforced concrete structure is very important and necessary as concrete is a complex material with brittle failure. Under the effect of load and over time, cracks occur in the structure, significantly reducing its performance and durability. Therefore, a number of models for predicting the penetration of chloride ions into the concrete were proposed to assess the durability of the structure. In the study performed by T B Viet (2016) [1], the author proposed a new theoretical model, especially considering the effects of macro and micro cracking on the diffusion coefficient of chloride ion in the cracked concrete. The following experimental results, in term of electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration, are used to calculate the lifespan of a reinforced concrete structure according to Dura Crete approach [8] with different crack widths to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the above model in the range of concrete compressive strength of 30-70MPa.

  12. Life saving or money wasting? Perceptions of caesarean sections among users of services in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Justin Oliver; Rahman, Syed Azizur

    2007-03-01

    Bangladesh has a high level of maternal mortality, corresponding to one of the world's lowest rates of use of skilled birth attendance (12.1%), and a similarly low rate of caesarean births (2.4%). While increasing the proportion of women who deliver with professional medical care is essential to prevent maternal deaths, past work has identified distrust of caesarean procedures in Bangladesh. The reasons behind this distrust can manifest itself in health seeking behaviour around maternal care. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of 30 women in a rural district of Bangladesh who recently delivered in a health facility. It finds that the distrust in doctor's recommendations for surgery stemmed from high costs incurred and a belief that it was used when not medically justified. This could lead to women avoiding or leaving medical facilities in extreme cases. Some women's experiences further illustrated disagreement among medical staff as to whether or not a caesarean procedure should be done, with conflicting financial incentives for doctors to perform caesarean deliveries, and for nurses and midwives to conduct normal deliveries. Policy makers must recognise that the fears women hold of caesarean deliveries may not simply be rooted in ignorance and may, in fact, reflect legitimate concerns with medical practice. Ultimately, it will be essential to address problems in the health systems environment, which may promote improper service provision.

  13. The relationship between health literacy and quality of life among frequent users of health care services: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Éva Marjorie; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Fortin, Martin; Hudon, Catherine

    2017-07-06

    Although health literacy and quality of life are important concepts in health care, the link between them is unclear, especially for a population of frequent users of health care services with chronic diseases. Low health literacy is a common problem that has been linked to several negative health outcomes. Quality of life is an important health outcome in patient-centered care. Frequent users of health care services are a vulnerable population that deserves attention due to high costs and negative outcomes such as lower quality of life and higher mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health literacy and the physical and mental components of quality of life among frequent users of health care services with chronic diseases. This study presents the cross-sectional analysis of data collected through the V1SAGES project, a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a case management intervention in primary care in Quebec, Canada. Participants (n = 247) were frequent users of health care services presenting at least one chronic condition. Health literacy was measured by the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the physical and mental components of quality of life were evaluated by the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2). The association between health literacy (independent variable) and the physical and mental components of quality of life was examined using biserial correlation. No association was found between health literacy and quality of life (physical component: r = 0.108, ρ = 0.11; mental component: r = 0.147, ρ = 0.15). This study suggests that there is no relationship between health literacy and the physical and mental components of quality of life among frequent users of health care services. NCT01719991 . Registered October 25, 2012.

  14. Quality of life of depressed and suicidal patients seeking services from traditional and faith healers in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyimi, Christine W; Mutiso, Victoria N; Nayak, Sameera S; Ndetei, David M; Henderson, David C; Bunders, Joske

    2017-05-08

    In rural Kenya, traditional and faith healers provide an alternative pathway to health care, including mental health care. However, not much is known about the characteristics of the populations they serve. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between depression, suicidal ideation, and socio-demographic variables with Quality of Life (QoL) indicators in a sample seeking mental health services from traditional and faith healers in rural Kenya. Understanding QoL in this sample can help develop mental health policy and training to improve the well-being of this population. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey (n = 443) conducted over a period of 3 months among adult patients seeking care from traditional and faith healers in rural Kenya. Data were collected using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and WHO Quality of Life Survey- BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and analyzed using correlation analyses, parametric tests, and regression analyses. Increasing levels of depression were associated with lower QoL among patients seeking care from traditional and faith healers. BSS scores were significantly negatively correlated with overall, physical, psychological, and environmental QoL, p Kenya. Evidence suggests that traditional and faith healers treat patients with a variety of QoL issues. Further research should focus on understanding how these issues tie into QoL, and how these healers can target these to improve care.

  15. Semantic-JSON: a lightweight web service interface for Semantic Web contents integrating multiple life science databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Norio; Ishii, Manabu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Akihiro; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-07-01

    Global cloud frameworks for bioinformatics research databases become huge and heterogeneous; solutions face various diametric challenges comprising cross-integration, retrieval, security and openness. To address this, as of March 2011 organizations including RIKEN published 192 mammalian, plant and protein life sciences databases having 8.2 million data records, integrated as Linked Open or Private Data (LOD/LPD) using SciNetS.org, the Scientists' Networking System. The huge quantity of linked data this database integration framework covers is based on the Semantic Web, where researchers collaborate by managing metadata across public and private databases in a secured data space. This outstripped the data query capacity of existing interface tools like SPARQL. Actual research also requires specialized tools for data analysis using raw original data. To solve these challenges, in December 2009 we developed the lightweight Semantic-JSON interface to access each fragment of linked and raw life sciences data securely under the control of programming languages popularly used by bioinformaticians such as Perl and Ruby. Researchers successfully used the interface across 28 million semantic relationships for biological applications including genome design, sequence processing, inference over phenotype databases, full-text search indexing and human-readable contents like ontology and LOD tree viewers. Semantic-JSON services of SciNetS.org are provided at http://semanticjson.org.

  16. Stress and quality of life among parents of children with congenital heart disease referred for psychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida; Shields, Clarissa; Brosig, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    The study examined parent stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among families of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) referred for psychological services. Parents of 54 children (85% boys) aged 3 to 13 (M age  = 7.48, SD = 2.38) completed measures to assess parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index - Short Form; Pediatric Inventory for Parents) and the PedsQL Family Impact Module. Medical information was retrieved from medical record review. Half of parents of children with single ventricle anatomy had clinically significant levels of parenting stress. Parents of children with single ventricle anatomy reported more frequent illness-related stress and more difficulty dealing with illness-related stress than parents of children with two ventricle anatomy. Younger gestational age at birth and referral for attention or behavior problems were associated with greater likelihood of parent at-risk psychosocial functioning. Among children referred for psychological services, many parents report significant stress and significant negative impact of the child's medical condition on the family. Results underscore the need to consider assessing parent psychosocial functioning and providing additional support for parents of children with CHD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Life-long Services in the Field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in Romania during 2004-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sofia Stănculescu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of empirical research on life-long services in the domain of information and communication technologies (ICT carried out within the framework of the project Matching educational supply with labour market in ICT sector in Romania: horizon 2015, co-ordinated by Institute of World Economy. Survey sample includes all providers authorised by National Council for Adult Vocational Training (CNFPA, a part of EDCL certification bodies, Microsoft Net Academy (programme implemented by universities, but also by a specialized firm in vocational training selected in survey, Cisco Net Academy, in total 215 vocational training providers from all around the country, out of which 77 (36% are private companies. Empirical research results (52% response rate allowed to analyze the actual state of vocational training supply in Romania in the period 2004-2007, including: (i identifying the main pratices, strategies and problems of vocational training services providers in ICT sector; ii emphasizing the main characteristics of lifelong learning programmes in ICT sector provided between 2004 and 2007; (iii determining the programme types and their target segment of population; and (iv pointing out the mechanisms of adjusting the supply to labour market needs.

  18. Dementia as a determinant of social and health service use in the last two years of life 1996-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raitanen Jani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia is one of the most common causes of death among old people in Finland and other countries with high life expectancies. Dementing illnesses are the most important disease group behind the need for long-term care and therefore place a considerable burden on the health and social care system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dementia and year of death (1998-2003 on health and social service use in the last two years of life among old people. Methods The data were derived from multiple national registers in Finland and comprise all those who died in 1998, 2002 or 2003 and 40% of those who died in 1999-2001 at the age of 70 or over (n = 145 944. We studied the use of hospitals, long-term care and home care in the last two years of life. Statistics were performed using binary logistic regression analyses and negative binomial regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender and comorbidity. Results The proportion of study participants with a dementia diagnosis was 23.5%. People with dementia diagnosis used long-term care more often (OR 9.30, 95% CI 8.60, 10.06 but hospital (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.31, 0.35 and home care (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.46, 0.54 less often than people without dementia. The likelihood of using university hospital and long-term care increased during the eight-year study period, while the number of days spent in university and general hospital among the users decreased. Differences in service use between people with and without dementia decreased during the study period. Conclusions Old people with dementia used long-term care to a much greater extent and hospital and home care to a lesser extent than those without dementia. This difference persisted even when controlling for age, gender and comorbidity. It is important that greater attention is paid to ensuring that old people with dementia have equitable access to care.

  19. Brief screening for traumatic life events in female university health service patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Watson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El cribado rutinario de pacientes de atención primaria expuestos a sucesos vitales traumáticos y, particularmente, al trauma por ataque, puede producir beneficios para pacientes y sistemas sanitarios. Sin embargo, tal cribado no ha sido todavía ampliamente adoptado. Para examinar la validez y la utilidad clínica del cribado conciso del trauma en pacientes de atención primaria, se evaluó desde este estudio instrumental la exposición al trauma en una muestra de pacientes universitarias (N = 339. La validez discriminante de una escueta pregunta auto-administrada de cribado sobre la exposición al trauma, perteneciente al módulo de trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT de la Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID, fue comparada con un inventario más largo de sucesos vitales traumáticos, el Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. Dos versiones de la escueta pregunta de cribado fueron evaluadas para determinar su grado de exactitud para identificar a las participantes que informaron de ataque sexual o físico, y/o síntomas de TEPT. La escueta pregunta identificó a más de tres cuartas partes de las supervivientes al ataque traumático y al 96% de mujeres que cumplían los criterios del TEPT. Más del 40% de las participantes informó de al menos un ataque física o sexualmente traumático. El cuatro por ciento de aquellas que no informaron de ataque traumático y una tercera parte que informó de ataque traumático cumplían los criterios para el TEPT. Los resultados sugieren que una escueta pregunta de cribado acerca del trauma por ataque puede ser útil en contextos donde más procedimientos de evaluación que requieren más tiempo no son prácticos.

