WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual sawtimber trees

  1. Predicting logging residues: an interim equation for Appalachian oak sawtimber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1975-01-01

    An equation, using dbh, dbh², bole length, and sawlog height to predict the cubic-foot volume of logging residue per tree, was developed from data collected on 36 mixed oaks in southwestern Virginia. The equation produced reliable results for small sawtimber trees, but additional research is needed for other species, sites, and utilization practices.

  2. Second-year growth and bole quality response of residual poletimber trees following thinning in an even-aged bottomland hardwood sawtimber stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A., Jr. Skojac; James S. Meadows; Andrew W. Ezell

    2010-01-01

    Poletimber trees were classified as either superior or inferior poletimber stock, and then retained on separate plots receiving identical thinning treatments. Differences in post-treatment response were used to evaluate the potential of the two poletimber classes to produce grade sawtimber in the thinned sawtimber stand. Treatments included: an unthinned control, two...

  3. Applying a crop-tree release in small-sawtimber white oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey W Stringer; Gary W. Miller; Robert F. Wittwer; Robert F. Wittwer

    1988-01-01

    Small-sawtimber white oak crop trees in Kentucky were released by a crown-touching technique. In two cutting treatments, 20 and 34 crop trees were released per acre at a total cost of $35 and $42, respectively. Both treatments yielded commercial volumes of cut material. Total mean merchantable volume (> 5.0 inches d.b.h.) in cut trees was 693 cubic feet/acre, with...

  4. Individual-tree Green Weight Equations for Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Sawtimber in the Coastal Plain of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis E. Posey; Paul F. Doruska; David W. Patterson

    2005-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) weight equations were developed to predict outside-bark, green bole weight to a 4-inch diameter-inside-bark (dib) top and an 8-inch dib top in southeast Arkansas. Trees were sampled from 8 different tracts over the first half of 2002: 4 tracts during winter and spring, respectively. The sampled trees ranged from 10 to...

  5. The economic importance of Vermont's sawtimber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Michaels; M. Brian Stone; Paul E. Sendak; Paul E. Sendak

    1986-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the potential economic importance of Vermont's sawtimber. The timber industry employed over 9,000 workers in 1980, and the value of stumpage cut that year was worth approximately $459 million to the State's economy. Preliminary resurvey data indicate that sawtimber inventory now exceeds 14 billion board feet. Yet, sawtimber removals...

  6. Urban tree and woody yard residues : another wood resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    Urban tree and woody yard residues are an important component of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in the United States. In 2000, approximately 14.5 million tons of urban tree and woody yard residues was generated, nearly 7% of total MSW. Some woody residues are being recovered for recycling, composting, or other uses, but a large proportion is simply discarded....

  7. Assessing cellulose nanofiber production from olive tree pruning residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillat, Úrsula; Wicklein, Bernd; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Ibarra, David; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo; Valencia, Concepción; Sarrión, Andrés; Castro, Eulogio; Eugenio, María Eugenia

    2018-01-01

    Pruning operation in olive trees generates a large amount of biomass that is normally burned causing severe environmental concern. Therefore, the transformation of this agricultural residue into value-added products is imperative but still remains as a technological challenge. In this study, olive tree pruning (OTP) residue is evaluated for the first time to produce cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The OTP bleached pulp was treated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and subsequent defibrillation in a microfluidizer. The resulting CNF was characterized and compared to CNF obtained from a commercial bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp using the same chemi-mechanical procedure. CNF from OTP showed higher carboxylate content but lower fibrillation yield and optical transmittance as compared to eucalyptus CNF. Finally, the visco-elastic gel obtained from OTP was stronger than that produced from eucalyptus. Therefore, the properties of CNF from OTP made this nanomaterial suitable for several applications. CNF from OTP showed higher carboxylate content as compared to eucalyptus CNF (1038 vs. 778μmol/g) but lower fibrillation yield (48% vs. 96%) and optical transmittance. Finally, the visco-elastic gel obtained from OTP was stronger than that produced from eucalyptus. Therefore, the properties of CNF from OTP made this nanomaterial suitable for several applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Residue age and tree attractiveness influence efficacy of insecticide treatments against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on treatments of insecticides to prevent beetles from boring into trees emitting stress-induced ethanol. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is warranted to gauge the duration that trees ...

  9. Modeling Prices for Sawtimber Stumpage in the South-Central United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Parajuli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The South-Central United States, which includes the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Arkansas, represents an important segment of the softwood sawtimber market. By using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR method to account for the linkage among the four contiguous timber markets, this study examines the dynamics of softwood sawtimber stumpage markets within the region. Based on quarterly data from 1981 to 2014, the findings reveal that both pulpwood and chip-and-saw (CNS prices have a positive influence on the Texas and Arkansas sawtimber markets. Moreover, Granger-causality tests suggest that unidirectional causality runs from pulpwood and CNS markets to the respective sawtimber market. Compared to the pre-financial crisis period, sawtimber prices in these four states are 9%–17% lower in the recent years.

  10. Cogeneration of heat and power in Crete - Greece from olive tree byproducts and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourdoubas, J. (TEI of Crete, Chania (Greece), Dept. of Natural Resources and Environment), e-mail: gboyrd@tee.gr

    2010-07-01

    Olive tree byproducts and residues are used mainly in Crete for heat production, but not for power generation. The most of Olive Kernel wood is currently used for heat generation without any standardization, but the most of olive tree brushes are not used for energy production. Therefore, a lot of solid biomass in Crete, which is not used at the moment, can be exploited in the future for generation of heat and power or for cogeneration of them. Olive tree byproducts and residues can be used with burning, but, because of the mild climate of the island, the cogenerated heat can be efficiently used only during the winter. Also, the possibility of tri-generation exists since the produced heat can be used for cooling generation with absorption chillers. The availability of Olive Kernel wood in Crete is estimated at the moment at 110,000 tn / year and of Olive tree brushes at 380,000 tn / year. (orig.)

  11. Estimates of biomass in logging residue and standing residual inventory following tree-harvest activity on timberland acres in the southern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This report provides estimates of biomass (green tons) in logging residue and standing residual inventory on timberland acres with evidence of tree cutting. Biomass as defined by Forest Inventory and Analysis is the aboveground dry weight of wood in the bole and limbs of live trees ≥ 1-inch diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), and excludes tree foliage, seedlings, and...

  12. LEAF RESIDUE DECOMPOSITION OF SELECTED ATLANTIC FOREST TREE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Dias Arato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biogeochemical cycling is essential to establish and maintain plant and animal communities. Litter is one of main compartments of this cycle, and the kinetics of leaf decomposition in forest litter depend on the chemical composition and environmental conditions. This study evaluated the effect of leaf composition and environmental conditions on leaf decomposition of native Atlantic Forest trees. The following species were analyzed: Mabea fistulifera Mart., Bauhinia forficata Link., Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell, Luehea grandiflora Mart. et. Zucc., Croton floribundus Spreng., Trema micrantha (L Blume, Cassia ferruginea (Schrad Schrad ex DC, Senna macranthera (DC ex Collad. H. S. Irwin and Barney and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae. For each species, litter bags were distributed on and fixed to the soil surface of soil-filled pots (in a greenhouse, or directly to the surface of the same soil type in a natural forest (field. Every 30 days, the dry weight and soil basal respiration in both environments were determined. The cumulative decomposition of leaves varied according to the species, leaf nutrient content and environment. In general, the decomposition rate was lowest for Aegiphila sellowiana and fastest for Bauhinia forficate and Schinus terebinthifolius. This trend was similar under the controlled conditions of a greenhouse and in the field. The selection of species with a differentiated decomposition pattern, suited for different stages of the recovery process, can help improve soil restoration.

  13. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Phoenix Tree Residues as a Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By using a thermogravimetric analyser under argon atmosphere, the pyrolysis process and the kinetic model of phoenix tree residues (the little stem, middle stem, and leaf at a 30 °C min−1 heating rate and the phoenix tree mix at three different heating rates (10 °C min−1, 30 °C min−1, and 50 °C min−1 were examined. The catalyst and the co-pyrolysis samples were at a 30 °C min−1 heating rate. The catalysts were Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and CaO in a mass fraction of 5 %. The experimental results revealed that the phoenix tree residues pyrolysis process consisted of three stages: dehydration stage, main pyrolysis stage, and the slow decomposition of residues. As the heating rate increased, the pyrolysis characteristic temperature of the phoenix tree grew, there was a backward-shift of the pyrolysis rate curve, and the mass loss rate gradually increased. The phoenix tree residues’ activation energy changed throughout the whole pyrolysis process, and the pyrolysis temperature ranges of the three main components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin existed in overlapping phenomenon. As compared to the little stem, middle stem, and leaf, the phoenix tree mix was more likely to be pyrolysed under the same heating rate. Different catalysts had a different impact on the pyrolysis: ZnCl2 moved the start point of the reaction to the lower temperatures, but did not speed up the reaction; Na2CO3 speeded up the reaction without changing the start point of the reaction; CaO speeded up the reaction, moved the start point of the reaction to higher temperatures.

  14. Decomposition and nitrogen release patterns of Gliricidia sepium tree residues under controlled incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintu, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Tree legumes can serve as nitrogen (N) source for cereals in resource poor farms where chemical fertilizer is financially unaffordable. Over the past decade, ICRAF and partners have developed several 'fertilizer tree systems' that are low-cost, easy to manage, highly productive and profitable. These have been widely disseminated in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, much work remains to broaden the scientific underpinning of these systems and develop the management principles to guide further research and dissemination into areas beyond the initial pilot research areas. Gliricidia sepium roots and leaves, as individual components and as a mixture, were incubated in an 15 N labeled acidic Ultisol under controlled laboratory conditions. Decomposition was monitored as CO 2 evolution and inorganic N released over time. The aim was to determine inorganic soil N and pH dynamics as affected by residue quality. This study used 15 N dilution method to determine 'percent N derived from tree residues (%Ndfr) of G. sepium residues. The greatest attribute of this technique is its ability to distinguish between residue-N and soil derived N. The possibility to distinguish between the major N forms (nitrate and ammonium-N) and their quantities at different stages of decomposition exists, according to this study. This information is valuable in predicting the fate of applied residue N in actual field situations, since the forms and quantity of available soil N determine the magnitude of N loss to the environment or utilization by crop under respective field conditions and practices. The 15 N dilution method, leading to computation of %Ndfr therefore, offers an invaluable qualitative and quantitative way of measuring N mineralization from agroforestry residues. Our results showed that NO 3 -Ndfr remained low through out the study, indicating that loss of Ndfr via NO 3 -N leaching would probably not be an important concern. However, inorganic N availability from

  15. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  16. Effect of the rearing tank residue of fish farms on the production of passion fruit tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. R. Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of seedlings and biomass production of blue and yellow passion fruit trees (round cultivar produced from residue of the rearing tanks of fish farms. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using residue obtained from fish farming tanks. Ravine soil (RS, fish tank residue (FR and Tropstrato (TR were used as substrate. The treatments were: T1 = control consisting of Tropstrato substrate; T2 = 25% FR + 75% RS; T3 = 50% FR + 50% RS; T4 = 25% RS + 75% FR; T5 = 100% FR. A completely randomized block design consisting of 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 11 plants per plot was used. Treatment T5 (100% fish farming residue resulted in the largest average number of leaves, highest dry matter production of the aerial part, and highest dry matter accumulation in the root (P<0.05. The worst results were obtained for the treatment using 25% FR (T2, which resulted in less uniformity of the variables studied. Stem height of the passion fruit tree was greater for the treatments that included FR, with the greatest mean height being observed for T5. In conclusion, the treatment using the residue of fish farming tanks was found to be beneficial to produce yellow passion fruit seedlings (round cultivar, representing a good alternative for the reutilization of this residue.

  17. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  18. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Arami-Niya, Arash; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Sahu, J.N.; Noor, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  19. How to reduce injuries to residual trees during stand management activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Gregory M. Filip

    1983-01-01

    Losses of trees and tree volume that result from decay initiated by mechanical injuries during stand management activities in the western United States are substantial. They can be reduced through improved logging methods and careful planning of other forest management activities.

  20. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  1. Butt log quality of trees in Pennsylvania oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Dale; Robert L. Brisbin; Robert L. Brisbin

    1985-01-01

    Describes the distribution of sawtimber trees by diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) and grade for eight hardwood species in upland oak stands of Pennsylvania. The proportion of trees by d.b.h. and grade revealed differences between species. The quality of northern red oak, white oak, and yellow-poplar appeared inherently better than that of red maple, chestnut oak, and...

  2. Residual tree damage during selection cuts using two skidding systems in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ficklin; John P. Dwyer; Bruce E. Cutter; Tom Draper

    1997-01-01

    Today, there is an interest in using alternative silvicultural systems like selection and two-aged management, because the public finds these systems more acceptable than clearcutting. However, repeated entries into forest stands to remove timber increase the risk of residual stand damage. Harvest techniques are desirable that (1) reduce the risk of stand damage and (2...

  3. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  4. Mechanized methods for harvesting residual biomass from Mediterranean fruit tree cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Velázquez-Martí

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the technology and work systems used in order to harvest residual biomass from pruning in the specific conditions of Mediterranean fruit orchards (narrow distances between crop-rows. Harvesting has been divided into several types of operations - pruning, biomass alignment between crop tracks, biomass concentration in piles, chipping and bundling - which have been analyzed in five Mediterranean cultivations for three years. Altogether, three types of pruning have been analyzed: Manual, previous mechanical followed by manual, and fully mechanical; Two types of alignment: Manual and mechanical; Three concentration systems: Manual, tractor with a rake and a forwarder; Four chipping work organization systems: chipper driven inside orchard and manually fed by operators, mobile chipper driven inside orchard with pick-up header, mobile chipper fed by means of mechanical crane, chipper mounted on a truck fed by means of mechanical crane, which was working in a fixed position in a border of the plot after wood concentration. Also two bundling organization systems were checked: bundler machine working in a fixed position after wood concentration and working inside the plot driven among the crops. Previous concentration of the materials was the best alternative for their chipping or bundling in the studied conditions. Regression models have been calculated to predict the time of work of machinery and labor for each alternative. These equations were used to implement logistic planning as the Borvemar model, which defines a logistics network for supplying bio-energy systems.

  5. Mass-loss rates from decomposition of plant residues in spruce forests near the northern tree line subject to strong air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Natalia V; Orlova, Maria A; Steinnes, Eiliv; Artemkina, Natalia A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T; Smirnov, Vadim E; Belova, Elena A

    2017-08-01

    Mass-loss rates during the early phase of decomposition of plant residues were studied for a period of 3 years in Norway spruce forests subjected to air pollution by Cu-Ni smelters on the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia. Litterbags were deployed in two main patches of forests at the northern tree line, between and below the crowns of spruce trees older than 100 years. The study results demonstrated the dependence of the decomposition rates on the initial concentrations of nutrients and the C/N and lignin/N ratios in plant residues. Lower rates of mass loss in forests subject to air pollution may be related to low quality of plant residues, i.e. high concentrations of heavy metals, low concentrations of nutrients, and high lignin/N and C/N ratios. The increased losses of Ca, Mg, K, and Mn from plant residues in these forests compared to the reference were, probably, related to leaching of their compounds from the residues. The relatively high rates of heavy metal accumulation in the residues were most likely related to uptake of pollutants from the atmosphere, as well as to the lower mass-loss rates. The present study results demonstrate that the forest patchiness should be taken into account in assessment and predictions of decomposition rates in Norway spruce forests. Mass-loss rates of plant residues below the crowns of old spruce trees were significantly lower than those in the patches between the crowns. This was explained by the high C/N and lignin/N ratios in the residues of evergreens which contribute significantly to litterfall below the crowns and by lower soil temperature during winter and spring below the crowns. In addition, a lower amount of precipitation reaching the forest floor below the dense, long crowns of old Norway spruce trees may result in considerably lower washing out of the organic compounds from the residues. Lower mass-loss rates below the crowns of old spruce trees may be part of the evidence that the old-growth spruce forests can

  6. Comparison of liquid hot water, very dilute acid and alkali treatments for enhancing enzymatic digestibility of hazelnut tree pruning residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Kevser; Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz

    2018-04-05

    The effect of pretreatments on the composition of the hazelnut tree pruning residue (HTPR) and on the digestibility of the cellulose was investigated. The liquid hot water (LHW) and the very dilute acid (VDA) treatments were effective in solubilizing hemicellulose. The cellulose conversion increased up to around 60% (corresponding to 32-36 g/L glucose) with decreasing hemicellulose concentration in the pretreated HTPR. The alkali treatment provided partial delignification, however, the glucose production was comparably lower. Combining the hemicellulose removal and the delignification effect of different pretreatments in two-stage processes (LHW-alkali and VDA-alkali treatments) enhanced the cellulose concentration in the solids, but not the amount of glucose released in the enzymatic digestion. These results suggested that the hemicellulose was the main barrier against the conversion of cellulose in the LHW and VDA treated HTPR and the glucose in the hydrolysis medium inhibited the cellulase activity, which prevented the complete conversion of cellulose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biorefining strategy for maximal monosaccharide recovery from three different feedstocks: eucalyptus residues, wheat straw and olive tree pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Duarte, Luís Chorão; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Marques, Susana; Loureiro-Dias, Maria Conceição; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    This work proposes the biorefining of eucalyptus residues (ER), wheat straw (WS) and olive tree pruning (OP) combining hydrothermal pretreatment (autohydrolysis) with acid post-hydrolysis of the liquid fraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction towards maximal recovery of monosaccharides from those lignocellulose materials. Autohydrolysis of ER, WS and OP was performed under non-isothermal conditions (195-230°C) and the non-cellulosic saccharides were recovered in the liquid fraction while cellulose and lignin remained in the solid fraction. The acid post-hydrolysis of the soluble oligosaccharides was studied by optimizing sulfuric acid concentration (1-4%w/w) and reaction time (10-60 min), employing a factorial (2(2)) experimental design. The solids resulting from pretreatment were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis by applying commercial cellulolytic enzymes Celluclast® 1.5L and Novozyme® 188 (0.225 and 0.025 g/g solid, respectively). This strategy provides high total monosaccharide recovery or high glucose recovery from lignocellulosic materials, depending on the autohydrolysis conditions applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating Lignin-Rich Residues from Biochemical Ethanol Production of Wheat Straw and Olive Tree Pruning by FTIR and 2D-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-rich residues from the cellulose-based industry are traditionally incinerated for internal energy use. The future biorefineries that convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels will generate more lignin than necessary for internal energy use, and therefore value-added products from lignin could be produced. In this context, a good understanding of lignin is necessary prior to its valorization. The present study focused on the characterization of lignin-rich residues from biochemical ethanol production, including steam explosion, saccharification, and fermentation, of wheat straw and olive tree pruning. In addition to the composition and purity, the lignin structures (S/G ratio, interunit linkages were investigated by spectroscopy techniques such as FTIR and 2D-NMR. Together with the high lignin content, both residues contained significant amounts of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein. Wheat straw lignin showed a very low S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate, whereas a strong predominance of S over G units was observed for olive tree pruning lignin. The main interunit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4′ ethers followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans. These structural characteristics determine the use of these lignins in respect to their valorization.

  9. Study of the Atucha I nuclear power plant's residual heat removal system unavailability through the fault tree analysis and common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, C.A.

    1991-06-01

    The present essay offers a comprehensive research of the Atucha I nuclear power plant's residual heat removal system unavailability, including Fault Tree Analysis and Common Cause Failures (CCF) treatment. The study is developed within the Event Tree perspective that considers the loss of external electrical power of the initiating event. The event was constructed by the Safety Evaluations Division of the Ezeiza Atomic Center in Argentina. According to the Event Tree, the research includes system demand during plant operation with 132 KV and emergency generation (Diesel motor generators). The system unavailability assessment is approached in two different ways: a) Considering independent failures only. b) Taking into account the existence of Common Cause Events, and modeling dependent failures. The Fault Tree quantification is played using the AIEA PSAPACK Code. The assessment data base is compiled from plant specific records and generic data bases like TECDOC 478. After Fault Tree model logic development, some general procedures used in common cause failures treating are applied to pick up another set of solutions. The results of the study are: a) Four Fault Trees have been developed to model the abovementioned system: 132 KV and emergency generation, both including and excluding CCF. b) The following unavailability values were obtained: 132 KV independent failures only: 7 10 -4 . Emergency generation independent failures only: 1.53 10 -2 . 132 KV dependent and independent failures: 3.6 10 -3 . Emergency generation dependent and independent failures: 1.74 10 -2 . The major conclusions obtained from the precedent results are: a) When using 132 KV system configuration, minimal cut sets involving common cause failures represents 81%from total system unavailability. b) The dependent failures treatment is an important task to be considered in safety assessments in order to reach more realistic values. (Author) [es

  10. Optimizing biomass feedstock logistics for forest residue processing and transportation on a tree-shaped road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee Han; Woodam Chung; Lucas Wells; Nathaniel Anderson

    2018-01-01

    An important task in forest residue recovery operations is to select the most cost-efficient feedstock logistics system for a given distribution of residue piles, road access, and available machinery. Notable considerations include inaccessibility of treatment units to large chip vans and frequent, long-distance mobilization of forestry equipment required to process...

  11. Objective Provision Tree (OPT) in sodium cooled fast reactors; Objective Provision Tree (OPT) en reactores rapidos refrigerados por sodio. Aplicacion a la funcion de seguridad de evacuacion de calor residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Montero-Mayorga, J.; Gonzalez-Cadelo, J.

    2013-07-01

    Application to the safety function of residual heat removal As part of the project {sup S}afety Assessment for Reactor of GEN-IV (SARGEN IV) has been implemented the methodology ISAM from the IAEA to the safety assessment of new sodium reactor designs. Within the ISAM, a new tool to facilitate this assessment is the Objective Provision Tree (OPT) which documents the provisions necessary for each of the levels of defense in depth, as well as for each critical function of security. Due to the design innovations that have sodium reactors, the evaluation of safety and licensing of these reactors requires special considerations. In this work we have analyzed the mechanisms of failure of the safety function concerning the evacuation of waste heat, and have been proposed different provisions for each of the first three levels of defense in depth. The main result of this work is reflected in the elaboration of the OPTs, one for each of the first three levels of defense in depth for the safety of evacuation of residual heat function. These trees represent in a schematic way the provisions necessary to comply with the objectives of each level which are respectively: 1) deviations from normal operation, 2) control of abnormal operation and fault detection and 3) incidental control.

  12. Study on the benefits of using the date palm trees residuals in Saudi Arabia for development of the non-traditional wooden industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulman, H. A.; Metwally, M. Nabil; Alhazmi, M. W.

