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Sample records for residual risks details

  1. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  2. Residual risk over-estimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The way nuclear power plants are built practically excludes accidents with serious consequences. This is attended to by careful selection of material, control of fabrication and regular retesting as well as by several safety systems working independently. But the remaining risk, a 'hypothetic' uncontrollable incident with catastrophic effects is the main subject of the discussion on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. The this year's 'Annual Meeting on Nuclear Engineering' in Mannheim and the meeting 'Reactor Safety Research' in Cologne showed, that risk studies so far were too pessimistic. 'Best estimate' calculations suggest that core melt-down accidents only occur if almost all safety systems fail, that accidents take place much more slowly, and that the release of radioactive fission products is by several magnitudes lower than it was assumed until now. (orig.) [de

  3. Prediction of Detailed Enzyme Functions and Identification of Specificity Determining Residues by Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Chioko; Nagano, Nozomi; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Determining enzyme functions is essential for a thorough understanding of cellular processes. Although many prediction methods have been developed, it remains a significant challenge to predict enzyme functions at the fourth-digit level of the Enzyme Commission numbers. Functional specificity of enzymes often changes drastically by mutations of a small number of residues and therefore, information about these critical residues can potentially help discriminate detailed functions. However, because these residues must be identified by mutagenesis experiments, the available information is limited, and the lack of experimentally verified specificity determining residues (SDRs) has hindered the development of detailed function prediction methods and computational identification of SDRs. Here we present a novel method for predicting enzyme functions by random forests, EFPrf, along with a set of putative SDRs, the random forests derived SDRs (rf-SDRs). EFPrf consists of a set of binary predictors for enzymes in each CATH superfamily and the rf-SDRs are the residue positions corresponding to the most highly contributing attributes obtained from each predictor. EFPrf showed a precision of 0.98 and a recall of 0.89 in a cross-validated benchmark assessment. The rf-SDRs included many residues, whose importance for specificity had been validated experimentally. The analysis of the rf-SDRs revealed both a general tendency that functionally diverged superfamilies tend to include more active site residues in their rf-SDRs than in less diverged superfamilies, and superfamily-specific conservation patterns of each functional residue. EFPrf and the rf-SDRs will be an effective tool for annotating enzyme functions and for understanding how enzyme functions have diverged within each superfamily. PMID:24416252

  4. Research items regarding seismic residual risk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    After learning the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP severe accidents in 2011, the government investigation committee proposed the effective use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and now it is required to establish new safety rules reflecting the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and proposed severe accident measures. Since the Seismic Design Guide has been revised on September 19, 2006, JNES has been discussing seismic PRA (Levels 1-3) methods to review licensees' residual risk assessment while preparing seismic PRA models. Meanwhile, new safety standards for light water reactors are to be issued and enforced on July 2013, which require the residual risk of tsunami, in addition to earthquakes, should be lowered as much as possible. The Fukushima accidents raised the problems related to risk assessment, e.g. approaches based on multi-hazard (earthquake and tsunami), multi-unit, multi-site, and equipment's common cause failure. This fiscal year, while performing seismic and/or tsunami PRA to work on these problems, JNES picked up the equipment whose failure greatly contribute to core damage, surveyed accident management measures on those equipment as well as effectiveness to reduce core damage probability. (author)

  5. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  6. Food toxicology. Residues and contaminants: Risks and consumer protection; Lebensmitteltoxikologie. Rueckstaende und Kontaminanten: Risiken und Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, H. [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, ZA Lebensmitteltoxikologie (Germany); Steinberg, P. [Potsdam Univ., Inst. fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft (Germany); Kietzmann, M. (eds.) [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie/Pharmazie (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In a detailed introduction, the basic methods of risk assessment for potentially toxic food constituents are presented as well as the analytical methods applied for measuring even very small concentrations of contaminants. The main classes of substances relevant in foods ar represented, i.e. animal drugs, fungicides and herbicides, natural toxins, contaminants, prions from BSE-infested animals and residues of 'new' proteins and 'new' DNA from genetically modified foods. New legislation in Germany and Europe is presented including the National Residue Monitoring Plant which is to enable annual monitoring of residue concentrations in foods derived from animals. (orig.)

  7. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  8. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

  9. Residual Risk Report to Congress 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a description of the methods and general framework that EPA uses to assess the public health and environmental risk which may remain after implementation of air toxics emissions standards required under section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act.

  10. Cutting costs through detailed probabilistic fire risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz; Huser, Asmund; Vianna, Savio [Det Norske Veritas PRINCIPIA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new procedure for calculation of fire risks to offshore installations has been developed. The purposes of the procedure are to calculate the escalation and impairment frequencies to be applied in quantitative risk analyses, to optimize Passive Fire Protection (PFP) arrangement, and to optimize other fire mitigation means. The novelties of the procedure are that it uses state of the art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models to simulate fires and radiation, as well as the use of a probabilistic approach to decide the dimensioning fire loads. A CFD model of an actual platform was used to investigate the dynamic properties of a large set of jet fires, resulting in detailed knowledge of the important parameters that decide the severity of offshore fires. These results are applied to design the procedure. Potential increase in safety is further obtained for those conditions where simplified tools may have failed to predict abnormal heat loads due to geometrical effects. Using a field example it is indicated that the probabilistic approach can give significant reductions in PFP coverage with corresponding cost savings, still keeping the risk at acceptable level. (author)

  11. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  12. Managing hazards in place: The risks of residual risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2017-10-01

    Managing hazards in place (MHP) is a policy instrument in environmental health that allows less than complete removal, abatement, or remediation of environmental hazards. The practice of minimizing exposure to hazards rather than removing them is widely recognized as part of the toolbox of environmental protection for human and ecosystem health. The concept of managing hazards in place is embedded in several environmental statutes and regulations in the US notably the waste management regulations, as well as in the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act. While this commentary focuses largely on applications of MHP in the US, this policy is also utilized by agencies in many other countries for managing hazardous waste sites, lead in housing and drinking water systems, and environmental contamination of rivers and estuaries. The rationale for this concept is not difficult to understand: MHP policies can reduce the costs of meeting environmental goals; it can provide opportunities for access to resources that have been contaminated by past actions such as waste disposal, and it can enhance land and property values as well as tax revenues all of which are important to home owners and communities. The concerns related to this concept are also not difficult to understand: an incompletely abated or contained hazard may present future exposure risks to humans and environmental biota. Further, the compromise implicit in MHP is the assurance of indefinite oversight and monitoring to detect any releases. To that extent, MHP involves both sociology as well as toxicology and the exposure sciences. Because of the prevalence of managing hazards in place, this commentary suggests that evaluation of its performance is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Residual risk: The roles of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Tanja; Kleber, Marcus; Silbernagel, Günther; Scharnagl, Hubert; März, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    In clinical trials, the reduction of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events by approximately one third. This means, that a sizeable "residual risk" remains. Besides high lipoprotein (a), disorders in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density liproteins have been implicated as effectors of the residual risk. Both lipoprotein parameters correlate inversely with each other. Therefore, the etiological contributions of triglycerides and / or of HDL for developing cardiovascular disease can hardly be estimated from either observational studies or from intervention studies. The largely disappointing results of intervention studies with inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein and in particular the available set of genetically-epidemiological studies suggest that in the last decade, the importance of HDL cholesterol has been overvalued, while the importance of triglycerides has been underestimated. High triglycerides not always atherogenic, but only if they are associated with the accumulation relatively cholesterol-enriched, incompletely catabolized remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (familial type III hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus). The normalization of the concentration of triglycerides and remnants by inhibiting the expression of apolipoprotein C3 is hence a new, promising therapeutic target. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How to Decide on Modeling Details: Risk and Benefit Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özilgen, Mustafa

    Mathematical models based on thermodynamic, kinetic, heat, and mass transfer analysis are central to this chapter. Microbial growth, death, enzyme inactivation models, and the modeling of material properties, including those pertinent to conduction and convection heating, mass transfer, such as diffusion and convective mass transfer, and thermodynamic properties, such as specific heat, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of formation and specific chemical exergy are also needed in this task. The origins, simplifying assumptions, and uses of model equations are discussed in this chapter, together with their benefits. The simplified forms of these models are sometimes referred to as "laws," such as "the first law of thermodynamics" or "Fick's second law." Starting to modeling a study with such "laws" without considering the conditions under which they are valid runs the risk of ending up with erronous conclusions. On the other hand, models started with fundamental concepts and simplified with appropriate considerations may offer explanations for the phenomena which may not be obtained just with measurements or unprocessed experimental data. The discussion presented here is strengthened with case studies and references to the literature.

  16. Fact Sheet for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities Residual Risk and Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities to address the results of the residual risk and technology review

  17. A detailed family history of myocardial infarction and risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Petersen, Jonathan Aavang; Bundgård, Henning

    2015-01-01

    of cardiovascular medications. CONCLUSION: A detailed family history, particularly number of affected first- and second-degree relatives, contributes meaningfully to risk assessment, especially in middle-aged persons. Future studies should test for potential improvement of risk algorithm prediction using detailed......BACKGROUND: Family history of myocardial infarction (MI) is an independent risk factor for MI. Several genetic variants are associated with increased risk of MI and family history of MI in a first-degree relative doubles MI risk. However, although family history of MI is not a simple dichotomous...... risk factor, the impact of specific, detailed family histories has not received much attention, despite its high clinical relevance. We examined risk of MI by MIs in first- and second-degree relatives and by number and age of affected relatives. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using Danish national registers, we...

  18. RESIDUAL VALUE RISK IN AUTOMOTIVE OPERATING LEASE CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in this paper are automotive operating lease contracts in the Croatian business practice. The provisions of the general terms and conditions for operating lease contracts of the Croatian leasing companies are being analysed, particulary those relating to the rights and obligations of the parties to the contract after the operating lease contract was terminated and the motor vehicle returned to the lessor. The existence of three contractual models of the automotive operating lease contract in the Croatian business practice is established, which vary with regard to the assignment and the distribution of the residual value risk. Those contractual models are being compared with the two most common contractual models of automotive lease contracts in the Austrian and German business practice: the lease contract with the excess mileage adjustment and the lease contract with the terminal rent adjustment. On the basis of the results of this comparison, applicability of the legal solutions, developed in the Austrian and German jurisprudence and legal literature regarding the lease contract with the excess mileage adjustment and the lease contract with the terminal rent adjustment, to the automotive operating lease contract within the framework of Croatian law, is being examinded.

  19. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  20. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  1. Distribution of Estimated 10-Year Risk of Recurrent Vascular Events and Residual Risk in a Secondary Prevention Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Ray, Kausik K.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Amarenco, Pierre; LaRosa, John C.; Cramer, Maarten J. M.; Westerink, Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; de Borst, Gert J.; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Among patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, the risk of recurrent vascular events is likely to vary. We assessed the distribution of estimated 10-year risk of recurrent vascular events in a secondary prevention population. We also estimated the potential risk reduction and residual

  2. Risk management considerations for seismic upgrading of an older facility for short-term residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additon, S.L.; Peregoy, W.L.; Foppe, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Building 707 and its addition, Building 707A, were selected, after the production mission of Rocky Flats was terminated a few years ago, to stabilize many of the plutonium residues remaining at the site by 2002. The facility had undergone substantial safety improvements to its safety systems and conduct of operations for resumption of plutonium operations in the early 1990s and appeared ideally suited for this new mission to support accelerated Site closure. During development of a new authorization basis, a seismic evaluation was performed. This evaluation addressed an unanalyzed expansion joint and suspect connection details for the precast concrete tilt-up construction and concluded that the seismic capacity of the facility is less than half of that determined by previous analysis. Further, potential seismic interaction was identified between a collapsing Building 707 and the seismically upgraded Building 707A, possibly causing the partial collapse of the latter. Both the operating contractor and the Department of Energy sought a sound technical basis for deciding how to proceed. This paper addresses the risks of the as-is facility and possible benefits of upgrades to support a decision on whether to upgrade the seismic capacity of Building 707, accept the risk of the as-is facility for its short remaining mission, or relocate critical stabilization missions. The paper also addresses the Department of Energy's policy on natural phenomena

  3. Incidence and Residual Risk of HIV, HBV and HCV Infections Among Blood Donors in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Hamid Reza; Tabatabaee, Seyed Morteza; Abasian, Ali; Jamali, Mostafa; SalekMoghadam, Ebadollah; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Mirrezaie, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Estimation of residual risk is essential to monitor and improve blood safety. Our epidemiologic knowledge in the Iranian donor population regarding transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs), is confined to a few studies based on prevalence rate. There are no reports on residual risk of TTIs in Iran. In present survey, a software database of donor records of Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC) was used to estimate the incidence and residual risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, by applying the incidence rate/window period (IR-WP) model. A total of 1,207,155 repeat donations was included in the analysis and represented a mean of 8.4 donations per donor over 6 years. The incidence amongst repeat donors was estimated by dividing the number of confirmed seroconverting donors by the total number of person-years at risk. The residual risk was calculated using the incidence/window period model. Incidence rate and residual risk for HBV, HCV and HIV infections were calculated for total (2005-2010) and two consecutive periods (2005-2007 and 2008-2010) of the study. According to the IR-WP model, overall residual risk for HIV and HCV in the total study period was 0.4 and 12.5 per million units, respectively and for HBV 4.57/100,000 donations. The incidence and residual risk of TTIs, calculated on TBTC's blood supply was low and comparable with developed countries for HIV infection but high for HCV and HBV infections. Blood safety may therefore be better managed by applying other techniques like nucleic acid amplification tests.

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  5. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... estimate VCS voluntary consensus standards WWW world wide web Organization of this Document. The... oxidizer RTR residual risk and technology review SAB Science Advisory Board SBA Small Business... acceptable in the world in which we live'' (Risk Report at 178, quoting NRDC v. EPA, 824 F.2d 1146, 1165 (D.C...

  6. Transfusion complications:Estimate of the residual risk of transfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pan- demic. However, there is a lack of multicenter data on the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV from blood centers in sub-Saharan Africa. Study design and methods: The incidence of HIV infections in the blood donations ...

  7. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-01-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  9. Developments in remote sensing technology enable more detailed urban flood risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniss, A.; Tewkesbury, A.

    2009-04-01

    Spaceborne remote sensors have been allowing us to build up a profile of planet earth for many years. With each new satellite launched we see the capabilities improve: new bands of data, higher resolution imagery, the ability to derive better elevation information. The combination of this geospatial data to create land cover and usage maps, all help inform catastrophe modelling systems. From Landsat 30m resolution to 2.44m QuickBird multispectral imagery; from 1m radar data collected by TerraSAR-X which enables rapid tracking of the rise and fall of a flood event, and will shortly have a twin satellite launched enabling elevation data creation; we are spoilt for choice in available data. However, just what is cost effective? It is always a question of choosing the appropriate level of input data detail for modelling, depending on the value of the risk. In the summer of 2007, the cost of the flooding in the UK was approximately £3bn and affected over 58,000 homes and businesses. When it comes to flood risk, we have traditionally considered rising river levels and surge tides, but with climate change and variations in our own construction behaviour, there are other factors to be taken into account. During those summer 2007 events, the Environment Agency suggested that around 70% of the properties damaged were the result of pluvial flooding, where high localised rainfall events overload localised drainage infrastructure, causing widespread flooding of properties and infrastructure. To create a risk model that is able to simulate such an event requires much more accurate source data than can be provided from satellite or radar. As these flood events cause considerable damage within relatively small, complex urban environments, therefore new high resolution remote sensing techniques have to be applied to better model these events. Detailed terrain data of England and Wales, plus cities in Scotland, have been produced by combining terrain measurements from the latest

  10. The residual risk problem from the medical point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, F.

    1980-01-01

    Definitions of health and desease are discussed as well as the problems of establishing limits, especially as regards determining what are acceptable concentrations of pollutants in the environment and the workplace. It is obvious that individual protection cannot be fundamentally guaranteed. A further development and harmonization of the established ethically- and economically-based value system of individual needs as well as a coordination of this system with the requirements of society is necessary in order to be able to clearly define acceptable risks and detrimental effects. (orig.) [de

  11. Residual lifetime and 10 year absolute risks of osteoporotic fractures in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lei; Winzenberg, Tania M; Chen, Mingsheng; Jiang, Qicheng; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    To determine the residual lifetime and 10 year absolute risks of osteoporotic fractures in Chinese men and women. A validated state-transition microsimulation model was used. Microsimulation and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to address the uncertainties in the model. All parameters including fracture incidence rates and mortality rates were retrieved from published literature. Simulated subjects were run through the model until they died to estimate the residual lifetime fracture risks. A 10 year time horizon was used to determine the 10 year fracture risks. We estimated the risk of only the first osteoporotic fracture during the simulation time horizon. The residual lifetime and 10 year risks of having the first osteoporotic (hip, clinical vertebral or wrist) fracture for Chinese women aged 50 years were 40.9% (95% CI: 38.3-44.0%) and 8.2% (95% CI: 6.8-9.3%) respectively. For men, the residual lifetime and 10 year fracture risks were 8.7% (95% CI: 7.5-9.8%) and 1.2% (95% CI: 0.8-1.7%) respectively. The residual lifetime fracture risks declined with age, whilst the 10 year fracture risks increased with age until the short-term mortality risks outstripped the fracture risks. Residual lifetime and 10 year clinical vertebral fracture risks were higher than those of hip and wrist fractures in both sexes. More than one third of the Chinese women and approximately one tenth of the Chinese men aged 50 years are expected to sustain a major osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetimes. Due to increased fracture risks and a rapidly ageing population, osteoporosis will present a great challenge to the Chinese healthcare system. While national data was used wherever possible, regional Chinese hip and clinical vertebral fracture incidence rates were used, wrist fracture rates were taken from a Norwegian study and calibrated to the Chinese population. Other fracture sites like tibia, humerus, ribs and pelvis were not included in the analysis, thus these

  12. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios.

  13. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Residual Vascular Risk in Practice of Family Doctor

    OpenAIRE

    Alibasic, Esad; Ramic, Enisa; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ljuca, Farid; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Zildzic, Muharem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Timely recognition and optimal management of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) and residual vascular risk (RVR) in family medicine. Background: The global increase of the incidence of obesity is accompanied by an increase in the incidence of many metabolic and lipoprotein disorders, in particular AD, as an typical feature of obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes type 2. AD is an important factor in cardio metabolic risk, and is characterized by a lipoprotein prof...

  14. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transfusion. Strategies which could be considered include: (z) an intensive campaign of education among potential blood donors as to ... Doyle PR. The Impact ofAIDS on the South African Population. (paper No. 23). Johannesburg: Centre for ...

  15. The residues and environmental risks of multiple veterinary antibiotics in animal faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Xue-Lian; Li, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing

    2013-03-01

    To understand the residues and ecological risks of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in animal faeces from concentrated animal feeding operations in northeastern China, 14 VAs were identified by high performance liquid chromatography, and the preliminary risks of six antibiotics were assessed using the hazard quotient (HQ). The investigated VAs occurred in 7.41 to 57.41 % of the 54 samples, and the levels ranged from 0.08 to 56.81 mg kg(-1). Tetracyclines were predominant with a maximum level of 56.81 mg kg(-1) mostly detected in pig faeces. Sulfonamides were common and detected with the highest concentration of 7.11 mg kg(-1). Fluoroquinolones were more widely detected in chicken faeces rather than in pig or cow faeces, which contained the dominant antibiotic enrofloxacin. In comparison, the residue of tylosin was less frequently found. The risk evaluations of the six antibiotics revealed that tetracyclines, especially oxytetracycline, displayed the greatest ecological risk because of its high HQ value of 15.75. The results of this study imply that multiple kinds of VAs were jointly used in animal feeding processes in the study area. These medicine residues in animal faeces may potentially bring ecological risks if the animal manure is not treated effectively.

  16. Residue levels and risk assessment of pesticides in nuts of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Ding, Ming; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-02-01

    The pesticide residue levels of three nuts (chestnut, walnut, pinenut) collected from seven main producing areas of China were investigated. Twenty-nine pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and two fungicides (triadimefon and buprofezin) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Four OPs (acephate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-methyl) were found in 11.4% samples, with the concentrations of 19.0 µg kg(-1) to 74.0 µg kg(-1). Six OCs (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) were found in 18.2% samples, with the concentrations of 2.0 µg kg(-1) to 65.7 µg kg(-1). Among OCs, p,p-DDE and α-HCH were the dominant isomer for DDT and HCH. Five PYs (fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothrin) were found in 15.9% samples, with the concentrations of 2.5 µg kg(-1) to 433.0 µg kg(-1). Fenpropathrin was the most frequently detected pesticide. In addition, triadimefon and buprofezin were detected only in two samples. For the tested nuts, 25.0% samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 9.1% samples with five pesticide residues. The residue of 15.9% samples was higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. The short-term risks for the tested nuts were below 1.2%, and the highest long-term risk was 12.58%. The cumulative risk (cHI) for the tested pesticides were 8.43% (OPs), 0.42% (OCs), 12.82% (PYs) and 0.15% (fungicides), respectively. The total cHI was 21.82%. There was no significant health risk for consumers via nuts consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of {sup 230}Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of {sup 226}Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since {sup 230}Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with {sup 226}Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed {sup 226}Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of {sup 232}Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for {sup 228}Ra, and since {sup 228}Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for {sup 228}Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation.

  18. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of 230 Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of 226 Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since 230 Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the 226 Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with 226 Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed 226 Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of 232 Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for 228 Ra, and since 228 Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for 228 Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation

  19. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Phoungthong, Khamphe; Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-08-01

    Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO3 and CaSiO3 began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca3(PO4)2 leached at pHleaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO3>Ca3(PO4)2>CaCO3. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pHleaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the theoretical basis for the risk assessment pertaining to LCS clogging in landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk. State of the art in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Pedro-Botet Montoya, Juan; Pintó Sala, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Pandemics of metabolic síndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for the next years and supported the grat burden of cardiovascular diseases. The R3i (Residual Risk Reduction initiative) has previously highlighted atherogenic dyslipidaemia as an important and modifiable contributor to the lipid related residual cardiovascular risk. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia is defined as an imbalance between proatherogenic triglycerides-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins and antiatherogenic AI containing lipoproteins. To improve clinical management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia a despite of lifestyle intervention includes pharmacological approach, and fibrates is the main option for combination with a statin to further reduce non-HDL cholesterol. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamics, Residue and Risk Assessment of Nitenpyram in Rice and Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Xue-xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Residues dynamics, final residual levels and dietary intake risk of nitenpyram in rice and paddy field were investigated in three dif-ferent regions of China(Shandong, Henan and Anhui. A method was illustrated to detect nitenpyram residues in paddy, plant, brown rice, paddy water and soil. The residues in paddy and rice were extracted with methanol+phosphate buffer(0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0(60+40, adjust pH to 2.5, then cleaned up with solid phase extraction column and 0.22 μm filter membrane, and then analyzed by HPLC with an ul-traviolet detector at 260 nm. When spiked 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy plant and brown rice were 78.4%~94.7% and 84.0%~94.2%, respectively. The residues in paddy water and soil were extracted with phosphate buffer (0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0, when spiked 0.01, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy water and soil were 84.6%~98.0% and 93.7%~97.1%, respective-ly, which indicated this method match the requirement of the detection. Two years results showed that nitenpyram belongs to easily degraded pesticides, because all half-lives were below 1.4 d in rice plant, as well as below 4.2 d in paddy water. Final residual levels of nitenpyram in rice were all below 0.05 mg·kg-1,which was far below the Japanese maximum residue limit(0.5 mg·kg-1. The risk quotients (RQs were low for different populations in China, which indicated its low risk in rice. Therefore, the rice with nitenpyram applied, according to the recom-mend method, 45 g·hm-2 application once, with 21 days collection interval, was safe.