  20. Harm reduction services as a point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Guirguis-Younger, Manal; Dilley, Laura B; Aubry, Tim D; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Hwang, Stephen W

    2012-05-17

    Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-life care needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless and marginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life care and support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services. 54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants reported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life. Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identified as a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals to end-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and support when members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improving quality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death. While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified as one way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed in end-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population.

  1. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  2. Effects of Cutting Edge Microgeometry on Residual Stress in Orthogonal Cutting of Inconel 718 by FEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Zhanqiang; Hua, Yang; Zhao, Jinfu; Lv, Woyun; Mohsan, Aziz Ul Hassan

    2018-06-14

    Service performance of components such as fatigue life are dramatically influenced by the machined surface and subsurface residual stresses. This paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the influence of cutting edge microgeometry on machined surface residual stresses during orthogonal dry cutting of Inconel 718. Numerical and experimental investigations have been conducted in this research. The cutting edge microgeometry factors of average cutting edge radius S¯, form-factor K , and chamfer were investigated. An increasing trend for the magnitudes of both tensile and compressive residual stresses was observed by using larger S¯ or introducing a chamfer on the cutting edges. The ploughing depth has been predicted based on the stagnation zone. The increase of ploughing depth means that more material was ironed on the workpiece subsurface, which resulted in an increase in the compressive residual stress. The thermal loads were leading factors that affected the surface tensile residual stress. For the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 2, the friction between tool and workpiece and tensile residual stress tended to be high, while for the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 0.5, the high ploughing depth led to a higher compressive residual stress. This paper provides guidance for regulating machine-induced residual stress by edge preparation.

  3. Residual deficits in quality of life one year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribius, Silke; Raguse, Marieclaire; Voigt, Christian; Petersen, Cordula; Kruell, Andreas; Muenscher, Adrian; Groebe, Alexander; Bergelt, Corinna; Singer, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) undergo life-changing treatments that can seriously affect quality of life (QoL). This prospective study examined the key QoL domains during the first year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and identified predictors of these changes in order to improve patient outcomes. A consecutive series of patients with LAHNC completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (QLQ-C30) and the HNC-specific QLQ-HN35 before (t0) and at the end (t1) of definitive or adjuvant IMRT, then at 6-8 weeks (t2), 6 months (t3), and 1 year (t4) after IMRT. Patients (n = 111) completing questionnaires at all five time points were included (baseline response rate: 99 %; dropout rate between t0 and t4: 5 %). QoL deteriorated in all domains during IMRT and improved slowly during the first year thereafter. Many domains recovered to baseline values after 1 year but problems with smelling and tasting, dry mouth, and sticky saliva remained issues at this time. Increases in problems with sticky saliva were greater after 1 year in patients with definitive versus adjuvant IMRT (F = 3.5, P = 0.05). QoL in patients with LAHNC receiving IMRT takes approximately 1 year to return to baseline; some domains remain compromised after 1 year. Although IMRT aims to maintain function and QoL, patients experience long-term dry mouth and sticky saliva, particularly following definitive IMRT. Patients should be counseled at the start of therapy to reduce disappointment with the pace of recovery. (orig.) [de

  4. FAMILY-WORK CONFLICT AND LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG WORKERS OF ANKARA YOUTH SERVICES AND PROVINCIAL DIRECTORATE OF SPORTS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Önder; Burhan; Emrah

    2016-01-01

    In this study Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and Life Satisfaction were carried out to indicate 329 staff’s relationship between each other, who work in Ankara Youth Services and Sports Province Management, by determining whether work-family conflict, family-work conflict and life satisfaction differientiate or not according to socio-demographic variables. According to obtained results, it was concluded that gender, age, having management position, number of children and duration ...

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  6. Feasibility of a UK community-based, eTherapy mental health service in Greater Manchester: repeated-measures and between-groups study of 'Living Life to the Full Interactive', 'Sleepio' and 'Breaking Free Online' at 'Self Help Services'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elison, Sarah; Ward, Jonathan; Williams, Chris; Espie, Colin; Davies, Glyn; Dugdale, Stephanie; Ragan, Kathryn; Chisnall, Leanne; Lidbetter, Nicky; Smith, Keith

    2017-07-20

    There is increasing evidence to support the effectiveness of eTherapies for mental health, although limited data have been reported from community-based services. Therefore, this service evaluation reports on feasibility and outcomes from an eTherapy mental health service. 'Self Help Services', an Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) eTherapy service in Greater Manchester. 1068 service users referred to the service for secondary care for their mental health difficulties. Participants were triaged into one of three eTherapy programmes: 'Living Life to the Full Interactive' for low mood, stress and anxiety; 'Sleepio' for insomnia; and 'Breaking Free Online' for substance misuse, depending on clinical need. Standardised psychometric assessments of depression, anxiety and social functioning, collected as part of the IAPT Minimum Data Set, were conducted at baseline and post-treatment. Data indicated baseline differences, with the Breaking Free Online group having higher scores for depression and anxiety than the Living Life to the Full Interactive (depression CI 1.27 to 3.21, pmental health scores were found within all three groups (all pmental health difficulties (pmental health difficulties and suggest that eTherapies may be a useful addition to treatment offering in community-based services. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. The importance of content and face validity in instrument development: lessons learnt from service users when developing the Recovering Quality of Life measure (ReQoL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Janice; Carlton, Jill; Grundy, Andrew; Taylor Buck, Elizabeth; Keetharuth, Anju Devianee; Ricketts, Thomas; Barkham, Michael; Robotham, Dan; Rose, Diana; Brazier, John

    2018-07-01

    Service user involvement in instrument development is increasingly recognised as important, but is often not done and seldom reported. This has adverse implications for the content validity of a measure. The aim of this paper is to identify the types of items that service users felt were important to be included or excluded from a new Recovering Quality of Life measure for people with mental health difficulties. Potential items were presented to service users in face-to-face structured individual interviews and focus groups. The items were primarily taken or adapted from current measures and covered themes identified from earlier qualitative work as being important to quality of life. Content and thematic analysis was undertaken to identify the types of items which were either important or unacceptable to service users. We identified five key themes of the types of items that service users found acceptable or unacceptable; the items should be relevant and meaningful, unambiguous, easy to answer particularly when distressed, do not cause further upset, and be non-judgemental. Importantly, this was from the perspective of the service user. This research has underlined the importance of service users' views on the acceptability and validity of items for use in developing a new measure. Whether or not service users favoured an item was associated with their ability or intention to respond accurately and honestly to the item which will impact on the validity and sensitivity of the measure.

  8. Lifetime health effects and medical costs of integrated stroke services - a non-randomized controlled cluster-trial based life table approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirks Maaike

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluation of stroke services indicates that such services may lead to improved quality of life at affordable cost. The present study assesses lifetime health impact and cost consequences of stroke in an integrated service setting. Methods The EDISSE study is a prospective non-randomized controlled cluster trial that compared stroke services (n = 151 patients to usual care (n = 187 patients. Health status and cost trial-data were entered in multi-dimensional stroke life-tables. The tables distinguish four levels of disability which are defined by the modified Rankin scale. Quality-of-life scores (EuroQoL-5D, transition and survival probabilities are based on concurrent Dutch follow-up studies. Outcomes are quality-adjusted life years lived and lifetime medical cost by disability category. An economic analysis compares outcomes from a successful stroke service to usual care, by bootstrapping individual costs and effects data from patients in each arm. Results Lifetime costs and QALYs after stroke depend on age-of-onset of first-ever stroke. Lifetime QALYs after stroke are 2.42 (90% CI - 0.49 - 2.75 for male patients in usual care and 2.75 (-0.61; 6.26 for females. Lifetime costs for men in the usual care setting are €39,335 (15,951; 79,837 and €42,944 (14,081; 95,944 for women. A comparison with the stroke service results in an ICER of €11,685 saved per QALY gained (€14,211 and €7,745 for men and women respectively. This stroke service is with 90% certainty cost-effective. Conclusions Our analysis shows the potential of large health benefits and cost savings of stroke services, taking a lifetime perspective, also in other European settings.

  9. The impact of the life cycle analysis methodology on whether biodiesel produced from residues can meet the EU sustainability criteria for biofuel facilities constructed after 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, T.; Murphy, J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper considers biodiesel production from residues; tallow and used cooking oil (UCO). The tallow system is more complex involving two processes. The first process is rendering in which tallow (animal fat) and Meat and Bone Meal (MBM) are produced from the slaughter of cattle. MBM is assumed as a thermal energy source for cement manufacture and thus is not used for biodiesel production. The second process is biodiesel production from tallow. Three methodologies are employed to examine sustainability of the biodiesel. The no allocation approach assigns all the parasitic demands to the tallow; thus all energies required to make both MBM and tallow are associated with the tallow biodiesel. The resulting energy balance is negative. The substitution approach allocates the energy in MBM (used to produce cement) to tallow biodiesel. This results in the net energy being greater than the gross energy. The allocation by energy content method divides the parasitic demands of the rendering process between tallow and MBM by energy content. The parasitic demands of the biodiesel process are divided by energy content of the biodiesel, glycerol and K-fertiliser. For tallow biodiesel this yielded a net energy value of 38.6% of gross energy. The same method generated a net energy value of 67% for UCO biodiesel. More importantly the recommended method (allocation by energy content) generated a value of 54% greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings for tallow and a value of 69% for UCO. Plants commencing after 2017, need to have a 60% GHG emission savings, to be considered sustainable. Thus a facility treating both feedstocks would need to treat a maximum of 60% tallow to be considered sustainable after 2017. (author)

  10. Supporting family carers providing end-of-life home care: a qualitative study on the impact of a hospice at home service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Barbara A; O'Brien, Mary R; Scrutton, Joyce; Baldry, Catherine R; Groves, Karen E

    2015-01-01

    To explore bereaved family carers' perceptions and experiences of a hospice at home service. The increasing demand for the development of home-based end-of-life services is not confined to the western world; such services are also emerging in resource-poor countries where palliative care services are developing with limited inpatient facilities. Despite this growing trend, studies show a variety of interrelated factors, with an emphasis on the availability of informal carers and their ability to cope, which can influence whether terminally ill patients actually remain at home. A hospice at home service was developed to meet patients' and families' needs by providing individually tailored resources. A qualitative study. Data were collected by semi-structured, digitally recorded interviews from 20 family carers who had experienced the service. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic approach adopted for analysis. All participants reported a personal positive impact of the service. Family carers commented the service provided a valued presence, they felt in good hands and importantly it helped in supporting normal life. The impact of an individualised, targeted, hospice at home service using dedicated, palliative care trained, staff, is perceived positively by family carers and importantly, supportive of those with additional caring or employment commitments. The emergence of hospice at home services has resulted in more options for patients and their families, when the increased amount of care a family member has to provide in these circumstances needs to be adequately supported, with the provision of a flexible service tailored to individual needs and delivered by appropriately trained staff. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparing the life cycle costs of using harvest residue as feedstock for small- and large-scale bioenergy systems (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, Julian; Wolf, Derek P.; Caspersen, John P.