    2017-02-01

    The average world consumption of wood is about 22million tones/year (Faostat,2013), representing about 50% of the total world raw materials, which represents great challenge to find out alternative sources, and the agricultural residues can share strongly in this field. Important interest was paid to the palm trees residues, such as the "date palm leaves midrib" (DPLM), leaflets, coir and spadix stems, as DPLM after drying, which can be used as an industrial substitute of raw wooden materials particularly for the manufacture of particle boards. The Kingdom of Saudi-Arabia has the date palm trees as the third place in the world after Iran and Iraq, while Islamic and Arabic countries represent more than 92% of the world date palms. Local date palms increased from 17.5 million in 1995 to about 32 million in 2014, which may save about 15% of KSA wood imports (2.5 million tons costing about 5730 SR millions, saving about SR million 855/year according to 2014 prices), with 10 pruned &dried DPLMs /tree/year, if it is used only for particle board manufacture. The study includes a survey of the KSA wood imports; the dominant species of palms and their numbers, meteorological conditions, evaluation of DPLM drying rate in open air under the effect of solar radiation, achieving final moisture content of 8-12% in about 4 weeks. Also measurements of the mechanical properties of the dried Saudi DPLM samples approved the excellent mechanical properties as well as Beech and Spruce woods.

  13. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.

    1996-12-31

    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  14. Effect of Harvest Residue Management on Tree Productivity and Carbon Pools during Early Stand Development in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Phillip Dougherty; Daniel McInnis; Pete Anderson; Steve Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Soil incorporation of postharvest forest floor or logging residues during site preparation increased mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration and had a differential effect on early stand growth in a clonal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Incorporating 25 Mg ha

  15. Analysis of the relation between the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content and the thermal behavior of residual biomass from olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Maraver, A; Salvachúa, D; Martínez, M J; Diaz, L F; Zamorano, M

    2013-11-01

    The heterogeneity of biomass makes it difficult if not impossible to make sweeping generalizations concerning thermochemical treatment systems and the optimal equipment to be used in them. Chemical differences in the structural components of the biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) have a direct impact on its chemical reactivity. The aim of this research was to study the influence of the organic components of the raw material from olive trees (leaves, pruning residues, and wood) in the combustion behavior of this biomass, as well as to find the component responsible for the higher ash content of olive leaves. Accordingly, the study used a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor the different states and complex transitions that occurred in the biomass as the temperature varied. The decomposition rates of the different samples were analyzed in order to establish a link between each combustion phase and the composition of the raw materials. Two methods were used to determine the hemicellulose and cellulose contents of biomass from olive trees. Significant differences among the results obtained by the different methods were observed, as well as important variations regarding the chemical composition and consequently the thermal behavior of the raw materials tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tracing N, K, Mg and Ca released from decomposing biomass to new tree growth. Part I: A model system simulating harvest residue decomposition on conventionally harvested clearfell sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherall, A. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: aweatherall@uclan.ac.uk; Proe, M.F. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Craig, J. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Cameron, A.D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); McKay, H.M. [Policy and Practice Division, Forestry Commission, 231 Corstorphine Road, Edinburgh EH12 7AT (United Kingdom); Midwood, A.J. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    It is necessary to assess the effects of removing nutrient-rich harvest residues (brash) from clearfell sites because there is a growing market for this brash as bioenergy. The aim of this study was to use stable isotope techniques in a model system to trace nutrients released by decomposing brash. Labelled biomass was obtained by growing Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) seedlings with a generous or poor nutrient supply containing elevated {sup 15}N, {sup 41}K, {sup 26}Mg, and {sup 44}Ca. This biomass was used in two subsequent studies. In this study (Part I of II), the above-ground biomass was harvested and placed on soil in a pot containing a newly planted seedling. Soils from two forests, Ae and Teindland, of contrasting nutritional status were used. A full destructive harvest was undertaken after one growing season. Enriched {sup 15}N, {sup 41}K, {sup 26}Mg, and {sup 44}Ca were recovered in the new seedlings. The percentage contribution from labelled biomass to new tree growth was small, but discernible. The N contribution from labelled biomass to new trees was greater in Ae soil, but the base cation contribution was greater in Teindland soil. Results are discussed with reference to the initial nutrient concentrations of each soil. The elevated {sup 15}N, {sup 41}K, {sup 26}Mg and {sup 44}Ca in new seedlings indicate that nutrients in brash can make a direct contribution to new tree growth. The success of this model system will provide guidance for the application of similar techniques in field experiments.

  17. An in vitro nutritive evaluation of olive tree (Olea europaea) pruning residues as affected by cutting regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M R

    2012-01-01

    Nutritive values of the branches from Olea europaea trees cut at 25, 50, 75 or 100 cm distance from the tip were evaluated by determination of the in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy lactation (NEL), and presence nutritional and anti-nutritional components. The values of nutritive components, nitrogen forms, IVDOM, ME and NEL declined and concentrations of crude fiber and cell wall constituents increased with the increase in cutting length. Total phenols, hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins amounted to 70, 17 and 0.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) to the plant samples incubated with rumen fluid at a ratio of (2:1 PEG:substrate) increased the values of IVDOM, ME and NEL by 40 g/kg DM, 0.59 MJ/kg DM and 0.42 MJ/kg DM, respectively. IVDOM, ME and NEL were negatively correlated with crude fiber and cell wall constituents but positively correlated with nitrogen forms and non-fiber carbohydrates. Olive pruning branches in diameter<3 mm could be used as sources of feeds for small ruminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-stationary Bias Correction of Monthly CMIP5 Temperature Projections over China using a Residual-based Bagging Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    The biases in the Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are crucial for understanding future climate changes. Currently, most bias correction methodologies suffer from the assumption that model bias is stationary. This paper provides a non-stationary bias correction model, termed Residual-based Bagging Tree (RBT) model, to reduce simulation biases and to quantify the contributions of single models. Specifically, the proposed model estimates the residuals between individual models and observations, and takes the differences between observations and the ensemble mean into consideration during the model training process. A case study is conducted for 10 major river basins in Mainland China during different seasons. Results show that the proposed model is capable of providing accurate and stable predictions while including the non-stationarities into the modeling framework. Significant reductions in both bias and root mean squared error are achieved with the proposed RBT model, especially for the central and western parts of China. The proposed RBT model has consistently better performance in reducing biases when compared to the raw ensemble mean, the ensemble mean with simple additive bias correction, and the single best model for different seasons. Furthermore, the contribution of each single GCM in reducing the overall bias is quantified. The single model importance varies between 3.1% and 7.2%. For different future scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5), the results from RBT model suggest temperature increases of 1.44 ºC, 2.59 ºC, and 4.71 ºC by the end of the century, respectively, when compared to the average temperature during 1970 - 1999.

  19. Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform and Image Block Residual-Based Multi-Focus Image Fusion in Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework for the fusion of multi-focus images explicitly designed for visual sensor network (VSN environments. Multi-scale based fusion methods can often obtain fused images with good visual effect. However, because of the defects of the fusion rules, it is almost impossible to completely avoid the loss of useful information in the thus obtained fused images. The proposed fusion scheme can be divided into two processes: initial fusion and final fusion. The initial fusion is based on a dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT. The Sum-Modified-Laplacian (SML-based visual contrast and SML are employed to fuse the low- and high-frequency coefficients, respectively, and an initial composited image is obtained. In the final fusion process, the image block residuals technique and consistency verification are used to detect the focusing areas and then a decision map is obtained. The map is used to guide how to achieve the final fused image. The performance of the proposed method was extensively tested on a number of multi-focus images, including no-referenced images, referenced images, and images with different noise levels. The experimental results clearly indicate that the proposed method outperformed various state-of-the-art fusion methods, in terms of both subjective and objective evaluations, and is more suitable for VSNs.

  20. Deferment cutting in Appalachian hardwoods: the what, whys, and hows

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    Deferment cutting is a regeneration practice that resembles a seed-tree or shelterwood cutting. The difference is that residual trees are not cut when the reproduction becomes established. Instead, residual trees are left until new reproduction matures to sawtimber size, and another regeneration cut is the silvicultural objective. Hence, with deferment cutting specific...

  1. Consequences of a fixed-top DOB assumption on the estimation of pine chip-n-saw and sawtimber tons

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Kenneth Xydias

    2010-01-01

    Many pine plantation growth and yield simulators allow the user to define products based on the size classes and top diameters corresponding to local market specs. Top d.o.b. is typically set at a constant corresponding to the local product specification. Examination of individual tree data collected in cruises of loblolly pine stands across the South show that the top...

  2. Influence of bow-tie trees on the residual AC breakdown voltage of dry-cured XLPE power cables under immersed accelerated aging test. Shinsui kadenka ni okeru kanshiki kakyo polyethylene cable no zanson hakai den'atsu tokusei ni oyobosu bow tie jo mizu tree no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Shinoda, C.; Nakamura, K.; Hotta, M.; Tani, T. (Yazaki Electric Wire Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-20

    A 6-kV class polyethylene cable manufactured by using a dry-cured three-layer extrusion system has been subjected to accelerated deterioration under immersed condition (at a voltage of 6.9V and a frequency of 1 kHz for an application period as long as 18 months as maximum). The cable had then been given a breakdown test by means of an application method based on the electric power standard to derive the residual breakdown voltage characteristics. Causes of the breakdown have been discussed by using a pre-interruption method. This paper reports the result of the discussion. The following findings have been obtained: the residual breakdown voltage values vary largely on the whole, but no trend has been observed that the voltage decreases as the application period for accelerated deterioration becomes longer; generation of bow-tie trees (with a length of about 600 [mu]m or longer) in contact with internal or external semiconduction layer largely reduces the breakdown voltage values, and presence of bow-tie trees has increased the variation in the breakdown values; and the breakdown voltage values vary largely due to moisture in the bow-tie trees contacting the semiconduction layer. 12 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Evaluating residues from batai trees (Paraserianthes falcataria) as alternative sources of nitrogen for grain corn (zeas mays l.) in the humid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah, A.R.; Chintu, R.; Ghizan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of chemical fertilizers for mitigating N deficiency is unsustainable in many tropical areas because of economic constraints and possible deleterious effects on environmental quality. Although organic inputs such as green manures and litter from legumes have shown some potential for improving soil N status, the synchrony of N release from these residues with crop demand needs to be seriously addressed. The potential of above- and below-ground residues of Batai (Paraserianthes falcataria) to improve soil N availability and uptake by corn in an Ultisol (Bungor series) was evaluated under field and controlled conditions. The effect of residue quality on the kinetics of N release and accumulation in the soil was studied in field and laboratory incubation studies, whilst N uptake by grain corn was quantified using direct and indirect 1 5 N isotope labeling techniques. Treatments consist of fresh leaves, roots and 1:1 mixture of roots and leaves of Batai. Residue quality in terms of lignin + polyphenol-to-N ratio, and N mineralization was in the order roots 3 -N leaching occurred between 30 and 60 days after treatment (DAT). Significant amounts of Ca, Mg and K were also leached beyond 20 cm after 60 days. Both 15 N-labeling methods showed that N recovery in corn was much higher in the root than the leaf treatments. However, integrating Batai residues with an inorganic N source could be a more effective management strategy for improving N use efficiency and mitigating soil acidity. (Author)

  4. The impact of site preparation for biofuel and sawtimber production on soil compaction and long-term soil productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Z.H.; Sucre, E.B. [Weyerhaeuser NR Co., Vanceboro, NC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Research into renewable fuel sources has increased as a result of increasing global concerns over carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. This study assessed that potential effects of concurrent biofuel and high quality wood product production in forests along the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. The effects of intercropping and biomass management on site productivity and sustainability were investigated on loblolly pine plantations; loblolly pine and switchgrass; and loblolly pines with flat-planted pine trees planted between crop tree beds. Stands of switchgrass only were also investigated. The treatments were established on 0.81 hectare plots and replicated 4 times. The impacts of various non-traditional land management approaches on soil productivity and sustainability were assessed, as well as the site preparations needed to develop a dual crop system. The study showed no significant differences in soil compaction before and after the treatments were installed. Average soil resistance across all treatments at the soil surface was 201 kPa. Soil resistance increased to 1539 kPa and 1923 kPa at depths of 15 and 30 cm. The study indicated that dual crop systems and practices for biofuel and timber production are both economically feasible and environmentally sustainable.

  5. Validation of a method to quantify copper and other metals in olive fruit by ETAAS. Application to the residual metal control after olive tree treatments with different copper formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria Elisa; Pereira, José Alberto; Bastos, Maria Lourdes

    2006-05-31

    An electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry method was validated to quantify residues of copper, aluminum, cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, and nickel in olive fruit. The linearity ranges under the optimized conditions were 0.19-20.0, 1.11-50.0, 0.02-2.0, 0.15-20.0, 0.80-20.0, 0.35-50.0, and 0.60-50.0 microg/L, respectively. The limits of quantification were, expressed in nanograms per gram of dry weight, 12.6, 74.0, 1.34, 10.0, 53.4, 23.4, and 40.0, respectively. For all of the metals the precision of the instrumental method was 90% for all of the added concentrations. An interference study was also carried out in a simulated matrix, and it was verified that the deviations of the expected values were metals. The method was applied to the monitoring of the residues of the referred metals in olive fruits collected from trees pulverized with three different copper formulations available on the market to control fungal diseases.

  6. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  7. Tree Contractions and Evolutionary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Ming-Yang

    2001-01-01

    An evolutionary tree is a rooted tree where each internal vertex has at least two children and where the leaves are labeled with distinct symbols representing species. Evolutionary trees are useful for modeling the evolutionary history of species. An agreement subtree of two evolutionary trees is an evolutionary tree which is also a topological subtree of the two given trees. We give an algorithm to determine the largest possible number of leaves in any agreement subtree of two trees T_1 and ...

  8. A practical alternative to single tree selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    When landowners want to develop and maintain an uneven-aged tree structure in eastern hardwood stands, single-tree selection often is suggested as the only advisable, long-term partial regeneration harvest method. Single-tree selection is preferred because it provides a means for improving quality and controlling stocking of the residual stand necessary for sustained...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dolichandrone atrovirens (Roth) K. Schum. (Spathe Trumpet Tree) of Bignoniaceae is a medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends.

  10. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  11. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  12. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brachichiton acerifolius F. Muell., commonly called as the Illawara flame tree is a member of Malvaceae family and is native to sub-tropical parts of Australia. Due to its spectacular flowers and tolerance to wide range of climates, it's now cultivated all over the world for its beauty. The tree produces flowers during the.

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February.

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg. of Euphorbiaceae is an evergreen tree that is very attractive when in flower. Leaves are alternate. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Inflorescences bearing several flowers arise in tufts on tubercles on the stem. Fruits are crimson red in colour. Seeds are covered.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  19. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  20. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  1. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    branched evergreen shrub or small tree (6–7 m) with soft whitish-yellow wood. Branches are numerous and drooping. The leaves are elliptic-lanceolate and somewhat fleshy. Flowers are in loose axillary and terminal much-branched inflorescence, ...

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  4. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening. The species is widely natural but occasionally cultivated for firewood as it grows very ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    quick-growing deciduous tree with a small crown. Branches are covered with dark conical prickles, which fall off after some time. The leaves are compound with three leaflets. Bright red or scarlet flowers which appear following leaf fall are in clusters at branch ends. Birds and bees visit flowers for nectar. Fruit is a cylindrical ...

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    . (6-10m high) evergreen tree with a straight trunk and broad open crown. Leaves are clustered at the end of twigs. They are dark green, broadest near the rounded apex and tapering towards the base with a short stalk. Flowers are greenish or ...

  9. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    size (upto 40 ft. high) deciduous tree with thick trunk, large crown of spreading branches and furrowed greenish-brown bark. (picture shows a young specimen). Leaves are 10-20 in. long, twice compound bearing numerous dark- green ...

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. (THE AMERICAN SUMACH, DIVI-DIVI) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a small unarmed tree reaching up to 10 m in height with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate and twice compound. The flowers are small, about 0.6 cm (enlarged 5 times here), greenish-yellow, fragrant and appear in dense ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diospyros peregrina (Gaertn.) Guercke Syn. Diospyros embryopteris Pers., Diospyros malabarica Desr. (PALE MOON EBONY, RIBER EBONY) of Ebenaceae is a small or mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  15. :Ffowering 'Trees-

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The tree is a host of lac insects which secrete a resinous substance that yields shellac or lac. A ruby-coloured gum known as Bengal Kino is collected from the incisions made in the bark. The wood, resistant to water, is used in water-well work. The seeds are used as anthelmintic and as an antidote for snake-bite.

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading wings. Seeds bear short stiff hairs that cause skin irritation.

  17. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sterculia foetida L. (INDIAN ALMOND,. JAVA OLIVE) of Sterculiaceae is a tall deciduous tree reaching a height of 20 m with faintly ridged grey bark. The bole reaches up to 2m in girth. Branches are reddish, usually horizontal. Leaves are large, palmately compound (5–7 leaflets) and clustered at the branch ends. Flowers ...

  19. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  20. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  1. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  2. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  3. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  4. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  5. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree ...

  6. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

  7. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  8. Estimating species trees from unrooted gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals.

  9. Ocorrência de Fungos Micorrízicos Arbusculares em resíduo da mineração de bauxita revegetado com espécies arbóreas Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi occurrence in bauxite mining residue planted to tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs em tanques contendo resíduo da mineração de bauxita cultivados com espécies arbóreas inoculadas com Glomus clarum Nicol. & Schenck e Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall na fase de viveiro. Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don juntamente com Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. ou uma mistura de várias espécies foram transplantadas em tanques contendo resíduo de bauxita. Coletaram-se amostras de resíduos em agosto/1998 (estação seca e abril/1999 (estação chuvosa, extraíram e identificaram-se os esporos de FMAs. Determinaram-se a densidade dos esporos de FMAs, a densidade relativa, a freqüência de ocorrência de cada espécie por período de amostragem e o índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF. A densidade dos esporos e a diversidade das espécies de FMAs foram baixas sob ambas as coberturas. Um maior número de esporos de Glomus clarum, e alto IAF, foram detectados no substrato cultivado com Acacia holosericea e Sesbania virgata na época seca. Isto também ocorreu em ambas as áreas na época chuvosa. Não foram encontrados esporos de Gigaspora margarita em ambas as áreas, nas duas épocas. Independentemente da inoculação, verificaram-se esporos de Archeospora leptoticha (Schenck & Smith Morton & Redecker, Entrophospora colombiana Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck e Glomus macrocarpum Tulasne & Tulasne em abundância.The establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was evaluated in two areas of bauxite mining residue planted to tree species inoculated with Glomus clarum Nicol. & Schenck and Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall in the nursery phase. Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don and Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. and a mixture of several tree species were transplanted to deposits of containing bauxite mining residue. In August, 1998 (dry season and April, 1999 (rainy season residue samples were collected and AMF spores extracted and

  10. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  11. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  12. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  13. Impacts of Tree Height-Dbh Allometry on Lidar-Based Tree Aboveground Biomass Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar has been widely used in tree aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation at plot or stand levels. Lidar-based AGB models are usually constructed with the ground AGB reference as the response variable and lidar canopy indices as predictor variables. Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is the major variable of most allometric models for estimating reference AGB. However, lidar measurements are mainly related to tree vertical structure. Therefore, tree height-dbh allometric model residuals are expected to have a large impact on lidar-based AGB model performance. This study attempts to investigate sensitivity of lidar-based AGB model to the decreasing strength of height-dbh relationship using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Striking decrease in R2 and increase in relative RMSE were found in lidar-based AGB model, as the variance of height-dbh model residuals grew. I, therefore, concluded that individual tree height-dbh model residuals fundamentally introduce errors to lidar-AGB models.

  14. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  15. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  16. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  17. Fault-Tree Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  18. Trees and highway safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  19. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  20. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  1. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  2. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  3. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  4. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  5. A theory of game trees, based on solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a

  6. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers......-balancing scheme of elements into nodes is deterministic and general enough to be applied to other hierarchical tree-based overlays. This load-balancing mechanism is based on an innovative lazy weight-balancing mechanism, which is interesting in its own right....

  7. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  8. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  9. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  10. Biomass yield and modeling of logging residues of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Dbh as an independent variable in the prediction of models for estimating the biomass residues of the tree species was adjudged best because it performed well. The validation results showed that the selected models satisfied the assumptions of regression analysis. The practical implication of the models is that ...

  11. Predictive models of forest logging residues of Triplochiton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, biomass yield residue was quantified and equations developed for Triplochiton scleroxylon, in secondary forests, Ondo State, Nigeria. Plotless sampling technique was used for the study. A total of 31 Triplochiton scleroxylon were randomly selected. Tree identification and detailed growing stock of outside bark ...

  12. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLAUDIA

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... form of branches and tree tops are left on the field. Part of this residue is cut into ..... Table 3. Chemical composition of the solids from pretreated and hydrolyzed biomass and black and white liquors obtained in the pretreatment during the enzymatic .... (2000) employed Oak wood lignocellulosic biomass ...

  13. Decision Tree Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    8 2.4 Irrigation, Agronomic Inputs, and...documents will provide the reader in-depth background on the science and engineering mechanisms of phytoremediation. Using the decision tree and the...ITRC – Phytoremediation Decision Tree December 1999 8 • Contaminant levels • Plant selection • Treatability • Irrigation, agronomic

  14. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  15. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  16. Uncovering dynamic fault trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junges, Sebastian; Guck, Dennis; Katoen, Joost P.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    Fault tree analysis is a widespread industry standard for assessing system reliability. Standard (static) fault trees model the failure behaviour of systems in dependence of their component failures. To overcome their limited expressive power, common dependability patterns, such as spare management,

  17. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  18. Trees Are Terrific!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including…

  19. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  20. Trees and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.

  1. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  2. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  3. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  4. Following the fate of harvest-damaged trees 13 years after harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick

    2014-01-01

    Logging damage to residual trees during harvest operations can reduce the future volume, quality, and value of wood products. Timber harvests in 1996 on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) provided a rare opportunity to follow the fate of trees wounded by felling or by skidding with rubber-tired skidders.

  5. Language trees not equal gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Kandler, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Darwin saw similarities between the evolution of species and the evolution of languages, and it is now widely accepted that similarities between related languages can often be interpreted in terms of a bifurcating descent history ('phylogenesis'). Such interpretations are supported when the distributions of shared and unshared traits (for example, in terms of etymological roots for elements of basic vocabulary) are analysed using tree-building techniques and found to be well-explained by a phylogenetic model. In this article, we question the demographic assumption which is sometimes made when a tree-building approach has been taken to a set of cultures or languages, namely that the resulting tree is also representative of a bifurcating population history. Using historical census data relating to Gaelic- and English-speaking inhabitants of Sutherland (Highland Scotland), we have explored the dynamics of language death due to language shift, representing the extreme case of lack of congruence between the genetic and the culture-historical processes. Such cases highlight the important role of selective cultural migration (or shifting between branches) in determining the extinction rates of different languages on such trees.

  6. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  7. Forest treatment residues for thermal energy compared with disposal by onsite burning: Emissions and energy return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; David Calkin; Woodam Chung

    2010-01-01

    Mill residues from forest industries are the source for most of the current wood-based energy in the US, approximately 2.1% of the nation's energy use in 2007. Forest residues from silvicultural treatments, which include limbs, tops, and small non-commercial trees removed for various forest management objectives, represent an additional source of woody biomass for...