  2. Donor testing and risk: current prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmissible agents in US allogeneic donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shimian; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a major increase in the safety of the blood supply, as demonstrated by declining rates of posttransfusion infection and reductions in estimated residual risk for such infections. Reliable estimates of residual risk have been possible within the American Red Cross system because of the availability of a large amount of reliable and consistent data on donations and infectious disease testing results. Among allogeneic blood donations, the prevalence rates of infection markers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus have decreased over time, although rates for markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus did not. The incidence (/100 000 person-years) of HIV and HCV among repeat donors showed apparent increases from 1.55 and 1.89 in 2000 through 2001 to 2.16 and 2.98 in 2007 through 2008. These observed fluctuations confirm the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation. The residual risk of HIV, HCV, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus among all allogeneic donations is currently below 1 per 1 million donations, and that of hepatitis B surface antigen is close to 1 per 300 000 donations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Joint application of mathematic models in assessing the residual risk of hepatitis C virus transmitted through blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Jia, Yao; Xie, Yun-zheng; Li, Xiu-mei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wu, Xiao-fei

    2011-09-01

    The practicable and effective methods for residual risk assessment on transfusion-transmitted disease was to establish the mathematic models. Based on the characteristics of the repeat donors which donated their blood on a regular base, a model of sero-conversion during the interval of donations was established to assess the incidence of the repeat donors. Based on the characteristics of the prevalence in the population, a model of 'prevalence increased with the age of the donor' was established to assess the incidence of those first-time donors. And based on the impact of the windows period through blood screening program, a model of residual risk associated with the incidence and the length of the windows period was established to assess the residual risk of blood transfusion. In this paper, above said 3 kinds of mathematic models were jointly applied to assess the residual risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) which was transmitted through blood transfusion in Shanghai, based on data from the routine blood collection and screening program. All the anti-HCV unqualified blood donations were confirmed before assessment. Results showed that the residual risk of HCV transmitted through blood transfusion during Jan. 1(st), 2007 to Dec. 31(st), 2008 in Shanghai was 1:101 000. Data showed that the results of residual risk assessment with mathematic models was valuable. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in Shanghai was at a safe level, according to the results in this paper.

  4. Strategy utilized for assessing baseline risks to human health from K-65 and metal oxide residues stored at the Fernald Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.E.; Janke, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site in southwestern Ohio. The 425-hectare site consists of a former 55-hectare Production Area, an adjacent Waste Storage Area and various support facilities. From 1952 until 1989, the FEMP processed uranium into metallic open-quotes feedclose quotes materials for other DOE facilities in the nation's defense program. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the FEMP site is currently listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). To facilitate an expeditious cleanup effort, environmental issues associated with site cleanup are being managed under five operable units. This paper summarizes the risk assessment strategy employed to determine baseline human health risks associated with K-65 and metal oxide residues currently stored in Operable Unit 4. The K-65 and metal oxide residues were generated during the 1950s as a result of the extraction of uranium from uranium-bearing ores and concentrates. These residues are currently stored within Operable Unit 4 in concrete silos. Silos I and 2 contain approximately 6,120 cubic meters [m 3 ] (8,005 cubic yards [yd 3 ]) of K-65 residues, while silos 3 contains approximately 3890 m 3 (5,080 yd 3 ) of cold metal oxides. These concrete silos are beyond their design life and require remedial action. The risk assessment conducted for Operable Unit 4 constitutes the first detailed human health risk assessment to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the CERCLA clean-up effort at the FEMP Site. This paper discusses the FEMP's use of a Risk Information Quality Objective process in concert with the traditional risk assessment approach to determine baseline risk to human health and the environment posed by Operable Unit 4. A summary of the baseline risks to human health is also presented

  5. Strategy utilized for assessing baseline risks to human health from K-65 and metal oxide residues stored at the Fernald Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Janke, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site in southwestern Ohio. The 425-hectare site consists of a former 55-hectare Production Area, an adjacent Waste Storage Area and various support facilities. From 1952 until 1989, the FEMP processed uranium into metallic {open_quotes}feed{close_quotes} materials for other DOE facilities in the nation`s defense program. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the FEMP site is currently listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). To facilitate an expeditious cleanup effort, environmental issues associated with site cleanup are being managed under five operable units. This paper summarizes the risk assessment strategy employed to determine baseline human health risks associated with K-65 and metal oxide residues currently stored in Operable Unit 4. The K-65 and metal oxide residues were generated during the 1950s as a result of the extraction of uranium from uranium-bearing ores and concentrates. These residues are currently stored within Operable Unit 4 in concrete silos. Silos I and 2 contain approximately 6,120 cubic meters [m{sup 3}] (8,005 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of K-65 residues, while silos 3 contains approximately 3890 m{sup 3} (5,080 yd{sup 3}) of cold metal oxides. These concrete silos are beyond their design life and require remedial action. The risk assessment conducted for Operable Unit 4 constitutes the first detailed human health risk assessment to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the CERCLA clean-up effort at the FEMP Site. This paper discusses the FEMP`s use of a Risk Information Quality Objective process in concert with the traditional risk assessment approach to determine baseline risk to human health and the environment posed by Operable Unit 4. A summary of the baseline risks to human health is also presented.

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of injuries sustained during ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the ...

  8. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Statin-Treated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirimarco, Gaia; Labreuche, Julien; Bruckert, Eric

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment with statins reduces the rate of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients, but residual risk persists. At least part of that risk may be attributable to atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≤40 mg/dL) and high......% of subjects in PERFORM and 9% in SPARCL had atherogenic dyslipidemia after ≥3 months on start statin therapy. After a follow-up of 2.3 years (PERFORM) and 4.9 years (SPARCL), a major cardiovascular event occurred in 1123 and 485 patients in the 2 trials, respectively. The risk of major cardiovascular events...... was higher in subjects with versus those without atherogenic dyslipidemia in both PERFORM (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.63) and SPARCL (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.85). The association was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95...

  9. Risk assessment for children exposed to DDT residues in various milk types from the Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Ioannis N; Goumenou, Marina; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Ozcagli, Eren; Vynias, Dionysios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of residues of DDT and its metabolites was monitored in 196 cow milk samples of various pasteurized commercial types collected from the Greek market. Residue levels were determined by GC-MS analysis. In 97.4% of the samples at least one DDT isomer or one of the DDT metabolites was detected, in levels not exceeding the maximum permitted residue level by the EU. Hazard Index for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects was estimated under two assumptions: a) using DDT concentrations from positive samples and b) imputing LOD/2 as an arbitrary concentration for negative samples. No statistically significant differences in detected or summed residue (p > 0.05) concentrations between different milk types were observed, with the exception of specific metabolites of DDT in some milk types. Exposure assessment scenarios were developed for children aged 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 years old based on estimated body weights and daily milk consumption. Hazard Indices for non-carcinogenic effects were below 0.109 covering also carcinogenic effects according to WHO approach. The cancer risk values for carcinogenic effects according to the US EPA Cancer Benchmark Concentration approach, ranged from 0.4 to 18. For both effects the highest values were calculated for the 1- to 3-year-old age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  11. Impacts of channel morphology on residues and ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls in water and sediment in Chahe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-hua Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of channel morphology on the residues and ecological risks of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners in water and sediment were investigated in summer (July and autumn (September in the Chahe River, in Nanjing, China. The residual concentrations of tri-chlorobiphenyls (tri-CBs, PCB 18 and tetra-CBs (PCB 52 in water were significantly higher than those of penta-CBs to deca-CBs, and the average residual concentration of ∑PCBs (sum of 14 PCB congeners in summer was about six times higher than in autumn. However, the residues in sediment did not change significantly. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that channel morphology and the corresponding environmental indices had significant impacts on PCB residues and their composition profiles in water and sediment. The overflow weir and lake-type watercourse may remarkably reduce the residual concentration and ecological risks of PCBs in water. The highest reduction percentages of the residual concentration and ecological risks of ∑PCBs induced by an overflow weir were 78% and 67%, respectively, and those induced by a lake-type watercourse were 36% and 70%, respectively. The watercourses with different channel morphologies were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in the following descending order: the natural ecological watercourse, vertical concrete watercourse, and vegetation-type riprap watercourse. However, they were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in sediment in the following descending order: the vertical concrete watercourse, vegetation-type riprap watercourse, and natural ecological watercourse.

  12. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Yew

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities. (author)

  13. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities

  14. Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients: The Role of Fibrate Statin Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. The use of statins significantly reduces the rate of CVD events but many T2DM patients, especially those with mixed dyslipidaemia (MD, have residual CVD risk. The use of fibrates, which improve triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, is beneficial for the treatment of patients with MD. Evidence from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD Lipid study showed a possible beneficial effect on CVD events of the addition of fenofibrate (FF to statin treatment in patients with T2DM and atherogenic MD. Furthermore, FF has been associated with slowing of the progression of early diabetic retinopathy. The combination of statin with a fibrate may improve the residual CVD risk and microvascular complications of patients with T2DM. However, trials specifically designed to assess the effects of fibrate-statin combination on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2DM are missing.

  15. Drug residues in urban water: A database for ecotoxicological risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrieux, Doriane; Laurent, François; Budzinski, Hélène; Pedelucq, Julie; Vervier, Philippe; Gerino, Magali

    2017-12-31

    Human-use drug residues (DR) are only partially eliminated by waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), so that residual amounts can reach natural waters and cause environmental hazards. In order to properly manage these hazards in the aquatic environment, a database is made available that integrates the concentration ranges for DR, which cause adverse effects for aquatic organisms, and the temporal variations of the ecotoxicological risks. To implement this database for the ecotoxicological risk assessment (ERA database), the required information for each DR is the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), along with the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). The risk assessment is based on the ratio between the PNECs and the PECs. Adverse effect data or PNECs have been found in the publicly available literature for 45 substances. These ecotoxicity test data have been extracted from 125 different sources. This ERA database contains 1157 adverse effect data and 287 PNECs. The efficiency of this ERA database was tested with a data set coming from a simultaneous survey of WWTPs and the natural environment. In this data set, 26 DR were searched for in two WWTPs and in the river. On five sampling dates, concentrations measured in the river for 10 DR could pose environmental problems of which 7 were measured only downstream of WWTP outlets. From scientific literature and measurements, data implementation with unit homogenisation in a single database facilitates the actual ecotoxicological risk assessment, and may be useful for further risk coming from data arising from the future field survey. Moreover, the accumulation of a large ecotoxicity data set in a single database should not only improve knowledge of higher risk molecules but also supply an objective tool to help the rapid and efficient evaluation of the risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using bomb calorimetry for determination of risk indices of wildfires originating from pine residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Regueira, L.; Rodriguez Anon, J.A.; Proupin Castineiras, J.; Vilanova Diz, A.; Romero Garcia, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, 15782 , A Coruna Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2002-10-19

    Pine trees, mainly Pinus pinaster Aiton, now cover 640,000ha of the forest occupied surface in Galicia. The possibility of using the residues originating from pine tree exploitation as an alternative energy source could yield to gross benefit around 2.8x10{sup 8} euros per year, together with ecological advantages.The object of the present study is the evaluation of the energy contained in these residues through the measurement of their caloric values using a static bomb calorimeter. At the same time, flammabilities were measured by a standard epiradiator thus allowing the calculation of risk indices. This latter is very important to fight and prevent the start and spreading of forest fires.Elementary chemical composition was also determined using an elementary chemical analyser. Biological and bioclimatic parameters, which are very useful for the evaluation of caloric values and flammabilities over the year, were used for discussion of results.

  17. Residual risks of the 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology'' and ''ethics of responsibility''. (orig.)

  18. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Phoungthong, Khamphe; Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO 3 was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO 3 and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO 3 and CaSiO 3 began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 leached at pH < 12. CaSO 4 could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO 3 > Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 > CaCO 3 . The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO 3 and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the theoretical basis for the risk assessment pertaining to LCS clogging in landfills

  19. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Phoungthong, Khamphe [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui [Changzhou Domestic Waste Treatment Center, Changzhou 213000 (China); Shao, Li-Ming [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pin-Jing, E-mail: solidwaste@tongji.edu.cn [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO{sub 3} was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO{sub 3} and CaSiO{sub 3} began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leached at pH < 12. CaSO{sub 4} could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO{sub 3} > Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} > CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the

  20. Risk factors associated with detailed reproductive phenotypes in dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Berry, D P; Fitzgerald, A; McParland, S; Williams, E J; Butler, S T; Cromie, A R; Ryan, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify detailed fertility traits in dairy and beef cattle from transrectal ultrasonography records and quantify the associated risk factors. Data were available on 148 947 ultrasound observations of the reproductive tract from 75 949 cows in 843 Irish dairy and beef herds between March 2008 and October 2012. Traits generated included (1) cycling at time of examination, (2) cystic structures, (3) early ovulation, (4) embryo death and (5) uterine score; the latter was measured on a scale of 1 (good) to 4 (poor) characterising the tone of the uterine wall and fluid present in the uterus. After editing, 72,773 records from 44,415 dairy and beef cows in 643 herds remained. Factors associated with the logit of the probability of a positive outcome for each of the binary fertility traits were determined using generalised estimating equations; linear mixed model analysis was used for the analysis of uterine score. The prevalence of cycling, cystic structures, early ovulation and embryo death was 84.75%, 3.87%, 7.47% and 3.84%, respectively. The occurrence of the uterine heath score of 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 70.63%, 19.75%, 8.36% and 1.26%, respectively. Cows in beef herds had a 0.51 odds (95% CI=0.41 to 0.63, Pscore (indicating poorer tone and a greater quantity of uterine fluid present) compared with cows in beef herds. The likelihood of cycling at the time of examination increased with parity and stage of lactation, but was reduced in cows that had experienced dystocia in the previous calving. The presence of cystic structures on the ovaries increased with parity and stage of lactation. The likelihood of embryo/foetal death increased with parity and stage of lactation. Dystocia was not associated with the presence of cystic structures or embryo death. Uterine score improved with parity and stage of lactation, while cows that experienced dystocia in the previous calving had an inferior uterine score. Heterosis was the only factor associated

  1. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  2. The influence of outrage and technical detail on the perception of environmental health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems D; Bruggen M van; IMD; GGD Rotterdam

    2004-01-01

    Differences in risk perception between a professional assessing a risk and a concerned community affected by this risk have been shown to be important obstacles in the communication of environmental health risks. The study reported here aimed at gaining insight into factors that influence people's

  3. Shutdown risk analysis for a BWR plant (residual heat removal systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo Garcia, C.; Merino Teillet, A.; Cerezo, L.

    1994-01-01

    This report analyses the different risk situations which may arise during refuelling outage at Cofrentes NPP. The most critical situations are determined in terms of the small amount of coolant available and the lowest number of heat removal and water make-up systems available. The available times before the boiling point of the coolant is reached and the subsequent moment when the fuel elements are left uncovered in the event of the failure of the normal heat removal functions are determined. The analysis identifies the alternative systems which can be used besides those required by the technical specification and their capacity for residual heat removal and coolant make-up functions. (Author)

  4. Risk of DDT residue in maize consumed by infants as complementary diet in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections in the Philippine blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hilton Y; Belizario, Vicente Y; Juban, Noel R; Alejandria, Marissa M; Castillo-Carandang, Nina; Arcellana-Nuqui, Elizabeth; Mirasol, Ma Angelina; Cordero, Cynthia P; Sison, Olivia T; Rivera, Adovich S

    2014-09-01

    Due to a USAID-funded study on blood banks, a national policy was instituted in 1994 that set standards for Philippine blood services, promoted voluntary donation, and led to a ban on commercial blood banks. In this follow-up study, we assess the safety of the supply by determining the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections (syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV). We also identified unsafe facility practices and generated policy recommendations. A 1992 study found that transfusion-ready blood was not safe using the LQAS method (P > 0.05). We found that the 2012 residual risk became 0 to 0.9 percent attributable to the national policy. We noted poor to fair adherence to this policy. We identified unsafe practices such as use of rapid tests and lack of random blood retesting. Training and use of regional networks may improve safety. Despite improvement in safety, facilities complain of funding and logistical issues regarding compliance with the policy.

  6. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  7. Global assessment of river flood protection benefits and corresponding residual risks under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Yamazaki, Dai; Koirala, Sujan; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Dadson, Simon J.; Hall, Jim W.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming increases the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and this could lead to more intense rainfalls and possibly increasing natural hazards in the form of flooding in some regions. This implies that traditional practice of using historical hydrological records alone is somewhat limited for supporting long-term water infrastructure planning. This has motivated recent global scale studies to evaluate river flood risks (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014, Sadoff et al., 2015) and adaptations benefits (e.g., Jongman et al., 2015). To support decision-making in river flood risk reduction, this study takes a further step to examine the benefits and corresponding residual risks for a range of flood protection levels. To do that, we channelled runoff information of a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and each CMIP5 model (historic and future periods) into a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011). We incorporated the latest global river width data (Yamazaki et al., 2014) into CaMa-Flood and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the flood protection benefits. We quantify the corresponding residual risks using a mathematical approach that is consistent with the modelling structure of CaMa-Flood. Globally and regionally, we find that the benefits of flood protection level peak somewhere between 20 and 500 years; residual risks diminish

  8. On using residual risk to assess the cost effectiveness and health protectiveness of remedy selection at superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Peter T.; Kastenberg, William E.

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the importance of determining residual risk and its impact on remedy selection at Superfund Sites. Within this examination, risks are assessed using probabilistic models that incorporate the uncertainty and variability of the input parameters, and utilize parameter distributions based on current and applicable site-specific data. Monte Carlo methods are used to propagate these uncertainties and variabilities through the risk calculations resulting in a distribution for the estimate of both risk and residual risk. Such an approach permits an informed decision based on a broad information base which involves considering the entire uncertainty distribution of risk rather than a point estimate for each exposure scenario. Using the probabilistic risk estimates, with current and applicable site-specific data, alternative decisions regarding cleanup are obtained for two Superfund Sites

  9. Transfer shuttle for vitrified residue canisters control of risks associated with external exposure and heat release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIndel, L.; Gamess, A.; Lejeune, E.; Cellier, P.; Maillard, A. [SGN Reseau Eurisys, 78 - Saint Quentin (France)

    1998-07-01

    In the La Hague COGEMA's plant area, nuclear residue isolated by reprocessing are transported by means of specific transfer shuttles between the different processing and/or conditioning facilities and the storage ones. These shuttles are designed by reference to the applicable dose equivalent rate (DER) limits for transport on the site and the thermal behavior limitations of certain mechanical components which guarantee the containment of the transported waste. This paper describes and example of a study conducted on a transfer shuttle for vitrified residue canisters. Concerning the control of risks associated with external exposure and with heat releases, these were handled by the 'Shielding-Criticality-Dispersion' and 'process Modelling and Simulation' Sections of the Technical Division of SGN. The dose profiles around the shuttle, as a function of the shielding heterogeneities and possible radiation leakage, as well as the thermal fields within the shuttle, were calculated using 3D models. These design studies ultimately helped to select and validate the optimal solutions. (authors)

  10. Residues and risks of veterinary antibiotics in protected vegetable soils following application of different manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Yujuan; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Xinghua; Luo, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    The protected vegetable farming is a style of high frequent rotation farming which requires a huge amount of fertilizers to maintain soil fertility. A total of 125 surface soils covering from east to west of China were sampled for the analysis of 17 antibiotics in order to identify antibiotics contamination caused by long-term manures application. The results indicate that the agricultural land has accumulated a statistically significantly higher antibiotics concentration than conventional open croplands. The maximum oxytetracycline concentration was 8400 μg kg(-1), the highest level that has ever been reported for oxytetracycline in soils. The residual concentration is decided by both plant duration and manure type. Short-term (antibiotics residue in the soils on the whole. Principal component analysis suggests that the various combinations of antibiotic compounds in the soil may be used to trace the manure source. The antibiotics in soil may threaten water quality through contamination by diffusion. Ciprofloxacin and sulfachinoxalin are calculated to be a higher migration risk to surface waters, hence their environmental fate requires further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond statin therapy: a review of the management of residual risk in diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2010-09-01

    Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol exhibit an independent, strong, continuous correlation with cardiovascular events. The effectiveness of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis is well-established. However, despite the lowering of LDL targets and the increased use of statins, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) continue to experience a higher proportion of adverse coronary artery disease events. This is as a result of an atherogenic dyslipidaemia, characterized by low levels of high-density lipoprotein and elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations, often with high levels of cholesterol-rich remnant particles. This article will review dyslipidaemia and its role in DM, and will discuss available treatment modalities that address residual cardiovascular risk in this disease.

  12. Residues, Sources and Potential Biological Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Sediments of Qiandao Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayun; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Weidong; Liu, Qi; Tu, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed to comprehensively characterize the concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of organochlorine pesticides in Qiandao Lake, China. Concentrations of sumHCH and sumDDT in sediments ranged from 0.03 to 5.75 ng/g dry weight and not detected to 14.39 ng/g dry weight. The predominant β-HCH and the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs were derived not only from historical technical HCH use but also from additional usage of lindane. Ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT and DDD/DDE suggested that both dicofol-type DDT and technical DDT applications may be present in most study areas. Additionally, based on two sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT could be the main organochlorine pesticides species of ecotoxicological concern in Qiandao Lake.

  13. Drug residues and endocrine disruptors in drinking water: risk for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraud, Evelyne; Roig, Benoit; Sumpter, John P; Coetsier, Clémence

    2011-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in the environment raises many questions about risk to the environment and human health. Environmental exposure has been largely studied, providing to date a realistic picture of the degree of contamination of the environment by pharmaceuticals and hormones. Conversely, little information is available regarding human exposure. NSAIDS, carbamazepine, iodinated contrast media, β-blockers, antibiotics have been detected in drinking water, mostly in the range of ng/L. it is questioned if such concentrations may affect human health. Currently, no consensus among the scientific community exists on what risk, if any, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors pose to human health. Future European research will focus, on one hand, on genotoxic and cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs and, on the other hand, on the induction of genetic resistance by antibiotics. This review does not aim to give a comprehensive overview of human health risk of drug residues and endocrine disruptors in drinking water but rather highlight important topics of discussion. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Probabilistic risk assessment of exposure to leucomalachite green residues from fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Chimeddulam, Dalaijamts; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2013-12-01

    To assess the potential risk of human exposure to carcinogenic leucomalachite green (LMG) due to fish consumption, the probabilistic risk assessment was conducted for adolescent, adult and senior adult consumers in Taiwan. The residues of LMG with the mean concentration of 13.378±20.56 μg kg(-1) (BFDA, 2009) in fish was converted into dose, considering fish intake reported for three consumer groups by NAHSIT (1993-1996) and body weight of an average individual of the group. The lifetime average and high 95th percentile dietary intakes of LMG from fish consumption for Taiwanese consumers were estimated at up to 0.0135 and 0.0451 μg kg-bw(-1) day(-1), respectively. Human equivalent dose (HED) of 2.875 mg kg-bw(-1) day(-1) obtained from a lower-bound benchmark dose (BMDL10) in mice by interspecies extrapolation was linearly extrapolated to oral cancer slope factor (CSF) of 0.035 (mgkg-bw(-1)day(-1))(-1) for humans. Although, the assumptions and methods are different, the results of lifetime cancer risk varying from 3×10(-7) to 1.6×10(-6) were comparable to those of margin of exposures (MOEs) varying from 410,000 to 4,800,000. In conclusions, Taiwanese fish consumers with the 95th percentile LADD of LMG have greater risk of liver cancer and need to an action of risk management in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Process of Integrating Screening and Detailed Risk-based Modeling Analyses to Ensure Consistent and Scientifically Defensible Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, John W.; McDonald, John P.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2002-01-01

    To support cleanup and closure of these tanks, modeling is performed to understand and predict potential impacts to human health and the environment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a screening tool for the United States Department of Energy, Office of River Protection that estimates the long-term human health risk, from a strategic planning perspective, posed by potential tank releases to the environment. This tool is being conditioned to more detailed model analyses to ensure consistency between studies and to provide scientific defensibility. Once the conditioning is complete, the system will be used to screen alternative cleanup and closure strategies. The integration of screening and detailed models provides consistent analyses, efficiencies in resources, and positive feedback between the various modeling groups. This approach of conditioning a screening methodology to more detailed analyses provides decision-makers with timely and defensible information and increases confidence in the results on the part of clients, regulators, and stakeholders

  16. In Vitro and In Silico Risk Assessment in Acquired Long QT Syndrome: The Devil Is in the Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William; Windley, Monique J; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Hill, Adam P

    2017-01-01

    Acquired long QT syndrome, mostly as a result of drug block of the Kv11. 1 potassium channel in the heart, is characterized by delayed cardiac myocyte repolarization, prolongation of the T interval on the ECG, syncope and sudden cardiac death due to the polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia Torsade de Pointes (TdP). In recent years, efforts are underway through the Comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmic assay (CiPA) initiative, to develop better tests for this drug induced arrhythmia based in part on in silico simulations of pharmacological disruption of repolarization. However, drug binding to Kv11.1 is more complex than a simple binary molecular reaction, meaning simple steady state measures of potency are poor surrogates for risk. As a result, there is a plethora of mechanistic detail describing the drug/Kv11.1 interaction-such as drug binding kinetics, state preference, temperature dependence and trapping-that needs to be considered when developing in silico models for risk prediction. In addition to this, other factors, such as multichannel pharmacological profile and the nature of the ventricular cell models used in simulations also need to be considered in the search for the optimum in silico approach. Here we consider how much of mechanistic detail needs to be included for in silico models to accurately predict risk and further, how much of this detail can be retrieved from protocols that are practical to implement in high throughout screens as part of next generation of preclinical in silico drug screening approaches?