    2015-01-01

    In part II of our two-part study, we estimate the nominal electricity generation and GHG (greenhouse gas) mitigation costs of using harvest residue from a hardwood forest in Ontario, Canada to fuel (1) a small-scale (250 kW e ) combined heat and power wood chip gasification unit and (2) a large-scale (211 MW e ) coal-fired generating station retrofitted to combust wood pellets. Under favorable operational and regulatory conditions, generation costs are similar: 14.1 and 14.9 cents per kWh (c/kWh) for the small- and large-scale facilities, respectively. However, GHG mitigation costs are considerably higher for the large-scale system: $159/tonne of CO 2 eq., compared to $111 for the small-scale counterpart. Generation costs increase substantially under existing conditions, reaching: (1) 25.5 c/kWh for the small-scale system, due to a regulation mandating the continual presence of an operating engineer; and (2) 22.5 c/kWh for the large-scale system due to insufficient biomass supply, which reduces plant capacity factor from 34% to 8%. Limited inflation adjustment (50%) of feed-in tariff rates boosts these costs by 7% to 11%. Results indicate that policy generalizations based on scale require careful consideration of the range of operational/regulatory conditions in the jurisdiction of interest. Further, if GHG mitigation is prioritized, small-scale systems may be more cost-effective. - Highlights: • Generation costs for two forest bioenergy systems of different scales are estimated. • Nominal electricity costs are 14.1–28.3 cents/kWh for the small-scale plant. • Nominal electricity costs are 14.9–24.2 cents/kWh for the large-scale plant. • GHG mitigation costs from displacing coal and LPG are $111-$281/tonne of CO 2 eq. • High sensitivity to cap. factor (large-scale) and labor requirements (small-scale)

  12. [Compatibility of Work and Family Life of Employees in the Healthcare Sector: An Issue in Health Services Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasczik, Matthias; Ahnert, Jutta; Ströbl, Veronika; Vogel, Heiner; Donath, Carolin; Enger, Ilka; Gräßel, Elmar; Heyelmann, Lena; Lux, Heidemarie; Maurer, Jochen; Özbe, Dominik; Spieckenbaum, Stefanie; Voigtländer, Elzbieta; Wildner, Manfred; Zapf, Andreas; Zellner, Angela; Hollederer, Alfons

    2017-05-18

    Background Healthcare professionals are confronted with specific work-related demands that influence work-family relations and might indirectly affect the quality of healthcare. This paper seeks to provide an overview of the current state of research on this topic of relevance to health services research. The overview may serve as a starting point for modifying structures in the healthcare system (especially in rural regions) with the aim of improving work-family compatibility. Methods A systematic national and international literature search was conducted in terms of a scoping review. The following criteria/contents to be covered in publications were defined: work-family compatibility; work-family interface and work-family conflict in employees working in healthcare; healthcare professions in rural areas and links with work-family issues; interventions to improve work-family compatibility. 145 publications were included in the overview. Results The available literature focuses on physicians and nursing staff while publications on other professions are largely lacking. The methodological quality of existing studies is mostly low, including a lack of meta-analyses. Several studies document dissatisfaction in physicians and nursing staff regarding reconciliation of work and family life. Only few intervention studies were found that seek to improve work-life compatibility; few of them focus on employees in healthcare. There are also deficits with respect to linking work-family issues with aspects of healthcare in rural areas. Conclusions There is a shortage of systematic national and international research regarding work-family compatibility, especially when it comes to the evaluation of interventions. The overview provides starting points for improving work-family compatibility in healthcare. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Wilder Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under- or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL.Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institute’s Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE study, a population-based cohort (n=484, age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14 months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical and health insurance variables.Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%, mental health (15%, and support group (14% services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (p’s<0.0001. Specific unmet services were related to particular outcomes (e.g., needing pain management was associated with worse overall HRQOL, physical and social functioning (p’s<0.001. Needing mental health services had the strongest associations with worse HRQOL outcomes; needing physical/occupational therapy was most consistently associated with poorer functioning across domains.Discussion: Unmet service needs in AYAs recently diagnosed with cancer are associated with worse HRQOL. Research should examine developmentally appropriate, relevant practices to improve access to services demonstrated to adversely impact HRQOL, particularly physical therapy and mental

  14. Residual deficits in quality of life one year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Results of a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribius, Silke; Raguse, Marieclaire; Voigt, Christian; Petersen, Cordula; Kruell, Andreas [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Muenscher, Adrian [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Groebe, Alexander [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Bergelt, Corinna [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Psychology, Hamburg (Germany); Singer, Susanne [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-08

    Patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) undergo life-changing treatments that can seriously affect quality of life (QoL). This prospective study examined the key QoL domains during the first year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and identified predictors of these changes in order to improve patient outcomes. A consecutive series of patients with LAHNC completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (QLQ-C30) and the HNC-specific QLQ-HN35 before (t0) and at the end (t1) of definitive or adjuvant IMRT, then at 6-8 weeks (t2), 6 months (t3), and 1 year (t4) after IMRT. Patients (n = 111) completing questionnaires at all five time points were included (baseline response rate: 99 %; dropout rate between t0 and t4: 5 %). QoL deteriorated in all domains during IMRT and improved slowly during the first year thereafter. Many domains recovered to baseline values after 1 year but problems with smelling and tasting, dry mouth, and sticky saliva remained issues at this time. Increases in problems with sticky saliva were greater after 1 year in patients with definitive versus adjuvant IMRT (F = 3.5, P = 0.05). QoL in patients with LAHNC receiving IMRT takes approximately 1 year to return to baseline; some domains remain compromised after 1 year. Although IMRT aims to maintain function and QoL, patients experience long-term dry mouth and sticky saliva, particularly following definitive IMRT. Patients should be counseled at the start of therapy to reduce disappointment with the pace of recovery. (orig.) [German] Die Therapie von Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenen Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (LFKHT) geht mit einschneidenden Veraenderungen einher und beeinflusst die Lebensqualitaet (LQ) erheblich. Diese prospektive Studie untersucht die LQ waehrend des ersten Jahres nach intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IMRT) und hat Praediktoren dieser Veraenderungen herausgearbeitet, um

  15. Experimental stress analysis for determination of residual stresses and integrity monitoring of components and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For an analysis of the safety-related significance of residual stresses, mechanical, magnetic as well as ultrasonic and diffraction methods can be applied as testing methods. The results of an interlaboratory test concerning the experimental determination of residual stresses in a railway track are included. Further, questions are analyzed concerning the in-service inspections of components and systems with regard to their operational safety and life. Measurement methods are explained by examples from power plant engineering, nuclear power plant engineering, construction and traffic engineering as well as aeronautics. (DG) [de

  16. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  17. Promoting physical activity and quality of life in Vitoria, Brazil: evaluation of the Exercise Orientation Service (EOS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo S; Hino, Adriano Akira F; Cruz, Danielle K; da Silva Filho, Lourival Espiridião; Malta, Deborah C; Domingues, Marlos R; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between exposure to the Exercise Orientation Service (EOS) program and physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) in adults from Vitoria, Brazil. A phone survey was conducted with 2023 randomly selected participants (≥ 18 years) to measure awareness about the program, participation in the program, PA levels, and QoL. The associations were tested using Poisson and Linear regression models. 31.5% reported awareness about the program, 1.5% reported current participation, and 5.8% reported previous participation. Participation was higher among women (2.1%), older subjects (2.8%), and those reporting morbidities (2.4%). Awareness was higher among middle-aged persons (36.0%) and highly educated participants (37.1%). Current participation (PR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.65-2.99) and awareness (PR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02-1.30) were associated with leisure-time PA (LTPA). Exposure to the program was not associated with QoL but was consistently associated with sufficient levels of LTPA among adults from Vitoria, Brazil.

  18. Residual stress analysis for engineering applications by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Residual stresses originate from spatial differences in plastic deformation, temperature, or phase distribution, introduced by manufacturing processes or during service. Engineering parts and materials experience mechanical, thermal, and chemical loads during their service, and most of these loads introduce stresses that are superimposed on the already existing residual stresses. Residual stresses can therefore limit or improve life and strength of engineering parts; knowledge and understanding of these stresses is therefore critical for optimizing strength and durability. The economic and scientific importance of neutron diffraction residual stress analysis has led to an increasing number of suitable instruments worldwide. All of the major sources due in the next several years will have instruments for the sole purpose of performing residual stress and texture measurements. Recently, a dedicated, state-of-the-art diffractometer has been installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology reactor. It has been used for a variety of measurements on basic and engineering stress problems. Among the most prominent examples that have been investigated in collaboration with industrial and academic partners are residual stresses in rails, weldments, and plasma-sprayed coatings

  19. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    on renovation projects from Denmark, using different forms of IPDs for façade renovation and discusses the different stakeholder’s perspectives on life cycle thinking and their interests and values regarding sustainable building. Furthermore is the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a valuable...... IPDs with regard to longevity and adaptability. CONCLUSION The new type of service-focused IPD and the related life-cycle responsibility (development, building phase, maintenance and dismantling/adaption/recycling) creates incentive to integrate life cycle thinking into the development process of IPDs......, resulting in more sustainable building solutions with a greater extend of positive environmental, economical and social impacts. The research presented will also show the importance of adaption and configuration of these complex building components by architects and planners, as they will have a great...