  8. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  9. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  10. Evaluation of agricultural residues for paper manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaide, L.J.; Baldovin, F.L.; Herranz, J.L.F. (Univ. of Cordoba (Spain))

    1993-03-01

    Five agricultural residues-olive tree fellings, wheat straw, sunflower stalks, vine shoots, and cotton stalks-were evaluated for use as raw materials for paper manufacture. The untreated raw materials and their pulps were tested for hot-water solubles, 1%-NaOH solubles, alcohol-benzene extractables, ash, holocellulose, lignin, [alpha]-cellulose, and pentosans. Handsheets were tested for breaking length, stretch, burst index, and tear index. The results showed wheat straw to be the most promising material. Vine shoots showed the least promise.

  11. Clock Tree Power Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Austbø, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The buffered clock tree structure is commonly used to distribute the clock signal to the memory elements in digital circuits. Since the clock signal is used as a temporal reference, it has to be distributed to the registers with decent timing characteristics and low skew. In order to achieve this, buffers and inverters are inserted in the clock tree, typically by a synthesis tool. The clock tree is a major contributor to the power consumption. This is a result of a combination of high swit...

  12. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  13. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...

  14. Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...

  15. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

  16. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product ... cuts and wounds by the aboriginal people of Australia. Today, tea tree oil is often used externally ...

  17. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  18. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  19. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  20. Adaptive Context Tree Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Alexander; Hutter, Marcus; Shao, Wen; Sunehag, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe an adaptive context tree weighting (ACTW) algorithm, as an extension to the standard context tree weighting (CTW) algorithm. Unlike the standard CTW algorithm, which weights all observations equally regardless of the depth, ACTW gives increasing weight to more recent observations, aiming to improve performance in cases where the input sequence is from a non-stationary distribution. Data compression results show ACTW variants improving over CTW on merged files from standard compres...

  1. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  2. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  3. Tree Improvement Glossary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    Forest tree improvement encompasses a number of scientific and technical areas like floral-, reproductive- and micro-biology, genetics breeding methods and strategies, propagation, gene conservation, data analysis and statistics, each area with a comprehensive terminology. The terms selected...... for definition here are those most frequently used in tree improvement literature. Clonal propagation is included in the view of the great expansion of that field as a means of mass multiplication of improved material....

  4. Dependency Tree Annotation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    between words. DTE supports the widely used Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)-X format as well as several other file...formats, and it provides numerous options for customizing how dependency trees are displayed. Built entirely in Java , it can run on a wide range of...software application called Dependency Tree Editor (DTE) that can read files in Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)-X format and use them

  5. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  6. Avaliação das árvores de vias públicas da zona central de Maringá, Estado do Paraná: estimativa de produção de resíduos e destinação final = Evaluation of urban trees at the central area of Maringá, Paraná State, estimating production and destination of residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Geovani Tavares de Assunção

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma análise quali-quantitativa da arborização de acompanhamento viário presente na área central (Zona 1 de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, enfatizando as árvores com condição geral sofrível, as quais deverão ser retiradas em poucos anos. O objetivo principal é o de estimar a quantidade de madeira (resíduos formada por estas árvores e comparar a receita total de dois tipos de destinação final: lenha e fabricação de briquetes. Os resultados obtidos mostram que nesta zona existem 2.860 árvores, das quais1.341 estão em estado sofrível e que, em um futuro próximo, deverão ser substituídas por novos exemplares. Com esta retirada, será gerada uma quantia estimada em 696,08 m3 de madeira que, se empregada como fabricação de briquetes, propiciará uma receita total de R$ 87.217,20, o dobro da receita da lenha. The present article makes a quali-quantitative analysis of the present urban forestation in the Zone 1 of Maringá, Paraná State, emphasizing the trees with bad aim-sanitary condition, which should be removed. The main objective was to esteem the amount of wood (residues formed by these trees and to compare the profitability of two types of final destination, firewood and production of briquettes. The obtained results show the existence of 2,860 trees in this area, out of which 1,341 are in bad condition and, in a near future, should be substituted by new copies. The removal will generate a dear amount estimated in 696.08 wood m3. If these are used for more profitable purposes (such as the production of briquettes, it will generate a total income of R$ 87,217.20, the double profitability of the firewood.

  7. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  8. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  9. Anatomy of the Pythagoras' Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teia, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of nature can be seen at play in a tree: no two are alike. The Pythagoras' tree behaves just as a "tree" in that the root plus the same movement repeated over and over again grows from a seed, to a plant, to a tree. In human life, this movement is termed cell division. With triples, this movement is a geometrical and…

  10. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  11. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  12. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  13. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  14. Lithic Residue Survival and Characterisation at Star Carr: a burial experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Croft

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern burial experiment was devised to test microscopic residue survival in acidic peat and slightly acidic clay soils at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr (North Yorkshire, UK, and at nearby control location. The experiment addresses concerns regarding the applicability of residue analysis in varied burial environments, and particularly in highly acidic archaeological conditions. Flint flakes (n= 78, including blank controls were used on twelve plant, animal, and mineral materials to create residues and then buried. The residues were examined 1 month and 11 months after burial. An unburied reference collection containing the same twelve residue types in a fresh state was compared to the buried residues to assess diagenesis. The residue types that survived across all burial conditions and time intervals were: softwood tissue, tree resin, bird feathers, squirrel hair, and red ochre. During microscopic analysis, it became clear that many residues lack diagnostic traits, and thus an assessment of the extent to which each residue can be identified was conducted. The degree to which residues were able to be identified was further investigated with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM. SEM images of the reference residues were compared to the reflected VLM micrographs of the same residues, which improved characterisation in some cases. Residues were grouped into three categories (diagnostic, distinctive, and non-distinctive within a visual characterisation guide. Our in situ microscopic analyses indicated that few residue types have diagnostic traits that allow them to be identified unambiguously, and thus further characterisation techniques are often required.

  15. Steiner trees in industry

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ding-Zhu

    2001-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

  16. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  17. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  18. TreeFam: 2008 Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Jue; Li, Heng; Chen, Zhongzhong

    2008-01-01

    TreeFam (http://www.treefam.org) was developed to provide curated phylogenetic trees for all animal gene families, as well as orthologue and paralogue assignments. Release 4.0 of TreeFam contains curated trees for 1314 families and automatically generated trees for another 14,351 families. We have...... expanded TreeFam to include 25 fully sequenced animal genomes, as well as four genomes from plant and fungal outgroup species. We have also introduced more accurate approaches for automatically grouping genes into families, for building phylogenetic trees, and for inferring orthologues and paralogues....... The user interface for viewing phylogenetic trees and family information has been improved. Furthermore, a new perl API lets users easily extract data from the TreeFam mysql database....

  19. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  20. Stochastic Price Models and Optimal Tree Cutting: Results for Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Thomas P. Holmes

    1991-01-01

    An empirical investigation of stumpage price models and optimal harvest policies is conducted for loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern United States. The stationarity of monthly and quarterly series of sawtimber prices is analyzed using a unit root test. The statistical evidence supports stationary autoregressive models for the monthly series and for the...

  1. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  2. Kinetics of acid hydrolysis of olive felling residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, L.; Ferrer, J.L. (Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

    1992-04-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of olive tree felling residues with 1-4% HCl at temperatures between 110 and 140{degree}C have been studied. The experimental results obtained were consistent with two successive first-order reactions by which cellulose residues are transformed into sugars, which in turn are converted into decomposition products. The kinetic constants of the process (per hour) were found to be related to the acid concentration used (C, in weight percent) and to the absolute temperature. According to the above-mentioned kinetic model, the experimental sugar concentrations obtained by hydrolysis were reproduced with errors less than 10-20%. 16 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.

  4. Lethal trap trees: a potential option for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Lewis, Phillip A

    2016-05-01

    Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees before larvae develop or protecting ash with a highly effective, systemic emamectin benzoate insecticide. Injecting this insecticide and then girdling injected trees a few weeks later could effectively create lethal trap trees, similar to a bait-and-kill tactic, if girdling does not interfere with insecticide translocation. We compared EAB larval densities on girdled trees, trees injected with the emamectin benzoate insecticide, trees injected with the insecticide and then girdled 18-21 days later and untreated controls at multiple sites. Pretreatment larval densities did not differ among treatments. Current-year larval densities were higher on girdled and control trees than on any trees treated with insecticide at all sites. Foliar residue analysis and adult EAB bioassays showed that girdling trees after insecticide injections did not reduce insecticide translocation. Girdling ash trees to attract adult EAB did not reduce efficacy of emamectin benzoate trunk injections applied ≥ 18 days earlier and could potentially be used in integrated management programs to slow EAB population growth. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Residual life estimation of electrical insulation system for rotating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishtha, Y.D.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Verma, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Residual life assessment gains significance towards the end of designed life for granting plant life extensions and resource planning for costly equipment replacement. A critical review of all the diagnostic techniques presently used to assess either health of insulation system or to infer qualitatively the remaining life for rotating machines is presented. However more emphasis is required on developing quantitative methods. This paper also formulates the experimental plan for progressively censored ageing tests, measurement of partial discharge parameters, micro-structural study for delamination and electrical tree growth and measurement of electrical breakdown strength. Partial discharge (PD) patterns, electrical tree growth and time to failure data shall be taken as training set for the neural network learning which can be useful to predict residual life with only one candidate parameter i.e. PD patterns. (author). 9 refs

  6. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  7. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  8. Portraits of Tree Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats

  9. Oak Tree Planting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherryl L. Nives; William D. Tietje; William H. Weitkamp

    1991-01-01

    An Oak Tree Planting Project was conducted during 1989/90 in San Luis Obispo County by the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program (IHRMP)/Central Coast. The local media and an IHRMP workshop were used to publicize the Planting Project and give information on the status of oaks (Quercus spp.) in California and oak planting techniques. Outreach...

  10. P{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...

  11. Base tree property

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, B.; Doucha, Michal; Hrušák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-81 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : forcing * Boolean algebras * base tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11083-013-9316-2

  12. How to Prune Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Bedker; Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of pruning is to produce strong, healthy, attractive plants. By understanding how, when and why to prune, and by following a few simple principles, this objective can be achievedHow to Prune Trees (Revised 2012) Agency Publisher: Agriculture Dept., Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Price forestry USA List Price:$4.00 Sale...

  13. Multiquarks and Steiner trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    A brief review review is presented of models tentatively leading to stable multiquarks. A new attempt is presented, based on a Steiner-tree model of confinement, which is inspired by by QCD. It leads to more attraction than the empirical colour-additive model used in earlier multiquark calculations, and predict several multiquark states in configurations with different flavours.

  14. Christmas Tree Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

  15. Chapter 5 - Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. Extremely high mortality, however, can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  16. The TS-Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Krieger, Ralph; Afschari, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    Continuous growth in sensor data and other temporal data increases the importance of retrieval and similarity search in time series data. Efficient time series query processing is crucial for interactive applications. Existing multidimensional indexes like the R-tree provide efficient querying fo...

  17. Tree Size Comparison of Some Important Street Trees Growing at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The importance of trees in urban environment is now widely recognized as they cleanse the ... urban environment prevent solar radiation from ..... In urban areas, tree height is an important consideration in deciding what species to plant and/or where to plant them. Considering that many urban tree. Fig. 7.

  18. Solution trees as a basis for game tree search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Bruin (Arie); W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. Plaat (Aske)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractA game tree algorithm is an algorithm computing the minimax value of the root of a game tree. Many algorithms use the notion of establishing proofs that this value lies above or below some boundary value. We show that this amounts to the construction of a solution tree. We discuss the

  19. A suffix tree or not a suffix tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    , in particular we do not require that S ends with a unique symbol. This corresponds to considering the more general definition of implicit or extended suffix trees. Such general suffix trees have many applications and are for example needed to allow efficient updates when suffix trees are built online. Deciding...

  20. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  1. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  2. The effects of forest residual debris disposal on perennial grass emergence, growth, and survival in a ponderosa pine ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin J. Law; Peter F. Kolb

    2007-01-01

    Soil surface conditions can have profound effects on plant seedling emergence and subsequent seedling survival. To test the hypothesis that different soil-surface treatments with logging residue affect range grass seedling emergence and survival, 6 alternative forest-residual treatments were established in the summer of 1998 following thinning of mature trees from...

  3. Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.

  4. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  5. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...

  6. Our Air: Unfit for Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochinger, Leon S.

    To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

  7. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  8. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

  9. DensiTree: making sense of sets of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckaert, Remco R

    2010-05-15

    Bayesian analysis through programs like BEAST (Drummond and Rumbaut, 2007) and MrBayes (Huelsenbeck et al., 2001) provides a powerful method for reconstruction of evolutionary relationships. One of the benefits of Bayesian methods is that well-founded estimates of uncertainty in models can be made available. So, for example, not only the mean time of a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) is estimated, but also the spread. This distribution over model space is represented by a set of trees, which can be rather large and difficult to interpret. DensiTree is a tool that helps navigating these sets of trees. The main idea behind DensiTree is to draw all trees in the set transparently. As a result, areas where a lot of the trees agree in topology and branch lengths show up as highly colored areas, while areas with little agreement show up as webs. This makes it possible to quickly get an impression of properties of the tree set such as well-supported clades, distribution of tMRCA and areas of topological uncertainty. Thus, DensiTree provides a quick method for qualitative analysis of tree sets. DensiTree is freely available from http://compevol.auckland.ac.nz/software/DensiTree/. The program is licensed under GPL and source code is available. remco@cs.auckland.ac.nz

  10. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  11. 75 FR 25103 - Tree Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... produced for commercial purposes, such as a maple tree for syrup, papaya tree, or orchard tree. Trees used... tomato plants, biennials such as the plants that produce strawberries, and annuals such as pumpkins...

  12. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  13. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  14. Fault-Tree Compiler Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1992-01-01

    FTC, Fault-Tree Compiler program, is reliability-analysis software tool used to calculate probability of top event of fault tree. Five different types of gates allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language of FTC easy to understand and use. Program supports hierarchical fault-tree-definition feature simplifying process of description of tree and reduces execution time. Solution technique implemented in FORTRAN, and user interface in Pascal. Written to run on DEC VAX computer operating under VMS operating system.

  15. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...

  16. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  17. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... of precipitation. Adaptive traits such as phenology which is sensitive to changes in temperature and drought resistance as a response to water scarcity are studied. Quantitative genetics is extensively used in field phenotyping to identify the availability of sufficient genetic variation within species. Other...... as a faster mechanism in aiding climate change adaptation in trees. Drought resistance varied among the different species belonging to a single genus showing the inherent capacity of native species to overcome water scarcity in severely drought prone regions of the world. More research into the important...

  18. Dendrochronological Investigations of Valonia Oak Trees in Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Papadopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Valonia oak (Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis (Kotschy Hedge & Yalt. is an east Mediterranean endemic, xerothermic and deciduous tree of particular interest in forestry. There has been a growing demand lately to include the species in reforestations in Greece which also increased the interest to investigate its response to climate change. The main purpose of this research is to study valonia oak from a dendrochronological – dendroclimatological point of view within its Mediterranean distribution range. Materials and Methods: Sampling took place in characteristic valonia oak stands where cross sections or tree-cores were taken from 40 trees. The cross sections and the tree-cores were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods and tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the Windendro software program. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring data and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The inter-annual variability of tree-ring width and the radial growth trend were examined. Finally, tree-ring widths to climate relationships were calculated by orthogonal regression in combination with the bootstrap procedure using master residual chronology and monthly precipitation, temperature data and scPDSI drought index, from October of the n-1 year up to November of the n year. Results: The master chronology of valonia oak trees in Western Greece reaches 365 years, with an average ring width of 0.89 mm and with mean sensitivity being 0.21. The variation of the tree-ring widths indicates the influence of climate and human intervention in the past. Tree-ring to climate relationships show that valonia oak growth is positively affected by precipitations in January and March and by drought reduction during June and July. Conclusions: Valonia oak in Western Greece is a species of great interest for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies

  19. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  20. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree

  1. Recursive Trees for Practical ORAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Tarik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new, general data structure that reduces the communication cost of recent tree-based ORAMs. Contrary to ORAM trees with constant height and path lengths, our new construction r-ORAM allows for trees with varying shorter path length. Accessing an element in the ORAM tree results in different communication costs depending on the location of the element. The main idea behind r-ORAM is a recursive ORAM tree structure, where nodes in the tree are roots of other trees. While this approach results in a worst-case access cost (tree height at most as any recent tree-based ORAM, we show that the average cost saving is around 35% for recent binary tree ORAMs. Besides reducing communication cost, r-ORAM also reduces storage overhead on the server by 4% to 20% depending on the ORAM’s client memory type. To prove r-ORAM’s soundness, we conduct a detailed overflow analysis. r-ORAM’s recursive approach is general in that it can be applied to all recent tree ORAMs, both constant and poly-log client memory ORAMs. Finally, we implement and benchmark r-ORAM in a practical setting to back up our theoretical claims.

  2. Mathematical foundations of event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical foundation from first principles of event trees is presented. The main objective of this formulation is to offer a formal basis for developing automated computer assisted construction techniques for event trees. The mathematical theory of event trees is based on the correspondence between the paths of the tree and the elements of the outcome space of a joint event. The concept of a basic cylinder set is introduced to describe joint event outcomes conditional on specific outcomes of basic events or unconditional on the outcome of basic events. The concept of outcome space partition is used to describe the minimum amount of information intended to be preserved by the event tree representation. These concepts form the basis for an algorithm for systematic search for and generation of the most compact (reduced) form of an event tree consistent with the minimum amount of information the tree should preserve. This mathematical foundation allows for the development of techniques for automated generation of event trees corresponding to joint events which are formally described through other types of graphical models. Such a technique has been developed for complex systems described by functional blocks and it is reported elsewhere. On the quantification issue of event trees, a formal definition of a probability space corresponding to the event tree outcomes is provided. Finally, a short discussion is offered on the relationship of the presented mathematical theory with the more general use of event trees in reliability analysis of dynamic systems

  3. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  4. Submodular unsplittable flow on trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Chalermsook, Parinya; Ene, Alina

    2016-01-01

    We study the Unsplittable Flow problem (UFP) on trees with a submodular objective function. The input to this problem is a tree with edge capacities and a collection of tasks, each characterized by a source node, a sink node, and a demand. A subset of the tasks is feasible if the tasks can...... simultaneously send their demands from the source to the sink without violating the edge capacities. The goal is to select a feasible subset of the tasks that maximizes a submodular objective function. Our main result is an O(k log n)-approximation algorithm for Submodular UFP on trees where k denotes...... the pathwidth of the given tree. Since every tree has pathwidth O(log n), we obtain an O(log2 n) approximation for arbitrary trees. This is the first non-trivial approximation guarantee for the problem and it matches the best approximation known for UFP on trees with a linear objective function. Our main...

  5. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  6. Proceedings of the 8. biennial residual wood conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference highlighted practical strategies for managing and utilizing residual wood as a true industry resource. Examples of successful wood energy projects were presented along with the technology and products of more than 30 companies involved in the residual wood business. The topics of discussion ranged from biomass supplies, quality issues, and harvesting guidelines to emerging biomass technologies, project overviews, and financing. The presentations outlined the many opportunities that exist for the forest industry to produce energy from biostock, such as healthy and diseased trees, underbrush, sawdust, wood chips, wood pulp and black liquor. Increasing fuel and energy costs along with advances in technology are improving the economy of forest-based biorefineries. The presentations showed how the industry can gain revenue from residual wood, which is steadily becoming a more valuable resource for pellet production and energy generation The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. ResBoost: characterizing and predicting catalytic residues in enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Yoav

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the catalytic residues in enzymes can aid in understanding the molecular basis of an enzyme's function and has significant implications for designing new drugs, identifying genetic disorders, and engineering proteins with novel functions. Since experimentally determining catalytic sites is expensive, better computational methods for identifying catalytic residues are needed. Results We propose ResBoost, a new computational method to learn characteristics of catalytic residues. The method effectively selects and combines rules of thumb into a simple, easily interpretable logical expression that can be used for prediction. We formally define the rules of thumb that are often used to narrow the list of candidate residues, including residue evolutionary conservation, 3D clustering, solvent accessibility, and hydrophilicity. ResBoost builds on two methods from machine learning, the AdaBoost algorithm and Alternating Decision Trees, and provides precise control over the inherent trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated ResBoost using cross-validation on a dataset of 100 enzymes from the hand-curated Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA. Conclusion ResBoost achieved 85% sensitivity for a 9.8% false positive rate and 73% sensitivity for a 5.7% false positive rate. ResBoost reduces the number of false positives by up to 56% compared to the use of evolutionary conservation scoring alone. We also illustrate the ability of ResBoost to identify recently validated catalytic residues not listed in the CSA.

  8. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  9. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...... versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were collected from four zones in the tree and pesticide residues were detected in the individual apples....... None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0...

  10. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  11. TREE SYMBOLISM IN SLAVIC FOLK CULTURE: APPLE TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Agapkina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay focuses on the mythopoetic image of the apple tree and its ritual use in traditional culture and folklore of the Slavic nations. The work employs folklore material alongside ethnographic and linguistic data that accentuates and develops the folklore symbolism of the apple tree. I argue that this image is comprised of a number of relatively autonomous fragments. The apple tree and its apples are a family metaphor of a kind symbolizing a mother and a child. In wedding folklore, the apple tree stands for a bride as the wedding ritual testifies; apple tree branches are widely used in the ritual itself (as a ritual tree or as material used in the making of a wedding banner, wedding wreaths, decorations for a wedding loaf [karavai], etc.. Another manifestation of the apple tree in folklore is the tree of knowledge; it relates the image to a large number of legendary etiological plots such as: Eve’s temptation by the Serpent, fall of Eve and Adam, the origin of Adam’s Apple (adam, prohibition to eat apples before the church holiday of Transfiguration and some others. At the same time, their autonomy regardless, the fragments of the mythopoetic image of the apple tree form part of the solid folklore universe and counteract with each other within this framework.

  12. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  13. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  14. The fault-tree compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

  15. Role of the bio-geocoenosis in the rooting zone of forest trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, H.; Baeumler, W.

    1986-06-01

    Interdisciplinary studies conducted in old-growth forests in Oregon and Bavaria were focused on structure and functions in the rooting zone of forest trees. In decayed trees and rotten stumps, offering multitudes of external and internal habitats, complex interactions occur between tree roots, mycorrhizal fungi, bacteria, and small mammals. Based on single components of the bio-geocenosis in the rooting zone, with emphasis on large woody residues and nitrogen stress as an important ecological factor, the impact of this habitat on the functional diversity related to forest ecosystems affected by Waldsterben is discussed.

  16. Large Deviations for Random Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Heitsch, Christine

    2008-08-01

    We consider large random trees under Gibbs distributions and prove a Large Deviation Principle (LDP) for the distribution of degrees of vertices of the tree. The LDP rate function is given explicitly. An immediate consequence is a Law of Large Numbers for the distribution of vertex degrees in a large random tree. Our motivation for this study comes from the analysis of RNA secondary structures.

  17. Tree felling: a necessary evil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    CERN started a campaign of tree felling in 2010 for safety reasons, and it will continue this year in various parts of the Meyrin site. As in previous years, the trees cut down in 2013 will be recycled and some will be replaced.   Diseased tree that had to be cut down on the Meyrin site. In association with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP), CERN commissioned the Geneva school of landscaping, engineering and architecture (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture, HEPIA) to compile an inventory of the trees on the Meyrin site. In total, 1285 trees (excluding poplars) were recorded. 75.5% of these trees were declared to be in a good state of health (i.e. 971 trees), 21.5% in a moderate state of health (276 trees) and 3% in a poor state of health (38 trees). As for the poplars, the 236 specimens recorded on the Meyrin site were judged to be too old, to...