  17. [Do pharmaceutical waste and drug residue pose a risk to public health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haguenoer, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Recently, awareness has developed of the environmental consequences of drug waste and disposal. These residues are identified as coming from either diffuse sources, the most significant of which is via the discharge of these residues in urine and feces, and thus the sewage system and water contains these drug remnants and their metabolites, or from point sources, sometimes with very high levels of concentration in waste from chemical and pharmaceutical industries, health care settings, but also from intensive livestock farming and aquaculture. Depending on their physical chemistry properties, these substances are more or less naturally biodegradable and easily treated in sewage purification plants. The effectiveness of these treatment processes is highly random and unpredictable, but is overall around 60%, nevertheless with variations of 2-99% according to the molecules. The silt from these treatment plants, sometimes very rich in lipophilic substances is on occasion reused for agricultural application as fertilizer, paving the way for a possible contamination of crops. Furthermore, the use of veterinary drugs in animals can lead to soil contamination either directly or through manure and slurry. The contamination can equally reach and affect surface water, groundwater and sometimes the water intended for human consumption. The National academy of Pharmacy has established some general recommendations on the proper use of drugs, environmental monitoring and surveillance, risk assessment for humans and the environment, prevention and the need for prevention. Several categories of drugs are more worrying: cancer treatments, antibiotics as well as transfers of anti-bio-resistance, and hormonal derivatives which has been previously demonstrated to contribute, along with other molecules, to detrimental effects on endocrines.

  18. Implementation of secondary bacterial culture testing of platelets to mitigate residual risk of septic transfusion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M; Marshall, Christi E; Boyd, Joan S; Shifflett, Lisa; Tobian, Aaron A R; Gehrie, Eric A; Ness, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Bacterial contamination of platelets remains a major transfusion-associated risk despite long-standing safety measures in the United States. We evaluated an approach using secondary bacterial culture (SBC) to contend with residual risk of bacterial contamination. Phased implementation of SBC was initiated in October 2016 for platelets (all apheresis collected) received at our institution from the blood donor center (Day 3 post collection). Platelet products were sampled aseptically (5 mL inoculated into an aerobic bottle [BacT/ALERT BPA, BioMerieux, Inc.]) by the blood bank staff upon receipt, using a sterile connection device and sampling kit. The platelet sample was inoculated into an aerobic blood culture bottle and incubated at 35°C for 3 days. The cost of SBC was calculated on the basis of consumables and labor costs at time of implementation. In the 13 months following implementation (October 6, 2016, to November 30, 2017), 23,044/24,653 (93.47%) platelet products underwent SBC. A total of eight positive cultures were detected (incidence 1 in 2881 platelet products), seven of which were positive within 24 hours of SBC. Coagulase negative Staphyloccus spp. were identified in four cases. Five of the eight cases were probable true positive (repeat reactive) and interdicted (cost per averted case was US$77,935). The remaining three cases were indeterminate. No septic transfusion reactions were reported during the observation period. We demonstrate the feasibility of SBC of apheresis platelets to mitigate bacterial risk. SBC is lower cost than alternative measures (e.g., pathogen reduction and point-of-release testing) and can be integrated into workflow at hospital transfusion services. © 2018 AABB.

  19. Evaluation of regulatory variation and theoretical health risk for pesticide maximum residue limits in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijian

    2018-08-01

    To evaluate whether pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) can protect public health, a deterministic dietary risk assessment of maximum pesticide legal exposure was conducted to convert global MRLs to theoretical maximum dose intake (TMDI) values by estimating the average food intake rate and human body weight for each country. A total of 114 nations (58% of the total nations in the world) and two international organizations, including the European Union (EU) and Codex (WHO) have regulated at least one of the most currently used pesticides in at least one of the most consumed agricultural commodities. In this study, 14 of the most commonly used pesticides and 12 of the most commonly consumed agricultural commodities were identified and selected for analysis. A health risk analysis indicated that nearly 30% of the computed pesticide TMDI values were greater than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; however, many nations lack common pesticide MRLs in many commonly consumed foods and other human exposure pathways, such as soil, water, and air were not considered. Normality tests of the TMDI values set indicated that all distributions had a right skewness due to large TMDI clusters at the low end of the distribution, which were caused by some strict pesticide MRLs regulated by the EU (normally a default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg when essential data are missing). The Box-Cox transformation and optimal lambda (λ) were applied to these TMDI distributions, and normality tests of the transformed data set indicated that the power transformed TMDI values of at least eight pesticides presented a normal distribution. It was concluded that unifying strict pesticide MRLs by nations worldwide could significantly skew the distribution of TMDI values to the right, lower the legal exposure to pesticide, and effectively control human health risks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  2. Involved Node, Site, Field and Residual Volume Radiotherapy for Lymphoma: A Comparison of Organ at Risk Dosimetry and Second Malignancy Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L; Sethugavalar, B; Robertshaw, H; Bayman, E; Thomas, E; Gilson, D; Prestwich, R J D

    2015-07-01

    Recent radiotherapy guidelines for lymphoma have included involved site radiotherapy (ISRT), involved node radiotherapy (INRT) and irradiation of residual volume after full-course chemotherapy. In the absence of late toxicity data, we aim to compare organ at risk (OAR) dose-metrics and calculated second malignancy risks. Fifteen consecutive patients who had received mediastinal radiotherapy were included. Four radiotherapy plans were generated for each patient using a parallel pair photon technique: (i) involved field radiotherapy (IFRT), (ii) ISRT, (iii) INRT, (iv) residual post-chemotherapy volume. The radiotherapy dose was 30 Gy in 15 fractions. The OARs evaluated were: breasts, lungs, thyroid, heart, oesophagus. Relative and absolute second malignancy rates were estimated using the concept of organ equivalent dose. Significance was defined as P risks of second cancers were significantly higher with IFRT compared with ISRT for lung, breast and thyroid; INRT and residual volume resulted in significantly lower relative risks compared with ISRT for lung, breast and thyroid. The median excess absolute risks of second cancers were consistently lowest for the residual technique and highest for IFRT in terms of thyroid, lung and breast cancers. The risk of oesophageal cancer was similar for all four techniques. Overall, the absolute risk of second cancers was very similar for ISRT and INRT. Decreasing treatment volumes from IFRT to ISRT, INRT or residual volume reduces radiation exposure to OARs. Second malignancy modelling suggests that this reduction in treatment volumes will lead to a reduction in absolute excess second malignancy. Little difference was observed in second malignancy risks between ISRT and INRT, supporting the use of ISRT in the absence of a pre-chemotherapy positron emission tomography scan in the radiotherapy treatment position. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of processing on the disappearance of pesticide residues in fresh-cut lettuce: Bioavailability and dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Miguel A; Barba, Alberto; Cermeño, Sandra; Martinez, Gracia; Oliva, Jose

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this research is to establish the processing factors of six pesticides durong the preparation of fresh-cut lettuce and to assess the risk of ingestion of pesticide residues associated with the consumption of the same. A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides (imidacloprid, tebufenozide, cypermethrin) and three fungicides (metalaxyl, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin) during treatment conditions simulating those used for commercial fresh-cut lettuce. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceed the established Maximum Residue Limits. The processing factors were generally less than 1 (between 0.34 for tebufenozide and 0.53 for imidacloprid), indicating that the process, as a whole, considerably reduces residue levels in processed lettuce compared to fresh lettuce. It is confirmed that cutting, followed by washing and drying, considerably reduces the residues. A matrix effect in the dialyzation of the pesticides is observed and the in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity (lettuce showed no concerns for consumer health.

  4. In Vitro and In Silico Risk Assessment in Acquired Long QT Syndrome: The Devil Is in the Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquired long QT syndrome, mostly as a result of drug block of the Kv11. 1 potassium channel in the heart, is characterized by delayed cardiac myocyte repolarization, prolongation of the T interval on the ECG, syncope and sudden cardiac death due to the polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia Torsade de Pointes (TdP. In recent years, efforts are underway through the Comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmic assay (CiPA initiative, to develop better tests for this drug induced arrhythmia based in part on in silico simulations of pharmacological disruption of repolarization. However, drug binding to Kv11.1 is more complex than a simple binary molecular reaction, meaning simple steady state measures of potency are poor surrogates for risk. As a result, there is a plethora of mechanistic detail describing the drug/Kv11.1 interaction—such as drug binding kinetics, state preference, temperature dependence and trapping—that needs to be considered when developing in silico models for risk prediction. In addition to this, other factors, such as multichannel pharmacological profile and the nature of the ventricular cell models used in simulations also need to be considered in the search for the optimum in silico approach. Here we consider how much of mechanistic detail needs to be included for in silico models to accurately predict risk and further, how much of this detail can be retrieved from protocols that are practical to implement in high throughout screens as part of next generation of preclinical in silico drug screening approaches?

  5. Statin non-adherence and residual cardiovascular risk: There is need for substantial improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Maciej; Stulc, Tomas; Dent, Ricardo; Toth, Peter P

    2016-12-15

    Although statin therapy has proven to be the cornerstone for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are many patients for whom long-term therapy remains suboptimal. The aims of this article are to review the current complex issues associated with statin use and to explore when novel treatment approaches should be considered. Statin discontinuation as well as adherence to statin therapy remain two of the greatest challenges for lipidologists. Evidence suggests that between 40 and 75% of patients discontinue their statin therapy within one year after initiation. Furthermore, whilst the reasons for persistence with statin therapy are complex, evidence shows that low-adherence to statins negatively impacts clinical outcomes and residual CV risk remains a major concern. Non-adherence or lack of persistence with long-term statin therapy in real-life may be the main cause of inadequate low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering with statins. There is a large need for the improvement of the use of statins, which have good safety profiles and are inexpensive. On the other hand, in a non-cost-constrained environment, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors should arguably be used more often in those patients in whom treatment with statins remains unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pesticides in persimmons, jujubes and soil from China: Residue levels, risk assessment and relationship between fruits and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Qu, Minghua; Zhong, Donglian; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-01-15

    Extreme and uncontrolled usage of pesticides produces a number of problems for vegetation and human health. In this study, the existence of organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and fungicides (FUs) were investigated in persimmons/jujubes and their planted soils, which were collected from China. One OP (dimethoate), three OCs (DDT, quintozene and aldrin), six PYs (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) and two FUs (triadimefon and buprofezin) were found in 36.4% of persimmons and 70.8% of jujubes, with concentrations from 1.0 μg/kg to 2945.0 μg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides in the two fruits were fenpropathrin in persimmons and cypermethrin in jujubes, with the detection frequencies of 30.0% and 22.7%, respectively. The residues of 4.5% (persimmon) and 25.0% (jujube) of samples were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. Compared with the fruits, more types of pesticides and higher residues were observed in their planted soils. The most frequently detected pesticides were HCH in persimmon soil and DDT in jujube soil, with the detection frequencies of 10.9% and 12.7%, respectively. For the tested samples, 39.1% of fruit samples and 63.0% of soil samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 8 residues in fruits and 14 residues in soils. Except for cyhalothrin, the other short-term risks for the tested pesticides in the fruits were below 10%, and the highest long-term risk was 14.13% for aldrin and dieldrin. There was no significant health risk for consumers via consumption of the two fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  8. Human health risks associated with residual pesticide levels in edible tissues of slaughtered cattle in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in meat is of growing concern due to possible adverse effects on humans. Pesticide levels were assessed in five edible cattle parts: muscle, liver, kidney and tongue tissues to determine human health risk associated with consumption of these tissues. Health risk estimates were analysed using estimated daily intake (EDI, hazard quotient (HQ and hazard index (HI for two (2 age/weight categories: 1–11years/30 kg for children while 70 kg was used for adult. Risks were categorized for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects and measured at the average, maximum, 50th and 95th percentiles of the measured exposure concentrations (MEC. Total pesticide residues ranged from 2.38 to 3.86 μg/kg (muscle, 3.58 to 6.3 μg/kg (liver, 1.87 to 4.59 μg/kg (kidney and 2.54 to 4.35 μg/kg (tongue. Residual pesticide concentrations in the tissues were in the order: Liver > Tongue > Muscle > Kidney. The concentrations of all the assessed pesticides observed in the tissues were however lower than the recommended maximum residual limits (MRLs. Human health risk estimations for the children showed EDI values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin and dieldrin exceeding threshold values. Non-cancer risk posed to children on consumption of contaminated cattle parts showed HQ values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin and HI values for organochlorines exceeding 1, indicating the possibility of non-carcinogenic health risks to consumers especially children from consumption of cattle meat from the selected abattoirs.

  9. Assessment of Dithiocarbamate Residues on Tomatoes Conventionally Grown in Uganda and the Effect of Simple Washing to Reduce Exposure Risk to Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuhaire, Aggrey; Kaye, Emmanuel; Mutambuze, Innocent Louis

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide misuse by farmers poses health risks to consumers. This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eatin...

  10. Linking Energy- and Land-Use Systems: Energy Potentials and Environmental Risks of Using Agricultural Residues in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Terrapon-Pfaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess whether renewable energy self-sufficiency can be achieved in the crop production and processing sector in Tanzania and if this could be accomplished in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to answer these questions the theoretical energy potential of process residues from commercially produced agricultural crops in Tanzania is evaluated. Furthermore, a set of sustainability indicators with focus on environmental criteria is applied to identify risks and opportunities of using these residues for energy generation. In particular, the positive and negative effects on the land-use-system (soil fertility, water use and quality, biodiversity, etc. are evaluated. The results show that energy generation with certain agricultural process residues could not only improve and secure the energy supply but could also improve the sustainability of current land-use practices.

  11. Residual risk of bacterial contamination of platelets: six years of experience with sterility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; DiFranco, Caesar; McIntyre, Terri; Goldman, Mindy

    2017-09-01

    Canadian Blood Services screens 100% of platelet concentrates (PCs) for bacterial contamination with the BacT/ALERT system. Quality-control sterility testing of 1% (≥10 units) of outdated PCs is performed monthly. Data from routine screening, quality-control testing, and septic reactions obtained from 2010 to 2016 are presented herein. In total, 601,988 buffy coat PC pools and 186,737 apheresis PCs were routinely screened with aerobic cultures over 6 years. Outdate quality-control testing of 8535 buffy coat and 8498 apheresis PCs was performed using aerobic and anaerobic cultures during the same period. Results were classified as "true-positives" when the same bacterium was isolated in initial and confirmatory cultures or "false-negatives" when bacteria were missed in early screening and were captured during quality-control sterility testing or through investigation of sepsis cases. During routine screening, the true-positive rates between buffy coat (0.94 per 10,000) and apheresis (0.96 per 10,000) PCs were similar (p = 0.9473). Seventy-five bacteria isolated during PC screening included Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Six false-negative septic reactions were reported that implicated coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 3) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3) for approximate rates of 1 per 100,000 transfusion reactions and 1 per 500,000 fatalities. During quality-control testing, the false-negative rates between buffy coat (8 per 10,000) and apheresis (9 per 10,000) PCs were similar (p = 0.7897). All 15 quality-control isolates were Gram-positive bacteria. The current bacterial screening protocol is efficacious for identifying Gram-negative bacteria. However, the high proportion of Gram-positive organisms detected on outdate quality-control testing and septic transfusion events demonstrates a residual safety risk that merits further intervention. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Lifestyle risk factors and residual life expectancy at age 40: a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanrong; Hüsing, Anika; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-04-07

    Cigarette smoking, adiposity, unhealthy diet, heavy alcohol drinking and physical inactivity together are associated with about half of premature deaths in Western populations. The aim of this study was to estimate their individual and combined impacts on residual life expectancy (RLE). Lifestyle and mortality data from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort, comprising 22,469 German adults ≥40 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at recruitment (1994-1998), were analyzed with multivariable Gompertz proportional hazards models to predict lifetime survival probabilities given specific baseline status of lifestyle risk factors. The life table method was then used to estimate the RLEs. For 40-year-old adults, the most significant loss of RLE was associated with smoking (9.4 [95% confidence interval: 8.3, 10.6] years for male and 7.3 [6.0, 8.9] years for female heavy smokers [>10 cigarettes/day]; 5.3 [3.6, 7.1] years for men and 5.0 [3.2, 6.6] years for women smoking ≤10 cigarettes/day). Other lifestyle risk factors associated with major losses of RLE were low body mass index (BMI 4 drinks/day, 3.1 [1.9, 4.0] years for men), and high processed/red meat consumption (≥120 g/day, 2.4 [1.0, 3.9] years for women). The obesity-associated loss of RLE was stronger in male never smokers, while the loss of RLE associated with low BMI was stronger in current smokers. The loss of RLE associated with low leisure time physical activity was moderate for women (1.1 [0.05, 2.1] years) and negligible for men (0.4 [-0.3, 1.2] years). The combined loss of RLE for heavy smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol drinking and high processed/red meat consumption, versus never smoking, optimal BMI (22.5 to 24.9), no/light alcohol drinking and low processed/red meat consumption, was 17.0 years for men and 13.9 years for women. Promoting healthy lifestyles, particularly no cigarette smoking and maintaining healthy body weight, should be the core component of public health approaches to

  13. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou

    2017-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  14. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    of the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) were found in five samples from Italy. A number of samples were rinsed to study the possible reduction of residues. For copper, iprodione, procymidone and dithiocarbamates a significant effect of rinsing was found (20-49% reduction of residues). However......(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients, the exposure were...... approximately 0.5% for Italian samples and 1% for South African samples....

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues in sardinella aurita from the coastal waters of Accra-Tema, Ghana and their potential health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, E.; Botwe, B.O.; Bampoe, A.A.; Addo, S.; Armah, A.K.; Ntow, W.J.; Kelderman, P.

    2011-01-01

    Sardinella aurita and seawater samples from the Accra-Tema coast of Ghana were analysed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). Residues of DDTs (p,p'-DDT, p'p'-DDE,p,p'-DDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs - α-HCH, β-HCH and γ-HCH), endosulfan (α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate) and heptachlor were detected in fish at average concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 1235.0 μg/kg wet wt. These residues were, however, below the detection limit in seawater samples. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in residue levels were also observed across sites, decreasing from Chorkor to Kpone for seven (7) of the residues that were detected in S. aurita. Evaluation of hazard ratios (HRs) and the health risk associated with OC exposure from consumption of sardinellas revealed a probability of adverse health effect due to p,p'-DDT, γ-HCH and heptachlor. Hence, p,p'-DDT, γ-HCH and heptachlor may be of particular health concern. (au)

  17. Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Emami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health. Methods: Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS.The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3 ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. Results: Identified pesticides included Fenitrothion, Carbaryl and Diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples of the samples. Conclusion: All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.

  18. Residual neuromuscular block as a risk factor for critical respiratory events in the post anesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M; Xará, D; Parente, D; Barbosa, M; Abelha, F J

    2013-04-01

    Residual neuromuscular block is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. The purpose of this study was to access the incidence of residual neuromuscular block in a post-anesthesia care unit and to evaluate its association with critical respiratory events. Prospective cohort study was conducted in a Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU) for a period of 3 weeks. Two hundred two adult patients who submitted to scheduled non-cardiac and non-intracranial surgery were eligible to the study. The primary outcome variable was residual neuromuscular block after arrival to PACU that was defined as train-of-four ratio <0.9 and objectively quantified using acceleromyography. Demographic data, perioperative variables, lengths of hospital and recovery room stay and critical respiratory events were recorded. Inadequate emergence was classified in its different forms according to the Richmond agitation and sedation scale 10 min after admission to the recovery room. Residual neuromuscular block incidence in the post-anesthesia care unit was 29.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.4, 36.1). Patients with residual neuromuscular block had more frequently overall critical respiratory events (51% versus 16%, P<0.001), airway obstruction (10% versus 2%, P=0.029), mild-moderate hypoxemia (23% versus 4%, P<0.001), severe hypoxemia (7% versus 1%, P=0.033), respiratory failure (8% versus 1%, P=0.031), inability to breathe deeply (38% versus 12%, P<0.001) and muscular weakness (16% versus 1%, P<0.001). Residual neuromuscular block was more common after high-risk surgery (53% versus 33%, P=0.011) and was more often associated with post-operative hypoactive emergence as defined by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (21% versus 6%, P=0.001). This study suggests that residual neuromuscular block is common in the PACU and is associated with more frequent critical respiratory events. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimaci

  19. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  20. Distribution of Estimated 10-Year Risk of Recurrent Vascular Events and Residual Risk in a Secondary Prevention Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Van Der Graaf, Yolanda; Ray, Kausik K.; Peters, Ron J G; Kastelein, John J P; Amarenco, Pierre; Larosa, John C.; Cramer, Maarten J M; Westerink, Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; De Borst, Gert J.; Visseren, Frank L J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, the risk of recurrent vascular events is likely to vary. We assessed the distribution of estimated 10-year risk of recurrent vascular events in a secondary prevention population. We also estimated the potential risk reduction and

  1. Residue behavior and risk assessment of mixed formulation of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian Xiang; Liu, Cong Yun; Lu, Da Hai; Chen, Jia Jia; Deng, Yi Cai; Wang, Fu Hua

    2015-10-01

    A simple and rapid method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr residues in chieh-qua. Field trials were designed to investigate the dissipation and terminal residue behavior of the mixed formulation of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua in Guangzhou and Nanning areas. Risk assessment was performed by calculating the risk quotient (RQ) values. The developed analytical method exhibited recoveries of 89.9-110.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.8-12.5% at the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.003 mg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg/kg for both imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr. It was found that the half-lives of imidacloprid in chieh-qua under field conditions were 3.3 and 3.5 days in Guangzhou and Nanning at a dose of 180 g ai/ha, while the half-lives of chlorfenapyr were 3.3 and 2.6 days, respectively. The terminal residues of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr were from 0.01 to 0.21 mg/kg and from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, respectively. Results of dietary exposure assessment showed that the RQ values were much lower than 1, indicating that the risk of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr applied in chieh-qua was negligible to human health under recommended dosage and good agricultural practices. The proposed study would provide guidance for safe and reasonable use of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua cultivation in China.

  2. Prevalence, Incidence, and Residual Risks for Transfusion Transmitted HIV-1/2 Infection among Chinese Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Jing; Yao, Fuzhu; Wen, Guoxin; Li, Julin; Huang, Yi; Lv, Yunlai; Wen, Xiuqiong; Wright, David; Yu, Qilu; Guo, Nan; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little data on HIV prevalence, incidence or residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection among Chinese blood donors. Methods Donations from five Chinese blood centers in 2008–2010 were screened using two rounds of ELISA testing for anti-HIV-1/2. A reactive result in either or both rounds led to Western Blot confirmatory testing. HIV prevalence and demographic correlates among first time donors, incidence rate and demographic correlates among repeat donors were examined. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis examined correlates of HIV confirmatory status among first time donors. Residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection were evaluated based on incidence among repeat donors. Results Among 821,320 donations, 40% came from repeat donors.1,837 (0.34%) first time and 577 (0.17%) repeat donations screened reactive for anti-HIV-1/2, among which 1,310 and 419 were tested by Western Blot. 233 (17.7%) first time and 44 (10.5%) repeat donations were confirmed positive. Estimated prevalence was 66 infections per 100,000 (95% CI: 59–74) first time donors. Estimated incidence was 9/100,000 (95% CI: 7–12) person-years among repeat donors. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis indicate that first time donors 26–45 years old were 1.6–1.8 times likely to be HIV positive than those 25 years and younger. Donors with some college or above education were less likely to be HIV positive than those with middle school education, ORs ranging from 0.35 to 0.60. Minority were 1.6 times likely to be HIV positive than Han majority donors (OR: 1.6; CI: 1.2–2.1). No difference in prevalence was found between gender. Current HIV TTI residual risk was 5.4 (1.2–12.5) infections per million whole blood donations. Conclusion Despite the declining HIV epidemic China, estimated residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection are still high, highlighting the potential blood safety yield of NAT implementation

  3. Quantification of flash flood economic risk using ultra-detailed stage-damage functions and 2-D hydraulic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, J.; Alvarenga, F. M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2016-10-01

    The village of Pajares de Pedraza (Segovia, Spain) is located in the floodplain of the Cega River, a left bank tributary of the Douro River. Repeated flash flood events occur in this small village because of its upstream catchment area, mountainous character and impermeable lithology, which reduce concentration time to just a few hours. River overbank flow has frequently caused flooding and property damage to homes and rural properties, most notably in 1927, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2013 and 2014. Consequently, a detailed analysis was carried out to quantify the economic risk of flash floods in peri-urban and rural areas. Magnitudes and exceedance probabilities were obtained from a flood frequency analysis of maximum discharges. To determine the extent and characteristics of the flooded area, we performed 2D hydraulic modeling (Iber 2.0 software) based on LIDAR (1 m) topography and considering three different scenarios associated with the initial construction (1997) and subsequent extension (2013) of a linear defense structure (rockfill dike or levee) to protect the population. Specific stage-damage functions were expressly developed using in situ data collection for exposed elements, with special emphasis on urban-type categories. The average number of elements and their unit value were established. The relationship between water depth and the height at which electric outlets, furniture, household goods, etc. were located was analyzed; due to its effect on the form of the function. Other nonspecific magnitude-damage functions were used in order to compare both economic estimates. The results indicate that the use of non-specific magnitude-damage functions leads to a significant overestimation of economic losses, partly linked to the use of general economic cost data. Furthermore, a detailed classification and financial assessment of exposed assets is the most important step to ensure a correct estimate of financial losses. In both cases, this should include a

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013): Special Issue - Articles Assessment of microbiological status and presence of antibiotic residues in cow milk produced in Bagamoyo and Kisarawe districts, Tanzania Abstract · Vol 28 (2013): Special Issue - Articles Prevalence of mastitis ...