  20. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  1. Innovating mass-customized service : Application of a service perspective life cycle innovation management (SLIM) model in an ICT-intensive firm in a fast-changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.O. Reitsma (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Mass customization is a business approach aimed at the low-cost production of customized goods and services. It relies on ‘horizontalization’, platform thinking and modularity, but how can these concepts be applied in a fast-changing service environment in which both

  2. Geriatric infrastructure, BRAC, and ecosystem service markets? End-of-life decisions for dams, roads, and offshore platforms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    US infrastructure expanded dramatically in the mid-20th century, and now includes more than 79,000 dams, 15,000 miles of levees, 3.7 million miles of roads, 600,000 miles of sewer pipe, 500,000 onshore oil wells, and over 4,000 offshore oil platforms. Many structures have been in place for 50 years or more, and an increasing portion of national infrastructure is approaching or exceeding its originally intended design life. Bringing national infrastructure to acceptable levels would cost nearly 10% of the US annual GDP. Decommissioning infrastructure can decrease public spending and increase public safety while facilitating economic expansion and ecological restoration. While most infrastructure remains critical to the national economy, a substantial amount is obsolete or declining in importance. Over 11,000 dams are abandoned, and of nearly 400,000 miles of road on its lands, the U.S. Forest Service considers one-fourth non-essential and often non-functional. Removing obsolete infrastructure allows greater focus and funding on maintaining or improving infrastructure most critical to society. Moreover, a concerted program of infrastructure decommissioning promises significant long-term cost savings, and is a necessary step before more substantial, systematic changes are possible, like those needed to address the new energy sources and shifting climate. One key challenge for infrastructure reform is how to prioritize and implement such a widespread and politically-charged series of decisions. Two approaches are proposed for different scales. For small, private infrastructure, emerging state and federal ecosystem service markets can provide an economic impetus to push infrastructure removal. Ecosystem market mechanisms may also be most effective at identifying those projects with the greatest ecological bang for the buck. Examples where this approach has proved successful include dam removal for stream mitigation under the Clean Water Act, and levee decommissioning on

  3. On capabilities of thermomechanical treatment in increasing durability of short service life elements of mining аnd processing equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. И. Болобов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hadfield steel (110G13L is the basic material for fast wornout items of mining equipment: beaters, hammers, liners, refractory plates of crushers and mills. By way of example, the effect of cold hardening was specifically analyzed on the rate of wear of mining equipment parts for various types of wear by hard (more than 1100 HV and soft rock. A unique ability of that steel to resist shock wear is noted. It is shown that this steel exhibits low resistance to abrasive rock wear. Meanwhile wear by rock of hardness lower than steel (less than 1100 HV, may be substantially increased by pre-hardening of samples (up to 10-fold. In case of wear by high hardness rocks, shock impact that should contribute to hardening of the material, fails  to increase abrasive wear resistance of Hadfield steel, and in that parameter it does not differ from the conventional medium carbon steel 45. Also, the authors of this article describe a technique they developed of high-temperature thermomechanical treatment of specimen of Hadfield steel (free forging at 1150-950ºC and subsequent quenching in water and experiments in their abrasion. The results of tests show that hardness and wear resistance of Hadfield steel to hard abrasive (corundum 25A with aggregate hardness of ~2500 HV increases with plastic deformation at HTMT. For maximum plastic deformation intensity (deformation magnitude of α = 2.25, reached in the experiments by the authors, wear resistance grew by 70% as compared to undeformed steel. The dependence is presented of wear resistance of steel on hardness, HV, achieved in the result of plastic deformation. Since a similar positive effect was obtained earlier by the authors for 35HGSA steel, also used in mining machinery, they conclude that the HTMT technique may be recommended for treating short lived parts of the mining and mineral processing equipment to increase their service life.

  4. Visual impairment, coping strategies and impact on daily life: a qualitative study among working-age UK ex-service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevelink, Sharon A M; Malcolm, Estelle M; Fear, Nicola T

    2015-11-12

    Sustaining a visual impairment may have a substantial impact on various life domains such as work, interpersonal relations, mobility and social and mental well-being. How to adjust to the loss of vision and its consequences might be a challenge for the visually impaired person. The purpose of the current study was to explore how younger male ex-Service personnel cope with becoming visually impaired and how this affects their daily life. Semi-structured interviews with 30 visually impaired male ex-Service personnel, all under the age of 55, were conducted. All participants are members of the charity organisation Blind Veterans UK. Interviews were analysed thematically. Younger ex-Service personnel applied a number of different strategies to overcome their loss of vision and its associated consequences. Coping strategies varied from learning new skills, goal setting, integrating the use of low vision aids in their daily routine, to social withdrawal and substance misuse. Vision loss affected on all aspects of daily life and ex-Service personnel experienced an on-going struggle to accept and adjust to becoming visually impaired. Health care professionals, family and friends of the person with the visual impairment need to be aware that coping with a visual impairment is a continuous struggle; even after a considerable amount of time has passed, needs for emotional, social, practical and physical support may still be present.

  5. What works in 'real life' to facilitate home deaths and fewer hospital admissions for those at end of life?: results from a realist evaluation of new palliative care services in two English counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, Lesley; Lasseter, Gemma; Percival, John; Duncan, Lorna; Simmonds, Bethany; Purdy, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    WE EVALUATED END OF LIFE CARE SERVICES IN TWO ENGLISH COUNTIES INCLUDING: coordination centres, telephone advice line, 'Discharge in Reach' nurses, a specialist community personal care team and community nurse educators. Elsewhere, we published findings detailing high family carer satisfaction and fewer hospital admissions, Accident and Emergency attendances and hospital deaths for service users compared to controls. The aim of this paper is to discuss what contributed to those outcomes. Using realist evaluation, data collection included documentation (e.g. referral databases), 15 observations of services and interviews with 43 family carers and 105 professionals. Data were analysed using framework analysis, applying realist evaluation concepts. Findings were discussed at successive team meetings and further data was collected until team consensus was reached. Services 'worked' primarily for those with cancer with 'fast track' funding who were close to death. Factors contributing to success included services staffed with experienced palliative care professionals with dedicated (and sufficient) time for difficult conversations with family carers, patients and/or clinical colleagues about death and the practicalities of caring for the dying. Using their formal and informal knowledge of the local healthcare system, they accessed community resources to support homecare and delivered excellent services. This engendered confidence and reassurance for staff, family carers and patients, possibly contributing to less hospital admissions and A&E attendances and more home deaths. With demand for 24-hour end of life care growing and care provision fragmented across health and social care boundaries, services like these that cut across organisational sectors may become more important. They offer an overview to help navigate those desiring a home death through the system.

  6. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    extension to the concept of IPDs discussed. Due to extended product responsibility, the concept of PSSs will offer new possibilities of planning and pre-defining life cycles of IPDs more precisely than for regular building components. Reducing or eliminating point-of-sales will induce producers to optimize...... on renovation projects from Denmark, using different forms of IPDs for façade renovation and discusses the different stakeholder’s perspectives on life cycle thinking and their interests and values regarding sustainable building. Furthermore is the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a valuable...

  7. Stroke survivors’ levels of community reintegration, quality of life, satisfaction with the physiotherapy services and the level of caregiver strain at community health centres within the Johannesburg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kusambiza-Kiingi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke survivors are discharged home before they are functionally independent and return home with activity limitations that would not be manageable without a caregiver. Aim: To determine stroke survivors’ levels of community reintegration, quality of life (QOL, satisfaction with the physiotherapy services and the level of caregiver strain at community health centres within the Johannesburg area. Method: This was a cross-sectional study using the following outcome measures: Maleka Stroke Community Reintegration Measure, Stroke-specific quality of life scale, Caregiver strain index and Physical therapy patient satisfaction questionnaire. Results: A total of 108 stroke survivors and 45 caregivers participated in this study. The average age of the stroke survivors was 54 years (standard deviation = 12.73 and 58% (n = 62 had moderate to full community reintegration. They were happy with physiotherapy services but not with parking availability and cost of services. The QOL was poor with the lowest scores for energy and highest scores for vision and language domains. Twenty five (55% caregivers were strained. A positive correlation was found between community reintegration and satisfaction with services (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001 and QOL (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001. A negative correlation was found between community reintegration and caregiver strain (r = -0.37, p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Most stroke survivors are reintegrated into their communities except in the areas of work and education and have poor QOL and most of their caregivers are strained; however, they are satisfied with physiotherapy services.

  8. The effect of a home delivery meal service of energy- and protein-rich meals on quality of life in malnourished outpatients suffering from lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Gade, Josephine; Granov, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition is prevalent in cancer patients and associated with increased incidence of complications and mortality. We investigated the effects of a home delivery meal service, providing a selection of energy-dense, protein-rich meals, on quality of life (QoL) in malnourished lung cancer....... Intervention exerted a significant positive effect on performance score after 12 wk (P = 0.047). Increased energy and protein intakes were strongly associated with improved QoL, functional score, hand grip strength, symptom and performance scores. Food delivery service with energy- and protein-rich main meals...

  9. Combination of Extracorporeal Life Support and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of ARDS in Combat Casualties and Evacuation of Service Members with ARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0072 TITLE: Combination of Extracorporeal Life Support and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of ARDS in...Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of ARDS in Combat Casualties and Evacuation of Service Members with ARDS 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15...Figure 4. Mitochondrial activity is mostly preserved on the animals that were supported with ventilator devices and mesenchymal stem cells . Using a

  10. The influence of exercise intervention upon quality of life and activity of daily living in elderly people who use nursing care insurance services

    OpenAIRE

    竹内, 亮

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the importance of enhancing quality of life (QOL) and activity of daily living (ADL) in elderly people, and to examine methods of exercise intervention for QOL and ADL outcomes in elderly people who use nursing care insurance services. Chapter 2 clarifies the relationship between QOL, ADL, and changes in the level of independence in elderly residents. Higher QOL outcomes (sense of well-being, satisfaction with social support, independence, and beh...

  11. Should the service life of nuclear power plants be limited for technical reasons?; Mela by byt provozni zivotnost jaderne elektrarny z technickych duvodu omezena?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomer, E

    1995-03-01

    German nuclear power plant operating licenses take into account the fact that the design lifetime of the facilities is 40 years. The technological lifetime, however, is governed by actual ageing processes and operational burden. The service life of nuclear power plants can be extended by replacement of the steam generator and by repair or replacement of the reactor pressure vessel or parts thereof. Attention is also paid to the reactor protection systems. (J.B.). 8 figs.