  18. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision

  19. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performan...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  20. The Steiner tree problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P

    1992-01-01

    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

  1. Genealogy and gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  2. Distributed Merge Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  3. Occurrence of leguminous trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.

  4. Mycorrhizal networks affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community similarity between conspecific trees and seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Marcus A; Simard, Suzanne W

    2012-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) networks (MN) are thought to be an important mode of EM fungal colonization of coniferous seedlings. How MNs affect EM communities on seedlings, and how this varies with biotic and abiotic factors, is integral to understanding their importance in seedling establishment. We examined EM fungal community similarity between mature trees and conspecific interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) seedlings in two experiments where seed and nursery-grown seedlings originating from different locations were planted at various distances from trees along a climatic gradient. At harvest, trees shared 60% of their fungal taxa in common with outplanted seedlings and 77% with germinants, indicating potential for seedlings to join the network of residual trees. In both experiments, community similarity between trees and seedlings increased with drought. However, community similarity was lower among nursery seedlings growing at 2.5 m from trees when they were able to form an MN, suggesting MNs reduced seedling EM fungal richness. For field germinants, MNs resulted in lower community similarity in the driest climates. Distance from trees affected community similarity of nursery seedlings to trees, but there was no interaction of provenance with MNs in their effect on similarity in either nursery seedlings or field germinants as hypothesized. We conclude that MNs of trees influence EM colonization patterns of seedlings, and the strength of these effects increases with climatic drought. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  5. Visualizing Individual Tree Differences in Tree-Ring Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Trouillier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Averaging tree-ring measurements from multiple individuals is one of the most common procedures in dendrochronology. It serves to filter out noise from individual differences between trees, such as competition, height, and micro-site effects, which ideally results in a site chronology sensitive to regional scale factors such as climate. However, the climate sensitivity of individual trees can be modulated by factors like competition, height, and nitrogen deposition, calling attention to whether average chronologies adequately assess climatic growth-control. In this study, we demonstrate four simple but effective methods to visually assess differences between individual trees. Using individual tree climate-correlations we: (1 employed jitter plots with superimposed metadata to assess potential causes for these differences; (2 plotted the frequency distributions of climate correlations over time as heat maps; (3 mapped the spatial distribution of climate sensitivity over time to assess spatio-temporal dynamics; and (4 used t-distributed Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding (t-SNE to assess which trees were generally more similar in terms of their tree-ring pattern and their correlation with climate variables. This suite of exploratory methods can indicate if individuals in tree-ring datasets respond differently to climate variability, and therefore, should not solely be explored with climate correlations of the mean population chronology.

  6. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  7. TreeVector: scalable, interactive, phylogenetic trees for the web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Pethica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic trees are complex data forms that need to be graphically displayed to be human-readable. Traditional techniques of plotting phylogenetic trees focus on rendering a single static image, but increases in the production of biological data and large-scale analyses demand scalable, browsable, and interactive trees.We introduce TreeVector, a Scalable Vector Graphics-and Java-based method that allows trees to be integrated and viewed seamlessly in standard web browsers with no extra software required, and can be modified and linked using standard web technologies. There are now many bioinformatics servers and databases with a range of dynamic processes and updates to cope with the increasing volume of data. TreeVector is designed as a framework to integrate with these processes and produce user-customized phylogenies automatically. We also address the strengths of phylogenetic trees as part of a linked-in browsing process rather than an end graphic for print.TreeVector is fast and easy to use and is available to download precompiled, but is also open source. It can also be run from the web server listed below or the user's own web server. It has already been deployed on two recognized and widely used database Web sites.

  8. Picking a tree: habitat use by the tree agama, Acanthocercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied tree agama (Acanthocercus a. atricollis) habitat use in the Magaliesberg mountain range in northern South Africa using sightings of marked individuals, and in a few cases, radio-telemetry. Acanthocercus a. atricollis preferentially selected thorn trees (46%; Acacia karroo), followed by common sugarbush (10%; ...

  9. The financial feasibility of delivering forest treatment residues to bioenergy facilities over a range of diesel fuel and delivered biomass prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; Susan Hummel; Woodam. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Forest treatments have the potential to produce significant quantities of forest residue biomass, which includes the tops and limbs from merchantable trees and smaller trees removed to meet management objectives. We spatially analyzed the sensitivity of financially feasible biomass volumes for delivery to a bioenergy facility across 16 combinations of delivered biomass...

  10. Urban tree database and allometric equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Natalie S. van Doorn; Paula J.  Peper

    2016-01-01

    Information on urban tree growth underpins models used to calculate the effects of trees on the environment and human well-being. Maximum tree size and other growth data are used by urban forest managers, landscape architects, and planners to select trees most suitable to the amount of growing space, thereby reducing costly future conflicts between trees and...

  11. A South African softwood sawtimber supply chain case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four road networks, including the existing and unrefined network, were studied. With sequentially improved secondary transport travel speeds, primary transport efficiency and fibre use, the net financial returns of the various scenarios were determined by applying discounted cash flow analysis (NPV). To address all ...

  12. Cost-productivity analysis of South African pine sawtimber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    length harvesting. Chloe Williams, Pierre Ackerman. Abstract. The South African forestry industry is experiencing an increase in the number of fully mechanised timber-harvesting systems. Understanding the productivity of these systems, for which ...

  13. Trends in hardwood timber resources for the Northern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Thomas L. Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    The forests of the 20-state Northern Region are maturing. The portion of timberland covered by sawtimber-size stands has increased and the area in the sapling/seedling-size stands has decreased. Growing-stock volume has doubled since the early 1950's. Most of the recent gains in volume have occurred on sawtimber-size trees, resulting in large increases in...

  14. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  15. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce S. Dien; Junyong Zhu; Patricia J. Slininger; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Bryan R. Moser; Patricia J. O' Bryan; Roland Gleisner; Michael A. Cotta

    2016-01-01

    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils (SCO) using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrolyzing using commercial cellulases. A new SPORL process that uses pH...

  16. Genetic transformation of forest trees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    the stress from the regeneration process. We hope that the great progress achieved in the biology of. Agrobacterium and the expression of the genes playing key role in plant development will be helpful in solving the constraint linked to the genetic transformation of forest trees. Genetic transformation of forest trees offers a ...

  17. Chain-Constrained Spanning Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.; Zenklusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a spanning tree satisfying a family of additional constraints. Several settings have been considered previously, the most famous being the problem of finding a spanning tree with degree constraints. Since the problem is hard, the goal is typically to find a

  18. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  19. Using farm trees for fuelwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, G.

    1983-01-01

    In the tropics, a significant proportion of wood supplies is obtained from trees on farmland rather than from forest. Reliable estimates of wood fuel resources are difficult to obtain by conventional mensuration techniques since such trees are often subjected to regular heavy pruning and pollarding. Productive potential of hedgerows and other small scrub vegetation used for fuel is also difficult to measure.

  20. Genome Trees from Conservation Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the genome tree depends on the potential evolutionary significance in the clustering of species according to similarities in the gene content of their genomes. In this respect, genome trees have often been identified with species trees. With the rapid expansion of genome sequence data it becomes of increasing importance to develop accurate methods for grasping global trends for the phylogenetic signals that mutually link the various genomes. We therefore derive here the methodological concept of genome trees based on protein conservation profiles in multiple species. The basic idea in this derivation is that the multi-component "presence-absence" protein conservation profiles permit tracking of common evolutionary histories of genes across multiple genomes. We show that a significant reduction in informational redundancy is achieved by considering only the subset of distinct conservation profiles. Beyond these basic ideas, we point out various pitfalls and limitations associated with the data handling, paving the way for further improvements. As an illustration for the methods, we analyze a genome tree based on the above principles, along with a series of other trees derived from the same data and based on pair-wise comparisons (ancestral duplication-conservation and shared orthologs. In all trees we observe a sharp discrimination between the three primary domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The new genome tree, based on conservation profiles, displays a significant correspondence with classically recognized taxonomical groupings, along with a series of departures from such conventional clusterings.

  1. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  2. Who pays for tree improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom D. Byram; E. M. Raley

    2011-01-01

    Tree improvement has been one of the most successful collaborative research efforts in history, eliciting participation from a wide variety of players. This effort has included state forestry agencies, research universities, integrated forest industries, and the USDA Forest Service. Tree improvement was organized through cooperatives whose objectives were to distribute...

  3. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    -prone and impracticable for large systems. Nonetheless, the automated generation of attack trees has only been explored in connection to computer networks and levering rich models, whose analysis typically leads to an exponential blow-up of the state space. We propose a static analysis approach where attack trees...

  4. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...

  5. Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization ...

  6. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  7. Tree Coding of Bilevel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... probabilities to an arithmetic coder. The conditional probabilities are estimated from co-occurrence statistics of past pixels, the statistics are stored in a tree. By organizing the code length calculations properly, a vast number of possible models (trees) reflecting different pixel orderings can...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...

  8. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  9. Decision trees in epidemiological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Venkatasubramaniam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. Main text We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Conclusions Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.

  10. Decision trees in epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramaniam, Ashwini; Wolfson, Julian; Mitchell, Nathan; Barnes, Timothy; JaKa, Meghan; French, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART) technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree) technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.

  11. Schoolyard Trees: Planning and Planting for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Considers factors that affect the fate of schoolyard trees and focuses on the importance of what is considered during tree selection. Includes of list of characteristics of tree projects that have a low survival rate. (DDR)

  12. Organosolv pretreatment of olive tree biomass for fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M.J.; Cara, C.; Castro, E. [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Campus Las Lagunillas, University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain); Huijgen, W.J.J.; Van der Laan, R.R.; Reith, J.H. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Olive tree pruning biomass is one of the main agricultural residues available in Mediterranean countries and is currently lacking commercial applications. To take advantage of its sugar content, a pretreatment is necessary to enhance enzyme accessibility of the cellulose fraction of the residue. This paper describes for the first time the use of organosolv pretreatment in this regard. The main process variables such as pretreatment temperature, residence time, and solvent composition (aqueous ethanol) are studied. Results show that organosolv pretreatment causes delignification and hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and improves the enzymatic digestibility of olive tree pruning biomass. A higher pretreatment severity and ethanol content of the solvent were found to increase delignification (up to 64% at 66% w/w aqueous ethanol, 210C, 60 min). By contrast, xylan hydrolysis was promoted by a lower ethanol content (maximum 92%). The highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield (90% of the structural glucan present in the raw material) has been obtained after pretreatment with 43% w/w aqueous ethanol at 210C for 15 min. Organosolv pretreatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass.

  13. Harvesting Impacts on Soil Properties and Tree Regeneration in Pure and Mixed Aspen Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Arikian; Kiaus J. Peuttmann; Alaina L. Davis; George E. Host; John Zasada

    1999-01-01

    Impacts of clearcutting and selective harvesting on pure aspen/mixed aspen hardwood stands were examined in northern Minnesota. We studied these impacts on 18 stands, which were harvested 4 to 11 years ago and received no further treatment. In each stand, residual composition, soil compaction, and tree regeneration were determined along a gradient of disturbance in the...

  14. Mineralization and N-use efficiency of tree legume prunings from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... leaves with rice straw/rubbles increased the yield of flooded rice more than sesbania prunings .... repeated at the time of incorporation of tree prunings for chemical analysis. The nutrient mass fractions are ..... composition of the crop residues was low initially but tended to increase from 63 days onwards.

  15. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  16. The Heritage of Nature: Heritage Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zöhre Polat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heritage trees are naturel heritages. Heritage trees are typically a large, individual tree with unique value, which is considered irreplaceable. The major criteria for heritage tree designation are age, rarity, and size, as well as aesthetic, botanical, ecological, and historical value. Today many researcher’s focus on recording,, protection and management strategies of heritage trees. Counties have different strategies about heritage trees. The aims of the study are; (1 Preserving the characteristics of being heritage trees, (2 Present suggestions for record, protection and management strategies of heritage trees in Turkey.

  17. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  18. Carvão de resíduos de indústria madeireira de três espécies florestais exploradas no município de Paragominas, PA Charcoal from timber industry residues of three tree species logged in the municipality of Paragominas, PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Gomes da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia as principais propriedades do carvão de Manilkara amazonica (maçaranduba, Lecythis pisonis (sapucaia e Piptadenia suaveolens (timborana, carbonizadas em sete e dez dias. O carvão foi produzido a partir de resíduos da serraria da Empresa Cikel Brasil Verde S. A., na Fazenda Rio Capim, em Paragominas. Foram utilizados 30 fornos de alvenaria, sendo dez fornos para cada espécie, dos quais cinco para carbonização em sete dias e cinco para dez dias. Após a carbonização, foram retiradas amostras de carvão produzido para estudo de rendimento gravimétrico e de propriedades físicas, químicas e mecânicas. Os principais resultados foram: o rendimento gravimétrico do carvão variou de 21,47 a 29,59 % (base úmida; a densidade média a granel, variou de 178,51 a 231,14 kg.m-3; a densidade média aparente foi de 0,38 a 0,53 g.cm-3; o poder calorífico foi de 23451 a 28830 kj.kg-1; o teor de materiais voláteis variou de 23,94 a 31,47%; cinzas de 0,7 a 2,5%; o carbono fixo de 68,29 a 74,49%; e a friabilidade de 12 a 32,6%. Constatou-se que a espécie é o principal fator que influencia nas propriedades do carvão. Através da análise das propriedades, não foi possível identificar qual espécie produziu o melhor carvão, uma vez que as três apresentaram algumas características consideradas boas, porém, sempre acompanhadas de outras inadequadas.The timber industry in Amazonia generates large quantities of residues from log processing. A viable alternative for the enterprises is the production of charcoal from these residues. This study evaluates the main properties of the charcoal from Manilkara amazonica (maçaranduba, Lecythis pisonis (sapucaia and Piptadenia suaveolens (timborana, carbonized in 7 and 10 days. The charcoal was produced from residues of timbers from the sawmill of Cikel Brasil Verde S. A., in Rio Capim estate, Paragominas, PA. A series of 30 kilns was used, being 10 for each species, of which 5 kilns

  19. Hipsometric relationship modeling using data sampled in tree scaling and inventory plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Carlos Lima de Andrade

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated eight hypsometric models to represent tree height-diameter relationship, using data obtained from the scaling of 118 trees and 25 inventory plots. Residue graphic analysis and percent deviation mean criteria, qui-square test precision, residual standard error between real and estimated heights and the graybill f test were adopted. The identity of the hypsometric models was also verified by applying the F(Ho test on the plot data grouped to the scaling data. It was concluded that better accuracy can be obtained by using the model prodan, with h and d1,3 data measured in 10 trees by plots grouped into these scaling data measurements of even-aged forest stands.

  20. Preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood revisited. II. Physical activation with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Idriss, A.; Cuerda-Correa, E.M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, C.; Alexandre-Franco, M.F.; Gomez-Serrano, V. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry; Stitou, M. [Univ. Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. de Chimie; Macias-Garcia, A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Olive-tree has been grown in the Mediterranean countries for centuries. For an adequate development of the tree it must be subjected to different treatments such as trimming, large amounts of a woody residue being produced. Such a residue has been traditionally used as a domestic fuel or simply burnt in the landfield. In both cases greenhouse gases are generated to a large extent. Thus, the preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood appears as an attractive alternative to valorize this by-product. Commonly, two activation strategies are used with such an aim, namely chemical and physical activation. In this study, the optimization of the physical activation method with air for the production of activated carbon has been analyzed. The results obtained clearly show that if the preparation conditions are adequately controlled, it is possible to prepare activated carbons showing tailored properties in terms of micro- or mesoporous texture and surface area. (author)

  1. Recovery of crown mass for energy with whole-tree skidding methods; Puupolttoaineen tuottaminen kokopuujuontomenetelmillae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nousiainen, I. [Finntech Ltd Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vesisenaho, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The main aim of the project `Recovery of crown mass for energy with whole-tree skidding methods` was to develop the integrated harvesting method of wood raw material and wood fuel based on whole-tree skidding. The developed method gives also the possibility to deliver to sawmills raw material in the form of log section. In the harvesting chain under development whole-trees are felled and bunched with a normal one-grip harvester. The whole-trees are skidded to the roadside by a forwarder equipped with a clam bunk. At the roadside the trees are delimbed and cut with the one-grip harvester used for felling and bunching. According to the results of the field tests the harvesting costs of logging residues are in certain final cutting conditions even under 10 FIM/m{sup 3}, when the average stem size is over 0,500 m{sup 3}. In the developed method felling and bunching of whole trees with the one-grip harvester and skidding of whole-trees with the clam skidder succeeded well. The problems of the method concentrate on delimbing and bucking of whole-trees in landing site

  2. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  3. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  4. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  5. TreeCluster: Massively scalable transmission clustering using phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Moshiri, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Background: The ability to infer transmission clusters from molecular data is critical to designing and evaluating viral control strategies. Viral sequencing datasets are growing rapidly, but standard methods of transmission cluster inference do not scale well beyond thousands of sequences. Results: I present TreeCluster, a cross-platform tool that performs transmission cluster inference on a given phylogenetic tree orders of magnitude faster than existing inference methods and supports multi...

  6. Moose?tree interactions: rebrowsing is common across tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Mathisen, Karen Marie; Milner, Jos M.; Skarpe, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Background Plant strategies to resist herbivory include tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance strategies, such as rapid regrowth which increases the palatability of new shoots, can lead to positive feedback loops between plants and herbivores. An example of such a positive feedback occurs when moose (Alces alces) browse trees in boreal forests. We described the degree of change in tree morphology that accumulated over time in response to repeated browsing by moose, using an index of accumulated ...

  7. Random ancestor trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a network growth model in which the genealogy controls the evolution. In this model, a new node selects a random target node and links either to this target node, or to its parent, or to its grandparent, etc; all nodes from the target node to its most ancient ancestor are equiprobable destinations. The emerging random ancestor tree is very shallow: the fraction g n of nodes at distance n from the root decreases super-exponentially with n, g n = e −1 /(n − 1)!. We find that a macroscopic hub at the root coexists with highly connected nodes at higher generations. The maximal degree of a node at the nth generation grows algebraically as N 1/β n , where N is the system size. We obtain the series of nontrivial exponents which are roots of transcendental equations: β 1 ≅1.351 746, β 2 ≅1.682 201, etc. As a consequence, the fraction p k of nodes with degree k has an algebraic tail, p k ∼ k −γ , with γ = β 1 + 1 = 2.351 746

  8. Resummed tree heptagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The form factor program for the regularized space-time S-matrix in planar maximally supersymmetric gauge theory, known as the pentagon operator product expansion, is formulated in terms of flux-tube excitations propagating on a dual two-dimensional world-sheet, whose dynamics is known exactly as a function of 't Hooft coupling. Both MHV and non-MHV amplitudes are described in a uniform, systematic fashion within this framework, with the difference between the two encoded in coupling-dependent helicity form factors expressed via Zhukowski variables. The nontrivial SU(4) tensor structure of flux-tube transitions is coupling independent and is known for any number of charged excitations from solutions of a system of Watson and Mirror equations. This description allows one to resum the infinite series of form factors and recover the space-time S-matrix exactly in kinematical variables at a given order of perturbation series. Recently, this was done for the hexagon. Presently, we successfully perform resummation for the seven-leg tree NMHV amplitude. To this end, we construct the flux-tube integrands of the fifteen independent Grassmann component of the heptagon with an infinite number of small fermion-antifermion pairs accounted for in NMHV two-channel conformal blocks.

  9. Soil Temperature Moderation by Crop Residue Mulch, Grevilla Robusta Tillage Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteng'i, S.B.B.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of mulching with crop residues and shading by Grevillea robust trees on the soil temperatures of Mt. Kenya Volcanic soils at Matanya area, Laikipia district, were studied. Soil thermistors connected to data-loggers(type Grant squirrel)were used to record soil temperaturs. The soils were mulched and minimum tilled (depths of 0.04 till 0.05m), and unmulched and deep tilled (depths 0.20till 0.25m) in plots of pruned and unpruned trees and also to cotrol (non-agroforestry) plots. The results showed that closer tp the trees, canopy differences ionfluenced changes in soil temperatures of about ≠2.0 degrees centrigrade. The dumping depth and Stigters ratio values showed soil temperatures were modified by treatment and tree canopy differences. The modified soil temperatures resulted in better crop performance when the soil water was adequate.(author)

  10. Changing options for the control of deciduous fruit tree diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, T B

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of disease management programs for deciduous fruit trees in the United States over the past 50 years has been influenced by factors that include public concern over pesticide residues on fruit and in the environment, the development of resistance of many important tree pathogens to fungicides and bactericides, the loss of fungicide registrations and restrictions on their use due to concern for human health and the environment and/or marketing decisions by the manufacturers, and changes in cultural practices and marketing objectives. These factors have led to wider use of forecasting models and cultural controls, the development of resistance management strategies, and the introduction of new equipment and methods for pesticide application. These same factors will most likely continue to drive the fruit industry to adopt disease management programs that rely less on pesticides in the future.

  11. Optimization Method of Fusing Model Tree into Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial Least Square (PLS can’t adapt to the characteristics of the data of many fields due to its own features multiple independent variables, multi-dependent variables and non-linear. However, Model Tree (MT has a good adaptability to nonlinear function, which is made up of many multiple linear segments. Based on this, a new method combining PLS and MT to analysis and predict the data is proposed, which build MT through the main ingredient and the explanatory variables(the dependent variable extracted from PLS, and extract residual information constantly to build Model Tree until well-pleased accuracy condition is satisfied. Using the data of the maxingshigan decoction of the monarch drug to treat the asthma or cough and two sample sets in the UCI Machine Learning Repository, the experimental results show that, the ability of explanation and predicting get improved in the new method.

  12. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  13. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  14. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  15. Decision tree modeling using R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-08-01

    In machine learning field, decision tree learner is powerful and easy to interpret. It employs recursive binary partitioning algorithm that splits the sample in partitioning variable with the strongest association with the response variable. The process continues until some stopping criteria are met. In the example I focus on conditional inference tree, which incorporates tree-structured regression models into conditional inference procedures. While growing a single tree is subject to small changes in the training data, random forests procedure is introduced to address this problem. The sources of diversity for random forests come from the random sampling and restricted set of input variables to be selected. Finally, I introduce R functions to perform model based recursive partitioning. This method incorporates recursive partitioning into conventional parametric model building.