  5. Residue behavior and risk assessment of imidacloprid applied on greenhouse-cultivated strawberries under different application conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Tao; Sun, Caixia; Zhao, Hua; Tang, Tao; Zhang, Changpeng; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Fen; Zhao, Xueping

    2018-02-01

    A risk assessment for imidacloprid applied on strawberries under different conditions was performed after residue determination using the quick, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. The application conditions were varied according to the applied dosage, addition of a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, water volume, and sprayer type. The degradation dynamics of imidacloprid on strawberries followed first-order kinetics. At applied doses of 30-60 g a.i. ha -1 , the half-lives of imidacloprid were 2.89-3.46, 1.98-3.65, and 2.57-2.77 days after application without a surfactant or with a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, respectively. For water volumes of 112.5, 225, 450, 675, and 900 L ha -1 , the half-lives of imidacloprid applied in the presence of the plant oil surfactant were 3.30, 7.70, 5.33, 7.70, and 6.30 days, respectively. The half-lives after application with a knapsack mist duster, electric sprayer, and manual sprayer were 2.16, 5.77, and 7.70 days, respectively. The health risk assessment revealed risk quotients less than 1 in all cases, indicating that the application of imidacloprid poses a low health risk to humans after a pre-harvest interval of 10 days under our application conditions. The risk assessment results can provide reference data for setting a reasonable maximum residue limit for imidacloprid on strawberries in China.

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... An algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature using Landsat-8 Dataset Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2225-8531.

  8. Dietary risk ranking for residual antibiotics in cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Li, Le; Zhang, Cong; Qiu, Liping; Fan, Limin; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Chen, Jiazhang; Liu, Ying; Mao, Aimin

    2017-10-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture and therefore may be present as a dietary risk in cultured aquatic products. Using the Tai Lake Basin as a study area, we assessed the presence of 15 antibiotics in 5 widely cultured aquatic species using a newly developed dietary risk ranking approach. By assigning scores to each factor involved in the ranking matrices, the scores of dietary risks per antibiotic and per aquatic species were calculated. The results indicated that fluoroquinolone antibiotics posed the highest dietary risk in all aquatic species. Then, the total scores per aquatic species were summed by all 15 antibiotic scores of antibiotics, it was found that Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) had the highest dietary risks. Finally, the most concerned antibiotic category and aquatic species were selected. This study highlighted the importance of dietary risk ranking in the production and consumption of cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Vegetation under different tree species in Acacia woodland in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997.

  10. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emission risks from storage of wood residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihersaari, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels is one of the most important means of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. In Finland, wood energy is considered to be a very important potential energy source in this sense. There might, however, still be some elements of uncertainty when evaluating biofuel production chains. By combining data from a stack of composting biodegradable materials and forest residue storage research there was an indication that rather great amounts of greenhouse gases maybe released during storage of wood chip, especially if there is rapid decomposition. Unfortunately, there have not been many evaluations of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass handling and storage heaps. The greenhouse gas emissions are probably methane, when the temperature in the fuel stack is above the ambient temperature, and nitrous oxide, when the temperature is falling and the decaying process is slowing down. Nowadays it is still rather unusual to store logging residue as chips, because the production is small, but in Finland storage of bark and other by-products from the forest industry is a normal process. The evaluations made indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from storage can, in some cases, be much greater than emissions from the rest of the biofuel production and transportation chain

  11. Risks of antibiotic residues in milk following intramammary and intramuscular treatments in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengov, A; Kirbis, A

    2009-04-01

    Very few drugs on the market are approved for use in lactating ewes. Veterinarians in the European Union are allowed to prescribe drugs in an off-label manner but are then obligated to assure that residues do not enter the food chain. In case of mastitis treatment in dairy ewes antibiotic preparations designed and authorized for the bovine mammary gland are usually used. Due to inter-species differences, available bovine data cannot be accurately extrapolated for use in the dairy ewe. The objective of the study was therefore to determine appropriate withdrawal periods for ewe's milk following mastitis treatment with two commercial lactating cow products. For the detection of all components standard agar plate diffusion techniques were used. Regardless of the therapy regime and the product used, residues of antibiotics in milk were detected up to 192h after the last infusion. These results indicate that the required withholding periods for ewe's milk are considerably longer than recommended on the label for bovine milk.

  12. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed.

  13. A quantitative assessment of risks of heavy metal residues in laundered shop towels and their use by workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Kevin; Magee, Brian

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a risk assessment of exposure to metal residues in laundered shop towels by workers. The concentrations of 27 metals measured in a synthetic sweat leachate were used to estimate the releasable quantity of metals which could be transferred to workers' skin. Worker exposure was evaluated quantitatively with an exposure model that focused on towel-to-hand transfer and subsequent hand-to-food or -mouth transfers. The exposure model was based on conservative, but reasonable assumptions regarding towel use and default exposure factor values from the published literature or regulatory guidance. Transfer coefficients were derived from studies representative of the exposures to towel users. Contact frequencies were based on assumed high-end use of shop towels, but constrained by a theoretical maximum dermal loading. The risk estimates for workers developed for all metals were below applicable regulatory risk benchmarks. The risk assessment for lead utilized the Adult Lead Model and concluded that predicted lead intakes do not constitute a significant health hazard based on potential worker exposures. Uncertainties are discussed in relation to the overall confidence in the exposure estimates developed for each exposure pathway and the likelihood that the exposure model is under- or overestimating worker exposures and risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Residual sleep disturbance and risk of relapse during the continuation/maintenance phase treatment of major depressive disorder with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrath Patrick J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relapse of major depressive disorder (MDD is a common clinical problem. This study was designed to determine whether residual sleep disturbance (insomnia and hypersomnia predict risk of relapse during the continuation and maintenance treatment of MDD. Methods A total of 570 patients with MDD were treated with open-label, flexible dose fluoxetine (range 20 to 60 mg; mean dose = 45.8 mg/day; SD = 15.1 for 12 weeks. Under double blind conditions, 262 patients who achieved clinical response were randomly assigned to continue fluoxetine or to switch to placebo for 52 weeks or until relapse. Residual sleep disturbance during the baseline visit of the double-blind phase was assessed using items 4, 5, 6 (insomnia and 22, 23, 24 (hypersomnia of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. Survival analysis was utilized to determine the effect of residual sleep disturbance on risk of relapse. Results The severities of early (P > 0.05, middle (P > 0.05, late (P > 0.05, or total (P > 0.05 residual insomnia were not found to significantly predict risk of relapse during continuation and maintenance-phase treatment. Similarly, the severities of early bedtime (P > 0.05, oversleeping (P > 0.05, napping (P > 0.05, or total (P > 0.05 residual hypersomnia were not found to significantly predict risk of relapse during continuation and maintenance-phase treatment. Conclusion The present study did not identify the severity of residual sleep disturbance among fluoxetine responders to predict risk of MDD relapse. The size of our sample may have precluded us from identifying more modest effects of residual sleep disturbance on the risk of relapse in MDD patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the relationship between residual sleep disturbance and relapse in MDD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00427128

  15. No risk to health from DEET residues in chanterelle mushrooms from Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2009-01-01

    Up to 1 milligram DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) per kilogram mushrooms was de-tected in fresh chanterelles from Lithuania, Russia and Belarus. DEET is used in biocide products for instance to offer protection against mosquitoes and ticks. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) examined whether the contaminated mushrooms constitute a health risk for consumers. The toxicological assessment of DEET is based on the evaluation of this substance by the Member State Sweden in conj...

  16. Contamination of food with residues of antibiotics in the sulphonamide class, risk can be avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadiazine are the most common usedsulfonamides in veterinary practice. The recommended withdrawal periods if not observed before slaughteringof the medicated animals, the products may obtain from such animals may be contaminated with residue. Theinterest in having reliable methods able to detect low amounts of sulfonamides in food is very actual. In thisstudy, a multiresidue analysis was performed to simultaneously determine those four sulfonamides in chickenmuscle tissue by the Waters LC.Criteria of validation: specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and linearity,according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, show that the method can detect differentkinds of sulfonamides within one run, without mass spectrometry analyses, or Fluor metric derivatization ofanalyts.The method is accurate, simple, economical in both time and cost, capable of detecting sulfonamidesresidues below the maximum residue limits (MRL and easy to perform to routine samples, in normal conditionof laboratory.The sulfonamides were extracted with acetonitrile and acetone and dichloromethane. N-hexane wasadded for defeating the sample. Separation was carried out on a Zorbax SB- C18 analytical column, using asmobile phase a mixture of 75:25 = di-natrium-hydrogenphosphat solution 6 g/1000 ml (pH = 8.5 : methanol.The detection wavelength was set at: 254 nm Calibration graphs were linear with very good correlationcoefficients in the concentration range from 0.320 to 1.5μg /mL. The limits of quantification (LOQ for thesulfonamides were in the range of 6.6–0.34 μg /kg. The recovery for spiked chicken muscle with 50–150 μg/kg ranged more than 70%. The relative standard deviation (Reds of the sulfonamides for six measurementsat 50 go/kg, 100 μg /kg and 150 μg /kg was less then 15%.The applicability of the method to the analysis of chicken muscle tissue was

  17. Residual risks of the 13{sup th} amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act; Restrisiken der 13. Atomgesetzaenderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-08-15

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mensah, SEP. Vol 5, No 6 (2011) - Articles Detection of antibiotics residues in meat of reformed and marketed laying hens in southern Benin Abstract PDF · Vol 5, No 6 (2011) - Articles Performance pondérale et caractéristiques des carcasses des poulets de chair alimentés avec des rations alimentaires à base de graines ...

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    Gure, Abera. Vol 12, No 1 (2016) - Articles Modified QuEChERS method for the determination of s-Triazine herbicide residues in soil samples by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-8907. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Oyekunle, JAO. Vol 16, No 2 (2014) - Articles Levels of organochlorine insecticide residues in cowpea grains and dried yam chips from markets in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A preliminary survey. Abstract PDF · Vol 17, No 2 (2015) - Articles Measurement of the specific and the apparent molar volumes of some even chain ...

  1. Author Details

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    Ezoua, P. Vol 10, No 2 (2010) - Articles Determination of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether content in foods from lacquered cans. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 3 (2010) - Articles Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in fish sold in Abidjan markets and fishing sites. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 7 (2010) - Articles Sensory ...

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    Utilization of Microwave Energy in the Calcination and Agglomeration of Nsuta Manganese Carbonate Ore Abstract · Vol 12 (2011) - Articles Recycling Potential of Waste Di-Isobutyl-Ketone (DIBK) and Recovery of Residual Gold Abstract PDF · Vol 14 (2013) - Articles Fungal-Transformation of Surrogate Sulphides and ...

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    Dodoo, DK. Vol 30, No 3 (2010) - Articles Lindane and propoxur residues in cocoa from Central region of Ghana Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Petrology of the Cenomanian Upper Member of the Mamfe Embayment, southwestern Cameroon Details · Vol 38, No 1 (2002) - Articles Sequence stratigraphy of Iso field, western onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria Details · Vol 39, No 2 (2003) - Articles Preliminary studies on the lithostratigraphy and depositional environment of ...

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    An Overview of Africa's Marine Resources: Their Utilization and Sustainable Management Details · Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles EDITORIAL Ganoderma Lucidum - Paramount among Medicinal Mushrooms. Details · Vol 15, No 3 (2003) - Articles Editorial: Africa's Mushrooms: A neglected bioresource whose time has come

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 6 (2011) - Articles Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel containing porous and fluid layer with traveling thermal waves. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 8 ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Singh, J. Vol 3, No 2 (2011) - Articles Plane waves in a rotating generalized thermo-elastic solid with voids. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 12 (2008) - Articles On the wave equations of shallow water with rough bottom topography. Abstract · Vol 14 (2009) - Articles Energy generation in a plant due to variable sunlight intensity

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Iliopsoas haematoma in a rugby player. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-516X. AJOL African ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Ismail, A. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Investigate of wave absorption performance for oil palm frond and empty fruit bunch at 5.8 GHz. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Isa, M.F.M.. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Simulation on ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Duwa, S S. Vol 8 (2004) - Articles Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous charged dust beam. Abstract · Vol 9 (2005) - Articles The slide away theory of lower hybrid bursts

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 45 (2016) - Articles From vectors to waves and streams: An alternative approach to semantic maps1. Abstract PDF · Vol 48 (2017) - Articles Introduction: 'n Klein ietsie for Johan Oosthuizen

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... to blast loadings. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867.

  16. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  17. Assessment of radon-induced health risk for occupants of a house built on uranium ore residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clero, E.; Marie, L.; Challeton-De Vathaire, C.; Laurier, D.; Rannou, A.

    2016-01-01

    At the request of French public authorities, the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety has assessed the radiological situation of a house built on uranium ore residues in Haute-Vienne and the health risks induced from exposure to radon for all occupants. Classified as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization, radon is a proven cause of lung cancer in case of regular inhalation over a long period, and the risk increases with cumulative exposure. Radon exposure was reconstructed for various standard profiles of house occupancy. A risk model derived from a European epidemiological study was used to calculate the lifetime probability of death from lung cancer according to these standard profiles. Risk assessment of the occupants of the house highlighted the following main findings. For a resident school child having been exposed to radon from birth to the age of 7, the lifetime relative risk (LRR) was estimated at 5. For last adult and young adult residents having lived more than 10 years in the house, the probability of death from lung cancer was in the same order of magnitude as that of a regular cigarette smoker, with a LRR from 10 to 13 and a lifetime probability of death from lung cancer between 3 and 4%. If these individuals smoked regularly, in addition to being exposed to radon, this probability would be between 6 and 32% (supposing an additive or multiplicative interaction). For former occupants (non-smokers) having been exposed 10 years during childhood, the LRR was two-fold lower. For children having been in day care in the house, the increased probability of death from lung cancer was low, with a LRR lower than 2. Supposing, as in adults, that the risk decreases beyond 30 years after the end of radon exposure, the increase was almost zero for former occupants exposed during childhood and during day care, with a LRR close to 1. (authors)

  18. Residual tumor size and IGCCCG risk classification predict additional vascular procedures in patients with germ cell tumors and residual tumor resection: a multicenter analysis of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Christian; Pfister, David; Busch, Jonas; Bingöl, Cigdem; Ranft, Ulrich; Schrader, Mark; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Heidenreich, Axel; Albers, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Residual tumor resection (RTR) after chemotherapy in patients with advanced germ cell tumors (GCT) is an important part of the multimodal treatment. To provide a complete resection of residual tumor, additional surgical procedures are sometimes necessary. In particular, additional vascular interventions are high-risk procedures that require multidisciplinary planning and adequate resources to optimize outcome. The aim was to identify parameters that predict additional vascular procedures during RTR in GCT patients. A retrospective analysis was performed in 402 GCT patients who underwent 414 RTRs in 9 German Testicular Cancer Study Group (GTCSG) centers. Overall, 339 of 414 RTRs were evaluable with complete perioperative data sets. The RTR database was queried for additional vascular procedures (inferior vena cava [IVC] interventions, aortic prosthesis) and correlated to International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification and residual tumor volume. In 40 RTRs, major vascular procedures (23 IVC resections with or without prosthesis, 11 partial IVC resections, and 6 aortic prostheses) were performed. In univariate analysis, the necessity of IVC intervention was significantly correlated with IGCCCG (14.1% intermediate/poor vs 4.8% good; p=0.0047) and residual tumor size (3.7% size risk features must initially be identified as high-risk patients for vascular procedures and therefore should be referred to specialized surgical centers with the ad hoc possibility of vascular interventions. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnitude of cyantraniliprole residues in tomato following open field application: pre-harvest interval determination and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Shalaby, Shehata

    2018-02-05

    Cyantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide insecticide, belonging to the ryanoid class, with a broad range of applications against several pests. In the presented work, a reliable analytical technique employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for analyzing cyantraniliprole residues in tomato was developed. The method was then applied to field-incurred tomato samples collected after applications under open field conditions. The latter aimed to ensure the safe application of cyantraniliprole to tomato and contribute the derived residue data to the risk assessment under field conditions. Sample preparation involved a single step extraction with acetonitrile and sodium chloride for partitioning. The extract was purified utilizing florisil as cleanup reagent. The developed method was further evaluated by comparing the analytical results with those obtained using the QuEChERS technique. The novel method outbalanced QuEChERS regarding matrix interferences in the analysis, while it met all guideline criteria. Hence, it showed excellent linearity over the assayed concentration and yielded satisfactory recovery rate in the range of 88.9 to 96.5%. The half-life of degradation of cyantraniliprole was determined at 2.6 days. Based on the Codex MRL, the pre-harvest interval (PHI) for cyantraniliprole on tomato was 3 days, after treatment at the recommended dose. To our knowledge, the present work provides the first record on PHI determination of cyantraniliprole in tomato under open field conditions in Egypt and the broad Mediterranean region.

  1. Risk Analysis on Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in Potato and Carrot from Conventional and Organic Farms in Citarum Watershed Area, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphia Rahmawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Six samples of carrot and potatoes were collected from conventional and organic farms. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs residue was analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The concentration of OCPs residue together with the consumption pattern were used to calculate the potential risk. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI of OCPs residue in carrots and potatoes both from conventional and organic farms were below the standard given in SNI 7313:2008 and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs from USEPA . Hazard quotient (HQ and Hazard Index (HI as effect analysis were below the unity, thus there may not be a concern for non-carcinogenic effect. Risk analysis on cancer effects indicated that potatoes samples were above the recommended risk by EPA (10-6. In addition, risk of potatoes samples from organic samples was higher compare to that of the conventional farm. Cancer risk analysis of carrot samples were found below the recommended risk by EPA. Cancer risk effect of carrot samples from conventional farm was slightly higher compare to that of the organic farm.

  2. Nonoperative options for management of residual stones after cholecystostomy in high-risk patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.

  3. Early detection of tumor relapse/regrowth by consecutive minimal residual disease monitoring in high-risk neuroblastoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirase, Satoshi; Saitoh, Atsuro; Hartomo, Tri Budi; Kozaki, Aiko; Yanai, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nishio, Hisahide; Nishimura, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor accounting for ~15% of cancer-associated mortalities in children. Despite the current intensive therapy, >50% of high-risk patients experience tumor relapse or regrowth caused by the activation of minimal residual disease (MRD). Although several MRD detection protocols using various reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) markers have been reported to evaluate the therapeutic response and disease status of neuroblastoma patients, their clinical significance remains elusive. The present study reports two high-risk neuroblastoma patients, whose MRD was consecutively monitored using 11 RT-qPCR markers (CHRNA3, CRMP1, DBH, DCX, DDC, GABRB3, GAP43, ISL1, KIF1A, PHOX2B and TH) during their course of treatment. The two patients initially responded to the induction therapy and reached MRD-negative status. The patients' MRD subsequently became positive with no elevation of their urinary homovanillic acid, urinary vanillylmandelic acid and serum neuron-specific enolase levels at 13 or 19 weeks prior to the clinical diagnosis of tumor relapse or regrowth. The present cases highlight the possibility of consecutive MRD monitoring using 11 markers to enable an early detection of tumor relapse or regrowth in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:27446404

  4. An ecotoxic risk assessment of residue materials produced by the plasma pyrolysis/vitrification (PP/V) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Santos, Oliveira J F; Camacho, S L; Circeo, L J

    2002-01-01

    Plasma is the fourth state of matter, following the three states of solid, liquid and gas. Experience has amply demonstrated that solids exposed to the oxygen-deficient plasma flame are converted to liquid, and liquid exposed to the same flame is converted to gas. A low amount of vitrified solid residue material usually remains at the end of this process. Plasma pyrolysis/vitrification (PP/V) has been demonstrated as a safe, efficient, cost-effective technology for the treatment of wastes, including hazardous wastes. Besides the low amounts of gaseous byproducts that PP/V produces, the solid vitrified residue presents a low leachability of pollutants. Studies have been performed in many countries in order to assess the leachability of chemical substances. But from the results of identified studies, none has reported results on the ecotoxicological properties of the leachates. The aim of this study was to contribute to the assessment of ecotoxic risk of four different vitrified materials. Vitrified samples of contaminated soils, municipal solid wastes, and incinerator bottom ashes were submitted to the European leaching pre-standard test number prEN 12457-2. The leachates were analyzed for 22 chemical parameters. The biological characterization comprised the assessment of bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum bacterium, growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae and the germination inhibition of Lactuca sativa vegetable. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the French proposal of Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Toxicity (CEMWT) and a Toxicity Classification System (TCS). The chemical and ecotoxicological results indicated a low leachability of pollutants and a low toxicity level of leachates. All samples studied were as below the TCS class 1 level (no significant toxicity observed) and as non-ecotoxic for CEMWT. Therefore, the environmental ecotoxic risk of the analyzed vitrified samples

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register ... (2013) - Articles Technical Note: Development of a Photobioreactor for Microalgae Culture ... Design, Construction and Evaluation of Motorized Okra Slicer Abstract PDF ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to ... No 1 (2014) - Articles Knowledge and Attitudes towards Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) among Community Nurses in Remo Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get ... Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of medium voltage switchgear for data collection and transmission. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112- ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... The prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and infant feeding practices ... Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Design and Implementation of an M/M/1 Queuing Model Algorithm and its Applicability in ... Vehicle Identification Technology to Intercept Small Arms and Ammunition on Nigeria Roads

  10. Aggregate versus Individual-Level Sexual Behavior Assessment: How Much Detail Is Needed to Accurately Estimate HIV/STI Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Galletly, Carol L.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Raymond, H. Fisher; Chesson, Harrell W.

    2010-01-01

    The sexual behaviors of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention intervention participants can be assessed on a partner-by-partner basis: in aggregate (i.e., total numbers of sex acts, collapsed across partners) or using a combination of these two methods (e.g., assessing five partners in detail and any remaining partners in aggregate).…

  11. Changing incidence and residual lifetime risk of common osteoporosis-related fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, J B; Schwarz, Peter; Lund, B

    1993-01-01

    1735 fractures of the distal radius, 747 fractures of the proximal humerus, 878 cervical and 635 trochanteric hip fractures were included. In men 273 cervical and 232 trochanteric hip fractures were included. The fractures were registered during the period 1976 to 1984 and changes in age.......05) during the observation period, while no significant decrease was found in the incidence of trochanteric fractures. No significant changes in incidence were observed in women with radial or humeral fractures, or in men with hip fractures. A women 60 years old with a life expectancy of 81 years had......Changes in incidence and lifetime risk of fractures are of major importance in the epidemiology of osteoporosis. We focused on hip fractures in women and men and on radial and humeral fractures in women. The study subjects comprised 4500 women and men 20 years old or more with fractures. In women...

  12. Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of testicular germ cell carcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Mary L; Davis, Mark D; Eaton, David L; Weiss, Noel S; Barr, Dana B; Doody, David R; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2008-08-01

    Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men ages 20 to 34 years. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, suboptimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess antiandrogenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p'-DDE, and whether the p,p'-DDE-TGCC association is modified by CAG or GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 18- to 44-year-old male residents of three Washington State counties. Cases (n = 246) were diagnosed during 1999 to 2003 with a first, primary TGCC. Controls (n = 630) were men of similar age with no history of TGCC from the same population identified through random-digit telephone dialing. Questionnaires elicited information on demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A blood specimen provided serum for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues and DNA for genotyping. We observed no clear patterns between TGCC risk and concentrations of any of the organochlorines measured, nor did we observe that the risk associated with p,p'-DDE was modified by androgen receptor CAG ( or =23 repeats) or GGN ( or =17 repeats) genotype. This study does not provide support for the hypothesis that adult exposure to organochlorine pesticides is associated with risk of TGCC. Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy.