  12. Life cycle assessment of shredder residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Damgaard, Anders; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    wood waste, wood waste for recycling and district heating pipes. The LCA was conducted using the EASETECH LCA model developed by DTU Environment for the environmental assessment of waste management systems and environmental technologies. The LCA was conducted in accordance with the LCA principles...

  13. Improving health related quality of life among rural hypertensive patients through the integrative strategy of health services delivery: a quasi-experimental trial from Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yudong; Zhang, Liang; Sparring, Vibeke; Sandeep, Sandeep; Tang, Wenxi; Sun, Xiaowei; Feng, Da; Ye, Ting

    2016-08-23

    Integrative strategy of health services delivery has been proven to be effective in economically developed countries, where the healthcare systems have enough qualified primary care providers. However rural China lacks such providers to act as gatekeeper, besides, Chinese rural hypertensive patients are usually of old age, more likely to be exposed to health risk factors and they experience a greater socio-economic burden. All these Chinese rural setting specific features make the effectiveness of integrative strategy of health services in improving health related quality of life among Chinese rural hypertensive patients uncertain. In order to assess the impact of integrative strategy of health services delivery on health related quality of life among Chinese rural hypertensive patients, a two-year quasi-experimental trial was conducted in Chongqing, China. At baseline the sample enrolled 1006 hypertensive patients into intervention group and 420 hypertensive patients into control group. Physicians from village clinics, town hospitals and county hospitals worked collaboratively to deliver multidisciplinary health services for the intervention group, while physicians in the control group provided services without cooperation. The quality of life was studied by SF-36 Scale. Blood pressures were reported by town hospitals. The Difference-in-Differences model was used to estimate the differences in SF-36 score and blood pressure of both groups to assess the impact. The study showed that at baseline there was no statistical difference in SF-36 scores between both groups. While at follow-up the intervention group scored higher in overall SF-36, Role Physical, Body Pain, Social Functioning and Role Emotional than the control group. The Difference-in-Differences result demonstrated that there were statistical differences in SF-36 total score (p = 0.011), Role Physical (p = 0.027), Social Functioning (p = 0.000), Role Emotional (p = 0.002) between both

  14. Effect of Climate Change on Service Life of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Subjected to Carbonation—A Korean Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Bong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in CO2 concentrations and global warming will increase the carbonation depth of concrete. Furthermore, temperature rise will increase the rate of corrosion of steel rebar after carbonation. On the other hand, compared with normal concrete, high volume fly ash (HVFA concrete is more vulnerable to carbonation-induced corrosion. Carbonation durability design with climate change is crucial to the rational use of HVFA concrete. This study presents a probabilistic approach that predicts the service life of HVFA concrete structures subjected to carbonation-induced corrosion resulting from increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, a hydration-carbonation integration model is used to evaluate the contents of the carbonatable material, porosity, and carbonation depth of HVFA concrete. The Monte Carlo method is adopted to determine the probability of corrosion initiation. Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, an updated model is proposed to evaluate the rate of corrosion, degree of corrosion for cover cracking of concrete, and probability of corrosion cracking. Third, the whole service life is determined considering both corrosion initiation stage and corrosion propagation stage. The analysis results show that climate change creates a significant impact on the service life of durable concrete.

  15. Incorporating individualized quality of life measures in the evaluation of pharmacy services: the IN*COMPASS framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, F R; Pathak, D S; Pleil, A M

    1998-01-01

    Quality of life is a fascinating field to researchers and practitioners alike. To some researchers, quality of life is of interest because it offers untold challenges in constructing instruments and capturing data necessary to answer key questions about health, disease, and treatment. For such researchers, quality of life is about statistical relationships among questions and about using questions to define the physical, social, and emotional domains of health. To other researchers, this field is about finding practical applications in policy and treatment decision making for the information provided by quality of life assessments. To these researchers, the focus of quality of life is on ways to apply knowledge of quality of life differences between groups with and without specific diseases or ways to use knowledge about how treatments affect the quality of life of various patient populations. To practitioners, quality of life is about treatment outcomes that impact individual patients' daily lives. It is the practitioner that Funderburk, Pleil, and Pathak are considering in their paper in this issue of Pharmacy Practice Management Quarterly. These authors give several important messages to practitioners seeking to serve their patients by incorporating quality of life into their practices. The key message in the paper is that to better understand and determine the impact of treatment on a patient's quality of life, it is critical to start with a baseline or reference point relevant to that patient. From that baseline or reference point, treatment decisions can be made and progress, in quality of life terms, can be evaluated. Critical questions in their framework, which is called the IN*COMPASS (Individualized Client Oriented Method for Preferred Alleviation of Sickness States) Approach, are "How are you now?" and "How would you like to be?" The authors do not endorse particular quality of life tools in their approach; rather they prescribe certain critical

  16. Reliability-based service life assessment of concrete structures in nuclear power plants: optimum inspection and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Research is being conducted to address aging management of safety-related reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Documentation is being prepared to identify potential structural safety issues and to recommend criteria for use in evaluating reinforced concrete structures for continued service. Time-dependent reliability analysis provides the framework and quantitative tools for the condition assessment. The role of in-service inspection and repair in ensuring continued reliability in-service is examined. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs

  17. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  18. Comparison of Mental Health and Quality of Life between Shift and Non-shift Employees of Service Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahal Salimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the employment practices and employees' mental health and quality of life in Iran. In particular, the study compared the mental health and quality of life of shift and non-shift workers in sensitive employment settings. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 120 individuals employed in two airline companies as either shift or non-shift employees completed the survey for the study. Data was collected using General Health Question (GHQ28 for mental health, the Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36 for Quality of Life and a demographic questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to analyze the collected data. The results showed that (1 type of work (shift or non-shift has an effect on mental health and quality of life; and (2 there are significant differences in dimensions of quality of life and mental health between shift and non-shift staff.

  19. Effect of a home-based end-of-life nursing service on hospital use at the end of life and place of death: a study using administrative data and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, X A; Georghiou, T; Steventon, A; Bardsley, M J

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of routinely delivered home-based end-of-life care on hospital use at the end of life and place of death. Retrospective analysis using matched controls and administrative data. Community-based care in England. 29,538 people aged over 18 who received Marie Curie nursing support compared with 29,538 controls individually matched on variables including: age, socioeconomic deprivation, prior hospital use, number of chronic conditions and prior diagnostic history. Home-based end-of-life nursing care delivered by the Marie Curie Nursing Service (MCNS), compared with end-of-life care available to those who did not receive MCNS care. Proportion of people who died at home; numbers of emergency and elective inpatient admissions, outpatient attendances and attendances at emergency departments in the period until death; and notional costs of hospital care. Intervention patients were significantly more likely to die at home and less likely to die in hospital than matched controls (unadjusted OR 6.16, 95% CI 5.94 to 6.38, pnursing for longer. Home-based end-of-life care offers the potential to reduce demand for acute hospital care and increase the number of people able to die at home.

  20. Modelling of Tool Wear and Residual Stress during Machining of AISI H13 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outeiro, José C.; Umbrello, Domenico; Pina, José C.; Rizzuti, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    Residual stresses can enhance or impair the ability of a component to withstand loading conditions in service (fatigue, creep, stress corrosion cracking, etc.), depending on their nature: compressive or tensile, respectively. This poses enormous problems in structural assembly as this affects the structural integrity of the whole part. In addition, tool wear issues are of critical importance in manufacturing since these affect component quality, tool life and machining cost. Therefore, prediction and control of both tool wear and the residual stresses in machining are absolutely necessary. In this work, a two-dimensional Finite Element model using an implicit Lagrangian formulation with an automatic remeshing was applied to simulate the orthogonal cutting process of AISI H13 tool steel. To validate such model the predicted and experimentally measured chip geometry, cutting forces, temperatures, tool wear and residual stresses on the machined affected layers were compared. The proposed FE model allowed us to investigate the influence of tool geometry, cutting regime parameters and tool wear on residual stress distribution in the machined surface and subsurface of AISI H13 tool steel. The obtained results permit to conclude that in order to reduce the magnitude of surface residual stresses, the cutting speed should be increased, the uncut chip thickness (or feed) should be reduced and machining with honed tools having large cutting edge radii produce better results than chamfered tools. Moreover, increasing tool wear increases the magnitude of surface residual stresses.

  1. Experience of the metal condition examination after 200 thousand hours of operation in view of an opportunity of service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagyan, A.; Bakirov, M.; Kamyshnikov, O.; Potapov, V.; Ivanenko, I.; Frolov, I.; Zabruskov, N.

    2002-01-01

    In the report the methods and technologies for non-destructive testing of mechanical properties are considered, used by the VNIIAES for the examination of metal condition of elements after 200 thousand hours of operation and within the Program for Life Extension of the units 3 and 4 of the Novo Voronezh NPP and units 1 and 2 of the Kola NPP. The results of the experimental investigations od metal of piping and components by destructive and specimen-free non-destructive methods with the purpose to assess the variation of physical and mechanical properties of steel during extended period after long-term operation are also discussed. The results of the non-destructive analysis allow to expand essentially the scope of examined elements and to obtain data for the assessment of the technical condition and the residual lifetime of piping and components and the investigated units

  2. The Association Between Home Palliative Care Services and Quality of End-of-Life Care Indicators in the Province of Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Bruno; Nadeau, Lyne; Scott, Susan; Dumont, Serge; MacDonald, Neil; Aubin, Michèle; Mayo, Nancy

    2015-07-01

    In Canada, governments have increased spending on home care to promote better end-of-life care. In the province of Québec, Canada, home palliative care (PC) services (HPCS) are provided by Public Local Community-Based Health Care Service providers (Centres Locaux de Services Communautaires [CLSC]) with universal coverage. Accordingly, there should be no regional variations of these services and their effect on quality of end-of-life PC (QEoLPC) indicators. To test if all the CLSCs provided the same level of HPCS to cancer patients in the province of Québec, Canada, and the association between level of HPCS and QEoLPC indicators. Characteristics of 52,316 decedents with cancer were extracted from administrative databases between 2003 and 2006. Two gender-specific "adjusted performance of CLSCs in delivering HPCS" models were created using gender-specific hierarchical regression adjusted for patient and CLSC neighborhood characteristics. Using the same approach, the strength of the association between the adjusted performance of CLSCs in delivering HPCS and the QEoLPC indicators was estimated. Overall, 27,255 (52.1%) decedents had at least one HPCS. Significant variations in the adjusted performance of CLSC in delivering HPCS were found. Higher performance led to a lower proportion of men having more than one emergency room visit during the last month of life (risk ratio [RR] 0.924; 95% CI 0.867-0.985), and for women, a higher proportion dying at home (RR 2.255; 95% CI 1.703-2.984) and spending less time in hospital (RR 0.765; 95% CI 0.692-0.845). Provision of HPCS remained limited in Québec, but when present, they were associated with improved QEoLPC indicators. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  4. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.