  16. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  17. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  18. Modeling the effects of tree species and incubation temperature on soil's extracellular enzyme activity in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations have been widely used as an effective measure for increasing soil carbon (C, and nitrogen (N stocks and soil enzyme activities play a key role in soil C and N losses during decomposition of soil organic matter. However, few studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms behind the differences in soil C and N cycling by different tree species in response to climate warming. Here, we measured the responses of soil's extracellular enzyme activity (EEA to a gradient of temperatures using incubation methods in 78-year-old forest plantations with different tree species. Based on a soil enzyme kinetics model, we established a new statistical model to investigate the effects of temperature and tree species on soil EEA. In addition, we established a tree species–enzyme–C∕N model to investigate how temperature and tree species influence soil C∕N contents over time without considering plant C inputs. These extracellular enzymes included C acquisition enzymes (β-glucosidase, BG, N acquisition enzymes (N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; leucine aminopeptidase, LAP and phosphorus acquisition enzymes (acid phosphatases. The results showed that incubation temperature and tree species significantly influenced all soil EEA and Eucalyptus had 1.01–2.86 times higher soil EEA than coniferous tree species. Modeling showed that Eucalyptus had larger soil C losses but had 0.99–2.38 times longer soil C residence time than the coniferous tree species over time. The differences in the residual soil C and N contents between Eucalyptus and coniferous tree species, as well as between slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Ait., increase with time. On the other hand, the modeling results help explain why exotic slash pine can grow faster, as it has 1.22–1.38 times longer residual soil N residence time for LAP, which mediate soil N cycling in the long term, than native

  19. Modeling the effects of tree species and incubation temperature on soil's extracellular enzyme activity in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Wang, Shen S. J.; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-12-01

    Forest plantations have been widely used as an effective measure for increasing soil carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) stocks and soil enzyme activities play a key role in soil C and N losses during decomposition of soil organic matter. However, few studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms behind the differences in soil C and N cycling by different tree species in response to climate warming. Here, we measured the responses of soil's extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) to a gradient of temperatures using incubation methods in 78-year-old forest plantations with different tree species. Based on a soil enzyme kinetics model, we established a new statistical model to investigate the effects of temperature and tree species on soil EEA. In addition, we established a tree species-enzyme-C/N model to investigate how temperature and tree species influence soil C/N contents over time without considering plant C inputs. These extracellular enzymes included C acquisition enzymes (β-glucosidase, BG), N acquisition enzymes (N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; leucine aminopeptidase, LAP) and phosphorus acquisition enzymes (acid phosphatases). The results showed that incubation temperature and tree species significantly influenced all soil EEA and Eucalyptus had 1.01-2.86 times higher soil EEA than coniferous tree species. Modeling showed that Eucalyptus had larger soil C losses but had 0.99-2.38 times longer soil C residence time than the coniferous tree species over time. The differences in the residual soil C and N contents between Eucalyptus and coniferous tree species, as well as between slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Ait.), increase with time. On the other hand, the modeling results help explain why exotic slash pine can grow faster, as it has 1.22-1.38 times longer residual soil N residence time for LAP, which mediate soil N cycling in the long term, than native coniferous tree species like hoop pine and

  20. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  1. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2015-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  2. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2016-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  3. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  4. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  5. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  6. Tight bounds for top tree compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Fernstrøm, Finn; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We consider compressing labeled, ordered and rooted trees using DAG compression and top tree compression. We show that there exists a family of trees such that the size of the DAG compression is always a logarithmic factor smaller than the size of the top tree compression (even for an alphabet...

  7. Factors that influence Christmas tree sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the metropolitan Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N. C., shows that to sell more trees, Christmas tree retailers should locate their lots on heavily traveled streets in business areas, have adequate parking facilities, advertise, and have attractive displays of trees. Retailers who follow these practices can expect to receive higher prices for...

  8. Critical wind speed at which trees break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, E.; Ponomarenko, A.; Dehandschoewercker, É.; Quéré, D.; Clanet, C.

    2016-02-01

    Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42 m /s ), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.

  9. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  10. Residual stress analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques which are or could be employed to measure residual stresses are outlined. They include X-ray and neutron diffraction. Comments are made on the reliability and accuracy to be expected from particular techniques

  11. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  12. Exponet taper-shape models to describe tree trunks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Carlos Lima de Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated exponent taper-shape models and other types applied in Brazil. Data from 270 sample trees scaled-hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis were used as a studying case with 18 taper types models: simple (2, biomathematics (4, segmented (2 and exponent-form (10. It was adopted the analysis of the residual distribution and statistics: multiple linear correlation, residual standard error, percentage of no significant parcels in a completely randomized split plot and average error Dunnett, both at the level of 5% significance level. It was concluded that models of taper-shape exponents, in general, are superior to other types, the segmented model of Clark et al. is superior to Max and Burkhart biomathematics and the model developed in this paper, is better than the other biomathematics evaluated.

  13. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  14. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  15. TreeGenes: A forest tree genome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Jill L; Lee, Jennifer M; Tearse, Brandon R; Neale, David B

    2008-01-01

    The Dendrome Project and associated TreeGenes database serve the forest genetics research community through a curated and integrated web-based relational database. The research community is composed of approximately 2 000 members representing over 730 organizations worldwide. The database itself is composed of a wide range of genetic data from many forest trees with focused efforts on commercially important members of the Pinaceae family. The primary data types curated include species, publications, tree and DNA extraction information, genetic maps, molecular markers, ESTs, genotypic, and phenotypic data. There are currently ten main search modules or user access points within this PostgreSQL database. These access points allow users to navigate logically through the related data types. The goals of the Dendrome Project are to (1) provide a comprehensive resource for forest tree genomics data to facilitate gene discovery in related species, (2) develop interfaces that encourage the submission and integration of all genomic data, and to (3) centralize and distribute existing and novel online tools for the research community that both support and ease analysis. Recent developments have focused on increasing data content, functional annotations, data retrieval, and visualization tools. TreeGenes was developed to provide a centralized web resource with analysis and visualization tools to support data storage and exchange.

  16. Residue Age and Attack Pressure Influence Efficacy of Insecticide Treatments Against Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M

    2018-02-09

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on insecticide treatments to prevent beetles from boring into trees. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is needed to gauge the duration that trees are protected during spring when peak beetle pressure occurs. Residual efficacy of bifenthrin and permethrin trunk sprays was examined in field trials which used trees injected with 10% ethanol to ensure host attack pressure. Permethrin consistently reduced attacks by Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles for at least 4 wk, while efficacy of bifenthrin was inconsistent and lasted only about 10 d. Since previous studies demonstrated attacks are positively correlated with host ethanol emissions, we injected trees with 2.5, 5, and 10% ethanol to determine if residual efficacy was affected by attack pressure. Preventive treatments with bifenthrin reduced ambrosia beetle attacks at all concentrations of injected ethanol compared to non-sprayed controls. There was no interaction between attack pressure and insecticide treatment with respect to total attacks or attacks by X. germanus. However, increasing attack pressure did increase the probability of attacks on insecticide treated trees by X. germanus and other Scolytinae. Results from our current study will improve the ability of growers to make decisions on frequency of protective sprays, but residual efficacy of insecticide treatments may decline as attack pressure increases. Cultural practices should therefore maximize host vigor and minimize attack pressure associated with stress-induced ethanol emissions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. A bicriterion Steiner tree problem on graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Mirko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formulation of bicriterion Steiner tree problem which is stated as a task of finding a Steiner tree with maximal capacity and minimal length. It is considered as a lexicographic multicriteria problem. This means that the bottleneck Steiner tree problem is solved first. After that, the next optimization problem is stated as a classical minimums Steiner tree problem under the constraint on capacity of the tree. The paper also presents some computational experiments with the multicriteria problem.

  18. Short Tree, Long Tree, Right Tree, Wrong Tree: New Acquisition Bias Corrections for Inferring SNP Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaché, Adam D; Banbury, Barbara L; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2015-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the

  19. Bark- and wood-boring beetles on Scots pine logging residues from final felling: Effects of felling date, deposition location and diameter of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Foit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the risk of bark- and wood-boring beetle pests, the extensive removal of logging residues is conducted in forests; however, this practice can lead to a loss of saproxylic insect diversity. Thus, finding a better pest management strategy is needed and requires additional information on the actual effects of various, differently treated logging residues for pest multiplication. In the present study, a total of 2,160 fragments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. logging residues generated during final felling in a single stand in the Drahanská Highlands in the Czech Republic were examined for bark- and wood-boring beetles. The felling occurred on four dates in 2006 (in February, May, August and November. The logging residues from each felling were left scattered on the clear-cut area or were gathered into piles. The fauna inhabiting the logging residues were investigated by peeling off the bark during the first six months of the vegetative period following the felling. The logging residues hosted species-rich assemblages of bark- and wood-boring beetles (25 species were identified. Beetle occurrence was significantly affected by felling date, logging residue type (trunk fragment or branch and branch thinner or thicker than 1 cm, diameter and the manner in which the logging residues were deposited (freely scattered, top pile layer, or bottom pile layer. The Scots pine logging residues were a substrate for the significant multiplication of several potentially significant pests (particularly, Pityogenes chalcographus [Linnaeus], Ips acuminatus [Gyllenhal] and Pityophthorus pityographus [Ratzeburg]. The results indicated that the risk of pest reproduction can be minimised by felling the trees in August (and probably also September and October. For I. acuminatus and P. pityographus, the risk can be minimised by gathering the logging residues into piles.

  20. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  1. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  2. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  3. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2016-07-28

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.

  4. Mapping tree density at a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, T W; Glick, H B; Covey, K R; Bettigole, C; Maynard, D S; Thomas, S M; Smith, J R; Hintler, G; Duguid, M C; Amatulli, G; Tuanmu, M-N; Jetz, W; Salas, C; Stam, C; Piotto, D; Tavani, R; Green, S; Bruce, G; Williams, S J; Wiser, S K; Huber, M O; Hengeveld, G M; Nabuurs, G-J; Tikhonova, E; Borchardt, P; Li, C-F; Powrie, L W; Fischer, M; Hemp, A; Homeier, J; Cho, P; Vibrans, A C; Umunay, P M; Piao, S L; Rowe, C W; Ashton, M S; Crane, P R; Bradford, M A

    2015-09-10

    The global extent and distribution of forest trees is central to our understanding of the terrestrial biosphere. We provide the first spatially continuous map of forest tree density at a global scale. This map reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of magnitude higher than the previous estimate. Of these trees, approximately 1.39 trillion exist in tropical and subtropical forests, with 0.74 trillion in boreal regions and 0.61 trillion in temperate regions. Biome-level trends in tree density demonstrate the importance of climate and topography in controlling local tree densities at finer scales, as well as the overwhelming effect of humans across most of the world. Based on our projected tree densities, we estimate that over 15 billion trees are cut down each year, and the global number of trees has fallen by approximately 46% since the start of human civilization.

  5. Drawing Contour Trees in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G

    2011-11-01

    The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.

  6. Integrated fault tree development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use

  7. Construction of an α-labeled tree from a given set of α-labeled trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sethuraman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the method of Koh et al. (1979 of combining known graceful trees to construct bigger graceful trees, a new class of graceful trees is constructed from a set of k known graceful trees, k≥2 in a specific way. In fact, each member of this new class of trees admits α-labeling, a stronger version of graceful labeling. Consequently, each member of this family of trees decomposes complete graphs and complete bipartite graphs.

  8. The tree gangs of Glittertown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner-Ein, D.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the activities of four groups in Los Angeles as part of The Global ReLeaf challenge to plant trees for environmental improvement and to combat global warming. The activities include: training of 'citizen foresters' in selection of tree species, planting sites, maintenance, and fund-raising; education of school children about recycling, organic gardening, water conservation and composting. By working with civic groups, school children, public works, housing developers and the forestry division these groups hope to cool their communities and reduce energy consumption

  9. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...... as communication is asynchronous. The total number of messages sent during a construction of a spanning tree is at most 2E+3NlogN. The maximal message size is loglogN+log(maxid)+3, where maxid is the maximal processor identity....

  10. A distributed spanning tree algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge

    1988-01-01

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...... as communication is asyncronous. The total number of messages sent during a construction of a spanning tree is at most 2E+3NlogN. The maximal message size is loglogN+log(maxid)+3, where maxid is the maximal processor identity....

  11. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  12. Tree size comparison of some important street trees growing at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of trees in urban environment is now widely recognized as they cleanse the particulate air pollution and help to make cities and towns more agreeable places to dwell upon. A detailed survey was conducted to study the size of Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, Bombax ceiba, Cassia fistula, Eucalyptus ...

  13. Water Transport in Trees--An Artificial Laboratory Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, K.; Razpet, N.; Cepic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Water transport in tall trees is an everyday phenomenon, seldom noticed and not completely understood even by scientists. As a topic of current research in plant physiology it has several advantages for presentation within school physics lectures: it is interdisciplinary and clearly shows the connection between physics and biology; the…

  14. Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.

  15. Usefulness of problem tree, objective tree and logical framework ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discussion has led to the conclusion that higher learning institutions are not adequately preparing graduates to face the increasing labor market demands in terms of skills and competitiveness. Having outlined the roots of the problem through the problem tree, the researchers proposed potential strategies to handle the ...

  16. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  17. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  18. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  19. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Fovino, Igor; Masera, Marcelo; De Cian, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  20. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  1. Mechanized recovery of olive pruning residues: ash contamination and harvesting losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Assirelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues represent an important source of biomass for energy. Among the available biomass suitable for energy and available in Italy, pruning represents about the 20% of the total. About 1.184 million of hectares are planted with olive trees; the pruning residues coming from these plantations represent a wide source of biomass at National level. The authors tested six commercial pruning harvesters to determine harvesting losses and product contamination when recovering pruning residues. All harvesters used a mechanical pick-up to collect the residues and a shredder to reduce them into chips. Three different pick-up settings were tested and namely: 1 cm above ground level, manufacturer’s specification and 3 cm above ground level. Ash content in the shredded material was taken as a measure of contamination: the uncontaminated branch material collected directly from the trees had a value of 3.5%, whereas in shredded residues varied between 4.5% and over 5.5%, for the shortest and the longest distance between the pick-up and the soil surface, respectively. Harvesting losses were slightly, but significantly, related to pick-up setting, and mainly depended on machine type. Both machines have shown a good quality of the work performed and the results obtained indicates that the work phases could be simplified in order to reduce both the time of use and the harvesting costs.

  2. Biorefinery of proteins from rubber plantation residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Biorefinery of rubber tree side streams could add economic value and income for farmers, who already grow the trees for latex production. The objective of this research was to design a process for the recovery of proteinaceous fractions from rubber tree. The aimed applications were expected to be

  3. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  4. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  5. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  6. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  7. Effects of soil compaction on residual stand growth in central Appalachian hardwood forest: a preliminary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...

  8. Weld Residual Stress in Corner Boxing Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi, Matsuoka; Tokuharu, Yoshii; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport

    1998-01-01

    Fatigue damage often occurs in corner boxing welded joints because of stress concentration and residual stress. The hot spot stress approach is applicable to stress concentration. However, the number of suitable methods for estimating residual stress in welded joints is limited. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the residual stress in corner boxing joints. The method of estimating residual stresses based on the inherent stress technique is presented. Residual stress measurements are per...

  9. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  10. TreePOD: Sensitivity-Aware Selection of Pareto-Optimal Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbacher, Thomas; Linhardt, Lorenz; Moller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald

    2018-01-01

    Balancing accuracy gains with other objectives such as interpretability is a key challenge when building decision trees. However, this process is difficult to automate because it involves know-how about the domain as well as the purpose of the model. This paper presents TreePOD, a new approach for sensitivity-aware model selection along trade-offs. TreePOD is based on exploring a large set of candidate trees generated by sampling the parameters of tree construction algorithms. Based on this set, visualizations of quantitative and qualitative tree aspects provide a comprehensive overview of possible tree characteristics. Along trade-offs between two objectives, TreePOD provides efficient selection guidance by focusing on Pareto-optimal tree candidates. TreePOD also conveys the sensitivities of tree characteristics on variations of selected parameters by extending the tree generation process with a full-factorial sampling. We demonstrate how TreePOD supports a variety of tasks involved in decision tree selection and describe its integration in a holistic workflow for building and selecting decision trees. For evaluation, we illustrate a case study for predicting critical power grid states, and we report qualitative feedback from domain experts in the energy sector. This feedback suggests that TreePOD enables users with and without statistical background a confident and efficient identification of suitable decision trees.

  11. Mycotoxins in edible tree nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J; Mahoney, Noreen; Kim, Jong H; Campbell, Bruce C

    2007-10-20

    Tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) are an exceptionally valuable crop, especially in California, with an aggregate value approaching $3.5 billion. Much of this economic value comes from overseas markets, with up to 60% of the crop being exported. The product can be contaminated with aflatoxins or ochratoxins, with the former being of special concern because of the strict regulatory levels (4 ppb total aflatoxins) applied by the European Community (EC). Natural, consumer-acceptable control methods are therefore required to conform to such limits. Research has shown that aflatoxin production is markedly decreased by the presence of natural antioxidants that occur in tree nuts, including hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. In vitro testing of individual compounds showed that the antiaflatoxigenic effect correlated with the structure and concentration of such compounds in individual nut varieties and species. This lead to the hypothesis that aflatoxin biosynthesis is stimulated by oxidative stress on the fungus and that compounds capable of relieving oxidative stress should therefore suppress or eliminate aflatoxin biosynthesis. Oxidative stress induced in A. flavus by addition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide to the media stimulated peak aflatoxin production and maintained high levels over time. However, aflatoxin formation was significantly inhibited by incorporation into the media of the antioxidant, tannic acid. Measures to increase natural products with antioxidant properties in tree nuts may thereby reduce or eliminate the ability of A. flavus to biosynthesize aflatoxins, thus ensuring levels at or below regulatory limits and maintaining export markets for U.S. tree nuts.

  12. Reclamation with trees in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad Evilsizer

    1980-01-01

    Thru private initiative, Illinois citizens historically have invented and conducted large-scale tree planting programs, starting with hedgerow fences and farmstead windbreaks and continuing with surface mine reclamation and farm woodlands. With invaluable help from public and private scientific personnel, the old and new programs hold promise of enlargement and...

  13. Trees of Our National Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented is a description of the creation of the National Forests system, how trees grow, managing the National Forests, types of management systems, and managing for multiple use, including wildlife, water, recreation and other uses. Included are: (1) photographs; (2) line drawings of typical leaves, cones, flowers, and seeds; and (3)…

  14. Protected Vertices in Motzkin trees

    OpenAIRE

    Van Duzer, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we find recurrence relations for the asymptotic probability a vertex is $k$ protected in all Motzkin trees. We use a similar technique to calculate the probabilities for balanced vertices of rank $k$. From this we calculate upper and lower bounds for the probability a vertex is balanced and upper and lower bounds for the expected rank of balanced vertices.

  15. storey and canopy tree species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different tree species. The data presented here would therefore help in the planning and management of tropical forest reserves and development of management inteiventions to enhance forest productivity and ecological balance. Materials and methods. Study site. Kalinzu Forest Reserve is a tropical rain forest locate<.! in.

  16. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  17. Trends in game tree search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Bruin (Arie); W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with algorithms searching trees generated by two-person, zero-sum games with perfect information. The standard algorithm in this field is alpha-beta. We will discuss this algorithm as well as extensions, like transposition tables, iterative deepening and NegaScout.

  18. Tree improvement and environmental forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren T. Doolittle

    1971-01-01

    I was invited to talk to you about some of the things tree improvement can do to help our forest environment. Now I do not claim to have a corner on the market for ideas that geneticists can use in our environment, and I know that a number of scholarly papers have been presented previously on this subject.

  19. The Tree of Animal Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  20. Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, P.; Meyer-Viol, W.

    1993-01-01

    A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the 'mother of', 'first daughter of' and 'second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures.

  1. Are there tides within trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisahn, Joachim

    2018-01-24

    Tree stem diameters and electrical stem potentials exhibit rhythmic variations with periodicities of 24-25 h. Under free-running conditions of constant light or darkness these rhythms were suggested to be mediated by the lunisolar gravitational force. To further unravel the regulation of tree stem diameter dilatations, many of the published time courses of diameter variations were re-evaluated in conjunction with the contemporaneous time courses of the lunisolar tidal acceleration. This was accomplished by application of the Etide program, which estimates, with high temporal resolution, local gravitational changes as a consequence of the diurnal variations of the lunisolar gravitational force due to the orbits and relative positions of Earth, Moon and Sun. In all instances investigated, it was evident that a synchronism exists between the times of the turning points of both the lunisolar tide and stem diameter variations when the direction of extension changes. This finding of synchrony documents that the lunisolar tide is a regulator of the tree stem diameter dilatations. Under the described experimental conditions, rhythms in tree stem diameter dilations and electrical stem potentials are controlled by the lunisolar gravitational acceleration. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. GumTree: Data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation

  3. Ecology: Drought and dead trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Birdsey; Yude. Pan

    2011-01-01

    Drought has emerged as a major threat to the world's forests. A study shows that tree mortality in Canada's boreal forests has increased by nearly 5% per year—much higher than expected—owing to water stress from regional warming.

  4. Automatic Assessment of Pathological Voice Quality Using Higher-Order Statistics in the LPC Residual Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiYeoun Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A preprocessing scheme based on linear prediction coefficient (LPC residual is applied to higher-order statistics (HOSs for automatic assessment of an overall pathological voice quality. The normalized skewness and kurtosis are estimated from the LPC residual and show statistically meaningful distributions to characterize the pathological voice quality. 83 voice samples of the sustained vowel /a/ phonation are used in this study and are independently assessed by a speech and language therapist (SALT according to the grade of the severity of dysphonia of GRBAS scale. These are used to train and test classification and regression tree (CART. The best result is obtained using an optima l decision tree implemented by a combination of the normalized skewness and kurtosis, with an accuracy of 92.9%. It is concluded that the method can be used as an assessment tool, providing a valuable aid to the SALT during clinical evaluation of an overall pathological voice quality.

  5. Unavailability of the residual system heat removal of Angra 1 by Bayesian networks considering dependent failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Many R.S.; Melo, Paulo F.F.F. e

    2015-01-01

    This work models by Bayesian networks the residual heat removal system (SRCR) of Angra I nuclear power plant, using fault tree mapping for systematically identifying all possible modes of occurrence caused by a large loss of coolant accident (large LOCA). The focus is on dependent events, such as the bridge system structure of the residual heat removal system and the occurrence of common-cause failures. We used the Netica™ tool kit, Norsys Software Corporation and Python 2.7.5 for modeling Bayesian networks and Microsoft Excel for modeling fault trees. Working with dependent events using Bayesian networks is similar to the solutions proposed by other models, beyond simple understanding and ease of application and modification throughout the analysis. The results obtained for the unavailability of the system were satisfactory, showing that in most cases the system will be available to mitigate the effects of an accident as described above. (author)

  6. Ice Nuclei from Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Seifried, Teresa; Winkler, Philipp; Schmale, David, III; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    While the importance of heterogeneous ice nucleation in the atmosphere is known, we still know very little about the substances triggering these freezing events. Recent findings support the theory that biological ice nuclei (IN) exhibit the ability to play an important role in these processes. Huffman et al. (2013) showed a burst of biological IN over woodlands triggered by rain events. Birch pollen are known to release a high number of efficient IN if incubated in water (Pummer et al. 2012). Therefore birches are of interest in our research on this topic. Plants native to the timberline, such as birch trees, have to cope with very cold climatic conditions, rendering freezing avoidance impossible. These plants trigger freezing in their extracellular spaces to control the freezing process and avoid intracellular freezing, which would have lethal consequences. The plants hereby try to freeze at a temperature well above homogeneous freezing temperatures but still at temperatures low enough to not be effected by brief night frosts. To achieve this, IN are an important tool. The specific objective of our work was to study the potential sources and distribution of IN in birch trees. We collected leaves, fruit, bark, and trunk cores from a series of mature birch trees in Tyrol, Austria at different altitudes and sampling sites. We also collected samples from a birch tree in an urban park in Vienna, Austria. Our data show a sampling site dependence and the distribution of IN throughout the tree. Our data suggest that leaves, bark, and wood of birch can function as a source of IN, which are easily extracted with water. The IN are therefore not restricted to pollen. Hence, the amount of IN, which can be released from birch trees, is tremendous and has been underrated so far. Future work aims to elucidate the nature, contribution, and potential ecological roles of IN from birch trees in different habitats. Huffman, J.A., Prenni, A.J., DeMott, P.J., Pöhlker, C., Mason, R

  7. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  8. Machine Arithmetic in Residual Classes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-03

    rsmainder/residue, as this ascape /-nsues from thp determination of system. It can be. zaalizpd ;n the presence of th- arithmetic urit, which wor~s in thz sys...modules Nj. Page 417. Proof. Proof ascaps /ensues directly from the theorem of Gauss. Actually/really, since according to condition (py, qj)-=-. then

  9. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  10. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  11. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  12. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  13. Tree rings and radiocarbon calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbetti, M.