  13. Potential risks of the residue from Samarco's mine dam burst (Bento Rodrigues, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Fabiana Roberta; Nunes, Emilene Arusievicz; Paniz, Fernanda Pollo; Paulelli, Ana Carolina Cavalheiro; Rodrigues, Gabriela Braga; Braga, Gilberto Úbida Leite; Dos Reis Pedreira Filho, Walter; Barbosa, Fernando; Cerchiaro, Giselle; Silva, Fábio Ferreira; Batista, Bruno Lemos

    2016-11-01

    On November 5th, 2015, Samarco's iron mine dam - called Fundão - spilled 50-60 million m 3 of mud into Gualaxo do Norte, a river that belongs to Rio Doce Basin. Approximately 15 km 2 were flooded along the rivers Gualaxo do Norte, Carmo and Doce, reaching the Atlantic Ocean on November 22nd, 2015. Six days after, our group collected mud, soil and water samples in Bento Rodrigues (Minas Gerais, Brazil), which was the first impacted area. Overall, the results, water samples - potable and surface water from river - presented chemical elements concentration according to Brazilian environmental legislations, except silver concentration in surface water that ranged from 1.5 to 1087 μg L -1 . In addition, water mud-containing presented Fe and Mn concentrations approximately 4-fold higher than the maximum limit for water bodies quality assessment, according to Brazilian laws. Mud particle size ranged from 1 to 200 μm. SEM-EDS spot provided us some semi quantitative data. Leaching/extraction tests suggested that Ba, Pb, As, Sr, Fe, Mn and Al have high potential mobilization from mud to water. Low microbial diversity in mud samples compared to background soil samples. Toxicological bioassays (HepG2 and Allium cepa) indicated potential risks of cytotoxicity and DNA damage in mud and soil samples used in both assays. The present study provides preliminary information aiming to collaborate to the development of future works for monitoring and risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    HIV knowledge, risk perception and risk behaviour among male ex-offenders in Mpumalanga, South Africa Abstract · Vol 10, No 1 (2012) - Articles Body Weight and Body Image among a Sample of Female and Male South African University Students Abstract · Vol 11, No 1 (2013) - Articles Intimate Partner Violence among ...

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    Njubi, Francis. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles New Media, Old Struggles: Pan Africanism, Anti-racism and Information Technology Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Radwan M.D, Mona Ahmed. Vol 12, No 1 (2000) - Articles RELAPSING REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: CT AND MRI IMAGING VS CLINICAL FINDINGIN THE DIAGNOSIS AND DETERMINATION OF DISEASE ACTIVITY. Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

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    A Preliminary Investigation of Relative Frequency of Undiagnosed and Previously Diagnosed Hypertension Before First Stroke in a Lagos Hospital Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Localised tetanus in Lagos, Nigeria Details · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Stroke with localised infarction of Wernicke's Area misdiagnosed ...

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    SAMA, G. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    QUAKYI, A.I.. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    KOUONTCHOU, Samuel. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles Prevalence of Multiple Concomitant Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Simbok a Malaria Endemic Village in Cameroon. Details PDF · Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial ...

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    Love, Alison. Vol 29, No 2 (2002) - Articles Policy-makers, the Press and Politics: Reporting a Public Policy Document Details. ISSN: 0379-0622. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Ligthelm, A.A.. Vol 5, No 2 (2001) - Articles Community attitudes towards Casinos and the estimated magnitude of problem gambling The Mpumalanga case. Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Kioni, P N. Vol 9, No 1 (2007) - Articles Detailed structure of pipe flow with water hammer oscillations. Abstract. ISSN: 1561-7645. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Development of a trap to contaminate variegated grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) with Metarrhyzium flavo-viride Gams & Rozsypal in the field. Details · Vol 40, No 1 (2007) - Articles Yam pests in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions of Ghana: A study of farmers\\' indigenous technical ...

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    Brown, Duncan. Vol 16, No 2 (2002): Continental Africans & the Question of Identity - Articles Environment and Identity: Douglas Livingstone's A Littoral Zone Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Aderinokun, GA. Vol 9, No 1 (1999) - Articles Relative Influence Of Sociodemographic Variables On Oral Health And Habits Of Some Nigerian School Children Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Oral health services in Nigeria Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    EKPA, O. D.. Vol 7, No 2 (2001) - Articles Variental differences AND polymorphism in palm oil: a case study of palm oils blended with coconut oil. Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    SONUGA, F A. Vol 6, No 1 (2000) - Articles Geophysical investigation of Karkarku earthdam embankment. Details. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Geotechnical properties of lateritic soil developed over quartz schist in Ishara area, south western Nigeria Details · Vol 44, No 1 (2008) - Articles Comparative study of the influence of cement and lime stabilization on geotechnical properties of lateritic soil derived from pegmatite in Ago-Iwoye area, southwestern Nigeria

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    McCarthy, Greg. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Legwaila, GM. Vol 12 (2003) - Articles Review of sweet sorghum: a potential cash and forage crop in Botswana Details. ISSN: 1021-0873. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Admasu, Assefa. Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Okeke, EO. Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Analysis of Stokes waves theory as a diffusion problem. Abstract · Vol 11 (2007) - Articles On the impact of wave-current on Stokes waves. Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336. AJOL African ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Obtaining the green's function for electromagnetic waves propagating in layered in-homogeneous thin film media of spherical particles on a substrate. Abstract · Vol 20, No 2 (2008) - Articles solution growth and ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... Abstract · Vol 17 (2010) - Articles Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic Disease Model With No Disease Related Death (When The Spatial Spread Of The Susceptible Is Not Negligible). Abstract.

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    Akum, ZE. Vol 1, No 3 (2001) - Articles Basic home range characteristics for the conservation of the African grey parrot in the Korup national park, Cameroon Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Green, J.M.. Vol 10, No 1 (2001) - Articles Information from Radio Telemetry on movements and exploitation of naturalized Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Kenya cold water streams. Details. ISSN: 0002-0036. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Odigie, IP. Vol 10, No 4 (2000) - Articles High dose vitamin E administration attenuates hypertensin in 2-Kidney 1 Clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Motabagani, MA. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Anomalies of the renal, phrenic and suprarenal arteries: Case Report Details PDF · Vol 81, No 3 (2004): - Articles Morphological study of the uncommon rectus sterni muscle in German cadavers. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

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  13. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9

  14. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olds in the Birth to Twenty cohort. Abstract PDF · Vol 27, No 4 (2014) - Articles Under- and overnutrition and evidence of metabolic disease risk in rural black South African children and adolescents. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-6204.

  16. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, incidence, and residual transmission risk in first-time and repeat blood donations in Zimbabwe: implications on blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Mvere, David A; Chitiyo, McLeod E; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2013-10-01

    National Blood Service Zimbabwe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk management strategy includes screening and discarding of first-time donations, which are collected in blood packs without an anticoagulant (dry pack). To evaluate the impact of discarding first-time donations on blood safety the HIV prevalence, incidence, and residual risk in first-time and repeat donations (wet packs) were compared. Donor data from 2002 to 2010 were retrieved from a centralized national electronic donor database and retrospectively analyzed. Chi-square test was used to compare HIV prevalence with relative risk (RR), and the RR point estimates and 95% confidence interval (CI) are reported. Trend analysis was done using Cochran-Armitage trend test. HIV residual risk estimates were determined using published residual risk estimation models. Over the 9 years the overall HIV prevalence estimates are 1.29% (n = 116,058) and 0.42% (n = 434,695) for first-time and repeat donations, respectively. The overall RR was 3.1 (95% CI, 2.9-3.3; p donations in first-time was 1:7384 (range, 1:11,308-1:5356) and in repeat donors it was 1:5496 (range, 1:9943-1:3347). The significantly high HIV prevalence estimates recorded in first-time over repeat donations is indicative of the effectiveness of the HIV risk management strategy. However, comparable residual transmission risk estimates in first-time and repeat donors point to the need to further review the risk management strategies. Given the potential wastage of valuable resources, future studies should focus on the cost-effectiveness and utility of screening and discarding first-time donations. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. [Evolution of residual risk for HIV, HCV and HBV, from 1999 to 2010, in blood donations of the Centro Hospitalar S. João, EPE, Porto, Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Carmo; Araújo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections is important to evaluate the improvement achieved in the blood donation safety and to adopt policies to reduce risks. The present study calculates the incidence of the key infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) as well as the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections, during twelve years, 1999 through 2010. Data were analyzed over 3 periods of 4 years (1999-2002, 2003-2006 and 2007-2010). The risk estimates were compared to those previously obtained for blood donations occurred between 1991 and 1998. The study included 209 640 blood donations, from 42 634 regular, volunteers and unpaid donors. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted infection per million donations was calculated, for each virus, through mathematical model "Incidence rate/window period", described by Schreiber et al. All donations were screened according to Portuguese legislation. In January 2001, the nucleic acid testing in minipool was implemented on all blood donations, for screening simultaneously HIV-1 and HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) (Cobas Amplicor Ampliscreen-Roche©). This test was replaced, in January 2007, by the simultaneous screening of HBV deoxyribonucleic acid, HCV RNA and HIV-1/HIV-2 RNA, in minipool (Cobas Taqscreen MPX Test-Roche©). The residual risk of transmitting viral infections during the transfusion of blood components is very small and has declined over the years. After the implementation of the nucleic acid testing in minipool for the three viruses, the risk of giving blood during an infectious window period was estimated as follows: for human immunodeficiency virus, 1 in 1.67 million, for hepatitis C virus 1 in 3.33 million and for hepatitis B virus 1 in 526 000. During the 12 years under study, we found a decrease in residual risk for the three viruses, by a factor around five for human immunodeficiency virus

  19. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in snappers (Lutjanus) fish from the Navachiste Lagoon complex, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Galván, Ingrid Alejandra; Rodríguez-Meza, Durga Guadalupe; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in fillets of Lutjanus colorado, L. argentiventris, and L. novemfasciatus. Fillet samples were collected bimonthly from February 2012 to February 2013. OCPs average concentrations do not differ significantly according to size, weight, or season, nor do they relate with the physico-chemical parameters of the sea water. The highest concentration and most frequently encountered OCPs were endosulfan sulfate, δ-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide, which indicates their use in the recent past and confirms their persistence. Average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, and ∑heptachlor in samples were above cancer MRLs according to data from monthly consumed portions. HCHs and heptachlor are listed in Appendix III of the Rotterdam Convention of chemicals placed on a prior informed consent procedure for import and export purposes; they are considered illegal in Mexico. The OCPs concentrations above cancer MRLs in Lutjanus spp. turn its frequent consumption into a human health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    Dermaux-Msimang, Veerle. Vol 106, No 3 (2016) - Articles Editorial: Is South Africa at risk for Zika virus disease? Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    High-risk sexual behavior and pattern of condom utilization of the Gondar Collage of Medical Sciences (GCMS) Students, North-west Ethiopia Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 1 (2001) - Articles Self-medication in three towns of North West Ethiopia Abstract · Vol 18, No 2 (2004) - Articles Behavioural survey for HIV/AIDS infection in ...

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    The Determination of Mass, Element and Black Carbon Concentrations in Harmattan Aerosol Samples Collected at Kwabenya, Ghana Abstract · Vol 12, No 2 (2010) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals and Human Health Risk Assessment of Road Dust on the Tema Motorway and Tetteh Quarshie Interchange in Accra, ...

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    Atiemo, SM. Vol 12, No 2 (2010) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals and Human Health Risk Assessment of Road Dust on the Tema Motorway and Tetteh Quarshie Interchange in Accra, Ghana Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Hesselink-Louw, Ann-Mari E. Vol 16, No 5 (2003) - Articles Profiling as a significant outcome of assessment - the criminologist's point of view. Abstract · Vol 16, No 5 (2003) - Articles Multidimensional assessment, risk profiling and sentence planning in correctional services. Abstract · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

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    Oramah, EU. Vol 32, No 1-2 (2013) - Articles Touch in Therapy: A Review of Literature. Abstract · Vol 33, No 2 (2014) - Articles Boundaries in school counselling: Conceptual, theoretical, and risk-management dimensions. Abstract. ISSN: 0189-0263. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Abd Elmonem, Sawsan M. Vol 19, No 1 (2018) - Articles Abnormal maternal biomarkers of homocysteine and methionine metabolism and the risk of congenital heart defects. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1110-8630. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

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    The prevalence of and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in spouses of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Abstract · Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Renal function profile of Di (2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate exposed adult Wistar Rats Abstract. ISSN: 1596-2407. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    McCurdy, S. Vol 10, No 1 (2011) - Articles HIV risk behaviours, perceived severity of drug use problems, and prior treatment experience in a sample of young heroin injectors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1531-4065. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Mulwafu, W. Vol 44, No 2 (2006) - Articles Adult tonsillectomy - are long waiting lists putting patients at risk? Abstract PDF · Vol 44, No 3 (2006) - Articles Suprahyoid approach to base-of-tongue squamus cell carcinoma. Abstract PDF · Vol 45, No 3 (2007) - Articles Emergency percutaneous tracheostomy. Abstract PDF · Vol ...

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    Karuga, G. Vol 17, No 1 (2012) - Articles Risk Factors of Early Complications of Tracheostomy at Kenyatta National Hospital Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2073-9990. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    bowling injuries at an elite, junior level and associated risk factors. Abstract PDF · Vol 25, No 3 (2013) - Articles A review of cricket Fielding requirements. Abstract PDF · Vol 17, No 2 (2005) - Articles Methods for injury surveillance in international ...

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    Adeniyi, F.A.A. Vol 23, No 1-2 (2008) - Articles High cadmium / zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications as a biomarker of risk of prostate cancer. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-859X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa Abstract PDF · Vol 106, No 12 (2016) - Articles Safeguarding maternal and child health in South Africa by starting the Child Support Grant before birth: Design lessons from pregnancy support programmes in 27 ...

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    Richter, M. Vol 103, No 4 (2013) - Articles Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Chersich, M. Vol 103, No 4 (2013) - Articles Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa Abstract PDF · Vol 103, No 6 (2013) - Articles Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa Abstract PDF · Vol 94, No 3 (2004) - Articles

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    Okhakhume, AS. Vol 6, No 2 (2008) - Articles Attitudes Of Subordinates Toward Women In Leadership Position Abstract · Vol 12, No 2 (2014) - Articles Influence of Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Parental Monitoring on Sexual Risk Behaviour of Adolescents in Ibadan Abstract. ISSN: 1596-9231. AJOL African Journals ...

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    Adediwura, A.A. Vol 4, No 2 (2010) - Articles Undergraduates' History of Sexual Abuse, Parenting Style and Sexual Risk Behaviour in Southwestern Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2070-0083. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Alagbe-Briggs, OT. Vol 90, No 10 (2013) - Articles Anaesthetic Challenges in a High Risk Parturient with Myasthenia Gravis Undergoing Caesarean Section Under Spinal Anaesthesia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    Setargie, S. Vol 3, No 1 (2013) - Articles Credit Default Risk and its Determinants of Microfinance Industry in Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2410-2393. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Kabari, LG. Vol 28, No 1 (2009) - Research papers. Credit Risk Evaluation System: An Artificial Neural Network Approach Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2467-8821. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

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    Surujlal, J. Vol 30, No 1 (2008) - Articles Volunteers\\' perceptions of benefits derived from volunteering: an empirical study. Abstract · Vol 32, No 1 (2010) - Articles Risk management practices of high school sport coaches and administrators. Abstract · Vol 32, No 2 (2010) - Articles Internship as a mechanism for professional ...

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    Abstract · Vol 20, No 2 (2014): Part 2 - Articles The use of mobile phone technology as an assistive tool for emotional support of adolescents orphaned by aids in South Africa Abstract · Vol 21, No 3 (2015): Supplement 1 - Articles The Intersection of HIV and AIDS Risk Behaviours and Gender Based Violence among Youths ...

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    Wilson, Kerry. Vol 14, No 2 (2017) - Articles Post-operative Transient Hypoparathyroidism: Incidence and Risk Factors Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2523-0816. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Hammoudah, SAF. Vol 1, No 3 (2012) - Articles Maternal MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of Down syndrome offspring. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2315-5019. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Dongang, NRR. Vol 12, No 3 (2011) - Articles Risk factors of cervical intraepithelial lesion in Douala-Cameroon: Implications of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, Chlamydia Trachomatis and Treponema Pallidum Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1595-689X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Studies of some risk factors for re-introduction and spread of highly-pathogenic avian influenza in two states of Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 35, No 1 (2014) - Articles Farmers' Awareness of Marek's Disease and Biosecurity Practices in Poultry Production in Selected States of Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0331-3026.

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    Knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and husbandry practices among stakeholders in poultry production in Kogi State, Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 2 (2012) - Articles Risk factors for the occurrence and spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in commercial poultry farms in Kano, Nigeria Abstract PDF ...

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    Is there an increased risk of post-operative surgical site infection after orthopaedic surgery in Hiv patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Abstract PDF · Vol 7, No 1 (2013) - Articles The relationship between functional absence of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis to the fifth digit and absence of the Palmaris Longus

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    Sokhanvar, M. Vol 8, No 2 (2016): Special Issue: Part 3 - Articles Reduce the risk of stock trading by using technical analysis in iran's stock market. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    The prevalence and risk factors of abnormal glucose tolerance amongst Nigerian women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Abstract PDF · Vol 28, No 1 (2011) - Articles Barriers to the universal application of the portograph for labour managent: A review of the issues and proposed solution. Abstract PDF · Vol 28, No 2 (2011) - ...

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    Zachariah, R. Vol 79, No 2 (2002): - Articles HIV prevalence and demographic risk factors in blood donors. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Mtabaji, J. Vol 25, No 2 (2011) - Articles Relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors among middle- aged men and women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Abstract. ISSN: 0856-0714. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Hofmeyr, Ross. Vol 106, No 9 (2016) - Articles Guest Editorial: Recognising and mitigating the risk of altitude-related illness. Abstract PDF · Vol 107, No 7 (2017) - Articles Guest Editorial: Wilderness medicine in southern Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Tabibian, M. Vol 8, No 2 (2016): Special Issue: Part 2 - Articles Risk analysis of the sea desalination plant at the 5th refinery of south pars gas company using Hazop procedures. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

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    Ojide, KC. Vol 14, No 1 (2015) - Articles Incidence and risk of primary cytomegalovirus infection among pregnant women in Benin City Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1596-6569. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Obioha, EE. Vol 5 (2008) - Articles Inequality, Sexual Exploitation and the Risk of Contacting HIV/AIDS: The Need for Gender Protection Practice and Enforcement in Nigeria Abstract · Vol 6, No 1 (2009) - Articles HEALTH / GENDER STUDIES: HIV/AIDS and Health Inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends and Dimensions

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    Onasoga, Olayinka A. Vol 8, No 2 (2016) - Articles Knowledge of Postpartum Depression and its Associated Risk Factors Among Nurse-Midwives in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2076-6270. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

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    Ogbu, CP. Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles Risk Management Practices of Multinational and indigenous Construction Companies in Nigeria: A Comparative Analysis Abstract · Vol 10, No 2 (2012) - Articles Poject Managment Approach to Public Low Income Housing. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-8308. AJOL African Journals Online.

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    Heyns, CP. Vol 101, No 9 (2011) - Articles Should baseline PSA testing be performed in men aged 40 to detect those aged 50 or less who are at risk of aggressive prostate cancer? Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    Gyamfi, GD. Vol 32, No 1 (2012) - Articles Assessing the Effectiveness of Credit risk Management Techniques of Microfinance firms in Accra Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Onuoha, FC. Vol 38, No 1 (2008): - Articles US Africa Command (AFRICOM) and Nigeria's National Security Abstract · Vol 6, No 2 (2008) - Articles Vandals or Victims? Poverty, Risk Perception and Vulnerability of Women to oil Pipeline Disasters in Nigeria Abstract · Vol 8, No 2 (2008) - Articles Environmental Degradation ...

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    Macigo, FG. Vol 83, No 4 (2006): - Articles Oral hygiene practices and risk of oral leukoplakia. Abstract PDF · Vol 85, No 3 (2008) - Articles Pattern And Clinical Characteristics Of Firearm Injuries Abstract PDF · Vol 85, No 8 (2008) - Articles Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi Abstract PDF · Vol ...

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    Ofosu, FG. Vol 12, No 2 (2010) - Articles The Determination of Mass, Element and Black Carbon Concentrations in Harmattan Aerosol Samples Collected at Kwabenya, Ghana Abstract · Vol 12, No 2 (2010) - Articles Determination of Heavy Metals and Human Health Risk Assessment of Road Dust on the Tema Motorway ...

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    Retrospective studies on pullorum disease in chickens in Zaria, Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 7, No 2 (2008) - Articles Disinfectant effects of Purit®, Z-Germicide® and Carcil® on bacterial isolates from hatcheries in Kaduna state, Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 2 (2012) - Articles Risk factors for the occurrence and spread of ...

  2. Academic detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  3. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-10-01

    related to the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization, the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins – are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  4. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2012-10-11

    glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma) PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization), the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins - are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  5. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnin R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ran Jinnin,1 Yasumasa Okamoto,1 Koki Takagaki,1 Yoshiko Nishiyama,1 Takanao Yamamura,1 Yuri Okamoto,2 Yoshie Miyake,2 Yoshitake Takebayashi,3 Keisuke Tanaka,4 Yoshinori Sugiura,5 Haruki Shimoda,6 Norito Kawakami,6 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Shigeto Yamawaki1 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 2Health Service Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduated School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan; 5Graduated School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 6Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year.Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50, who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II. We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling.Results: First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained

  6. Dissipation behaviour, residue distribution and dietary risk assessment of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methyl in greenhouse strawberry via RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxin; Fan, Xueqi; Ma, Yecheng; Hu, Jiye

    2018-02-01

    20% commercial suspension emulsion (SE) of (8% tetraconazole + 12% kresoxim-methyl), as a pre-registered product in China, was firstly investigated under Chinese greenhouse-field conditions. A MWCNTs-based QuEChERS method for simultaneous determination of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methyl in strawberry was developed and validated via RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS. On basis of this method, the dissipation behaviours, residue distributions and dietary risk probability of these fungicides in strawberry were further investigated for food safety. The dissipations of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methyl followed first-order kinetics with the half-lives of 8.0-18.2 days. The highest residues (HRs) of these fungicides in the supervised trials at the pre-harvest interval (PHI, 3 days) were below 0.8970mgkg -1 . The total national estimated daily intake (NEDI) of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methy in strawberry at the PHI 3day was 0.2784mg and 0.4031mg, respectively, based on Chinese dietary pattern and terminal residue distributions under good agricultural practices (GAP) conditions. The risk quotients (RQs) of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methy at PHI 3 days were below 82.7% and 1.6%, respectively, showing that the evaluated strawberry exhibited an acceptably low dietary risk to consumers. The current study could not only guide reasonable usage of the formulation, but also facilitate the setting of maximum residue limits (MRLs) of tetraconazole in strawberry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk evaluation of the Arctic environmental POP exposure based on critical body residue and critical daily dose using captive Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as surrogate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Eulaers, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The risk from POP (persistent organic pollutant) exposure and subsequent reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects was evaluated in a classical parallel trial on Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber. First...... quotients (RQDD: DD/CDD; RQBR: BR/CBR; ≥1 indicates risk). The results showed that risk quotients for reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects were significantly lowest in the control group (p... on body residues (RQBR) (all preproductive and immunotoxic effects while those for liver histopathological effects ranged from 0.7-3.0. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and chlordanes were the dominant driver behind high immune and reproductive RQs...

  8. Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual levels of seven frequently used pesticides were investigated in 140 samples of two common vegetables, eggplants and tomatoes, from agricultural fields in the Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A large percentage of the eggplants (50% and tomatoes (60% from the Narayanganj district were contaminated with pesticides, and all of the levels were above the maximum residual limit (MRL proposed by the EC regulation. Diazinon was the most common (35% pesticide detected in the vegetable samples at a concentration of 45–450 times higher than the MRL. The health risk index for diazinon was highest for both eggplant and tomato samples, which may be due to its physiochemical properties. Fenitrothion and linuron are the two second most common types of pesticides detected in the vegetable samples. Regular monitoring of the use of common pesticides on vegetables should be conducted.