  5. Development and evaluation of SOA-based AAL services in real-life environments: a case study and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stav, Erlend; Walderhaug, Ståle; Mikalsen, Marius; Hanke, Sten; Benc, Ivan

    2013-11-01

    The proper use of ICT services can support seniors in living independently longer. While such services are starting to emerge, current proprietary solutions are often expensive, covering only isolated parts of seniors' needs, and lack support for sharing information between services and between users. For developers, the challenge is that it is complex and time consuming to develop high quality, interoperable services, and new techniques are needed to simplify the development and reduce the development costs. This paper provides the complete view of the experiences gained in the MPOWER project with respect to using model-driven development (MDD) techniques for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) system development in the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) domain. To address this challenge, the approach of the European research project MPOWER (2006-2009) was to investigate and record the user needs, define a set of reusable software services based on these needs, and then implement pilot systems using these services. Further, a model-driven toolchain covering key development phases was developed to support software developers through this process. Evaluations were conducted both on the technical artefacts (methodology and tools), and on end user experience from using the pilot systems in trial sites. The outcome of the work on the user needs is a knowledge base recorded as a Unified Modeling Language (UML) model. This comprehensive model describes actors, use cases, and features derived from these. The model further includes the design of a set of software services, including full trace information back to the features and use cases motivating their design. Based on the model, the services were implemented for use in Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) systems, and are publicly available as open source software. The services were successfully used in the realization of two pilot applications. There is therefore a direct and traceable link from the user needs of the

  6. Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest (ALASCA and the effectiveness of an early intervention service: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakx Wilbert GM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac arrest survivors may experience hypoxic brain injury that results in cognitive impairments which frequently remain unrecognised. This may lead to limitations in daily activities and participation in society, a decreased quality of life for the patient, and a high strain for the caregiver. Publications about interventions directed at improving quality of life after survival of a cardiac arrest are scarce. Therefore, evidence about effective rehabilitation programmes for cardiac arrest survivors is urgently needed. This paper presents the design of the ALASCA (Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest trial, a randomised, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a new early intervention service for survivors of a cardiac arrest and their caregivers. Methods/design The study population comprises all people who survive two weeks after a cardiac arrest and are admitted to one of the participating hospitals in the Southern part of the Netherlands. In a two-group randomised, controlled clinical trial, half of the participants will receive an early intervention service. The early intervention service consists of several consultations with a specialised nurse for the patient and their caregiver during the first three months after the cardiac arrest. The intervention is directed at screening for cognitive problems, provision of informational, emotional and practical support, and stimulating self-management. If necessary, referral to specialised care can take place. Persons in the control group will receive the care as usual. The primary outcome measures are the extent of participation in society and quality of life of the patient one year after a cardiac arrest. Secondary outcome measures are the level of cognitive, emotional and cardiovascular impairment and daily functioning of the patient, as well as the strain for and quality of life of the caregiver. Participants and their caregivers will be followed

  7. Decentralized Local Services for Improvement of Quality of Life in the Republic of Macedonia, Case Study Tetovo Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memet Memeti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of decentralization in Macedonia began in July 2005, after the adaption of theconstitutional amendments made which triggered the process of the decentralization in the Republic ofMacedonia. Having in mind that the decentralization implied structural changes in the Macedonian politicalsystem and in relations between the central and the local government, the implementation of the process ofthe decentralization was designed with a phased approach in order to accommodate the local governmentinstitutions with the new competencies. Among others the process of decentralization had an objective tobring the local authorities closer to the citizens through provision of quality local services. In addition it aimsto provide an opportunity for broader participation and representation of the citizens in their communities.This paper attempts to answer three main questions related to quality public services: - The process ofdecentralization has helped to improve the quality of public services? - What areas of public services undermunicipal jurisdiction are satisfied with it? - How much would you like to be informed about communityactivities? In this paper we are going to analyze the findings from the field research about the quality ofpublic service that provide the municipality of Tetovo of R. Macedonia. The paper focuses on the satisfactionon the public services and provides recommendations for future improvement of the decentralized publicservices in the Republic of Macedonia.

  8. A falls prevention programme to improve quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older people receiving home help services: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerk, Maria; Brovold, Therese; Skelton, Dawn A; Bergland, Astrid

    2017-08-14

    Falls and fall-related injuries in older adults are associated with great burdens, both for the individuals, the health care system and the society. Previous research has shown evidence for the efficiency of exercise as falls prevention. An understudied group are older adults receiving home help services, and the effect of a falls prevention programme on health-related quality of life is unclear. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to examine the effect of a falls prevention programme on quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older adults receiving home help services. A secondary aim is to explore the mediating factors between falls prevention and health-related quality of life. The study is a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants are older adults, aged 67 or older, receiving home help services, who are able to walk with or without walking aids, who have experienced at least one fall during the last 12 months and who have a Mini Mental State Examination of 23 or above. The intervention group receives a programme, based on the Otago Exercise Programme, lasting 12 weeks including home visits and motivational telephone calls. The control group receives usual care. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (SF-36). Secondary outcomes are leg strength, balance, walking speed, walking habits, activities of daily living, nutritional status and falls efficacy. All measurements are performed at baseline, following intervention at 3 months and at 6 months' follow-up. Sample size, based on the primary outcome, is set to 150 participants randomised into the two arms, including an estimated 15-20% drop out. Participants are recruited from six municipalities in Norway. This trial will generate new knowledge on the effects of an exercise falls prevention programme among older fallers receiving home help services. This knowledge will be useful for clinicians, for health managers in the primary health care service

  9. Can comprehensive specialised end-of-life care be provided at home? Lessons from a study of an innovative consultant-led community service in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, B; King, N; Woolmore, A; Hughes, P; Winslow, M; Melvin, J; Brooks, J; Bravington, A; Ingleton, C; Bath, P A

    2015-03-01

    The Midhurst Macmillan Specialist Palliative Care Service (MMSPCS) is a UK, medical consultant-led, multidisciplinary team aiming to provide round-the-clock advice and care, including specialist interventions, in the home, community hospitals and care homes. Of 389 referrals in 2010/11, about 85% were for cancer, from a population of about 155 000. Using a mixed method approach, the evaluation comprised: a retrospective analysis of secondary-care use in the last year of life; financial evaluation of the MMSPCS using an Activity Based Costing approach; qualitative interviews with patients, carers, health and social care staff and MMSPCS staff and volunteers; a postal survey of General Practices; and a postal survey of bereaved caregivers using the MMSPCS. The mean cost is about 3000 GBP (3461 EUR) per patient with mean cost of interventions for cancer patients in the last year of life 1900 GBP (2192 EUR). Post-referral, overall costs to the system are similar for MMSPCS and hospice-led models; however, earlier referral avoided around 20% of total costs in the last year of life. Patients and carers reported positive experiences of support, linked to the flexible way the service worked. Seventy-one per cent of patients died at home. This model may have application elsewhere. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 'Silent voices' in health services research: ethnicity and socioeconomic variation in participation in studies of quality of life in childhood visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerie; Hamblion, Esther Louise; Keeley, Sarah; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To investigate patterns of participation of visually impaired (VI) children and their families in health services research. Methods. The authors compared clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of children and their families who participated with those who did not participate in two studies of quality of life (QoL) of VI children. In Study 1, the authors interviewed VI children and adolescents, aged 10 to 15 years, about their vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) as the first phase of a program to develop a VRQoL instrument for this population. One hundred seven children with visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye LogMar worse than 0.51) were invited to participate in the interviews. Study 2 investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of VI children using an existing generic instrument, administered in a postal survey. 151 VI children and adolescents, aged 2 to 16 years, with hereditary retinal disorders were invited to participate in the survey. Results. The overall participation level was below 50%. In both studies, participants from white ethnic and more affluent socioeconomic backgrounds were overrepresented. Participation did not vary by age, sex, or clinical characteristics. Conclusions. The authors suggest that there are barriers to participation in child- and family-centered research on childhood visual disability for children from socioeconomically deprived or ethnic minority groups. They urge assessment and reporting of participation patterns in further health services research on childhood visual disability. Failure to recognize that there are "silent voices" is likely to have important implications for equitable and appropriate service planning and provision for VI children.

  11. To be truly alive: motivation among prison inmate hospice volunteers and the transformative process of end-of-life peer care service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin G; Rosenkranz, Susan J; Wold, Dawn; Berry, Patricia H; Supiano, Katherine P

    2014-11-01

    Some US prisons are meeting the growing need for end-of-life care through inmate volunteer programs, yet knowledge of the motivations of inmate caregivers is underdeveloped. This study explored the motivations of inmate hospice volunteers from across Louisiana State (n = 75) through an open-ended survey, a grounded theory approach to analysis, and comparison of responses by experience level and gender. Participants expressed complex motivations; Inter-related themes on personal growth, social responsibility and ethical service to vulnerable peers suggested that inmate caregivers experience an underlying process of personal and social transformation, from hospice as a source of positive self-identity to peer-caregiving as a foundation for community. Better understanding of inmate caregiver motivations and processes will help prisons devise effective and sustainable end of life peer-care programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Are satisfaction with and self-management of personal assistance services associated with the life satisfaction of persons with physical disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Castaldy, Rita P

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationships between satisfaction with and self-management of personal assistance services (PAS) and the quality of life (QoL) of persons with disabilities. To test the postulate that consumer-directed PAS can fulfil the human need for control and contribute to a satisfactory life. A survey compared the perspectives of persons using consumer-directed PAS versus those using agency-directed. A Personal Data Form obtained demographics and PAS characteristics. The Quality of Life Inventory measured life satisfaction. A PAS questionnaire measured perceptions about the management of, desire for control of, and satisfaction with PAS. Data were analysed using SPSS®- 14. Significant relationships were found between QoL and satisfaction with PAS (p perceived control of PAS and satisfaction with PAS (p satisfaction with their PAS (p satisfaction, and QoL support the value of consumer-directed programmes. Rehabilitation professionals can use this knowledge to develop, implement and research practises that enable self-management.