    1999-01-01

    Only a few kinds of trees in Australia and Southeast Asia are known to have growth rings that are both distinct and annual. Those that do are therefore extremely important to climatic and isotope studies. In western Tasmania, extensive work with Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) has shown that many living trees are more than 1,000 years old, and that their ring widths are sensitive to temperature, rainfall and cloud cover (Buckley et al. 1997). At the Stanley River there is a forest of living (and recently felled) trees which we have sampled and measured. There are also thousands of subfossil Huon pine logs, buried at depths less than 5 metres in an area of floodplain extending over a distance of more than a kilometre with a width of tens of metres. Some of these logs have been buried for 50,000 years or more, but most of them belong to the period between 15,000 years and the present. In previous expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s, we excavated and sampled about 350 logs (Barbetti et al. 1995; Nanson et al. 1995). By measuring the ring-width patterns, and matching them between logs and living trees, we have constructed a tree-ring dated chronology from 571 BC to AD 1992. We have also built a 4254-ring floating chronology (placed by radiocarbon at ca. 3580 to 7830 years ago), and an earlier 1268-ring chronology (ca. 7,580 to 8,850 years ago). There are many individuals, or pairs of logs which match and together span several centuries, at 9,000 years ago and beyond

  14. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  15. Understanding search trees via statistical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ary search tree model (where stands for the number of branches of the search tree), an important problem for data storage in computer science, using a variety of statistical physics techniques that allow us to obtain exact asymptotic results.

  16. Nonmarket benefits of reducing environmental effects of potential wildfires in beetle-killed trees: A contingent valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam Tabatabaei; John B. Loomis; Daniel W. McCollum

    2015-01-01

    We estimated Colorado households’ nonmarket values for two forest management options for reducing intensity of future wildfires and associated nonmarket environmental effects wildfires. The first policy is the traditional harvesting of pine beetle-killed trees and burning of the slash piles of residual materials on-site. The second involves harvesting but moving the...

  17. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-01-01

    The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area pl...

  18. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    SALLAM, Sobhy M. A.; BUENO, Ives C. S.; NASSER, Mohamed E. A.; ABDALLA, Adibe L.

    2010-01-01

    Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh leaves (FL) or residue leaves (RL), after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h in...

  19. Animals and trees: food for thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, K.

    1979-01-01

    In many areas of Africa, combining tree-growing with animal rearing is advantageous, as the trees provide shade, animal fodder and timber for fuel and building, while grazing animals reduce the fire hazard from ground vegetation and improve soil fertility through droppings. Acacia albida, Prosopis cineraria, P. chilensis, leucaena leucocephala and Ailanthus excelsa are discussed as promising fodder trees, and an appendix is included with notes on 21 other trees for fodder or the production of medicines.

  20. Africa's highest mountain harbours Africa's tallest trees

    OpenAIRE

    Hemp Andreas; Zimmermann Reiner; Remmele Sabine; Pommer Ulf; Berauer Bernd; Hemp Claudia; Fischer Markus

    2017-01-01

    While world records of tree heights were set by American, Australian and Asian tree species, Africa seemed to play no role here. In our study we show that Entandrophragma excelsum (Meliaceae) found in a remote valley at Kilimanjaro has to be included in the list of the world’s superlative trees. Estimating tree age from growth rates monitored by high resolution dendrometry indicates that tall individuals may reach more than 470 years of age. A unique combination of anatomical peculiarities an...

  1. Old trees: Extraction, Conservation Can Coexist

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Raf

    2013-01-01

    Letters Because large old trees are essential for forest ecosystem integrity and biodiversity, timber extraction in managed forests should preferentially be concentrated where large old trees are least likely to develop ("Global decline in large old trees," D. B. Lindenmayer et al., Perspectives, 7 December 2012, p. 1305). However, timber extraction and the conservation of large old trees are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Current forest policy and management practices in Flanders...

  2. A Durable Flash Memory Search Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Clay III, James; Wortman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We consider the task of optimizing the B-tree data structure, used extensively in operating systems and databases, for sustainable usage on multi-level flash memory. Empirical evidence shows that this new flash memory tree, or FM Tree, extends the operational lifespan of each block of flash memory by a factor of roughly 27 to 70 times, while still supporting logarithmic-time search tree operations.

  3. Using tree diversity to compare phylogenetic heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Seung-Jin; Matthews, Suzanne; Williams, Tiffani L

    2009-04-29

    Evolutionary trees are family trees that represent the relationships between a group of organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics are used to search stochastically for the best-scoring trees in tree space. Given that better tree scores are believed to be better approximations of the true phylogeny, traditional evaluation techniques have used tree scores to determine the heuristics that find the best scores in the fastest time. We develop new techniques to evaluate phylogenetic heuristics based on both tree scores and topologies to compare Pauprat and Rec-I-DCM3, two popular Maximum Parsimony search algorithms. Our results show that although Pauprat and Rec-I-DCM3 find the trees with the same best scores, topologically these trees are quite different. Furthermore, the Rec-I-DCM3 trees cluster distinctly from the Pauprat trees. In addition to our heatmap visualizations of using parsimony scores and the Robinson-Foulds distance to compare best-scoring trees found by the two heuristics, we also develop entropy-based methods to show the diversity of the trees found. Overall, Pauprat identifies more diverse trees than Rec-I-DCM3. Overall, our work shows that there is value to comparing heuristics beyond the parsimony scores that they find. Pauprat is a slower heuristic than Rec-I-DCM3. However, our work shows that there is tremendous value in using Pauprat to reconstruct trees-especially since it finds identical scoring but topologically distinct trees. Hence, instead of discounting Pauprat, effort should go in improving its implementation. Ultimately, improved performance measures lead to better phylogenetic heuristics and will result in better approximations of the true evolutionary history of the organisms of interest.

  4. A Multipurpose Tree for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Chudnoff; C. B. Briscoe

    1965-01-01

    Cadam (Anthocaephalus cadamba Miq.) grows very rapidly on a wide variety of sited in Puerto Rico. Tree form is excellent, seed is produced in abundance every year by mature trees, planting is easy and cheap, and relatively little care is required after planting. No important attacks of insects of disease have occurred on trees grown in Puerto Rico for 35 years. The...

  5. Street tree structural differences and associated stormwater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure approaches leverage vegetation and soil to improve environmental quality. Municipal street trees are crucial components of urban green infrastructure because they provide stormwater interception benefits and other ecosystem services. Thus, it is important to understand the patterns and drivers of structural heterogeneity in urban street tree assemblages. In this study, we compared the forest structure of street trees across nine communities along both geographic and demographic gradients in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Specifically, we used a two-part statistical model to compare both the proportion of sampled street segments containing zero trees, and basal area magnitude for street segments with trees. We made community-scale comparisons based on street tree management, socioeconomics, and geographic setting. Then, using modeled stormwater interception estimates from i-Tree Streets, we investigated the implications of heterogeneity in street tree assemblages for stormwater interception benefits. The forest structure of street trees varied across communities in relation to management practices, namely participation in the Tree City USA program. As a consequence of this structural difference, we observed a stark discrepancy in estimated stormwater interception between Tree City USA participants (128.7 m3/km street length) and non-participants (59.2 m3/km street length). While street tree assemblages did not vary by community poverty s

  6. New tree puller increases yield 20%

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Kerr

    1977-01-01

    A new tree harvester that extracts both taproot and stem makes a pine tree 20 percent more useful. The machine shears the lateral roots close to the taprrot and then plucks the entire tree from the ground like a carrot. The concept was developed by Dr. Peter Koch at the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Forest Experiment Station in Pineville, La. The shearing...

  7. On Tree-Constrained Matchings and Generalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Canzar (Stefan); K. Elbassioni; G.W. Klau (Gunnar); J. Mestre

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider the following \\textsc{Tree-Constrained Bipartite Matching} problem: Given two rooted trees $T_1=(V_1,E_1)$, $T_2=(V_2,E_2)$ and a weight function $w: V_1\\times V_2 \\mapsto \\mathbb{R}_+$, find a maximum weight matching $\\mathcal{M}$ between nodes of the two trees, such that

  8. Mapping tree density at a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T.W.; Glick, H.B.; Covey, K.R.; Bettigole, C.; Maynard, D.S.; Thomas, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Hintler, G.; Duguid, M.C.; Amatulli, G.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    The global extent and distribution of forest trees is central to our understanding of the terrestrial biosphere. We provide the first spatially continuous map of forest tree density at a global scale. This map reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of

  9. Community assessment of tropical tree biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Ida; Rutishauser, Ervan; Poulsen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    previous experience. Indeed, only experienced monitors were able to discriminate trees with low wood densities. Local ecological knowledge did not allow consistent tree identification across monitors. Conclusion Future REDD+ programmes may benefit from the systematic training of local monitors in tree DBH...

  10. The smallest Randic index for trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Randic indices among trees are determined, and the corresponding extremal trees are characterized. Keywords. Extremal graph; tree; the general Randic index. 1. Introduction. In 1975, Randic [6] introduced the branching index as the sum of d(u)d(v). −1/2 over all edges uv of a (molecular) graph G = (V, E), i.e.. R(G) = ∑.

  11. Aspects of insertion in random trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Reingold, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method formulated by Yao and used by Brown has yielded bounds on the fraction of nodes with specified properties in trees bult by a sequence of random internal nodes in a random tree built by binary search and insertion, and show that in such a tree about bounds better than those now known. We

  12. QDist—Quartet Distance Between Evolutionary Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund; Pedersen, Christian N. Storm

    2004-01-01

    QDist is a program for computing the quartet distance between two unrooted evolutionary trees, i.e. the number of quartet topology differences between the two trees, where a quartet topology is the topological subtree induced by four species. The implementation is based on an algorithm with running...... time O(n log² n), which makes it practical to compare large trees....

  13. INDIGENOUS WOODLAND TREE SPECIES OF ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    area, Abijata Shalla and Awash National Parks. At each site a total of 15 study trees were selected from 50 x 50 m releves. From each tree, data on tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), canopy depth and canopy diameter were collected. Effect of treeson undercanopy vegetation diversity was assessed by estimating ...

  14. Maintenance of carbohydrate transport in tall trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savage, Jessica A.; Beecher, Sierra D.; Clerx, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Trees present a critical challenge to long-distance transport because as a tree grows in height and the transport pathway increases in length, the hydraulic resistance of the vascular tissue should increase. This has led many to question whether trees can rely on a passive transport mechanism...

  15. A composition theorem for decision tree complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Montanaro, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    We completely characterise the complexity in the decision tree model of computing composite relations of the form h = g(f^1,...,f^n), where each relation f^i is boolean-valued. Immediate corollaries include a direct sum theorem for decision tree complexity and a tight characterisation of the decision tree complexity of iterated boolean functions.

  16. Tree planting: not a simple solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; William J. Libby

    1991-01-01

    There's no doubt about it. Planting trees has caught the attention of the American public. In his 1990 State of the Union address, President Bush proposed planting a billion Fees annually for the next ten years. Inspired by the potential for trees to reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate global climate change, tree-planting programs such as Treepeople and Global...

  17. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  18. Do you believe in palm trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Palms are real, but are they really trees? The answer depends on definitions. As usually tall, peremrial plants with roots, stems, and leaves, palms seem to qualify. Palms should also qualify because arborists care for them, and arborists care for trees, right? My introduction to botany class defined trees as plants that produce wood. Unraveling the question of whether...

  19. Evaluating realized genetic gains from tree improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair

    1993-01-01

    Tree improvement has become an essential part of the management of forest lands for wood production, and predicting yields and realized gains from forests planted with genetically-improved trees will become increasingly important. This paper discusses concepts of tree improvement and genetic gain important to growth and yield modeling, and reviews previous studies of...

  20. Which trees should be removed in thinning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In economically optimal management, trees that are removed in a thinning treatment should be selected on the basis of their value, relative value increment and the effect of removal on the growth of remaining trees. Large valuable trees with decreased value increment should be removed, especially when they overtop smaller trees. Methods: This study optimized the tree selection rule in the thinning treatments of continuous cover management when the aim is to maximize the profitability of forest management. The weights of three criteria (stem value, relative value increment and effect of removal on the competition of remaining trees were optimized together with thinning intervals. Results and conclusions: The results confirmed the hypothesis that optimal thinning involves removing predominantly large trees. Increasing stumpage value, decreasing relative value increment, and increasing competitive influence increased the likelihood that removal is optimal decision. However, if the spatial distribution of trees is irregular, it is optimal to leave large trees in sparse places and remove somewhat smaller trees from dense places. However, the benefit of optimal thinning, as compared to diameter limit cutting is not usually large in pure one-species stands. On the contrary, removing the smallest trees from the stand may lead to significant (30–40 % reductions in the net present value of harvest incomes. Keywords: Continuous cover forestry, Tree selection, High thinning, Optimal management, Spatial distribution, Spatial growth model

  1. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGROFORESTRY TREE PRODUCTS TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philiph

    A study to evaluate the contributions and economic benefits of agro-forestry tree products to rural farmers in Karim-Lamido Local ... derivable from this practice and its contributions and economic benefit to farmers' livelihood should be intensified ..... and fast growing tree species, and replacement for every tree felled. Gideon ...

  2. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  3. Tree Rings in the Tropics: Insights into the Ecology and Climate Sensitivity of Tropical Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brienen, R.J.W.; Schöngart, J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tree-ring studies provide important contributions to understanding the climate sensitivity of tropical trees and the effects of global change on tropical forests. This chapter reviews recent advances in tropical tree-ring research. In tropical lowlands, tree ring formation is mainly driven by

  4. Tree-space statistics and approximations for large-scale analysis of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan; Petersen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    parametrize the relevant parts of tree-space well. Using the developed approximate statistics, we illustrate how the structure and geometry of airway trees vary across a population and show that airway trees with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease come from a different distribution in tree-space than...

  5. Shedding light on tree growth : ring analysis of juvenile tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliz Gamboa, C.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484053X

    2010-01-01

    In the understory of tropical forests light is believed to be the main limiting growth factor for the newly established trees. Trees growing in shade of the understory may experience periods of slow radial growth. It is expected that gaps created by tree or branch fall will provoke tree growth

  6. RECOVERY OF WHEAT RESIDUE NITROGEN 15 AND RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore 85 kg ha-1 N as labelled ammonium sulfate (9.764% atomic excess) was applied in a three-split application. Fertiliser N recovery by wheat in the first year was 33.1%. At harvest, 64.8% of fertiliser N was found in the 0 - 80 cm profile as residual fertiliser-derived N; 2.1% of the applied N could not be accounted for ...

  7. Implementing municipal tree planting: Los Angeles million tree initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Pincetl

    2010-01-01

    Urban forests are increasingly being seen as an important infrastructure that can help cities remediate their environmental impacts. This work reports on the first steps in implementing a million tree program in Los Angeles and the ways such a biogenic—living—infrastructure has been approached. Numbers of studies have been done to quantify the benefits of urban forests...

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Oleosin Gene Family in 22 Tree Species: An Accelerator for Metabolic Engineering of BioFuel Crops and Agrigenomics Industrial Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping

    2015-09-01

    Trees contribute to enormous plant oil reserves because many trees contain 50%-80% of oil (triacylglycerols, TAGs) in the fruits and kernels. TAGs accumulate in subcellular structures called oil bodies/droplets, in which TAGs are covered by low-molecular-mass hydrophobic proteins called oleosins (OLEs). The OLEs/TAGs ratio determines the size and shape of intracellular oil bodies. There is a lack of comprehensive sequence analysis and structural information of OLEs among diverse trees. The objectives of this study were to identify OLEs from 22 tree species (e.g., tung tree, tea-oil tree, castor bean), perform genome-wide analysis of OLEs, classify OLEs, identify conserved sequence motifs and amino acid residues, and predict secondary and three-dimensional structures in tree OLEs and OLE subfamilies. Data mining identified 65 OLEs with perfect conservation of the "proline knot" motif (PX5SPX3P) from 19 trees. These OLEs contained >40% hydrophobic amino acid residues. They displayed similar properties and amino acid composition. Genome-wide phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that these proteins could be classified into five OLE subfamilies. There were distinct patterns of sequence conservation among the OLE subfamilies and within individual tree species. Computational modeling indicated that OLEs were composed of at least three α-helixes connected with short coils without any β-strand and that they exhibited distinct 3D structures and ligand binding sites. These analyses provide fundamental information in the similarity and specificity of diverse OLE isoforms within the same subfamily and among the different species, which should facilitate studying the structure-function relationship and identify critical amino acid residues in OLEs for metabolic engineering of tree TAGs.

  9. Tree-space statistics and approximations for large-scale analysis of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan; Petersen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of anatomical trees is hard to perform due to differences in the topological structure of the trees. In this paper we define statistical properties of leaf-labeled anatomical trees with geometric edge attributes by considering the anatomical trees as points in the geometric...... (like the mean) can be computed, but efficient alternatives are helpful in speeding up algorithms that use means iteratively, like hypothesis testing. In this paper, we take advantage of a very large dataset (N = 8016) to obtain computable approximations, under the assumption that the data trees...... space of leaf-labeled trees. This tree-space is a geodesic metric space where any two trees are connected by a unique shortest path, which corresponds to a tree deformation. However, tree-space is not a manifold, and the usual strategy of performing statistical analysis in a tangent space and projecting...

  10. Household Tree Planting in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia: Tree Species, Purposes, and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; Mekonnen, Alemu; Kassie, Menale; Köhlin, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Trees have multiple purposes in rural Ethiopia, providing significant economic and ecological benefits. Planting trees supplies rural households with wood products for their own consumption, as well for sale, and decreases soil degradation. We used cross-sectional household-level data to analyze the determinants of household tree planting and explored the most important tree attributes or purpose(s) that enhance the propensity to plant trees. We set up a sample selection framework that simult...

  11. Inducibility of d-ary trees

    OpenAIRE

    Czabarka, Éva; Dossou-Olory, Audace A. V.; Székely, László A.; Wagner, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Imitating a recently introduced invariant of trees, we initiate the study of the inducibility of $d$-ary trees (rooted trees whose vertex outdegrees are bounded from above by $d\\geq 2$) with a given number of leaves. We determine the exact inducibility for stars and binary caterpillars. For $T$ in the family of strictly $d$-ary trees (every vertex has $0$ or $d$ children), we prove that the difference between the maximum density of a $d$-ary tree $D$ in $T$ and the inducibility of $D$ is of o...

  12. Making CSB+-Tree Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...

  13. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...... proposed edge. The currently best algorithm for computing the refined Buneman tree from a given distance measure has a running time of O(n 5) and a space consumption of O(n 4). In this paper, we present an algorithm with running time O(n 3) and space consumption O(n 2). The improved complexity of our...

  14. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  15. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  16. Phosphorus nutrition of mycorrhizal trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, C; Dell, B

    2010-09-01

    Globally, phosphorus (P) limits productivity of trees in many forests and plantations especially in highly weathered, acidic or calcareous profiles. Most trees form mycorrhizal associations which are prevalent in the organic and mineral soil horizons. This review critically examines mechanisms that enhance the acquisition of P by tree roots. Mycorrhizal roots have a greater capacity to take up phosphate (Pi) from the soil solution than non-mycorrhizal root tips. Factors that contribute to this include the extent of extraradical hyphal penetration of soil and the physiology and biochemistry of the fungal/soil and fungal/plant interfaces. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) trees are likely to benefit from association with basidiomycetes that possess several high-affinity Pi transporters that are expressed in extraradical hyphae and whose expression is enhanced by P deficiency. To understand fully the role of these putative transporters in the symbiosis, data regarding their localization, Pi transport capacities and regulation are required. Some ECM fungi are able to effect release of Pi from insoluble mineral P through excretion of low-molecular-weight organic anions such as oxalate, but the relative contribution of insoluble P dissolution in situ remains to be quantified. How the production of oxalate is regulated by nitrogen remains a key question to be answered. Lastly, phosphatase release from mycorrhizas is likely to play a significant role in the acquisition of Pi from labile organic forms of P (Po). As labile forms of Po can constitute the major fraction of the total P in some tropical and temperate soils, a greater understanding of the forms of Po available to the phosphatases is warranted.

  17. Relationships between stem diameter at breast height (DBH), tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    buba

    amount of light that the tree intercepts for photosynthesis. The tree stem size has its own adaptive significance to a tree. It must be strong ... the amount of solar radiation intercepted by a tree. (Tanka, 2006). Stem dbh is also an important tree characteristics and an accurate prediction of tree dimensions. It has become ...

  18. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  19. Rooted triple consensus and anomalous gene trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Heiko A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anomalous gene trees (AGTs are gene trees with a topology different from a species tree that are more probable to observe than congruent gene trees. In this paper we propose a rooted triple approach to finding the correct species tree in the presence of AGTs. Results Based on simulated data we show that our method outperforms the extended majority rule consensus strategy, while still resolving the species tree. Applying both methods to a metazoan data set of 216 genes, we tested whether AGTs substantially interfere with the reconstruction of the metazoan phylogeny. Conclusion Evidence of AGTs was not found in this data set, suggesting that erroneously reconstructed gene trees are the most significant challenge in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among species with current data. The new method does however rule out the erroneous reconstruction of deep or poorly resolved splits in the presence of lineage sorting.

  20. Meta-learning in decision tree induction

    CERN Document Server

    Grąbczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on different variants of decision tree induction but also describes  the meta-learning approach in general which is applicable to other types of machine learning algorithms. The book discusses different variants of decision tree induction and represents a useful source of information to readers wishing to review some of the techniques used in decision tree learning, as well as different ensemble methods that involve decision trees. It is shown that the knowledge of different components used within decision tree learning needs to be systematized to enable the system to generate and evaluate different variants of machine learning algorithms with the aim of identifying the top-most performers or potentially the best one. A unified view of decision tree learning enables to emulate different decision tree algorithms simply by setting certain parameters. As meta-learning requires running many different processes with the aim of obtaining performance results, a detailed description of the experimen...