  9. Residual determination and risk assessment of buprofezin in plum (Prunus domestica) grown in open-field conditions following the application of three different formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Lee, Young-Jun; Chung, Hyung Suk; Lieu, Truong; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shin, Ho-Chul; Im, Geon-Jae; Hong, Su Myeong; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the residual level and perform a risk assessment on buprofezin formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and suspension concentrate over various treatment schedules in plum (Prunus domestica). The samples were extracted with an AOAC quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe, 'QuEChERS', method after major modifications. As intrinsic interferences were observed in blank plum samples following dispersive-solid phase extraction (consisting of primary secondary amine and C 18 sorbents), amino cartridges were used for solid-phase extraction. Analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography with diode array detection and confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method showed excellent linearity with determination coefficient (R 2  = 1) and satisfactory recoveries (at two spiking levels, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg) between 90.98 and 94.74% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤8%. The limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) was considerably lower than the maximum residue limit (2 mg/kg) set by the Codex Alimentarius. Absolute residue levels for emulsifiable concentrates were highest, perhaps owing to the dilution rate and adjuvant. Notably, all formulation residues were lower than the maximum residue limit, and safety data proved that the fruits are safe for consumers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Large breast size as a risk factor for late adverse effects of breast radiotherapy: Is residual dose inhomogeneity, despite 3D treatment planning and delivery, the main explanation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, Christy; Haviland, Joanne; Tsang, Yat; Sydenham, Mark; Yarnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Large breast size is associated with an increased risk of late adverse effects after breast conservation surgery and radiotherapy, even when 3D dosimetry is used. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that residual dose inhomogeneity is sufficient to explain the association. Methods: Patients previously treated after breast conservation surgery with whole breast radiotherapy using 3D dosimetry and followed up in the UK FAST hypofractionation trial were selected for this analysis. The residual level of dose inhomogeneity across the whole breast treatment volume was used to test for association between residual dosimetry and post-treatment change in breast appearance at 2 years post-radiotherapy. Results: At 2 years, 201/279 (72%) of women had no change in photographic breast appearance, 61 (22%) had mild change and 17 (6%) had marked change. Breast size and dosimetry were both significantly associated with late effects in univariate analyses, but only breast size remained an independent significant risk factor for change in breast appearance when included in a multiple regression model together with other prognostic factors (p = 0.006 for trend). Conclusion: Large-breasted women are more likely to suffer change in breast size and shape after whole breast radiotherapy delivered using 3D dosimetry, but residual dose inhomogeneity is insufficient to explain the association.

  11. Risk identification applied to pipe supports structures on detailing phase; Identificacao de riscos aplicada a atividade de projeto de estruturas para suportes de tubulacoes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Diego Junca de Gonzaga; Cruz, Rodrigo Luiz Neves [Promon Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Morano, Cassia Andrea Ruotolo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The increasing demand for speed in the delivering process of projects in the Oil and Gas has forced a rethink on contracting strategies for fabrication and supply of facilities steel structures, equipment, pipes and other components that represent a critical path activities regarding construction on field. The consolidation of information necessary for the acquisition of these features is a multidisciplinary is based on steps of basic/conceptual, detail, construction, commissioning and startup of the plants. Among the specialties that make up the vast majority of enterprises of this industry, mechanical, civil, electrical and piping engineering are the most important ones. Being piping engineer the main subject of this paper. For each of the specialties above there are structured subsystems, with more specific functions in relation to the content, area and position. These disciplines are connected, some in a higher level than others, and constitute a network of exchange based on necessary information to perform the tasks inherent in each specialty. The present paper aims to identify risk factors that exist during the design phase in the discipline of piping, specifically on the activity of detailing structures to withstand loads from its own weight, weight of the fluid and thermal insulation, as well as efforts from its thermal expansion, addressing its sources and possible actions. Thus, a preliminary risk analysis is presented to point out the most critical items and its importance levels. (author)

  12. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on chemical form, behavior and environmental risk of Zn, Pb and Cd in biochar produced from phytoremediation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Yao, Wenlin; Li, Ronghua; Ali, Amjad; Du, Juan; Guo, Di; Xiao, Ran; Guo, Zhanyu; Zhang, Zengqiang; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical forms, behavior and environmental risk of heavy metal (HMs) Zn, Pb and Cd in phytoremediation residue (PMR) pyrolyzed at 350 °C, 550 °C and 750 °C, respectively. The behavior of HMs variation during the PMR pyrolysis process was analyzed and the potential HMs environmental risk of phytoremediation residue biochars (PMB) was assessed which was seldom investigated before. The results showed that the pyrolysis temperature increase decreased the soluble/exchangeable HMs fraction and alleviated the HMs bioavailability. When the temperature was over 550 °C, the adsorbed Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) were turned into oxides forms and concentrated in PMB with more stable forms exhibiting lower risk assessment code and potential ecological risk index. The ecotoxicity test showed higher pyrolysis temperature favored the reduction of PMB ecotoxicity. It is suggested that pyrolysis temperature above 550°C may be suitable for thermal treatment of PMR with acceptable environmental risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retraction: Adyel et al. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foods 2013, 2, 64–75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article [1], doi: 10.3390/foods2010064, website: http://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/2/1/64, has been retracted by the authors because of some major errors in broad field of pesticide residues identification and concentrations. During random cross check retention time of pesticides by HPLC did not match with the standards of detected pesticides. As a result concentration of all detected pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs and health risk assessments were changed. All these errors made the article [1] as a wrong one. All authors have confirmed that the reported results produced using quite inappropriate procedures. As first author herein, I take full responsibility for the retraction of our experiments and any other errors in its contents, and would like to offer my apologies on behalf of my co-authors to the readership of Foods for any inconveniences caused by this retraction.

  15. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kones R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard KonesCardiometabolic Research Institute, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Residual risk, the ongoing appreciable risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE in statin-treated patients who have achieved evidence-based lipid goals, remains a concern among cardiologists. Factors that contribute to this continuing risk are atherogenic non-low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles and atherogenic processes unrelated to LDL cholesterol, including other risk factors, the inherent properties of statin drugs, and patient characteristics, ie, genetics and behaviors. In addition, providers, health care systems, the community, public policies, and the environment play a role. Major statin studies suggest an average 28% reduction in LDL cholesterol and a 31% reduction in relative risk, leaving a residual risk of about 69%. Incomplete reductions in risk, and failure to improve conditions that create risk, may result in ongoing progression of atherosclerosis, with new and recurring lesions in original and distant culprit sites, remodeling, arrhythmias, rehospitalizations, invasive procedures, and terminal disability. As a result, identification of additional agents to reduce residual risk, particularly administered together with statin drugs, has been an ongoing quest. The current model of atherosclerosis involves many steps during which disease may progress independently of guideline-defined elevations in LDL cholesterol. Differences in genetic responsiveness to statin therapy, differences in ability of the endothelium to regenerate and repair, and differences in susceptibility to nonlipid risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, hypertension, and molecular changes associated with obesity and diabetes, may all create residual risk. A large number of inflammatory and metabolic processes may also provide eventual therapeutic targets to lower residual risk. Classically, epidemiologic and other evidence suggested that raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol

  16. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [es

  17. Favorable Local Control From Consolidative Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Despite Gross Residual Disease, Positive Margins, or Nodal Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Matthew J., E-mail: mjferri@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Danish, Hasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deng, Claudia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); George, Bradley A.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Wasilewski, Karen J.; Cash, W. Thomas [Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K.; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38.8%) failed distantly; 4 of these patients also failed locally. One patient progressed locally without distant failure. Local control was 92.5%, and total disease control was 59.5%. No benefit was demonstrated for RT doses over 21.6 Gy with respect to local relapse–free survival (P=.55), disease-free survival (P=.22), or OS (P=.72). With respect to local relapse–free survival, disease-free survival, and OS, no disadvantage was seen for positive lymph nodes on surgical pathology, positive surgical margins, or gross residual disease. Of the patients with gross residual disease, 75% (6 of 8) went on to have no evidence of disease at time of last follow-up, and the 2 patients who failed did so distantly. Conclusions: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in this series maintained excellent local control, with no benefit demonstrated for radiation doses over 21.6 Gy, and no disadvantage demonstrated for gross residual disease after surgery, positive surgical margins, or pathologic lymph node positivity. Though the limitations of a retrospective review for an uncommon disease must be kept in mind, with small numbers in some of the subgroups, it seems that dose escalation should be considered only in exceptional circumstances.

  18. Validation of QuEChERS based method for determination of fenitrothion residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector: Decline pattern and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag; Boulangé, Julien; Abdelraheem, Ehab; Abd Allah, Osama; Abd El-Hamid, Rania; Abd El-Salam, Shokr

    2017-08-15

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) determination method was developed to detect residue levels and investigate the dissipation pattern and safe use of fenitrothion in tomatoes. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) using an ethyl acetate-based extraction, followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) with primary-secondary amine (PSA) and graphite carbon black (GCB) for clean up, was applied prior to GC-FPD analysis. The method showed satisfactory linearity, recovery and precision. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.01mg/kg, respectively. The residue levels of fenitrothion were best described by first order kinetics with a half-life of 2.2days in tomatoes. The potential health risks posed by fenitrothion were not significant, based on supervised residue trial data. The current findings could provide guidance for safe and reasonable use of fenitrothion in tomatoes and prevent health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissipation pattern and risk assessment studies of triazophos residues on capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) using GLC-FPD and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadwinder; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-10-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the dissipation pattern of triazophos on capsicum and risk assessment of its residues on human beings and to suggest a waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following two applications of triazophos (Truzo 40 EC) at 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), the average initial deposits were found to be 3.61 and 6.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in 10 and 15 days at the recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The calculated values of half-life were 2.31 and 2.14 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) values were found to be 28.8 and 41.6 μg person(-1) day(-1) at 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively, and found to be below the maximum permissible intake on capsicum fruit on the 7th day. Therefore, a waiting period of 7 days is suggested for consumption of capsicum sprayed with triazophos at the recommended dosages.

  20. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  1. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  2. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  3. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  4. Residues and Eco-risk Evaluation of Organochlorine Pesticides in Agricultural Soils from Typical Vegetable Produce Areas of Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Dong-ming

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine current levels of organochlorine pesticides(OCPsand assess their sources, ecological risk in agricultural soils from typical vegetable produce areas of Hainan Province, 33 soil samples were collected and detected by the GC method. The results showed that OCPs were found in 90.9%of the collected soil samples and ranged from Not Dedected(NDto 17.37 ng·g-1, with a mean of 2.30 ng·g-1. The DDTs、HCHs、endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate were found over 54%in the collected soil samples. Also, the DDTs were the main compo-nents, and their contribution to the residues of OCPs was over 54.6%. Analysis of the sources of contamination showed that HCHs in the area were mainly derived from lindane. DDTs, which were suspected to have recent application to 18.2%soil, were derived mainly from technical DDTs or dicofol containing DDT impurities. Comparing with various studies and the‘National Environmental Quality Standard for Soils of Chi-na’(GB 15618-1995, OCP pollutions were generally slight in present study, and the ecological risk of HCHs and DDTs residue in agricul-tural soils of Hainan Province was lower.

  5. Risk element immobilization/stabilization potential of fungal-transformed dry olive residue and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi application in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Stejskalová, Tereza; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2017-10-01

    The use of biotransformed dry olive residue (DOR) as organic soil amendment has recently been proposed due to its high contents of stabilized organic matter and nutrients. The potential of biotransformed DOR to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils might qualify DOR as a potential risk element stabilization agent for in situ soil reclamation practices. In this experiment, the mobility of risk elements in response to Penicillium chrysogenum-10-transformed DOR, Funalia floccosa-transformed DOR, Bjerkandera adusta-transformed DOR, and Chondrostereum purpureum-transformed DOR as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Funneliformis mosseae, inoculation was investigated. We evaluated the effect of these treatments on risk element uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants in a pot experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn contaminated soil. The results showed a significant impact of the combined treatment (biotransformed DOR and AMF inoculation) on wheat plant growth and element mobility. The mobile proportions of elements in the treated soils were related to soil pH; with increasing pH levels, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn mobility decreased significantly (r values between -0.36 and -0.46), while Ca and Mg mobility increased (r = 0.63, and r = 0.51, respectively). The application of biotransformed DOR decreased risk element levels (Cd, Zn), and nutrient concentrations (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the aboveground biomass, where the elements were retained in the roots. Thus, biotransformed DOR in combination with AMF resulted in a higher capacity of wheat plants to grow under detrimental conditions, being able to accumulate high amounts of risk elements in the roots. However, risk element reduction was insufficient for safe crop production in the extremely contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecological and health risks assessment and spatial distribution of residual heavy metals in the soil of an e-waste circular economy park in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Gao, Guanghai; Geng, Jinyao; Li, Yao; Wang, Yingying

    2018-04-01

    Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model. According to the ecological risk assessment, Cu, Sb, Cd, Zn and Co were seriously enriched in the soil of the studied area. The health risk assessment proposed by USEPA indicated no significant health risks to the population. Soil properties, such as pH and organic matter, were found to correlate with the enrichment of heavy metals. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were found positively correlated to dead bacteria concentrations. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that Ziya Circular Economy Park was the dominant pollution source in the studied area. Findings in this study suggest that enough attention should be payed to the heavy metal pollution in Ziya Circular Economy Park. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Residues and potential ecological risk assessment of metal in sediments from lower reaches and estuary of Pearl River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ping; Wang, Shao-Bing; Zhu, Xin-Ping; Chen, Kun-Ci; Pan, De-Bo; Hong, Xiao-You; Yin, Yi

    2012-06-01

    In order to investigate the heavy metal concentrations and their potential ecological risks in surface sediments of lower reaches and estuary of Pearl River, 21 bottom sediment samples were collected from lower reaches and estuary of Pearl River. Total contents of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Pb and Hg in these samples were measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and using the index of geoaccumulation and the potential ecological risk index to evaluate the pollution degree of heavy metals in the sediments. Results indicated that the concentration of total Fe and total Mn were 41658.73 and 1104.73 mg x kg(-1) respectively and toxic trace metals, such as Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Pb and Hg were 86.62, 18.18, 54.10, 80.20, 543.60, 119.55, 4.28, 10.60, 20.26, 104.58 and 0.520 mg x kg(-1). The descending order of pollution degree of various metals is: Cd > As approximately Zn > Hg > Pb approximately Cu approximately Cr, while the single potential ecological risk followed the order: Cd > Hg > As > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr. The pollution extent and potential ecological risk of Cd were the most serious among all heavy metals. The distribution pattern of Cd individual potential ecological risk indices is exactly the same as that of general potential ecological risk indices for all heavy metals. Clustering analysis indicates that the sampling stations may be classified into five groups which basically reflected the characteristics of the heavy metal contamination and sedimentation environments along the different river reaches in lower reaches and estuary of Pearl Rive. In general, the serious heavy metal pollution and the high potential ecological risk existed in three river reaches: Chengcun-Shawan, Chengcun-Shundegang and Waihai-Hutiaomen. The pollution degree and potential ecological risk are higher in related river reaches of Beijiang than that in other lower reaches and

  8. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    The total concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9 ngg −1 (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6 ngg −1 . The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the “abundance law”. The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health. - Highlights: •Concentrations of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fishes from the coastlines of Shandong, China are reported. •Statistical analysis and comparison indicates that freshwater fishes exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fishes. •A similar REE distribution pattern was found between those of fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". •Health risk assessment demonstrated that consuming fish is presently at little risk to human health.

  9. Risk assessment of residual DDTs in freshwater and marine fish cultivated around the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marine fish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle.

  10. Residues, spatial distribution and risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs in agricultural soil and crops from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2016-04-01

    Due to its high elevation and cold temperature, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is regarded as the "Third Pole". Different from other polar regions, which are truly remote, the TP has a small population and a few agricultural activities. In this study, agricultural soil and crop samples (including highland barley and rape) were collected in the main farmland of the TP to obtain the contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the Tibetan agricultural system as well as the relevant human exposure risks. The average concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the agricultural soil, highland barley and rape were 1.36, 0.661, 1.03 ng/g dw and 0.349, 0.0364, 0.0225 ng/g dw, respectively. In the agricultural soil, DDTs and HCHs metabolism (DDE, DDD and β-HCH) were abundant, which indicated a "historical" source, whereas crops contained a similar composition ((DDE + DDD)/DDT, α/β-HCH and α/γ-HCH) to that of wild plants, suggesting that the DDTs and HCHs in crops are likely from long range atmospheric transport. The human health risks via non-dietary and dietary to DDTs and HCHs in the farmland were assessed. All of the hazard index (HI) values of DDTs and HCHs for non-carcinogenic risks were Tibetan residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  12. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Front-line intraperitoneal versus intravenous chemotherapy in stage III-IV epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancer with minimal residual disease: a competing risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Hou; Li, Wai-Hou; Chang, Yi; Peng, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Chi-Mu

    2016-03-17

    In the analysis of survival data for cancer patients, the problem of competing risks is often ignored. Competing risks have been recognized as a special case of time-to-event analysis. The conventional techniques for time-to-event analysis applied in the presence of competing risks often give biased or uninterpretable results. Using a prospectively collected administrative health care database in a single institution, we identified patients diagnosed with stage III or IV primary epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers with minimal residual disease after primary cytoreductive surgery between 1995 and 2012. Here, we sought to evaluate whether intraperitoneal chemotherapy outperforms intravenous chemotherapy in the presence of competing risks. Unadjusted and multivariable subdistribution hazards models were applied to this database with two types of competing risks (cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality) coded to measure the relative effects of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. A total of 1263 patients were recruited as the initial cohort. After propensity score matching, 381 patients in each arm entered into final competing risk analysis. Cumulative incidence estimates for cancer-specific mortality were statistically significantly lower (p = 0.017, Gray test) in patients receiving intraperitoneal chemotherapy (5-year estimates, 34.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29.5-39.6%, and 10-year estimates, 60.7%; 95% CI, 52.2-68.0%) versus intravenous chemotherapy (5-year estimates, 41.3%; 95% CI, 36.2-46.3%, and 10-year estimates, 67.5%, 95% CI, 61.6-72.7%). In subdistribution hazards analysis, for cancer-specific mortality, intraperitoneal chemotherapy outperforms intravenous chemotherapy (Subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96) after correcting other covariates. In conclusion, results from this comparative effectiveness study provide supportive evidence for previous published randomized trials that intraperitoneal chemotherapy

  14. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FUSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board`s FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee`s recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials.

  15. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FURSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board's FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee's recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials

  16. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomassash: Residual effects on plant yield, nutrition, cadmium accumulation and mycorrhizal status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Paredes, Carla; Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2017-01-01

    in biomass ashes in a barley crop grown on soil with adequate P status. Two contrasting doses of three different types of ashes were applied to an agricultural field with spring barley and compared to similar doses of triple-superphosphate fertilizer. In the second growing season after biomass ash......Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P...... application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P...

  17. Erika: evaluation of residual sanitary risks linked to the beaches-going after cleaning-up; Erika: evaluation des risques sanitaires residuels lies a la frequentation des plages apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the sanitary risks for the populations frequenting the coast beaches affected by the fuel oils of the tanker Erika, after their cleaning up. This quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks is led according to a protocol developed jointly between the two institutes ( the national institute of industrial environment and risks, I.N.E.R.I.S., and the national institute of sanitary watch I.n.V.S.). It does not give the risks in function the residual pollution level of concerned beaches but supplies to the authorities elements of scientific information in order to allow them to choose criteria appropriate for the management of eventual residual risks. (N.C.)

  18. Probabilistic dietary risk assessment of pesticide residues in foods for the German population based on food monitoring data from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieke, Christian; Michalski, Britta; Kuhl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Dietary risks for the German population owing to pesticide residues in foods were assessed based on food monitoring data, consumption surveys for children and adults and compound specific toxicological reference values or general thresholds of toxicological concern. A tiered probabilistic modelling was conducted to screen 700 pesticides for significant long- and short-term dietary exposures. Especially for the short-term dietary exposure, the probabilistic methodology used allows simultaneous consideration of the complete daily consumption, whereas most regulatory bodies still rely on single commodity approaches. After screening, refined exposure assessments were conducted for 19 compounds under consideration of conversion factors for toxicologically relevant metabolites, processing information, experimentally derived variability factors and the edible portion for each food item. In total, for 693 compounds the dietary exposure was unlikely to present a chronic or acute public health concern for the German population. In contrast, the refined assessments indicate that the short-term dietary exposure for chlorpyrifos and the cumulative short-term dietary exposure for dimethoate and omethoate may present a public health concern. For copper, owing to exposure assessment limitations, as well as for dimethylvinphos, halfenprox and tricyclazole, which exceeded the thresholds of toxicological concern, the dietary risk assessment remained inconclusive.

  19. Monitoring minimal residual disease in children with high-risk relapses of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prognostic relevance of early and late assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Hagedorn, N; Sramkova, L; Mann, G; Panzer-Grümayer, R; Peters, C; Bourquin, J-P; Klingebiel, T; Borkhardt, A; Cario, G; Alten, J; Escherich, G; Astrahantseff, K; Seeger, K; Henze, G; von Stackelberg, A

    2015-08-01

    The prognosis for children with high-risk relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is poor. Here, we assessed the prognostic importance of response during induction and consolidation treatment prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) aiming to evaluate the best time to assess minimal residual disease (MRD) for intervention strategies and in future trials in high-risk ALL relapse patients. Included patients (n=125) were treated uniformly according to the ALL-REZ BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) 2002 relapse trial (median follow-up time=4.8 years). Patients with MRD ⩾10(-3) after induction treatment (76/119, 64%) or immediately preceding HSCT (19/71, 27%) had a significantly worse probability of disease-free survival 10 years after relapse treatment begin, with 26% (±6%) or 23% (±7%), respectively, compared with 58% (±8%) or 48% (±7%) for patients with MRD treatment reduced MRD to treatment can be used to quantify the activity of different induction treatment strategies in phase II trials. MRD persistence at ⩾10(-3) before HSCT reflects a disease highly resistant to conventional intensive chemotherapy and requiring prospective controlled investigation of new treatment strategies and drugs.

  20. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  1. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  2. Treatment reduction for children and young adults with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia defined by minimal residual disease (UKALL 2003): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Ajay; Goulden, Nick; Wade, Rachel; Mitchell, Chris; Hancock, Jeremy; Hough, Rachael; Rowntree, Clare; Richards, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most sensitive and specific predictor of relapse risk in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during remission. We assessed whether treatment intensity could be adjusted for children and young adults according to MRD risk stratification. Between Oct 1, 2003 and June 30, 2011, consecutive children and young adults (aged 1-25 years) with ALL from the UK and Ireland were recruited. Eligible patients were categorised into clinical standard, intermediate, and high risk groups on the basis of a combination of National Cancer Institute (NCI) criteria, cytogenetics, and early response to induction therapy, which was assessed by bone marrow blast counts taken at days 8 (NCI high-risk patients) and 15 (NCI standard-risk patients) after induction began. Clinical standard-risk and intermediate-risk patients were assessed for MRD. Those classified as MRD low risk (undetectable MRD at the end of induction [day 29] or detectable MRD at day 29 that became undetectable by week 11) were randomly assigned to receive one or two delayed intensification courses. Patients had received induction, consolidation, and interim maintenance therapy before they began delayed intensification. Delayed intensification consisted of pegylated asparaginase on day 4; vincristine, dexamethasone (alternate weeks), and doxorubicin for 3 weeks; and 4 weeks of cyclophosphamide and cytarabine. Computer randomisation was done with stratification by MRD result and balancing for sex, age, and white blood cell count at diagnosis by method of minimisation. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was event-free survival (EFS), which was defined as time to relapse, secondary tumour, or death. Our aim was to rule out a 7% reduction in EFS in the group given one delayed intensification course relative to that given two delayed intensification courses. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is

  3. The flaws in the detail of an observational study on transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement in intermediate-risks patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barili, Fabio; Freemantle, Nick; Folliguet, Thierry; Muneretto, Claudio; de Bonis, Michele; Czerny, Martin; Obadia, Jean Francois; Al-Attar, Nawwar; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Kluin, Jolanda; Lorusso, Roberto; Punjabi, Prakash; Sadaba, Rafael; Suwalski, Piotr; Benedetto, Umberto; Böning, Andreas; Falk, Volkmar; Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Kappetein, Pieter A.; Menicanti, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The PARTNER group recently published a comparison between the latest generation SAPIEN 3 transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) system (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in intermediate-risk patients, apparently demonstrating superiority of

  4. Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Janssen, Mart P.; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    BACKGROUND: Various models for estimating the residual risk (RR) of transmission of infections by blood transfusion have been published mainly based on data from high-income countries. However, to obtain the data required for such an assessment remains challenging for most developing settings. The

  5. Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Janssen, Mart P.; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Various models for estimating the residual risk (RR) of transmission of infections by blood transfusion have been published mainly based on data from high-income countries. However, to obtain the data required for such an assessment remains challenging for most developing settings. The

  6. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; Genest, Jacques; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Libby, Peter; Gotto, Antonio M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Mora, Samia; MacFadyen, Jean G; Glynn, Robert J; Kastelein, John J P

    2010-07-31

    for apolipoprotein A1 showed an equivalent strong relation to frequency of primary outcomes in the placebo group but little association in the rosuvastatin group. Although measurement of HDL-cholesterol concentration is useful as part of initial cardiovascular risk assessment, HDL-cholesterol concentrations are not predictive of residual vascular risk among patients treated with potent statin therapy who attain very low concentrations of LDL cholesterol. AstraZeneca. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-01-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  8. Elevated post-void residual volume in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in women-associated factors and risk of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Maria S; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo

    2018-04-09

    Multiple factors contribute to elevated post-void residual urine volumes (PVR), but they may indicate detrusor underactivity (DU), especially in older women. The aim here was to examine factors associated with and prognostic significance of elevated PVR in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in a female population. Consecutive female hip fracture patients (n = 409) aged 65 years and older were included. PVR was measured by bladder scanner. PVR of 160 ml or more was deemed elevated. Age-adjusted univariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of the domains of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) with elevated PVR. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the age-adjusted association of an elevated PVR with 1-year mortality. Of the patients, 64 (15.6%) had elevated PVR. Having urinary or fecal incontinence, difficulties in physical activities of daily living, malnutrition, poor performance on Timed Up and Go and Elderly Mobility Scale were significantly associated with elevated PVR. Difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living, renal dysfunction, constipation, polypharmacy, nocturia, cognitive impairment and depressive mood were not associated with elevated PVR. Elevated PVR significantly increased the risk of mortality 1 year post hip fracture. Elevated PVR is relatively common in older female hip fracture patients and associated with physical functioning, malnutrition and risk of mortality. Even though a causal relationship cannot be confirmed, the findings may suggest a relationship between DU and physical frailty. PVR deserves to be included in the CGA of frail older patients including women.