  13. Current HIV/AIDS end-of-life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a survey of models, services, challenges and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neill Joseph F

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to increased global public health funding initiatives to HIV/AIDS care in Africa, this study aimed to describe practice models, strategies and challenges to delivering end-of-life care in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A survey end-of-life care programs was conducted, addressing the domains of service aims and configuration, barriers to pain control, governmental endorsement and strategies, funding, monitoring and evaluation, and research. Both closed and qualitative responses were sought. Results Despite great structural challenges, data from 48 programs in 14 countries with a mean annual funding of US $374,884 demonstrated integrated care delivery across diverse settings. Care was commonly integrated with all advanced disease care (67% and disease stages (65% offering care from diagnosis. The majority (98% provided home-based care for a mean of 301 patients. Ninety-four percent reported challenges in pain control (including availability, lack of trained providers, stigma and legal restrictions, and 77% addressed the effects of poverty on disease progression and management. Although 85% of programs reported Government endorsement, end-of-life and palliative care National strategies were largely absent. Conclusions The interdependent tasks of expanding pain control, balancing quality and coverage of care, providing technical assistance in monitoring and evaluation, collaborating between donor agencies and governments, and educating policy makers and program directors of end-of-life care are all necessary if resources are to reach their goals.

  14. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  15. Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAHL, NEIL K.; MANDELL, JOHN F.; SAMBORSKY, DANIEL D.

    2002-01-01

    cycle loading cases. The residual strength models may provide a more accurate estimate of blade lifetime than Miner's rule for some loads spectra. They have the added advantage of providing an estimate of current blade strength throughout the service life

  16. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeňka Havířová; Pavel Kubů

    2010-01-01

    One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty). The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on bui...

  17. The effectiveness of communication-skills training interventions in end-of-life noncancer care in acute hospital-based services: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Laura; Clark-Carter, David; Grove, Amy

    2016-08-01

    A systematic review was conducted in order to explore the effectiveness of communication-skills training interventions in end-of-life care with noncancer acute-based healthcare staff. Articles were included if they (1) focused on communication-skills training in end-of-life/palliative care for noncancer acute-based staff and (2) reported an outcome related to behavior change with regard to communication. Sixteen online databases were searched, which resulted in 4,038 potential articles. Screening of titles left 393 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Abstracts (n = 346) and full-text articles (n = 47) were reviewed, leaving 10 papers that met the criteria for our review. All articles explored the effect of communication-skills training on aspects of staff behavior; one study measured the effect on self-efficacy, another explored the impact on knowledge and competence, and another measured comfort levels in discussing the end of life with patients/families. Seven studies measured a number of outcomes, including confidence, attitude, preparedness, stress, and communication skills. Few studies have focused on end-of-life communication-skills training in noncancer acute-based services. Those that do have report positive effects on staff behavior with regard to communication about the end of life with patients and families. The studies varied in terms of the population studied and the health services involved, and they scored only moderately or weakly on quality. It is a challenge to draw a definite conclusion about the effectiveness of training interventions in end-of-life communication because of this. However, the findings from our review demonstrate the potential effectiveness of a range of training interventions with healthcare professionals on confidence, attitude, self-efficacy, and communication skills. Further research is needed to fully explore the effectiveness of existing training interventions in this population, and evidence using objective measures

  18. Development of an Accelerated Test Design for Predicting the Service Life of the Solar Array at Mead, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Noel, G. T.; Shilliday, T. S.; Wood, V. E.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated life test is described which was developed to predict the life of the 25 kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. A quantitative model for accelerating testing using multiple environmental stresses was used to develop the test design. The model accounts for the effects of thermal stress by a relation of the Arrhenius form. This relation was then corrected for the effects of nonthermal environmental stresses, such as relative humidity, atmospheric pollutants, and ultraviolet radiation. The correction factors for the nonthermal stresses included temperature-dependent exponents to account for the effects of interactions between thermal and nonthermal stresses on the rate of degradation of power output. The test conditions, measurements, and data analyses for the accelerated tests are presented. Constant-temperature, cyclic-temperature, and UV types of tests are specified, incorporating selected levels of relative humidity and chemical contamination and an imposed forward-bias current and static electric field.

  19. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154 answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001, a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001 and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615. Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.

  20. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.

  1. Energy use in repairs by cover concrete replacement or silane treatment for extending service life of chloride-exposed concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcherdchoo, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the service life of repaired concrete structures under chloride environment is predicted. This prediction is performed by considering the mechanism of chloride ion diffusion using the partial differential equation (PDE) of the Fick’s second law. The one-dimensional PDE cannot simply be solved, when concrete structures are cyclically repaired with cover concrete replacement or silane treatment. The difficulty is encountered in solving position-dependent chloride profile and diffusion coefficient after repairs. In order to remedy the difficulty, the finite difference method is used. By virtue of numerical computation, the position-dependent chloride profile can be treated position by position. And, based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme, a proper formulation embedded with position-dependent diffusion coefficient can be derived. By using the aforementioned idea, position- and time-dependent chloride ion concentration profiles for concrete structures with repairs can be calculated and shown, and their service life can be predicted. Moreover, the use of energy in different repair actions is also considered for comparison. From the study, it is found that repairs can control rebar corrosion and/or concrete cracking depending on repair actions.

  2. On using continuoas Markov processes for unit service life evaluation taking as an example the RBMK-1000 gate-regulating valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemin, A.I.; Emel'yanov, V.S.; Rabchun, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is sugfested for estimating service life indices of equipment based on describing the process of the equipment ageing by continuous Markov diffusion process. It is noted that a number of problems on estimating durability indices of products is reduced to problems of estimating characteristics of the time of the first attainment of the preset boundary (boundaries) by a random process describing the ageing of a product. The methods of statistic estimation of the drift and diffusion coefficient in the continuous Markov diffusion process are considered formulae for their point and interval estimates are presented. A special description is given for a case of a stationary process and determining in this case mathematical expectation and dispersion of the time of the first attainment of a boundary (boundaries). The method of numerical simulation of the diffusion process with constant drift and diffusion coefficients is also described; results obtained on the basis of such a simulation are discussed. An example of using the suggested technique for quantitative estimate of the service life for the RBMK-1000 gate-regulating value is given

  3. Clinical Utility and Psychometric Properties of the Traumatic Brain Injury Quality of Life Scale (TBI-QOL) in US Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Bailie, Jason M; Tulsky, David S; French, Louis M

    2016-01-01

    To examine the clinical utility and psychometric properties of the Traumatic Brain Injury Quality of Life (TBI-QOL) scale in a US military population. One hundred fifty-two US military service members (age: M = 34.3, SD = 9.4; 89.5% men) prospectively enrolled from the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and other nationwide community outreach initiatives. Participants included 99 service members who had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 53 injured or noninjured controls without TBI (n = 29 and n = 24, respectively). Participants completed the TBI-QOL scale and 5 other behavioral measures, on average, 33.8 months postinjury (SD = 37.9). Fourteen TBI-QOL subscales; Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; Combat Exposure Scale. The internal consistency reliability of the TBI-QOL scales ranged from α = .91 to α = .98. The convergent and discriminant validity of the 14 TBI-QOL subscales was high. The mild TBI group had significantly worse scores on 10 of the 14 TBI-QOL subscales than the control group (range, P quality of life in a mild TBI military sample. Additional research is recommended to further evaluate the clinical utility of the TBI-QOL scale in both military and civilian settings.

  4. Predicting the service life of connecting rod and main bearings, taking into account different engine loads. Final report; Lebensdauervorhersage fuer Pleuel- und Hauptlager unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Motorlastkollektive. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, B.; Lueneburg, B.; Liu, J.

    1994-12-31

    Connecting rod and main bearings of internal combustion engines are among the most heavily stressed components in modern engines. It was found that these engine components are increasingly reaching the limits of their strength and therefore become the components limiting engine life. However, there is no known process which makes a calculated prediction of the service life of modern connecting rod and main bearings possible, taking into account various engine loads. In this research project, a new concept for the calculated prediction of the service life of non-static highly loaded radial sliding bearings is worked out. The basis is a process of calculation which realistically determines the pressure and gap course in highly loaded sliding bearings. Apart from the viscosity depending on pressure and temperature, the elastic deformations of the system sliding bearing/conn rod are also taken into account. Calculations are done for different operating points for a complete cycle of a four stroke Diesel engine (Daimler-Benz OM 364 LA). The results are compared with the present conventional process of calculation and the effects which occur are discussed. Based on the elasto-hydrodynamic calculation, a method of calculating the service life of non-statically loaded sliding bearings, taking into account various motor loads, is worked out. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Pleuel- und Hauptlager von Verbrennungskraftmaschinen zaehlen mit zu den spezifisch am hoechsten beanspruchten Bauteilen in modernen Motoren. Es hat sich gezeigt, dass vor allem diese Maschinenelemente zunehmend an die Grenzen ihrer Belastbarkeit stossen und so zum lebensdauerbegrenzenden Bauteil werden. Es ist jedoch kein Verfahren bekannt, das eine rechnerische Lebensdauervorhersage moderner Pleuel- und Hauptlager unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Motorlastkollektive ermoeglicht. Im vorliegenden Forschungsvorhaben wird daher ein neuartiges Konzept zur rechnerischen Lebensdauervorhersage von instationaeren

  5. Residual stresses in Inconel 718 engine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Yoann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aubert&Duval has developed a methodology to establish a residual stress model for Inconel 718 engine discs. To validate the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical parts of the model, trials on lab specimens with specific geometry were carried out. These trials allow a better understanding of the residual stress distribution and evolution during different processes (quenching, ageing, machining. A comparison between experimental and numerical results reveals the residual stresses model accuracy. Aubert&Duval has also developed a mechanical properties prediction model. Coupled with the residual stress prediction model, Aubert&Duval can now propose improvements to the process of manufacturing in Inconel 718 engine disks. This model enables Aubert&Duval customers and subcontractors to anticipate distortions issues during machining. It could also be usedt to optimise the engine disk life.