  1. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, J.R.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Agro-Residues: Surface Treatment and Characterization of Date Palm Tree Fiber as Composite Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. Elbadry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research are to investigate the effect of different surface treatment methods on the different properties of date palm fiber (DPF compared to raw DPF fibers such as surface morphology, density, thermal stability, and tensile properties. The first surface treatment is called surface hand cleaning which can be carried out by cleaning the fibers by soft sand cloth; the second one is the same as the first one after DPF heat treatment in the furnace at 100°C for 1.5 h and the third one is by chemical treatment with 1% NaOH at 100°C for 1 h. The results showed that the mechanical performance of DPF was enhanced by the different treatments and the chemical treatment has pronounced effect on the behavior of DPF. Raw fibers showed the highest variability and presented the lowest value of Weibull modulus, whereas the fibers showed less variability by carrying out the different treatments. Moreover, using soda treatment cleans the fiber surface which causes fibrillation and therefore the tensile strength of the fibers increases.

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the effect of gamma irradiation on total energy, dry organic matter digestibility and on digestible energy of organic matter for some agricultural residues (maize straw, lentils straw, cottonwood, residues of apple-tree pruning, olive-cake first and second treatment). Sample were irradiated at 0, 50 and 100 KGy. Total energy was estimated by calorimeter. Digestibility was estimated in vitro by the method of Tilly and Terry (1963). Two sheep with rumen fistula were used as rumen liquor donating animals. Irradiation resulted in increasing the digestion of organic and dry matter and also the digestible energy of organic matter in all residues used except lentils straw and olive-cake first treatment. The increase in digestible energy values of organic matter (kJ) at dose of 100 KGy were: 155, 105, 71 and 25 for residue of apple-tree pruning, maize straw, cottonwood and olive-cake second treatment, respectively. (author).28 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  4. OLIVE RESIDUES TO ENERGY CHAINS IN THE APULIA REGION PART I: BIOMASS POTENTIALS AND COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pantaleo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed research is to estimate the energy potentials of the olive trees pruning residues and olive husk residues in the Apulia region (Southern Italy and to compare the possible bioenergy conversion routes for heat and power generation. 46 006_Pantaleo(537_37 27-07-2009 11:20 Pagina 46 The part I of the research proposes a preliminary review of the olive oil chain residues in the Apulia region and an assessment of technical potentials and biomass supply costs. The investigation is carried out through a review of existing literature, structured interviews with operators, elaboration of available statistical data, assessment of the typology and current use of the by-products, analysis of olive trees pruning techniques and olive milling processes. The results show a high potential of pruning residues (about 177 kt/year at 15% moisture content and crude olive husk (about 915 kt/year at 50% average moisture content. The supply costs are, in most cases, compatible with the energy conversion routes, and in particular they result in the range of 45-55 €/t (35% moisture content for rotobales and chips from PR.

  5. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  7. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  8. Geology of Joshua Tree National Park geodatabase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cossette, Pamela M.

    2015-09-16

    The database in this Open-File Report describes the geology of Joshua Tree National Park and was completed in support of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and in cooperation with the National Park Service (NPS). The geologic observations and interpretations represented in the database are relevant to both the ongoing scientific interests of the USGS in southern California and the management requirements of NPS, specifically of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR).Joshua Tree National Park is situated within the eastern part of California’s Transverse Ranges province and straddles the transition between the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. The geologically diverse terrain that underlies JOTR reveals a rich and varied geologic evolution, one that spans nearly two billion years of Earth history. The Park’s landscape is the current expression of this evolution, its varied landforms reflecting the differing origins of underlying rock types and their differing responses to subsequent geologic events. Crystalline basement in the Park consists of Proterozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks intruded by a composite Mesozoic batholith of Triassic through Late Cretaceous plutons arrayed in northwest-trending lithodemic belts. The basement was exhumed during the Cenozoic and underwent differential deep weathering beneath a low-relief erosion surface, with the deepest weathering profiles forming on quartz-rich, biotite-bearing granitoid rocks. Disruption of the basement terrain by faults of the San Andreas system began ca. 20 Ma and the JOTR sinistral domain, preceded by basalt eruptions, began perhaps as early as ca. 7 Ma, but no later than 5 Ma. Uplift of the mountain blocks during this interval led to erosional stripping of the thick zones of weathered quartz-rich granitoid rocks to form etchplains dotted by bouldery tors—the iconic landscape of the Park. The stripped debris filled basins along the fault zones.Mountain ranges

  9. Inferring rooted species trees from unrooted gene trees using approximate Bayesian computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Ayed R A; Degnan, James H

    2017-11-01

    Methods for inferring species trees from gene trees motivated by incomplete lineage sorting typically use either rooted gene trees to infer a rooted species tree, or use unrooted gene trees to infer an unrooted species tree, which is then typically rooted using one or more outgroups. Theoretically, however, it has been known since 2011 that it is possible to consistently infer the root of the species tree directly from unrooted gene trees without assuming an outgroup. Here, we use approximate Bayesian computation to infer the root of the species tree from unrooted gene trees assuming the multispecies coalescent model. It is hoped that this approach will be useful in cases where an appropriate outgroup is difficult to find and gene trees do not follow a molecular clock. We use approximate Bayesian computation to infer the root of the species tree from unrooted gene trees. This approach could also be useful when there is prior information that makes a small number of root locations plausible in an unrooted species tree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  11. Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...

  12. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  13. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  14. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael; Gnaëpel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines.

  15. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  16. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. linked by α-(1- 4) glycosidic bonds into chains and chains. branch via α-(1- 6) linkage. Branching points are about every fourth residue – allows. glucose ...

  17. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Rae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  18. Bijective Diameters of Gene Tree Parsimony Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2017-08-04

    Synthesizing median trees from a collection of gene trees under the biologically motivated gene tree parsimony (GTP) costs has provided credible species tree estimates. GTP costs are defined for each of the classic evolutionary processes. These costs count the minimum number of events necessary to reconcile the gene tree with the species tree where the leaf-genes are mapped to the leaf-species through a function called labeling. To better understand the synthesis of median trees under these costs there is an increased interest in analyzing their diameters. The diameters of a GTP cost between a gene tree and a species tree are the maximum values of this cost of one or both topologies of the trees involved. We are concerned about the diameters of the GTP costs under bijective labelings. While these diameters are linear time computable for the gene duplication and deep coalescence costs, this has been unknown for the classic gene duplication and loss, and for the loss cost. For the first time, we show how to compute these diameters and proof that this can be achieved in linear time, and thus, completing the computational time analysis for all of the bijective diameters under the GTP costs.

  19. ETE: a python Environment for Tree Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Dopazo, Joaquín; Gabaldón, Toni

    2010-01-13

    Many bioinformatics analyses, ranging from gene clustering to phylogenetics, produce hierarchical trees as their main result. These are used to represent the relationships among different biological entities, thus facilitating their analysis and interpretation. A number of standalone programs are available that focus on tree visualization or that perform specific analyses on them. However, such applications are rarely suitable for large-scale surveys, in which a higher level of automation is required. Currently, many genome-wide analyses rely on tree-like data representation and hence there is a growing need for scalable tools to handle tree structures at large scale. Here we present the Environment for Tree Exploration (ETE), a python programming toolkit that assists in the automated manipulation, analysis and visualization of hierarchical trees. ETE libraries provide a broad set of tree handling options as well as specific methods to analyze phylogenetic and clustering trees. Among other features, ETE allows for the independent analysis of tree partitions, has support for the extended newick format, provides an integrated node annotation system and permits to link trees to external data such as multiple sequence alignments or numerical arrays. In addition, ETE implements a number of built-in analytical tools, including phylogeny-based orthology prediction and cluster validation techniques. Finally, ETE's programmable tree drawing engine can be used to automate the graphical rendering of trees with customized node-specific visualizations. ETE provides a complete set of methods to manipulate tree data structures that extends current functionality in other bioinformatic toolkits of a more general purpose. ETE is free software and can be downloaded from http://ete.cgenomics.org.

  20. TreeFam: a curated database of phylogenetic trees of animal gene families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Coghlan, Avril; Ruan, Jue

    2006-01-01

    TreeFam is a database of phylogenetic trees of gene families found in animals. It aims to develop a curated resource that presents the accurate evolutionary history of all animal gene families, as well as reliable ortholog and paralog assignments. Curated families are being added progressively......, based on seed alignments and trees in a similar fashion to Pfam. Release 1.1 of TreeFam contains curated trees for 690 families and automatically generated trees for another 11 646 families. These represent over 128 000 genes from nine fully sequenced animal genomes and over 45 000 other animal proteins...

  1. Whole-tree harvesting - consequences for climate and biodiversity; Heltraedsutnyttjande - konsekvenser foer klimat och biologisk maangfald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Haakan [Mid Sweden Univ., Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    Harvest residues, i.e. mainly branches and tops, are increasingly being used as biofuel in Sweden. Stumps left after final cutting may also be utilized. Thus, harvest of total tree biomass, so called whole-tree harvesting, can potentially become a regular practice in the future. Extraction of biomass may, however, have negative effects on forest productivity and decrease carbon stores of forest soils. This report reviews the knowledge about (1) the extent of logging residue and stump harvesting; (2) the carbon budget of production forests; (3) the biodiversity associated with residues and stumps in harvested areas and (4) the added effects of residue and stump harvest on carbon budget and biodiversity in contrast to the effects of stem wood harvest. Stumps are not harvested as forest fuels, i.e. whole-tree harvesting is currently not applied in Sweden. Residues, however, are harvested annually on ca. 20% of the final cuttings in Sweden. The corresponding harvested biomass amount is estimated to about 0.6 M ton carbon (C) at a maximum. Forest stands primarily selected for residue harvesting are located on mesic grounds with high productivity. They are usually dominated by Norway spruce, thereby generating large amounts of harvest residues. The gross biomass of residues in these sites is estimated to 12-20 tons C per hectare of which about 65-75% is extracted during harvest. The future potential of residue harvesting is estimated to about 3 M ton C (30 TWh) annually. The potential biomass amount of stumps is estimated to be comparable to that of residues. The average amount of residues harvested on production forest land in Sweden (22.5 M ha) is estimated to 0.025 ton C/year/ha. This is small compared to average carbon pools (e.g. total tree biomass, 45 ton C/ha; total litter and soil carbon, 85 ton C/ha) and average yearly carbon fluxes (e.g. accumulation, 1.8 ton C/ha; stem harvest, 0.6 ton C/ha; litter production, 1 ton C/ha; residues and stumps left at final

  2. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  3. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  4. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  5. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  6. Residual replacement strategies for Krylov subspace iterative methods for the convergence of true residuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H.A. van der; Ye, Q.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a strategy is proposed for alternative computations of the residual vectors in Krylov subspace methods, which improves the agreement of the computed residuals and the true residuals to the level of O(u)kAkkxk. Building on earlier ideas on residual replacement and on insights in

  7. Residual stress measurements of welded stainless steel 304 plate using the HANARO residual stress instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, M. K.; Lee, C. H.; Em, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    In order to nondestructively measure in-depth residual stress distribution of the metallic materials, it is unique method to use neutron diffraction. In this paper the principles of residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction is described. The residual stress distribution of welded strainless steeel 304 plate using te HANARO residual stress instrument is also described

  8. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... residues and ethylamine distillation residues. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  9. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  10. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N...... and denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  11. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  12. Helping to increase tree crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Tree crops such as coffee, coconuts, palm oil, citrus fruits and cocoa are of major importance to the economies of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and may be a prime source of foreign exchange earnings. The search for ways to improve efficiently the yields of crops like these - now being aided by the Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization - thus has a clearly defined practical goal. D. Nethsinghe deals here with some of the work. (author)

  13. VC-dimension of univariate decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Olcay Taner

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we give and prove the lower bounds of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC)-dimension of the univariate decision tree hypothesis class. The VC-dimension of the univariate decision tree depends on the VC-dimension values of its subtrees and the number of inputs. Via a search algorithm that calculates the VC-dimension of univariate decision trees exhaustively, we show that our VC-dimension bounds are tight for simple trees. To verify that the VC-dimension bounds are useful, we also use them to get VC-generalization bounds for complexity control using structural risk minimization in decision trees, i.e., pruning. Our simulation results show that structural risk minimization pruning using the VC-dimension bounds finds trees that are more accurate as those pruned using cross validation.

  14. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME diameter growth models for individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata trees in Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    Full Text Available An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and -2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1] and a compound symmetry structure (CS. The one-level (tree NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models.

  15. Monitoring antibiotic residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Next to the beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine, streptomycin is one of the mostly used antibiotics. High concentration of streptomycin could lead to ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Low concentration – as found in food – may cause allergies, destroy the intestinal flora and favor immunity to some pathogenic microorganisms. In 1948 chlortetracycline was isolated by Duggan as a metabolite and this was the first antibiotic substance of the group of tetracyclines. In the present paper there are presented the monitoring of the antibiotic residues in honey from Timis County. The residues of tetracycline and streptomycin in honey were determined by the method ELISA – a quantitative method of detection. The microtitre wells are coated with tetracycline and anti-streptomycin antibodies. Free antibiotic and immobilized antibiotic compete with the added antibiotic antibody (competitive immunoassay reaction. Any unbound antibody is then removed in a washing step. Bound conjugate enzymes convert the colorless chromogen into a blue product. The addition ofthe stop reagent leads to a color change from blue to yellow. The measurement is made photometrically at 450 nm. The absorption is inversely proportional to the antibiotic concentration in the sample.

  16. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  17. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  18. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  19. Deconvolution of the tree ring based delta13C record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, T.; Broecker, W.S.; Freyer, H.D.; Trumbore, S.

    1983-01-01

    We assumed that the tree-ring based 13 C/ 12 C record constructed by Freyer and Belacy (1983) to be representative of the fossil fuel and forest-soil induced 13 C/ 12 C change for atmospheric CO 2 . Through the use of a modification of the Oeschger et al. ocean model, we have computed the contribution of the combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas to this observed 13 C/ 12 C change. A large residual remains when the tree-ring-based record is corrected for the contribution of fossil fuel CO 2 . A deconvolution was performed on this residual to determine the time history and magnitude of the forest-soil reservoir changes over the past 150 years. Several important conclusions were reached. (1) The magnitude of the integrated CO 2 input from these sources was about 1.6 times that from fossil fuels. (2) The forest-soil contribution reached a broad maximum centered at about 1900. (3) Over the 2 decade period covered by the Mauna Loa atmospheric CO 2 content record, the input from forests and soils was about 30% that from fossil fuels. (4) The 13 C/ 12 C trend over the last 20 years was dominated by the input of fossil fuel CO 2 . (5) The forest-soil release did not contribute significantly to the secular increase in atmospheric CO 2 observed over the last 20 years. (6) The pre-1850 atmospheric p2 values must have been in the range 245 to 270 x 10 -6 atmospheres

  20. Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kerivin, Herve; Leblet, Jimmy; Simon, Gwendal; Zhou, Fen

    2011-01-01

    Given a graph and a root, the Maximum Bounded Rooted-Tree Packing (MBRTP) problem aims at finding K rooted-trees that span the largest subset of vertices, when each vertex has a limited outdegree. This problem is motivated by peer-to-peer streaming overlays in under-provisioned systems. We prove that the MBRTP problem is NP-complete. We present two polynomial-time algorithms that computes an optimal solution on complete graphs and trees respectively.

  1. Tank waste remediation system architecture tree; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECK, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The TWRS Architecture Tree presented in this document is a hierarchical breakdown to support the TWRS systems engineering analysis of the TWRS physical system, including facilities, hardware and software. The purpose for this systems engineering architecture tree is to describe and communicate the system's selected and existing architecture, to provide a common structure to improve the integration of work and resulting products, and to provide a framework as a basis for TWRS Specification Tree development

  2. Dead Trees Bring Life to Forest Critters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Nicholls; Mike Ostry

    2003-01-01

    What good is a dying or dead tree in a forest? Dead and dying trees don't awe us with their beauty; they just stand or lie there on the forest floor, offering no promise of lumber or other wood products we need. But if we look more closely at such trees, we may see lots of life in them: a raccoon family huddled in a burrow, a downy woodpecker excavating another...

  3. Behavior Trees for UAV Mission Management

    OpenAIRE

    Klöckner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Behavior trees are a recent development in artificial intelligence for computer games. Their application has been proposed to increase modularity of an unmanned aerial vehicle's control system. This paper first describes advantages of behavior trees for use in mission management. The paper then points out research towards their deployment. Finally, newly developed transient tasks are introduced to behavior trees. These allow for finite-state-machine-like initialization and interruption of tas...

  4. Tank waste remediation system architecture tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECK, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The TWRS Architecture Tree presented in this document is a hierarchical breakdown to support the TWRS systems engineering analysis of the TWRS physical system, including facilities, hardware and software. The purpose for this systems engineering architecture tree is to describe and communicate the system's selected and existing architecture, to provide a common structure to improve the integration of work and resulting products, and to provide a framework as a basis for TWRS Specification Tree development

  5. On Tree-Constrained Matchings and Generalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Canzar, Stefan; Elbassioni, Khaled; Klau, Gunnar W.; Mestre, Julián

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider the following \\textsc{Tree-Constrained Bipartite Matching} problem: Given two rooted trees $T_1=(V_1,E_1)$, $T_2=(V_2,E_2)$ and a weight function $w: V_1\\times V_2 \\mapsto \\mathbb{R}_+$, find a maximum weight matching $\\mathcal{M}$ between nodes of the two trees, such that none of the matched nodes is an ancestor of another matched node in either of the trees. This generalization of the classical bipartite matching problem appears, for example, in the computational ana...

  6. On the centroid of increasing trees

    OpenAIRE

    Durant, Kevin; Wagner, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    A centroid node in a tree is a node for which the sum of the distances to all other nodes attains its minimum, or equivalently a node with the property that none of its branches contains more than half of the other nodes. We generalise some known results regarding the behaviour of centroid nodes in random recursive trees (due to Moon) to the class of very simple increasing trees, which also includes the families of plane-oriented and $d$-ary increasing trees. In particular, we derive limits o...

  7. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  8. Computer aided fault tree synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear as well as non-nuclear organisations are showing during the past few years a growing interest in the field of reliability analysis. This urges for the development of powerful, state of the art methods and computer codes for performing such analysis on complex systems. In this report an interactive, computer aided approach is discussed, based on the well known fault tree technique. The time consuming and difficut task of manually constructing a system model (one or more fault trees) is replaced by an efficient interactive procedure in which the flexibility and the learning process inherent to the manual approach are combined with the accuracy in the modelling and the speed of the fully automatical approach. The method presented is based upon the use of a library containing component models. The possibility of setting up a standard library of models of general use and the link with a data collection system are discussed. The method has been implemented in the CAFTS-SALP software package which is described shortly in the report

  9. Tree asymmetry--a sensitive and practical measure for binary topological trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, J; Uylings, H B; Verwer, R W; Pentney, R J; Woldenberg, M J

    1992-09-01

    The topological structure of a binary tree is characterized by a measure called tree asymmetry, defined as the mean value of the asymmetry of its partitions. The statistical properties of this tree-asymmetry measure have been studied using a growth model for binary trees. The tree-asymmetry measure appears to be sensitive for topological differences and the tree-asymmetry expectation for the growth model that we used appears to be almost independent of the size of the trees. These properties and the simple definition make the measure suitable for practical use, for instance for characterizing, comparing and interpreting sets of branching patterns. Examples are given of the analysis of three sets of neuronal branching patterns. It is shown that the variance in tree-asymmetry values for these observed branching patterns corresponds perfectly with the variance predicted by the used growth model.

  10. Managing Tree Diversity: A Comparison of Suburban Development in Two Canadian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A. Nitoslawski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Is (suburban forest diversity shaped by previous land use? This study was designed to quantitatively assess the impacts of subdivision development on urban tree-species composition in two Canadian cities: Halifax, Nova Scotia, and London, Ontario. The main goal was to determine whether cities with contrasting pre-urbanized or pre-settlement landscapes—woodlands in Halifax and agricultural fields in London—also revealed differences in urban tree diversity losses and/or gains due to urbanization. In each city, four residential neighbourhoods representing two age categories, older and newer (40–50 years, <15 years, were examined and trees on three land types were sampled: public (street, private (residential, and remnant (woodland. All public street trees within the chosen neighbourhoods were inventoried and approximately 10% of the residential property lots were sampled randomly. Plots were examined in remnant forests in or near each city, representing the original forest habitats prior to agricultural and/or urban landscape transformations. Diameter at breast height, species richness and evenness, and proportions of native and non-native trees were measured. In both cities, streetscapes in newer neighbourhoods exhibit greater species richness and evenness, and are characterized by substantially more native trees. Despite this trend, developers and home owners continue to intensively plant non-native species on newer and smaller property lots. Older neighbourhoods in Halifax containing remnant forest stands hold the greatest number of native trees on private property, alluding to the importance of residual forest buffers and patches in promoting naturalness in the private urban forest. These results suggest that identifying and quantifying flows of species between green spaces during and after development is valuable in order to effectively promote native species establishment and enhance overall urban forest diversity.

  11. Experiences on Pretreatment and Pelletizing of Forestry Residues in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, L. [Univ. of Vigo (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environment

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the technical possibilities in order to use typical wastes from the Spanish forests so that to produce high quality Pellets as well as to study the technical problems in some specific by-products. One of the main barriers the Spanish market faces in order to consolidate the pelletizing technologies is the fact that there are very few industrial experiences of massive production using forestry residues biomass. Instead, industrial wastes such as sawdust and shavings have been more commonly used, to-day. To that purpose, a series of experiences on pretreatment and pelletizing of forestry residues are shown in this work, using to that end typical biomass forestry residues from the Mediterranean countries and making forced-drying studies, granulometric reduction and densifying experiences for the very first time in Spain. The engineering data were obtained from experiences with a trommel type dryer of about 1,000 Kg/h using pine wastes (P. pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and furze (Ulex europeaeus) as a raw material. Besides, the consumption in chipping and milling from wastes obtained from different parts of trees such as coniferous bark, branches, etc., are also analyzed, using to that end a pilot plant about 200 Kg/h. Finally, studies on pelletizing in a plant of 2,500 Kg/h capacity have been carried out. These in-depth studies try to determine the perspectives for forestry biomass management. Likewise, we also aim at pinning down the limits in using hard materials like the eucalyptus bark, as well as to grasp the potential of this type of wastes that have not been used in Spain yet.

  12. Characteristics and storage of whole-tree biomass for energy; Ensiharvennuspuun erilliskaesittely tehdasvarastolla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, J.