  9. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  10. Wooden houses in detail. Holzhaeuser im Detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruske, W. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Under the serial title 'Planning and construction of wooden houses', WEKA will publish a number of books of which this is the first. Details of design and construction are presented, e.g.: Details of modern one-family houses; Fundamentals of design and hints for planning of wooden houses and compact wooden structures; Constructional ecology, wood protection, thermal insulation, sound insulation; Modular systems for domestic buildings; The 'bookshelf-type' house at the Berlin International Construction Exhibition (IBA); Experience with do-it-yourself systems. With 439 figs.

  11. A highly bioavailable omega-3 free fatty acid formulation improves the cardiovascular risk profile in high-risk, statin-treated patients with residual hypertriglyceridemia (the ESPRIT trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Orloff, David G; Nicholls, Stephen J; Dunbar, Richard L; Roth, Eli M; Curcio, Danielle; Johnson, Judith; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H

    2013-09-01

    A novel omega-3 formulation in free fatty acid form (OM3-FFA) has as much as 4-fold greater bioavailability than ethyl ester forms and reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding OM3-FFA (2 or 4 g/d) to statin therapy for lowering non-HDL-C and TG levels in subjects with persistent hypertriglyceridemia and at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this double-blind, parallel-group study, 647 diet-stable patients with fasting TG levels ≥ 200 mg/dL and <500 mg/dL (treated with a maximally tolerated dose of statin or statin with ezetimibe) and at high risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized to 6 weeks of treatment with capsules of control (olive oil [OO]) 4 g/d, OM3-FFA 2 g/d (plus 2 g/d OO), or OM3-FFA 4 g/d. Assessments included fasting serum levels of lipids and apolipoproteins (apo); plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid; and laboratory safety values and adverse events. In the 627 subjects in the intention to treat sample, non-HDL-C levels were reduced with OM3-FFA 2 g/d and OM3-FFA 4 g/d (-3.9% and -6.9%, respectively) compared with OO (-0.9%) (both, P < 0.05), as were TG levels (-14.6% and -20.6%, respectively, vs -5.9%; both, P < 0.001). LDL-C levels increased with OM3-FFA 2 g/d (4.6%) compared with OO (1.1%) (P = 0.025) but not with OM3-FFA 4 g/d (1.3%). Total cholesterol and VLDL-C concentrations were reduced compared with OO with both OM3-FFA dosages, and the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and apo AI and apo B levels were significantly lowered with OM3-FFA 4 g/d only (all at least P < 0.05). Percent changes from baseline in HDL-C did not differ between OO and either OM3-FFA group. Plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were significantly increased and arachidonic acid was significantly reduced in both OM3-FFA treatment

  12. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  13. The flaws in the detail of an observational study on transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement in intermediate-risks patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, Fabio; Freemantle, Nick; Folliguet, Thierry; Muneretto, Claudio; De Bonis, Michele; Czerny, Martin; Obadia, Jean Francois; Al-Attar, Nawwar; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Kluin, Jolanda; Lorusso, Roberto; Punjabi, Prakash; Sadaba, Rafael; Suwalski, Piotr; Benedetto, Umberto; Böning, Andreas; Falk, Volkmar; Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Kappetein, Pieter A; Menicanti, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    The PARTNER group recently published a comparison between the latest generation SAPIEN 3 transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) system (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in intermediate-risk patients, apparently demonstrating superiority of the TAVI and suggesting that TAVI might be the preferred treatment method in this risk class of patients. Nonetheless, assessment of the non-randomized methodology used in this comparison reveals challenges that should be addressed in order to elucidate the validity of the results. The study by Thourani and colleagues showed several major methodological concerns: suboptimal methods in propensity score analysis with evident misspecification of the propensity scores (PS; no adjustment for the most significantly different covariates: left ventricular ejection fraction, moderate-severe mitral regurgitation and associated procedures); use of PS quintiles rather than matching; inference on not-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves, although the authors correctly claimed for the need of balancing score adjusting for confounding factors in order to have unbiased estimates of the treatment effect; evidence of poor fit; lack of data on valve-related death.These methodological flaws invalidate direct comparison between treatments and cannot support authors' conclusions that TAVI with SAPIEN 3 in intermediate-risk patients is superior to surgery and might be the preferred treatment alternative to surgery. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  15. Risk Factors for Neovascular Glaucoma After Proton Beam Therapy of Uveal Melanoma: A Detailed Analysis of Tumor and Dose–Volume Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: kmishra@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Daftari, Inder K.; Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cole, Tia [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Quivey, Jeanne M.; Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Char, Devron H. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine neovascular glaucoma (NVG) incidence and identify contributing tumor and dosing factors in uveal melanoma patients treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 704 PBRT patients treated by a single surgeon (DHC) for uveal melanoma (1996-2010) were reviewed for NVG in our prospectively maintained database. All patients received 56 GyE in 4 fractions. Median follow-up was 58.3 months. Analyses included the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate NVG distributions, univariate log–rank tests, and Cox's proportional hazards multivariate analysis using likelihood ratio tests to identify independent risk factors of NVG among patient, tumor, and dose–volume histogram parameters. Results: The 5-year PBRT NVG rate was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.2%-15.9%). The 5-year rate of enucleation due to NVG was 4.9% (95% CI 3.4%-7.2%). Univariately, the NVG rate increased significantly with larger tumor diameter (P<.0001), greater height (P<.0001), higher T stage (P<.0001), and closer proximity to the disc (P=.002). Dose–volume histogram analysis revealed that if >30% of the lens or ciliary body received ≥50% dose (≥28 GyE), there was a higher probability of NVG (P<.0001 for both). Furthermore, if 100% of the disc or macula received ≥28 GyE, the NVG rate was higher (P<.0001 and P=.03, respectively). If both anterior and posterior doses were above specified cut points, NVG risk was highest (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed significant independent risk factors to include tumor height (P<.0001), age (P<.0001), %disc treated to ≥50% Dose (<100% vs 100%) (P=.0007), larger tumor diameter (P=.01), %lens treated to ≥90% Dose (0 vs >0%-30% vs >30%) (P=.01), and optic nerve length treated to ≥90% Dose (≤1 mm vs >1 mm) (P=.02). Conclusions: Our current PBRT patients experience a low rate of NVG and resultant enucleation compared with historical data. The present analysis shows that tumor height

  16. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    in the more generalised RASP project (DEFRA and the Environment Agency), and in line with the expressed needs of the ABI (Association of British Insurers) and National Flood Forum. The detailed data produced will also support improved flood risk assessment for the provision of affordable insurance.

  17. Impact of residual setup error on parotid gland dose in intensity-modulated radiation therapy with or without planning organ-at-risk margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delana, Anna; Menegotti, Loris; Valentini, Aldo; Bolner, Andrea; Tomio, Luigi; Vanoni, Valentina; Lohr, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the dosimetric impact of residual setup errors on parotid sparing in head-and-neck (H and N) intensity-modulated treatments and to evaluate the effect of employing an PRV (planning organ-at-risk volume) margin for the parotid gland. Patients and methods: Ten patients treated for H and N cancer were considered. A nine-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was planned for each patient. A second optimization was performed prescribing dose constraint to the PRV of the parotid gland. Systematic setup errors of 2 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were simulated. The dose-volume histograms of the shifted and reference plans were compared with regard to mean parotid gland dose (MPD), normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP), and coverage of the clinical target volume (V 95% and equivalent uniform dose [EUD]); the sensitivity of parotid sparing on setup error was evaluated with a probability-based approach. Results: MPD increased by 3.4%/mm and 3.0%/mm for displacements in the craniocaudal and lateral direction and by 0.7%/mm for displacements in the anterior-posterior direction. The probability to irradiate the parotid with a mean dose > 30 Gy was > 50%, for setup errors in cranial and lateral direction and 95% and EUD variations < 1% and < 1 Gy). Conclusion: The parotid gland is more sensitive to craniocaudal and lateral displacements. A setup error of 2 mm guarantees an MPD ≤ 30 Gy in most cases, without adding a PRV margin. If greater displacements are expected/accepted, an adequate PRV margin could be used to meet the clinical parotid gland constraint of 30 Gy, without affecting target volume coverage. (orig.)

  18. Risk Factors for Neovascular Glaucoma After Proton Beam Therapy of Uveal Melanoma: A Detailed Analysis of Tumor and Dose–Volume Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Daftari, Inder K.; Weinberg, Vivian; Cole, Tia; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L.; Char, Devron H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine neovascular glaucoma (NVG) incidence and identify contributing tumor and dosing factors in uveal melanoma patients treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 704 PBRT patients treated by a single surgeon (DHC) for uveal melanoma (1996-2010) were reviewed for NVG in our prospectively maintained database. All patients received 56 GyE in 4 fractions. Median follow-up was 58.3 months. Analyses included the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate NVG distributions, univariate log–rank tests, and Cox's proportional hazards multivariate analysis using likelihood ratio tests to identify independent risk factors of NVG among patient, tumor, and dose–volume histogram parameters. Results: The 5-year PBRT NVG rate was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.2%-15.9%). The 5-year rate of enucleation due to NVG was 4.9% (95% CI 3.4%-7.2%). Univariately, the NVG rate increased significantly with larger tumor diameter (P 30% of the lens or ciliary body received ≥50% dose (≥28 GyE), there was a higher probability of NVG (P 0%-30% vs >30%) (P=.01), and optic nerve length treated to ≥90% Dose (≤1 mm vs >1 mm) (P=.02). Conclusions: Our current PBRT patients experience a low rate of NVG and resultant enucleation compared with historical data. The present analysis shows that tumor height, diameter, and anterior as well as posterior critical structure dose–volume parameters may be used to predict NVG risk

  19. Prioritizing stream types according to their potential risk to receive crop plant material--A GIS-based procedure to assist in the risk assessment of genetically modified crops and systemic insecticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Kuhn, Ulrike; Bundschuh, Mirco; Naegele, Caroline; Elsaesser, David; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Oehen, Bernadette; Hilbeck, Angelika; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Hofmann, Frieder

    2016-03-15

    Crop plant residues may enter aquatic ecosystems via wind deposition or surface runoff. In the case of genetically modified crops or crops treated with systemic pesticides, these materials may contain insecticidal Bt toxins or pesticides that potentially affect aquatic life. However, the particular exposure pattern of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., via plant material) is not properly reflected in current risk assessment schemes, which primarily focus on waterborne toxicity and not on plant material as the route of uptake. To assist in risk assessment, the present study proposes a prioritization procedure of stream types based on the freshwater network and crop-specific cultivation data using maize in Germany as a model system. To identify stream types with a high probability of receiving crop materials, we developed a formalized, criteria-based and thus transparent procedure that considers the exposure-related parameters, ecological status--an estimate of the diversity and potential vulnerability of local communities towards anthropogenic stress--and availability of uncontaminated reference sections. By applying the procedure to maize, ten stream types out of 38 are expected to be the most relevant if the ecological effects from plant-incorporated pesticides need to be evaluated. This information is an important first step to identifying habitats within these stream types with a high probability of receiving crop plant material at a more local scale, including accumulation areas. Moreover, the prioritization procedure developed in the present study may support the selection of aquatic species for ecotoxicological testing based on their probability of occurrence in stream types having a higher chance of exposure. Finally, this procedure can be adapted to any geographical region or crop of interest and is, therefore, a valuable tool for a site-specific risk assessment of crop plants carrying systemic pesticides or novel proteins, such as insecticidal Bt toxins, expressed

  20. A detailed risk assessment of shale gas development on headwater streams in the Pennsylvania portion of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Slonecker, E. Terrence; Milheim, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) involves infrastructure development (well pads, roads and pipelines), well drilling and stimulation (hydraulic fracturing), and production; all of which have the potential to affect stream ecosystems. Here, we developed a fine-scaled (1:24,000) catchment-level disturbance intensity index (DII) that included 17 measures of UOG capturing all steps in the development process (infrastructure, water withdrawals, probabilistic spills) that could affect headwater streams (pipeline cover, road cover and well pad cover metrics. We related this DII to three measures of high quality streams: Pennsylvania State Exceptional Value (EV) streams, Class A brook trout streams and Eastern Brook Trout Joint Venture brook trout patches. Overall only 3.8% of all catchments and 2.7% of EV stream length, 1.9% of Class A streams and 1.2% of patches were classified as having medium to high level DII scores (> 50). Well density, often used as a proxy for development, only correlated strongly with well pad coverage and produced materials, and therefore may miss potential effects associated with roads and pipelines, water withdrawals and spills. When analyzed with a future development scenario, 91.1% of EV stream length, 68.7% of Class A streams and 80.0% of patches were in catchments with a moderate to high probability of development. Our method incorporated the cumulative effects of UOG on streams and can be used to identify catchments and reaches at risk to existing stressors or future development.

  1. A detailed risk assessment of shale gas development on headwater streams in the Pennsylvania portion of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Slonecker, E. Terrence; Milheim, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) involves infrastructure development (well pads, roads and pipelines), well drilling and stimulation (hydraulic fracturing), and production; all of which have the potential to affect stream ecosystems. Here, we developed a fine-scaled (1:24,000) catchment-level disturbance intensity index (DII) that included 17 measures of UOG capturing all steps in the development process (infrastructure, water withdrawals, probabilistic spills) that could affect headwater streams (medium to high level DII scores (> 50). Well density, often used as a proxy for development, only correlated strongly with well pad coverage and produced materials, and therefore may miss potential effects associated with roads and pipelines, water withdrawals and spills. When analyzed with a future development scenario, 91.1% of EV stream length, 68.7% of Class A streams and 80.0% of patches were in catchments with a moderate to high probability of development. Our method incorporated the cumulative effects of UOG on streams and can be used to identify catchments and reaches at risk to existing stressors or future development.

  2. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  3. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  5. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  6. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter' and ...

  7. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  8. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  9. THULE: A detailed description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, M.J.

    1964-07-01

    This report describes the THULE scheme of lattice physics calculation which has been developed in FORTRAN for the IBM 7090. This scheme predicts the neutron flux over energy and space, for many groups and regions, together with reactivity and reaction rate edits for both a single lattice cell and a reactor core. This report describes in detail the input requirements for the THULE programme which forms the main part of the scheme. Brief descriptions of the 7090 programmes TED 6 and NOAH are included as appendices. TED 6 will produce the THULE edits from a WDSN output tape and NOAH is a version of the METHUSELAH programme which contains many of the THULE edits and will also produce input cards for THULE. (author)

  10. Residual β-Cell Function 3 to 6 Years After Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Sand; Johannesen, Jesper; Pociot, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo determine the prevalence of residual -cell function (RBF) in children after 3-6 years of type 1 diabetes, and to examine the association between RBF and incidence of severe hypoglycemia, glycemic control, and insulin requirements.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA total of 342 children (173....../mol]; P 0.2 nmol/L (mean +/- SE: 1.07 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.93 +/- 0.07 units/kg/day; P children after 3-6 years of type 1 diabetes. Children with RBF...... boys) 4.8-18.9 years of age with type 1 diabetes for 3-6 years were included. RBF was assessed by testing meal-stimulated C-peptide concentrations. Information regarding severe hypoglycemia within the past year, current HbA(1c), and daily insulin requirements was retrieved from the medical records...

  11. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  12. 40 CFR 158.1410 - Residue chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... table. 158.1410 Section 158.1410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... example, most products used in or near kitchens require residue data for risk assessment purposes even... NR PAIRA 7 Analytical methods 860.1340 Residue analytical methods R R R CR CR Residue of concern 1, 3...

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, incidence, and residual transmission risk in first-time and repeat blood donations in Zimbabwe : implications on blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Mvere, David A.; Chitiyo, McLeod E.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National Blood Service Zimbabwe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk management strategy includes screening and discarding of first-time donations, which are collected in blood packs without an anticoagulant (dry pack). To evaluate the impact of discarding first-time donations on

  14. Risk-based Strategy to Determine Testing Requirement for the Removal of Residual Process Reagents as Process-related Impurities in Bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Li, Kim; Miller, Karen; Raghani, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to recommend a risk-based strategy for determining clearance testing requirements of the process reagents used in manufacturing biopharmaceutical products. The strategy takes account of four risk factors. Firstly, the process reagents are classified into two categories according to their safety profile and history of use: generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and potential safety concern (PSC) reagents. The clearance testing of GRAS reagents can be eliminated because of their safe use historically and process capability to remove these reagents. An estimated safety margin (Se) value, a ratio of the exposure limit to the estimated maximum reagent amount, is then used to evaluate the necessity for testing the PSC reagents at an early development stage. The Se value is calculated from two risk factors, the starting PSC reagent amount per maximum product dose (Me), and the exposure limit (Le). A worst-case scenario is assumed to estimate the Me value, that is common. The PSC reagent of interest is co-purified with the product and no clearance occurs throughout the entire purification process. No clearance testing is required for this PSC reagent if its Se value is ≥1; otherwise clearance testing is needed. Finally, the point of the process reagent introduction to the process is also considered in determining the necessity of the clearance testing for process reagents. How to use the measured safety margin as a criterion for determining PSC reagent testing at process characterization, process validation, and commercial production stages are also described. A large number of process reagents are used in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing to control the process performance. Clearance testing for all of the process reagents will be an enormous analytical task. In this article, a risk-based strategy is described to eliminate unnecessary clearance testing for majority of the process reagents using four risk factors. The risk factors included

  15. Evaluation of the residual sanitary risk for people spending time on the beaches polluted by the Erika fuel, after the depollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dor, F.; Gourier-Frery, C.; Zmirou, D.; Cicolella, A.; Bonnard, R.; Dujardin, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the short dated and long dated sanitary risks for adults and children who are going to spend time on the beach affected by the Erika fuel, after the depollution. 36 beaches were selected and 7 beaches which were not polluted, were taking as a reference. The methodology, the analysis of the data and the results are described. (A.L.B.)

  16. E-detailing: information technology applied to pharmaceutical detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D

    2008-11-01

    E-detailing can be best described as the use of information technology in the field of pharmaceutical detailing. It is becoming highly popular among pharmaceutical companies because it maximizes the time of the sales force, cuts down the cost of detailing and increases physician prescribing. Thus, the application of information technology is proving to be beneficial to both physicians and pharmaceutical companies. When e-detailing was introduced in 1996, it was limited to the US; however, numerous other countries soon adopted this novel approach to detailing and now it is popular in many developed nations. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the rapid growth of e-detailing in the field of pharmaceutical marketing. A review of e-detailing literature was conducted in addition to personal conversations with physicians. E-detailing has the potential to reduce marketing costs, increase accessibility to physicians and offer many of the advantages of face-to-face detailing. E-detailing is gaining acceptance among physicians because they can access the information of a pharmaceutical product at their own time and convenience. However, the drug safety aspect of e-detailing has not been examined and e-detailing remains a supplement to traditional detailing and is not yet a replacement to it.

  17. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  18. Determination and maintenance of DE minimis risk for migration of residual tritium (3H) from the 1969 Project Rulison nuclear test to nearby hydraulically fractured natural gas wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I; Chapman, Jenny B

    2013-05-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was a proof-of-concept experiment that was conducted under the Plowshare Program in 1969 in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin in west-central Colorado. Today, commercial production of natural gas is possible from low permeability, natural gas bearing formations like that of the Williams Fork Formation using modern hydraulic fracturing techniques. With natural gas exploration and production active in the Project Rulison area, this human health risk assessment was performed in order to add a human health perspective for site stewardship. Tritium (H) is the radionuclide of concern with respect to potential induced migration from the test cavity leading to subsequent exposure during gas-flaring activities. This analysis assumes gas flaring would occur for up to 30 d and produce atmospheric H activity concentrations either as low as 2.2 × 10 Bq m (6 × 10 pCi m) from the minimum detectable activity concentration in produced water or as high as 20.7 Bq m (560 pCi m), which equals the highest atmospheric measurement reported during gas-flaring operations conducted at the time of Project Rulison. The lifetime morbidity (fatal and nonfatal) cancer risks calculated for adults (residents and workers) and children (residents) from inhalation and dermal exposures to such activity concentrations are all below 1 × 10 and considered de minimis. The implications for monitoring production water for conforming health-protective, risk-based action levels also are examined.

  19. Presence, concentrations and risk assessment of selected antibiotic residues in sediments and near-bottom waters collected from the Polish coastal zone in the southern Baltic Sea - Summary of 3years of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlewicz, Grzegorz; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Borecka, Marta; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Stepnowski, Piotr; Pazdro, Ksenia

    2018-04-01

    Concentrations of selected antibiotic compounds from different groups were measured in sediment samples (14 analytes) and in near-bottom water samples (12 analytes) collected in 2011-2013 from the southern Baltic Sea (Polish coastal zone). Antibiotics were determined at concentration levels of a few to hundreds of ng g -1 d.w. in sediments and ng L -1 in near-bottom waters. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline in sediments and sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in near-bottom waters. The occurrence of the identified antibiotics was characterized by spatial and temporal variability. A statistically important correlation was observed between sediment organic matter content and the concentrations of sulfachloropyridazine and oxytetracycline. Risk assessment analyses revealed a potential high risk of sulfamethoxazole contamination in near-bottom waters and of contamination by sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracyclines in sediments. Both chemical and risk assessment analyses show that the coastal area of the southern Baltic Sea is highly exposed to antibiotic residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitrification for stability of scrap and residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A conference breakout discussion was held on the subject of vitrification for stabilization of plutonium scrap and residue. This was one of four such sessions held within the vitrification workshop for participants to discuss specific subjects in further detail. The questions and issues were defined by the participants.

  1. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing.

  2. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does the nature of residual immune function explain the differential risk of non-melanoma skin cancer development in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Ji-Won; Overgaard, Nana H; Burke, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    ; in particular, patients switched from calcineurin inhibitors to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors not only displayed a dramatic reduction in new tumor formation but also in some cases a regression of their existing lesions. Studies of cancer models in mice and cell lines in the laboratory have...... attributed these discrepancies in cancer risk to the ability of immunosuppressants such as mTOR inhibitors to elicit direct anticancer effects, including suppressing angiogenesis and increasing autophagy-mediated DNA repair. Recent evidence from the immunological literature however, suggests a significant...... alternative contribution of mTOR inhibitors; namely the promotion of memory T-cell function. Recent advances in understanding memory T-cell establishment and the demonstration of their critical role in long-term immunity make it timely to review the available evidence as to whether the improved nonmelanoma...

  4. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  5. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  6. Effects of Different Water Seasons on the Residual Characteristics and Ecological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Changdang Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediments’ samples were collected from Changdang Lake for the concentration of fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in March (dry season, June (wet season, and September (temperate season 2013. The highest average value of ∑PAHs was detected as 295.28 ng/g dw in March, followed by 240.91 ng/g dw in June and 165.81 ng/g dw in September. Source characterization studies based on the analysis of diagnostic ratio (triangular plot method suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Changdang Lake were mainly from the mixed combustion source of biomass and petroleum, and the origins of PAHs in different sampling sites have a great deal of temporal and spatial variability during different water seasons. Redundancy analysis was applied to identify the impact factors and the possible relationship between PAHs and environmental parameters. The predicted results showed that the main factors impacting PAHs temporal distribution were temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and oxidation-reduction potential, while conductivity showed secondary impacts on the PAHs distribution. Risk assessment of PAHs in sediments was carried out based on the US Sediments Quality Guidelines (SQGs. By comparing the present study results with SQGs standard values results showed that the adverse effects are not expected at the present levels of PAHs contamination observed in the sediments from Changdang Lake.