  6. A computational approach for thermomechanical fatigue life prediction of dissimilarly welded superheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnasamy, Ram-Kumar; Seifert, Thomas; Siegele, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a computational approach for fatigue life prediction of dissimilarly welded superheater tubes is presented and applied to a dissimilar weld between tubes made of the nickel base alloy Alloy617 tube and the 12% chromium steel VM12. The approach comprises the calculation of the residual stresses in the welded tubes with a multi-pass dissimilar welding simulation, the relaxation of the residual stresses in a post weld heat treatment (PWHT) simulation and the fatigue life prediction using the remaining residual stresses as initial condition. A cyclic fiscoplasticity model is used to calculate the transient stresses and strains under thermocyclic service loadings. The fatigue life is predicted with a damage parameter which is based on fracture mechanics. The adjustable parameters of the model are determined based on LCF and TMF experiments. The simulations show, that the residual stresses that remain after PWHT further relax in the first loading cycles. The predicted fatigue lives depend on the residual stresses and, thus, on the choice of the loading cycle in which the damage parameter is evaluated. It the first loading cycle, where residual stresses are still present, is considered, lower fatigue lives are predicted compared to predictions considering loading cycles with relaxed residual stresses. (orig.)

  7. Expected returns from a tax on nuclear fuel elements in the context of longer service lives of German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To what extent will the fuel element tax introduced by the German government in combination with the longer service life of nuclear power stations reduce the profits of public utilities? A qualitative assessment suggests that the tax will not equal the full profits. Using an electricity market model, various scenarios can be calculated for an eight-year prolongation of the residual service life of existing nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  8. Recovery of creep properties of alloy 625 after long term service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, M.D.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Mannan, S.L.; Paknikar, K.

    2000-01-01

    Creep rupture properties of alloy 625, that has been in service for 60000 h at 993 K, have been evaluated between 923 and 1173 K, after subjecting the service exposed material to resolution annealing treatment at 1433 K for one hour. The isostress and Larson-Miller parameter methods were employed to estimate the residual life of the service exposed material. Creep rupture strength and rupture ductility recovered substantially following re-solution annealing. The variations in rupture life and rupture ductility with creep test variables have been rationalised on the basis of the microstructural changes that occurred in the material. (orig.)

  9. Leadership and change commitment in the life insurance service context in Taiwan: the mediating-moderating role of job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    The effects of transformational leadership and satisfaction were studied along with their interconnected effects (mediation and moderation) on commitment to change in the life insurance industry in two samples, sales managers and salespersons. A multiple mediated-moderated regression approach showed mediation and moderation to have statistically significant main effects on change commitment. Transformational leadership and satisfaction made a more important contribution to change commitment while job satisfaction had a mediating and moderating role that could enhance the relationships between leadership and change commitment. This information is of importance in building successful change commitment associations with customers.

  10. Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists' Meeting on experience and further improvement of in-service inspection methods and programmes of NPPs with particular emphasis on on-line techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of an IAEA specialists meeting devoted to the exchange of views and experience with respect to understanding and quantifying materials ageing and degradation processes, to assessing residual life of components, to in-service materials testing, all this with the objective of improving reliability and, wherever possible, extending the useful life of nuclear power plants. (L.O.)

  11. Life cycle assessment of fossil and biomass power generation chains. An analysis carried out for ALSTOM Power Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ch.

    2008-12-15

    This final report issued by the Technology Assessment Department of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results of an analysis carried out on behalf of the Alstom Power Services company. Fossil and biomass chains as well as co-combustion power plants are assessed. The general objective of this analysis is an evaluation of specific as well as overall environmental burdens resulting from these different options for electricity production. The results obtained for fuel chains including hard coal, lignite, wood, natural gas and synthetic natural gas are discussed. An overall comparison is made and the conclusions drawn from the results of the analysis are presented.

  12. CUSTOMER COST - SECOND IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR IMAGE GAP ANALYSIS OF LIFE INSURANCE SERVICES - BASED ON THE DATA COLLECTION FROM GUWAHATI

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Bihani; Prof. Amalesh Bhowal

    2017-01-01

    The concept of Customer Cost was developed by Lauterborn (1990) while developing the customer oriented Marketing Mix- the 4C concept. 4C model replaces the earlier 4Ps of Marketing Mix, here the focus is on customer and the current chapter is all about the second C of this model i.e. Customer Cost or Price in earlier 4P model. The Customer Cost concept is based on the fact that customers are more concerned with the total cost of acquiring a solution of their problem (Product or Service) rathe...

  13. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  14. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  15. Late-life anxiety disorders among Puerto Rican primary care patients: impact on well-being, functioning, and service utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Robison, Julie T; Tolin, David F; Blank, Karen

    2004-01-01

    With the growing population of older Hispanic adults there is a need for additional research on the mental health care of this patient group. This study explored the impact of anxiety disorders on the health status of 291 older (>/=50 years) Puerto Rican primary care patients (n = 65 with anxiety disorders, n = 226 without anxiety disorders). All analyses controlled for potential confounding variables, including depression diagnosis and physical health burden. Logistic regression indicated that anxiety disorders were associated with higher psychological distress, suicidality, and emergency room service utilization, as well as lower instrumental functioning and perceived health quality. Analysis of covariance indicated that both anxiety disorder status and history of ataque de nervios were related to higher percentages of lifetime somatic symptoms. These data highlight the need for improved recognition and treatment of anxiety disorders in older Puerto Rican adults.

  16. Eviromental Economic and Technological Residues Management Demands: An Optimization Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Soares Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues management is a very demanding task since many different goals must be achieved. The combination of different approaches used by people from different stuff is very challenging activity that can misuse the residues potential value and applicability. An interactive WEB base tool, to integrate different sectors and overcome residues management difficulties will be presented. The system must be loaded with all data concerning the residue life cycle, and through data integration and modeling routine will give the best alternative as output. As wider and complete the system data becomes, by information loading from differen t segment, more efficient the residues management becomes. The user friendly tool will encourage the participation of industries, labs and research institutions to obtain qualified information about industrial residues inventory, raw materials recovery, characteristics, treatment and alternative uses, to achieve residues management sustainability.

  17. Assessing the impact of care farms on quality of life and offending: a pilot study among probation service users in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Helen; Farragher, Tracey; Tubeuf, Sandy; Bragg, Rachel; Elings, Marjolein; Brennan, Cathy; Gold, Rochelle; Shickle, Darren; Wickramasekera, Nyantara; Richardson, Zoe; Cade, Janet; Murray, Jenni

    2018-03-17

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a cost-effectiveness study of using care farms (CFs) to improve quality of life and reduce reoffending among offenders undertaking community orders (COs). To pilot questionnaires to assess quality of life, connection to nature, lifestyle behaviours, health and social-care use. To assess recruitment and retention at 6 months and feasibility of data linkage to Police National Computer (PNC) reconvictions data and data held by probation services. Pilot study using questionnaires to assess quality of life, individually linked to police and probation data. The pilot study was conducted in three probation service regions in England. Each site included a CF and at least one comparator CO project. CFs are working farms used with a range of clients, including offenders, for therapeutic purposes. The three CFs included one aquaponics and horticulture social enterprise, a religious charity focusing on horticulture and a family-run cattle farm. Comparator projects included sorting secondhand clothes and activities to address alcohol misuse and anger management. We recruited 134 adults (over 18) serving COs in England, 29% female. 52% of participants completed follow-up questionnaires. Privatisation of UK probation trusts in 2014 negatively impacted on recruitment and retention. Linkage to PNC data was a more successful means of follow-up, with 90% consenting to access their probation and PNC data. Collection of health and social-care costs and quality-adjusted life year derivation were feasible. Propensity score adjustment provided a viable comparison method despite differences between comparators. We found worse health and higher reoffending risk among CF participants due to allocation of challenging offenders to CFs, making risk of reoffending a confounder. Recruitment would be feasible in a more stable probation environment. Follow-up was challenging; however, assessing reconvictions from PNC data is feasible and a potential primary

  18. Development of an NPP residual lifetime evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regano, M.; Ibanez, M.; Hevia, F.

    1993-01-01

    Various reasons have given rise to the need for residual life management of Spain's nuclear power plants which lead to the a project for the development of a residual lifetime evaluation system managed by UNESA and supported by the owner groups. This project is described. 1 fig

  19. Vacuum Insulation Panels - Study on VIP-components and panels for service life prediction of VIP in building applications (Subtask A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Brunner, S. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Garching (Germany); Kumaran, K.; Mukhopadhyaya, P. [National Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC), Ottawa (Canada); Quenard, D.; Sallee, H. [Scientific and Technical Centre for Construction (CSTB), Marne la Vallee (France); Noller, K.; Kuecuekpinar-Niarchos, E.; Stramm, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV), Freising (Germany); Tenpierik, M.; Cauberg, H. [Technical University of Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Erb, M. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive paper takes a look at the properties of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and was presented as a contribution to the IEA's ECBCS (Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems) Annex 39. The various institutions in Switzerland, Germany, Canada, France, Sweden and the Netherlands participating in the task and their activities are listed. The paper describes the concept of vacuum insulation for buildings and examines the physics involved and core materials that can be used. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the core materials are examined and the requirements placed on the envelope of the panels are looked at. Tests made on materials as well as on the complete vacuum insulation panels are described in detail. The results obtained are presented and reviewed. Service-life and quality assurance aspects are also discussed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal food waste and sewage sludge: A comparative life cycle assessment in the context of a waste service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    This study used life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) and compared it against the current waste management system in two case study areas. Results indicated AcoD to have less environmental impact for all categories modelled excluding human toxicity, despite the need to collect and pre-treat food waste separately. Uncertainty modelling confirmed that AcoD has a 100% likelihood of a smaller global warming potential, and for acidification, eutrophication and fossil fuel depletion AcoD carried a greater than 85% confidence of inducing a lesser impact than the current waste service. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.