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of this thesis are to describe fuelwood characteristics and to determine how they are affected by length of storage, type of storage, fuel composition and tree species. The fuel characteristics of whole-tree biomass are discussed in terms of proximate and ultimate analysis, bulk density, heating value, particle size, composition and tree species, and the storage schedules presented in the seven enclosed papers. The study material comprises of small-sized trees from cleanings and thinnings, and logging residue from regeneration cuttings. The species studied are Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner) and trembling aspen (Populus tremula L.). The variability of the chemical composition and the heating value is small in any given tree component. However, significant differences were found between whole-tree components and species. The species factor, however, diminishes when the weighted heating value of crown, whole-stems or stump-root-system are considered. Crown material from regeneration cuttings has higher heating value than small-sized stems and whole trees. Heating values of whole-tree components and whole trees are higher at the northern extent of their range than further south in Ostrobothnia. Some correlation between lignin, carbohydrate and extractive contents with effective heating value was found. The most significant property of fuelwood is moisture content because it determines the effective heating value of the fuelwood. It also varies with a wide range. However, moisture content can be manipulated to some extent by choosing the right procurement schedules. Transpiration drying is a valid drying method prior to comminution which will shorten the time of artificial chip drying. It can be applied to both small-sized trees and logging residues

  13. Tree architecture and life-history strategies across 200 co-occurring tropical tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, Y.; Kohyama, T.S.; Kubo, T.; Kassim, A.R.; Poorter, L.; Sterck, F.J.; Potts, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tree architecture is thought to allow species to partition horizontal and vertical light gradients in the forest canopy. Tree architecture is closely related to light capture, carbon gain and the efficiency with which trees reach the canopy. Previous studies that investigated how light gradients

  14. Minimum variance rooting of phylogenetic trees and implications for species tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Uyen; Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees inferred using commonly-used models of sequence evolution are unrooted, but the root position matters both for interpretation and downstream applications. This issue has been long recognized; however, whether the potential for discordance between the species tree and gene trees impacts methods of rooting a phylogenetic tree has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we introduce a new method of rooting a tree based on its branch length distribution; our method, which minimizes the variance of root to tip distances, is inspired by the traditional midpoint rerooting and is justified when deviations from the strict molecular clock are random. Like midpoint rerooting, the method can be implemented in a linear time algorithm. In extensive simulations that consider discordance between gene trees and the species tree, we show that the new method is more accurate than midpoint rerooting, but its relative accuracy compared to using outgroups to root gene trees depends on the size of the dataset and levels of deviations from the strict clock. We show high levels of error for all methods of rooting estimated gene trees due to factors that include effects of gene tree discordance, deviations from the clock, and gene tree estimation error. Our simulations, however, did not reveal significant differences between two equivalent methods for species tree estimation that use rooted and unrooted input, namely, STAR and NJst. Nevertheless, our results point to limitations of existing scalable rooting methods.

  15. Evaluating a non-destructive method for calibrating tree biomass equations derived from tree branching architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacFarlane, D.W.; Kuyah, S.; Mulia, R.; Dietz, J.; Muthuri, C.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional branch analysis (FBA) is a promising non-destructive alternative to the standard destructive method of tree biomass equation development. In FBA, a theoretical model of tree branching architecture is calibrated with measurements of tree stems and branches to estimate the coefficients of

  16. The history of Newton's apple tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  17. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  18. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  19. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  20. Damages to soil and tree species by cable-skidding in Caspian forests of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavankar, Farzam; Bonyad, Amir E.; Nikooy, Mehrdad; Picchio, Rodolfo; Venanzi, Rachele; Calienno, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: The main aims of this study were to determine of damage level to residual stand and soil disturbance from mechanized selection logging. Area of study: Mixed beech stands in Caspian forests, northern Iran. Material and methods: Point-transect and systematic plot sampling were used for assessing damages to soil and trees, respectively. Main results: 89% of forest soil area was undisturbed or shallow disturbed, and 5.2% was deep disturbed. Soil bulk density of top 10 cm in the winching corridors, ruts and skid trails were increased 10.7%, 20.6% and 32.1% respectively than controlled area. Frequency of damages to regeneration and trees were 12% and 11.2%. The frequency of damages to regeneration was increased with increasing of their heights, but frequency of damages to trees was decreased with increasing of their diameter. The most type of damages was bole wounds in sizes of 100 to 200 cm2 within 1 m from the ground level, and deep wounds. The frequency of damages was different in tree species (p = 0.001). The mean size of bole wounds was 174 cm2, and the mean height of bole wounds was 70 cm from ground level. The intensity of wounds on trees bole were decreased with increasing of their heights from ground level (p = 0.02), while their sizes were increased (p = 0.001). Research highlights: Winching of logs was the main cause of damages to soil and residual stand. The detailed planning strategy will reduce damage to level which is acceptable and predictable.

  1. Damages to soil and tree species by cable-skidding in Caspian forests of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavankar, Farzam; Bonyad, Amir E.; Nikooy, Mehrdad; Picchio, Rodolfo; Venanzi, Rachele; Calienno, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The main aims of this study were to determine of damage level to residual stand and soil disturbance from mechanized selection logging. Area of study: Mixed beech stands in Caspian forests, northern Iran. Material and methods: Point-transect and systematic plot sampling were used for assessing damages to soil and trees, respectively. Main results: 89% of forest soil area was undisturbed or shallow disturbed, and 5.2% was deep disturbed. Soil bulk density of top 10 cm in the winching corridors, ruts and skid trails were increased 10.7%, 20.6% and 32.1% respectively than controlled area. Frequency of damages to regeneration and trees were 12% and 11.2%. The frequency of damages to regeneration was increased with increasing of their heights, but frequency of damages to trees was decreased with increasing of their diameter. The most type of damages was bole wounds in sizes of 100 to 200 cm2 within 1 m from the ground level, and deep wounds. The frequency of damages was different in tree species (p = 0.001). The mean size of bole wounds was 174 cm2, and the mean height of bole wounds was 70 cm from ground level. The intensity of wounds on trees bole were decreased with increasing of their heights from ground level (p = 0.02), while their sizes were increased (p = 0.001). Research highlights: Winching of logs was the main cause of damages to soil and residual stand. The detailed planning strategy will reduce damage to level which is acceptable and predictable.

  2. DATING OF LATE PLEISTOCENE TREE-RING SERIES FROM JAPAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, J.; Imamura, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Boaretto, E.; Rebollo Franco, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    We have radiocarbon dated series of tree rings from 2 fossil trees (named ND-113 and the Fuji tree) buried in fossil volcanic avalanche deposits in Japan. They are dendrochronologically floating, dating beyond the tree-ring part of the C-14 calibration curve. The trees show about 350 and 400 annual

  3. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  4. Fast Tree: Computing Large Minimum-Evolution Trees with Profiles instead of a Distance Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Price, Morgan; S. Dehal, Paramvir; P. Arkin, Adam

    2009-07-31

    Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree. For an alignment with N sequences, L sites, and a different characters, a distance matrix requires O(N^2) space and O(N^2 L) time, but FastTree requires just O( NLa + N sqrt(N) ) memory and O( N sqrt(N) log(N) L a ) time. To estimate the tree's reliability, FastTree uses local bootstrapping, which gives another 100-fold speedup over a distance matrix. For example, FastTree computed a tree and support values for 158,022 distinct 16S ribosomal RNAs in 17 hours and 2.4 gigabytes of memory. Just computing pairwise Jukes-Cantor distances and storing them, without inferring a tree or bootstrapping, would require 17 hours and 50 gigabytes of memory. In simulations, FastTree was slightly more accurate than neighbor joining, BIONJ, or FastME; on genuine alignments, FastTree's topologies had higher likelihoods. FastTree is available at http://microbesonline.org/fasttree.

  5. Percutaneous removal of residual intrahepatic stones through transjejunal T-tube tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Do, Young Soo; Byum, Hong Sik; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil; Lee, Yong

    1992-01-01

    Interventional procedures for residual biliary stones are well established. In case of biliary-jejunal anastomoses, the route of interventional access is usually T-tube choledochostomy tract. But in case of recurrent pyogenic cholangiohepatitis, the extraction of residual intrahepatic stones through conventional T-tube choledochostomy tract is troublesome due to multifocal intrahepatic biliary stricture, multiplicity of stones, impacted stones, and the large size of stones. Thus, replaced interventional procedures with complex techniques such as dilatation of stricture and crushing of stones are mandatory. We required the surgeon to place a T-tube at jejunal site for removal of residual biliary stones in ten patients with choledochojejunostomy. In all cases, T-tube was inserted into jejunum, and its upper limb was place within the CBD through the anastomotic site. Interventional instruments, then, were introduced into the jejunum and manipulated in the biliary tree through the anastomotic site. With this approach, we could successful retrieve residual biliary stones in bulk through the anastomotic site and release the stones in the jejunal lumen. Large stones also could be retrieve easily into the jejunal lumen without crushing. Our experience suggest that this approach can provide simpler and time saving access for removal of residual biliary stones in cases of choledochojejunostomy, and can avoid additional operations such as attaching jejunal segment extraperitoneally beneath the abdominal wall

  6. Genealogical Trees of Scientific Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waumans, Michaël Charles; Bersini, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Many results have been obtained when studying scientific papers citations databases in a network perspective. Articles can be ranked according to their current in-degree and their future popularity or citation counts can even be predicted. The dynamical properties of such networks and the observation of the time evolution of their nodes started more recently. This work adopts an evolutionary perspective and proposes an original algorithm for the construction of genealogical trees of scientific papers on the basis of their citation count evolution in time. The fitness of a paper now amounts to its in-degree growing trend and a "dying" paper will suddenly see this trend declining in time. It will give birth and be taken over by some of its most prevalent citing "offspring". Practically, this might be used to trace the successive published milestones of a research field.

  7. Tree and nontree multiparticle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, H.; Vaughn, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the behavior of the connected n-point function in a zero-dimensional scalar theory (scrL=-1/2m 2 φ 2 -1/4λφ 4 ). The problematic n exclamation point(√λ ) n behavior for large n, previously found for tree graphs in scalar field theory, is again obtained in saddle-point approximation in this model. However, a similar behavior, n exclamation point[f(λ)] n , persists in the full theory, where f∼ √λ for λ→0, f∼λ -1/4 for λ much-gt 1. This behavior can be traced to the existence of zeros in the complex J plane of the generating functional Z(J), which in turn is controlled by the asymptotic behavior in |J| of Z(J) calculated in saddle-point approximation. The application of these results to field theory is discussed

  8. A coinductive calculus of binary trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Silva (Alexandra); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the set T_A of infinite binary trees with nodes labelled in a semiring A from a coalgebraic perspective. We present coinductive definition and proof principles based on the fact that T_A carries a final coalgebra structure. By viewing trees as formal power series, we develop a

  9. Efficient Computation of Popular Phylogenetic Tree Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Sandel, Brody Steven; Cheliotis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Given a phylogenetic tree $\\mathcal{T}$ of n nodes, and a sample R of its tips (leaf nodes) a very common problem in ecological and evolutionary research is to evaluate a distance measure for the elements in R. Two of the most common measures of this kind are the Mean Pairwise Distance ($\\ensurem...... software package for processing phylogenetic trees....

  10. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  11. Do Trees Tell About the Past?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tree, chronos = time, logos = study. .... The heart- wood in many species has different colors and hues. The ratio of sapwood to heartwood varies across species. Some of the climate change models that use tree physiology for .... The principle of limiting factors states that the rate of plant process constrained by the primary.

  12. Structure, composition, and condition of overstory trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Todd F. Hutchinson; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2003-01-01

    The structure, composition, and condition of overstory trees in the four study areas prior to prescribed fire treatments are summarized. Stand initiation dates were similar among the study areas (ca. 1885), and coincided with the decline of the charcoal iron industry in southern Ohio. Tree basal area averaged 26.8m²/ha and was not significantly different among...

  13. Market-based approaches to tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry

    2008-01-01

    A recent four-part series in Arborist News outlined different appraisal processes used to value urban trees. The final article in the series described the three generally accepted approaches to tree valuation: the sales comparison approach, the cost approach, and the income capitalization approach. The author, D. Logan Nelson, noted that the sales comparison approach...

  14. Navigation and Tree Mapping in Orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Andersen, Jens Christian

    . The average accuracy for the center point estimation is 0.2 m in the along track direction and 0.35 m in the across track direction. The goal of the tree mapping algorithm is create a database of individual trees, and be the basis for creation of a graph map that can be used for mission planning...

  15. A Fuzzy Neural Tree for Possibilistic Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative neural fuzzy system is considered for possibilistic reliability using a neural tree structure with nodes of neuronal type. The total tree structure works effectively as a fuzzy logic system where the possibility theory plays important role with Gaussian possibility distribution at the

  16. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  17. The production of homozygous tree material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard F. Stettler; George E. Howe

    1966-01-01

    Homozygous trees will never be the desired ultimate step in a forest tree improvement program. However, they will serve many purposes in forest genetics research: (1) in the detection of genetic markers; (2) in the isolation of traits under simple genetic control for the study of growth and differentiation phenomena; (3) as a tool as well as reference material in the...

  18. Induced chemical defences in Colophospermum mopane trees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in which Mopane (Colophospermum mopane) trees were subjected to three different canopy treatments:felling of trees at a mean height of 0.7m above ground level, felling at a height of 2m, or pruning of selected branches. These treatments were intended to simulate wood harvesting by ...

  19. Binary trees equipped with semivaluations | Pajoohesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our interest in this lattice stems from its application to binary decision trees. Binary decision trees form a crucial tool for algorithmic time analysis. The lattice properties of Tn are studied and we show that every Tn has a sublattice isomorphic to Tn-1 and prove that Tn is generated by Tn-1. Also we show that the distance from ...

  20. Structure of an urban Christmas tree market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1973-01-01

    The retail Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N.C., was studied 3 years. Types of retailers and their sales are described. Best sales were made by dealers who had lots on heavily traveled streets in business districts, had ample parking facilities, advertised, and displayed their trees well.

  1. Elimination of Constraints from Feature Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2008-01-01

    We present an algorithm which eliminates constraints from a feature model whose feature diagram is a tree and whose constraints are "requires" or "excludes" constraints. The algorithm constructs a feature tree which has the same semantics as the original feature model. The computational complexity

  2. Understanding search trees via statistical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the random m-ary search tree model (where m stands for the number of branches of the search tree), an important problem for data storage in computer science, using a variety of statistical physics techniques that allow us to obtain exact asymptotic results. In particular, we show that the probability ...

  3. Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chien, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam (Summary for the library) Effective conservation of threatened tree species requires information on natural dynamics and future prospects of populations of these species. Such information can be obtained from demographic studies. We investigated the

  4. Exploring connections between trees and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey Donovan; Marie. Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Humans have intuitively understood the value of trees to their physical and mental health since the beginning of recorded time. A scientist with the Pacific Northwest Research Station wondered if such a link could be scientifically validated. His research team took advantage of an infestation of emerald ash borer, an invasive pest that kills ash trees, to conduct a...

  5. Naive Fault Tree : formulation of the approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M

    2017-01-01

    Naive Fault Tree (NFT) accepts a single value or a range of values for each basic event and returns values for the top event. This accommodates the need of commonly used Fault Trees (FT) for precise data making them prone to data concerns and limiting their area of application. This paper extends

  6. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Replacing the function f by g, we get the required estimate for N(p, N). D. Proof of Theorem 1.1. When p = 7, we clearly see that (1, 2) is a consecutive pair of quadratic residue modulo 7. Assume that p ≥ 11. If 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p, then we have (9, 10) as a consecutive pair of quadratic residues modulo p, ...

  7. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others

  8. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

  9. Tree Height and DBH Growth Model Establishment of Main Tree Species in Wuling Mountain Small Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Xiaoling; Chen, Jianhua; Tian, Yuxin

    2018-01-01

    Taken 4 main tree species in the Wuling mountain small watershed as research objects, 57 typical sample plots were set up according to the stand type, site conditions and community structure. 311 goal diameter-class sample trees were selected according to diameter-class groups of different tree-height grades, and the optimal fitting models of tree height and DBH growth of main tree species were obtained by stem analysis using Richard, Logistic, Korf, Mitscherlich, Schumacher, Weibull theoretical growth equations, and the correlation coefficient of all optimal fitting models reached above 0.9. Through the evaluation and test, the optimal fitting models possessed rather good fitting precision and forecast dependability.

  10. Harvesting tree biomass at the stand level to assess the accuracy of field and airborne biomass estimation in savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Matthew S; Asner, Gregory P; Swemmer, Tony

    2013-07-01

    Tree biomass is an integrated measure of net growth and is critical for understanding, monitoring, and modeling ecosystem functions. Despite the importance of accurately measuring tree biomass, several fundamental barriers preclude direct measurement at large spatial scales, including the facts that trees must be felled to be weighed and that even modestly sized trees are challenging to maneuver once felled. Allometric methods allow for estimation of tree mass using structural characteristics, such as trunk diameter. Savanna trees present additional challenges, including limited available allometry and a prevalence of multiple stems per individual. Here we collected airborne lidar data over a semiarid savanna adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and then harvested and weighed woody plant biomass at the plot scale to provide a standard against which field and airborne estimation methods could be compared. For an existing airborne lidar method, we found that half of the total error was due to averaging canopy height at the plot scale. This error was eliminated by instead measuring maximum height and crown area of individual trees from lidar data using an object-based method to identify individual tree crowns and estimate their biomass. The best object-based model approached the accuracy of field allometry at both the tree and plot levels, and it more than doubled the accuracy compared to existing airborne methods (17% vs. 44% deviation from harvested biomass). Allometric error accounted for less than one-third of the total residual error in airborne biomass estimates at the plot scale when using allometry with low bias. Airborne methods also gave more accurate predictions at the plot level than did field methods based on diameter-only allometry. These results provide a novel comparison of field and airborne biomass estimates using harvested plots and advance the role of lidar remote sensing in savanna ecosystems.

  11. Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented Classical Least Squares for the Simultaneous Determination of Diphenhydramine, Benzonatate, Guaifenesin and Phenylephrine in their Quaternary Mixture.

  12. RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time...

  13. Tree growth studies on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Turcotte, M.

    1982-01-01

    Coniferous trees planted in 1974 and deciduous species that have volunteered since 1970 on uranium mill tailings that had been stabilized to varying degrees using limestone and vegetation were evaluated. Their survival and growth rates were compared with those from other investigations. Competition for light appears to be a major contributor to mortality. Differences in soil moisture conditions under a tree stand as compared to those under a grass sward are potentially significant enough to affect the tailings hydrology and effluent contamination. Recommendations include planting seeds of deciduous species or deciduous and coniferous seedlings on strips of freshly disturbed tailings. The disturbed strips would provide reduced competition for the initial year and assist in tree survival. The planting of block stands of coniferous or deciduous trees would be useful for evaluating the hydrological impact of the trees as compared to the present grass sward

  14. Big data of tree species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Enquist, Brian J.; Maitner, Brian

    2018-01-01

    are currently available in big databases, several challenges hamper their use, notably geolocation problems and taxonomic uncertainty. Further, we lack a complete picture of the data coverage and quality assessment for open/public databases of tree occurrences. Methods: We combined data from five major......Background: Trees play crucial roles in the biosphere and societies worldwide, with a total of 60,065 tree species currently identified. Increasingly, a large amount of data on tree species occurrences is being generated worldwide: from inventories to pressed plants. While many of these data...... aggregators of occurrence data (e.g. Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Botanical Information and Ecological Network v.3, DRYFLOR, RAINBIO and Atlas of Living Australia) by creating a workflow to integrate, assess and control data quality of tree species occurrences for species distribution modeling...

  15. Success tree method of resources evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qinglan; Sun Wenpeng

    1994-01-01

    By applying the reliability theory in system engineering, the success tree method is used to transfer the expert's recognition on metallogenetic regularities into the form of the success tree. The aim of resources evaluation is achieved by means of calculating the metallogenetic probability or favorability of the top event of the success tree. This article introduces in detail, the source, principle of the success tree method and three kinds of calculation methods, expounds concretely how to establish the success tree of comprehensive uranium metallogenesis as well as the procedure from which the resources evaluation is performed. Because this method has not restrictions on the number of known deposits and calculated area, it is applicable to resources evaluation for different mineral species, types and scales and possesses good prospects of development

  16. Timing-Driven-Testable Convergent Tree Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnie A. Huang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry lookahead adders have been, over the years, implemented in complex arithmetic units due to their regular structure which leads to efficient VLSI implementation for fast adders. In this paper, timing-driven testability synthesis is first performed on a tree adder. It is shown that the structure of the tree adder provides for a high fanout with an imbalanced tree structure, which likely contributes to a racing effect and increases the delay of the circuit. The timing optimization is then realized by reducing the maximum fanout of the adder and by balancing the tree circuit. For a 56-b testable tree adder, the optimization produces a 6.37%increase in speed of the critical path while only contributing a 2.16% area overhead. The full testability of the circuit is achieved in the optimized adder design.

  17. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sören

    2017-11-22

    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical attributes that drive the kinetic behavior of a plant and the exothermic reaction of the combustion. Coupled with realistic physics for rods, the particles enable dynamic branch motions. We model material properties, such as moisture and charring behavior, and associate them with individual particles. The combustion is efficiently processed in the surface domain of the tree model on a polygonal mesh. A user can dynamically interact with the model by initiating fires and by inducing stress on branches. The flames realistically propagate through the tree model by consuming the available resources. Our method runs at interactive rates and supports multiple tree instances in parallel. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerous examples and evaluate its plausibility against the combustion of real wood samples.

  18. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  19. New perspectives on the ecology of tree structure and tree communities through terrestrial laser scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Jackson, Tobias; Patrick Bentley, Lisa; Lau, Alvaro; Shenkin, Alexander; Herold, Martin; Calders, Kim; Bartholomeus, Harm; Disney, Mathias I

    2018-04-06

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) opens up the possibility of describing the three-dimensional structures of trees in natural environments with unprecedented detail and accuracy. It is already being extensively applied to describe how ecosystem biomass and structure vary between sites, but can also facilitate major advances in developing and testing mechanistic theories of tree form and forest structure, thereby enabling us to understand why trees and forests have the biomass and three-dimensional structure they do. Here we focus on the ecological challenges and benefits of understanding tree form, and highlight some advances related to capturing and describing tree shape that are becoming possible with the advent of TLS. We present examples of ongoing work that applies, or could potentially apply, new TLS measurements to better understand the constraints on optimization of tree form. Theories of resource distribution networks, such as metabolic scaling theory, can be tested and further refined. TLS can also provide new approaches to the scaling of woody surface area and crown area, and thereby better quantify the metabolism of trees. Finally, we demonstrate how we can develop a more mechanistic understanding of the effects of avoidance of wind risk on tree form and maximum size. Over the next few years, TLS promises to deliver both major empirical and conceptual advances in the quantitative understanding of trees and tree-dominated ecosystems, leading to advances in understanding the ecology of why trees and ecosystems look and grow the way they do.

  20. Cache-Oblivious Search Trees via Binary Trees of Small Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Jacob, R.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a version of cache oblivious search trees which is simpler than the previous proposal of Bender, Demaine and Farach-Colton and has the same complexity bounds. In particular, our data structure avoids the use of weight balanced B-trees, and can be implemented as just a single array......, and range queries in worst case O(logB n + k/B) memory transfers, where k is the size of the output.The basic idea of our data structure is to maintain a dynamic binary tree of height log n+O(1) using existing methods, embed this tree in a static binary tree, which in turn is embedded in an array in a cache...... oblivious fashion, using the van Emde Boas layout of Prokop.We also investigate the practicality of cache obliviousness in the area of search trees, by providing an empirical comparison of different methods for laying out a search tree in memory....