  7. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  8. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    teju

    2018-05-04

    May 4, 2018 ... ... selected candidate is required to work with Accounts Officer and assist in ... in website of Public Financial Management System etc., and carry out .... Duties also include coordination and liaison with Chief Editors and other ...

  9. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    IASc), an institution under the Department of Science &. Technology, Government of India publishes scholarly journals, thematic books and other publications. The Academy currently publishes 10 journals in various disciplines in science.

  10. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incumbent should have passed Diploma in Secretarial Practice or Bachelors of Commerce with at least 50% marks. Should be proficient in typing, shorthand and MS office. Age: Not more than. 25 years as on 1 April 2017. Preference will be given to male candidates. Experience: 2 years experience in the administrative ...

  11. Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Janssen, Mart P; Mvere, David A; Emmanuel, Jean C; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2016-06-01

    Various models for estimating the residual risk (RR) of transmission of infections by blood transfusion have been published mainly based on data from high-income countries. However, to obtain the data required for such an assessment remains challenging for most developing settings. The National Blood Service Zimbabwe (NBSZ) adapted a published incidence-window period (IWP) model, which has less demanding data requirements. In this study we assess the impact of various definitions of blood donor subpopulations and models on RR estimates. We compared the outcomes of two published models and an adapted NBSZ model. The Schreiber IWP model (Model 1), an amended version (Model 2), and an adapted NBSZ model (Model 3) were applied. Variably the three models include prevalence, incidence, preseroconversion intervals, mean lifetime risk, and person-years at risk. Annual mean RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each of the three models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were determined using NBSZ blood donor data from 2002 through 2011. The annual mean RR estimates for Models 1 through 3 were 1 in 6542, 5805, and 6418, respectively for HIV; 1 in 1978, 2027, and 1628 for HBV; and 1 in 9588, 15,126, and 7750, for HCV. The adapted NBSZ model provided comparable results to the published methods and these highlight the high occurrence of HBV in Zimbabwe. The adapted NBSZ model could be used as an alternative to estimate RRs when in settings where two repeat donations are not available. © 2016 AABB.

  12. Avaliação de risco crônico da ingestão de resíduos de pesticidas na dieta brasileira Chronic dietary risk assessment for pesticide residues in Brazilian food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Dutra Caldas

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o risco crônico da ingestão de pesticidas pela dieta, em compostos registrados no Brasil para uso agrícola até 1999. MÉTODOS: Foi calculada a Ingestão Diária Máxima Teórica (IDMT para cada pesticida, utilizando limites máximos de resíduos estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira e dados de consumo alimentar. A caracterização do risco foi feita comparando-se a IDMT com as doses diárias aceitáveis (IDA de vários países e do Codex Alimentarius. RESULTADOS: A IDTM ultrapassou a IDA (%IDA>100 em pelo menos uma região metropolitana brasileira para 23 pesticidas. Dezesseis compostos com maior %IDA são inseticidas organofosforados, sendo o paration metílico o composto cuja ingestão mais excedeu o parâmetro toxicológico (%IDA N=9.300. O arroz, o feijão, as frutas cítricas e o tomate foram os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a ingestão. Dos compostos que apresentaram maior risco, apenas 6 foram registrados de acordo com o Decreto 98.816/90, que dispõe sobre o uso de pesticidas no País. CONCLUSÕES: Os compostos identificados como sendo de potencial risco de exposição crônica para a população brasileira, e os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a sua ingestão, devem ser priorizados pelos órgãos de saúde em programas de monitoramento de resíduos de pesticidas. Adicionalmente, dados sobre resíduos em alimentos prontos para o consumo, fatores de processamento e dados sobre consumo alimentar devem ser gerados para possibilitar o refinamento do estudo.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a chronic dietary risk assessment of the pesticides registered in Brazil up until 1999. METHODS: The Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI for each pesticide was calculated using the Brazilian maximum residue limits and food consumption data from IBGE, the Brazilian Statistical Institute. The risk characterization was done comparing the TMDI with the acceptable daily intakes (ADI from other countries and from the Codex

  13. The detail is dead - long live the detail!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper; Dalgaard, Kim; Kerstens, Vencent

    2018-01-01

    architecture when we look into architectural history. Too classic examples are; Adolf Loos who provoked already in 1908 with his statement; "Ornament and Crime", which contested the unconscious decorations of contemporary architects. Similarly, referring to the little need for superfluous detailing; "Less...... not change the fact that it is more important than ever to bring this 'small' architectural world to attention. Today, the construction industry is dictated by an economic management that does not leave much room for thorough studies of architectural details or visionary experiments. Today's more efficient......_Delft about the Symposium; "The Detail is Dead - Long Live the Detail". For this occasion a number of leading Danish and Northern European architects, researchers and companies were invited to discuss and suggest their 'architectural detail' and the challenges they face in today's construction. This book...

  14. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  15. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  16. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  17. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  18. Impact of a second FDG PET scan before adjuvant therapy for the early detection of residual/relapsing tumours in high-risk patients with oral cavity cancer and pathological extracapsular spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Fan, Kang-Hsing; Lin, Chien-Yu [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Hung-Ming [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Taoyuan (China); Hsueh, Chuen; Lee, Li-Yu [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Pathology, Taoyuan (China); Lin, Chih-Hung [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Taoyuan (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Head and Neck Oncology Group, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Extracapsular spread (ECS) to the cervical lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We prospectively examined the value of FDG PET immediately before postoperative radiotherapy/concurrent chemoradiotherapy (pre-RT/CCRT PET) to detect residual/relapsing disease in the early postsurgical follow-up period in high-risk OSCC patients with ECS. We examined 183 high-risk OSCC patients with ECS who underwent preoperative FDG PET/CT for staging purposes. Of these patients, 29 underwent a second pre-RT/CCRT FDG PET/CT scan. The clinical utility of the second FDG PET/CT was examined using Kaplan-Meier curve analysis. Patients who underwent the second FDG PET/CT scan had baseline clinicopathological characteristics similar to those who did not undergo a second scan. Of the patients who underwent the second scan, seven (24 %) had unexpected, newly discovered lesions. Five eventually died of the disease, and two had no evidence of recurrence after a change in RT field and dose. In an event-based analysis at 2 months, rates of neck control (6/29 vs. 6/154, p = 0.001), distant metastases (3/29 vs. 4/154, p = 0.046), and disease-free survival (7/29 vs. 10/154, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in patients who received a second PET scan than in those who did not. The second pre-RT/CCRT PET scan was of particular benefit for detecting new lesions in OSCC patients with both ECS and lymph node standardized uptake value (SUV) of {>=}5.2 in the first PET scan. The present findings support the clinical value of pre-RT/CCRT FDG PET for defining treatment strategy in OSCC patients with both ECS and high nodal SUV, even when FDG PET had already been performed during the initial staging work-up. (orig.)

  19. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  20. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  1. Will Incremental Hemodialysis Preserve Residual Function and Improve Patient Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The progressive loss of residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with increased mortality. It has been suggested that incremental dialysis may help preserve residual renal function and improve patient survival. Residual renal function depends upon both patient related and dialysis associated factors. Maintaining patients in an over-hydrated state may be associated with better preservation of residual renal function but any benefit comes with a significant risk of cardiovascular consequences. Notably, it is only observational studies that have reported an association between dialysis patient survival and residual renal function; causality has not been established for dialysis patient survival. The tenuous connections between residual renal function and outcomes and between incremental hemodialysis and residual renal function should temper our enthusiasm for interventions in this area. PMID:25385441

  2. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  3. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  4. Methodological Details and Full Bibliography

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset has several components, The first part describes fully our literature review, providing details not included in the text. The second part provides all...

  5. RESRAD, Residual Radioactive Material Guideline Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This code system is designed to calculate site-specific residual radioactive material guidelines, and radiation dose and excess cancer risk to an on-site resident (maximally exposed individual). A guideline is a radionuclide concentration or level of radioactivity that is acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. Guidelines are expressed as concentrations of residual radionuclides in soil. Soil is unconsolidated earth material, including rubble and debris that may be present. The guidelines are based on the following principles: (1) the total effective dose equivalent should not exceed 100 mrem/yr for all plausible land uses and 30 mrem/yr for current and likely future land uses and (2) doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Nine environmental pathways are considered: direct exposure, inhalation of dust and radon, and ingestion of plant foods, meat, milk, aquatic foods, soil, and water. CCC-0552/04: A - Description of program or function: RESRAD-BUILD Version 2.36 is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The radioactive material in the building structure can be released into the indoor air by mechanisms such as diffusion (radon gas), mechanical removal (decontamination activities), or erosion (removable surface contamination). In the June 1998 update, RESRAD was updated to Version 5.82 and RESRAD-BUILD was updated to version 2.36. The following notes highlight new features: RESRAD5.82 (4/30/98): - Allow plot data to be exported to tab-delimited text file - Corrected Installation problem to Windows 3.1 - Corrected plotting problem for soil guidelines RESRAD-BUILD2.36 (4/9/98): - Corrected problem with simultaneously changing number of wall regions and their parameters - Added OK button to uncertainty window - Made sure first uncertainty variable in added on first try See the

  6. Methods of measuring residual stresses in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, N.S.; Dassisti, M.; Benyounis, K.Y.; Olabi, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defining the different methods of measuring residual stresses in manufactured components. ► Comprehensive study on the hole drilling, neutron diffraction and other techniques. ► Evaluating advantage and disadvantage of each method. ► Advising the reader with the appropriate method to use. -- Abstract: Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Large number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon and its effect on the mechanical characteristics of these components. Over the years, different methods have been developed to measure residual stress for different types of components in order to obtain reliable assessment. The various specific methods have evolved over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These complementary technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. This paper aims to classify the different residual stresses measurement methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in this area to help researchers on selecting their techniques among destructive, semi destructive and non-destructive techniques depends on their application and the availabilities of those techniques. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for future developments.

  7. Environmental dredging residual generation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clay; LaRosa, Paul; Narayanan, Raghav; Forrest, Casey

    2018-05-01

    The presence and magnitude of sediment contamination remaining in a completed dredge area can often dictate the success of an environmental dredging project. The need to better understand and manage this remaining contamination, referred to as "postdredging residuals," has increasingly been recognized by practitioners and investigators. Based on recent dredging projects with robust characterization programs, it is now understood that the residual contamination layer in the postdredging sediment comprises a mixture of contaminated sediments that originate from throughout the dredge cut. This mixture of contaminated sediments initially exhibits fluid mud properties that can contribute to sediment transport and contamination risk outside of the dredge area. This article reviews robust dredging residual evaluations recently performed in the United States and Canada, including the Hudson River, Lower Fox River, Ashtabula River, and Esquimalt Harbour, along with other projects. These data better inform the understanding of residuals generation, leading to improved models of dredging residual formation to inform remedy evaluation, selection, design, and implementation. Data from these projects confirm that the magnitude of dredging residuals is largely determined by site conditions, primarily in situ sediment fluidity or liquidity as measured by dry bulk density. While the generation of dredging residuals cannot be avoided, residuals can be successfully and efficiently managed through careful development and implementation of site-specific management plans. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:335-343. © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  8. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  9. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  10. Individual risk factors for Plasmodium vivax infection in the residual malaria transmission focus of Oaxaca, Mexico Factores individuales de riesgo para la infección con Plasmodium vivax en el foco residual de transmisión de paludismo de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Danis-Lozano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify individual risk factors for malaria infection of inhabitants in the residual transmission focus on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based, matched case-control study was conducted from January 2002 to July 2003 comparing the frequency of exposure to individual risk factors in subjects presenting clinical malaria and uninfected controls. A malaria case was defined as an individual living in the study area presenting malaria symptoms and a Plasmodium vivax-positive thick blood smear; controls were individuals negative to P. vivax parasites and antibodies of the same gender and with ± five years as the case. A standardized questionnaire was used to record information about the individual risk factors associated with malaria episodes in cases and two controls for each case. RESULTS: In a multiple conditional logistic regression model analysis of data from 119 cases and 238 controls, 18 out of 99 variables were significantly associated (pOBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo individuales determinantes para contraer paludismo en habitantes del foco residual de transmisión de paludismo localizado en la costa del Pacífico de Oaxaca. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio pareado de casos y controles, con base poblacional de enero de 2002 a julio de 2003, comparando la frecuencia de exposición a diversos factores de riesgo individuales en sujetos que presentaron un cuadro clínico de paludismo y controles no infectados. Un caso de paludismo fue definido como un individuo que vive en el área de estudio que presentó síntomas de paludismo y diagnosticado positivo a P. vivax en examen de gota gruesa de sangre, los controles fueron individuos negativos a parásitos y anticuerpos anti-P. vivax del mismo sexo y ± cinco años la edad del caso. Se usó un cuestionario estandarizado para registrar información de factores de riesgo individuales asociados a episodios de paludismo en

  11. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  12. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  13. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  14. Report of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Consumer Affairs, Food Safety and Nutrition (AECOSAN) in relation to the risk of the presence of sulphonamide residues in eggs resulting from cross-contamination in feed production

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee

    2017-01-01

    Sulphonamides can be administered by adding them to feed within the framework of legal use to treat diseases in animals intended for use in the production of foods, except laying hens. Furthermore, in feed production, cross-contaminations can occur from medicated feed that lead to the appearance of residues of these medicines in animal by-products. In particular, on some occasions, sulphonamide residues have been detected in eggs resulting from cross-contamination in feed production. The Scie...

  15. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  16. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  17. Improved method for P and T strategy selection by long-term risk evaluation of nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, G.; Feher, S.; Szieberth, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed introduction of the presently used indicators of long-term risk, namely various concepts of radiotoxicity, analyses their advantages and disadvantages, and proposes further indicators called residual hazard and residual hazard index. In order to illustrate them, the time behavior of the relative radiotoxicity and the residual hazard index is investigated for a few representative cases. In the first one, conventional thermal and fast reactors, while in the second one molten salt reactors are investigated from the viewpoint of transmutation. The results shown indicate the usefulness of the application of the now proposed quantities. (author)

  18. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  19. Detailed clinical models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke; van der Zel, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Due to the increasing use of electronic patient records and other health care information technology, we see an increase in requests to utilize these data. A highly level of standardization is required during the gathering of these data in the clinical context in order to use it for analyses. Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) have been created toward this purpose and several initiatives have been implemented in various parts of the world to create standardized models. This paper presents a review of DCM. Two types of analyses are presented; one comparing DCM against health care information architectures and a second bottom up approach from concept analysis to representation. In addition core parts of the draft ISO standard 13972 on DCM are used such as clinician involvement, data element specification, modeling, meta information, and repository and governance. SIX INITIATIVES WERE SELECTED: Intermountain Healthcare, 13606/OpenEHR Archetypes, Clinical Templates, Clinical Contents Models, Health Level 7 templates, and Dutch Detailed Clinical Models. Each model selected was reviewed for their overall development, involvement of clinicians, use of data types, code bindings, expressing semantics, modeling, meta information, use of repository and governance. Using both a top down and bottom up approach to comparison reveals many commonalties and differences between initiatives. Important differences include the use of or lack of a reference model and expressiveness of models. Applying clinical data element standards facilitates the use of conceptual DCM models in different technical representations.

  20. Residue number systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, P V Ananda

    2016-01-01

    This new and expanded monograph improves upon Mohan's earlier book, Residue Number Systems (Springer, 2002) with a state of the art treatment of the subject. Replete with detailed illustrations and helpful examples, this book covers a host of cutting edge topics such as the core function, the quotient function, new Chinese Remainder theorems, and large integer operations. It also features many significant applications to practical communication systems and cryptography such as FIR filters and elliptic curve cryptography. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to the basics and leading up to current research trends that are not yet widely distributed in other publications, this book will be of interest to both researchers and students alike.

  1. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.

  2. Devil's in the (diffuse) detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welberry, R.

    2006-07-01

    X-ray crystallography is an important workhorse in the world of solid-state chemistry. However, while it's a powerful tool in determining the average structure in a crystal lattice, conventional crystallography is very limited when it comes to understanding nano-scale disorder within that crystal structure. And when it comes to understanding the properties of many important materials, the devil is in the detail. X-ray diffraction is still one of the keys to understanding this finer scale structure but using it requires a capacity to read between the lines - to understand the diffuse diffraction that most crystallography ignores. Scientists at the Research School of Chemistry are leading the world in this field. Their work on modelling nano-scaled disorder using diffuse diffraction is opening up new possibilities in understanding and modifying many of our most important materials

  3. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-06-01

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  4. Rapid multi-residue method for the determination of pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to pesticides can represent a potential risk to humans. Agricultural workers are at risk of chronic toxicity. Hence, the evaluation of pesticide residues in their blood gives an indication about the extent of exposure and help in assessing adverse health effects. The aim of our study was to develop analytical method for ...

  5. The PEC reactor. Safety analysis: Detailed reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In the safety-analysis of the PEC Brasimone reactor (Italy), attention was focused on the role of plant-incident analysis during the design stage and the conclusions reached. The analysis regarded the following: thermohydraulic incidents at full power; incidents with the reactor shut down; reactivity incidents; core local faults; analysis of fuel-handling incidents; engineered safeguards and passive safety features; coolant leakage and sodium fires; research and development studies on the seismic behaviour of the PEC fast reactor; generalized sodium fire; severe accidents, accident sequences with shudown; reference accident. Both the theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrated the adequacy of the design of the PEC fast reactor, aimed at minimizing the consequences of a hypothetical disruptive core accident with mechanical energy release. It was shown that the containment barriers were sized correctly and that the residual heat from a disassembled core would be removed. The re-evaluation of the source term emphasized the conservative nature of the hypotheses assumed in the preliminary safety analysis for calculating the risk to the public.

  6. Synthetic and mechanistic insight into nosylation of glycine residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Sølling, Theis Ivan; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The Fukuyama-Mitsunobu alkylation procedure is widely used to introduce alkyl substituents to amino groups in general and N-alkylation of peptides in particular. Here we have investigated the procedure in detail for N-alkylation of peptides with N-terminal glycine residues, based on the observati...

  7. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  8. Reduction of negative environmental impact generated by residues of plant tissue culture laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleidys Cortés Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the activity developed by teaching and research laboratories for biotechnology purposes with an environmental approach to determine potential contamination risk and analyze the residuals generated. The physical - chemical characterization of the residuals was carried out from contamination indicators that can affect the dumping of residual water. In order to identify the environmental risks and sources of microbial contamination of plant material propagated by in vitro culture that generate residuals, all the risk activities were identified, the type of risk involved in each activity was analyzed, as well as whether or not the standards were met of aseptic normative. The dilution and neutralization was proposed for residuals with extreme values of pH. Since the results of the work a set of measures was proposed to reduce the negative environmental impact of the laboratory residuals. Key words: biosafety, environmental management, microbial contamination

  9. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  10. Optimizing radioiodine for ablation of residual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    The thyroid cancer (TC) has been studied in great detail in the form of the clinical experience during the past several decades. This has led to the retrospective analysis of various prognostic factors that have separated DTC into various risk groups. On one hand, the prognosis in the low-risk group is excellent with survival rate of 98 %, whereas the other end of the spectrum consists of high-risk group patients with poor survival, approximating only 50% at 10 years. Clearly, the understanding of the prognostic factors and risk groups is critically important in distinguishing a patient at low-risk from that at a high-risk which can make an impact in decision making regarding the extent of thyroidectomy and adjuvant treatment such as radioactive iodine ( 131 I) therapy

  11. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Residual stress analysis in reactor pressure vessel attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexter, R.J.; Pont, D.

    1991-08-01

    Residual stresses in cladding and welded attachments could contribute to the problem of stress-corrosion cracking in boiling-water reactors (BWR). As part of a larger program aimed at quantifying residual stress in BWR components, models that would be applicable for predicting residual stress in BWR components are reviewed and documented. The review includes simple methods of estimating residual stresses as well as advanced finite-element software. In general, simple methods are capable of predicting peak magnitudes of residual stresses but are incapable of adequately characterizing the distribution of residual stresses. Ten groups of researchers using finite-element software are reviewed in detail. For each group, the assumptions of the model, possible simplifications, material property data, and specific applications are discussed. The most accurate results are obtained when a metallurgical simulation is performed, transformation plasticity effects are included, and the heating and cooling parts of the welding thermal cycle are simulated. Two models are identified which can provide these features. The present state of these models and the material property data available in the literature are adequate to quantify residual stress in BWR components

  13. Chemical modifications of therapeutic proteins induced by residual ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Louise; Sloey, Christopher; Zhang, Zhongqi; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Kim, Hyojin; Ren, Da; Kanapuram, Sekhar

    2015-02-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) is widely used in sterilization of drug product primary containers and medical devices. The impact of residual EtO on protein therapeutics is of significant interest in the biopharmaceutical industry. The potential for EtO to modify individual amino acids in proteins has been previously reported. However, specific identification of EtO adducts in proteins and the effect of residual EtO on the stability of therapeutic proteins has not been reported to date. This paper describes studies of residual EtO with two therapeutic proteins, a PEGylated form of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Peg-GCSF) and recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) formulated with human serum albumin (HSA). Peg-GCSF was filled in an EtO sterilized delivery device and incubated at accelerated stress conditions. Glu-C peptide mapping and LC-MS analyses revealed residual EtO reacted with Peg-GCSF and resulted in EtO modifications at two methionine residues (Met-127 and Met-138). In addition, tryptic peptide mapping and LC-MS analyses revealed residual EtO in plastic vials reacted with HSA in EPO formulation at Met-328 and Cys-34. This paper details the work conducted to understand the effects of residual EtO on the chemical stability of protein therapeutics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  15. Estimating residual life of alloy 600 RPV penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.; White, G.A.; Pathania, R.; Arey, M.L.; Whitaker, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetrations PWR in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads has become a significant economic concern worldwide. PWSCC of these penetrations has led to extended maintenance outages, expensive inspections and repairs, and in some cases, replacement of the entire vessel head. This paper describes methodology developed to predict the remaining life of Alloy 600 penetrations in reactor vessel heads. Predictions of remaining life are an important input to planning models used by utilities to select a strategy for responding to the PWSCC issue at the lowest life cycle cost with an acceptably low risk of leakage. The remaining life of RPV penetrations is determined using the results of inspections of penetrations and statistical methods to predict future degradation. The analysis takes into account the effects of material properties, welding residual stresses, and operating temperature on PWSCC initiation and growth. The probability of developing cracks of various depths is assessed using Monte Carlo methods which provide for uncertainties in the input assumptions. For plants which have not yet performed inspections, remaining life predictions are based on inspection results from similar plants which have performed inspections with corrections made for known differences in design details, material properties and operating conditions

  16. Detailed Astrometric Analysis of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSSI, GUSTAVO B.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Camargo, J. I.; Assafin, M.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Pluto is the main representant of the transneptunian objects (TNO's), presenting some peculiarities such as an atmosphere and a satellite system with 5 known moons: Charon, discovered in 1978, Nix and Hydra, in 2006, P4 in 2011 and P5 in 2012. Until the arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft to this system (july 2015), stellar occultations are the most efficient method, from the ground, to know physical and dinamical properties of this system. In 2010, it was evident a drift in declinations (about 20 mas/year) comparing to the ephemerides. This fact motivated us to remake the reductions and analysis of a great set of our observations at OPD/LNA, in a total of 15 years. The ephemerides and occultations results was then compared with the astrometric and photometric reductions of CCD images of Pluto (around 6500 images). Two corrections were used for a refinement of the data set: diferential chromatic refraction and photocenter. The first is due to the mean color of background stars beeing redder than the color of Pluto, resulting in a slightly different path of light through the atmosphere (that may cause a difference in position of 0.1”). It became more evident because Pluto is crossing the region of the galactic plane. The photocenter correction is based on two gaussians curves overlapped, with different hights and non-coincident centers, corresponding to Pluto and Charon (since they have less than 1” of angular separation). The objective is to separate these two gaussian curves from the observed one and find the right position of Pluto. The method is strongly dependent of the hight of each of the gaussian curves, related to the respective albedos of charon and Pluto. A detailed analysis of the astrometric results, as well a comparison with occultation results was made. Since Pluto has an orbital period of 248,9 years and our interval of observation is about 15 years, we have around 12% of its observed orbit and also, our

  17. Assessment of ASME code examinations on regenerative, letdown and residual heat removal heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, Stephen R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Tinsley, G A.; Lydell, B.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Inservice inspection requirements for pressure retaining welds in the regenerative, letdown, and residual heat removal heat exchangers are prescribed in Section XI Articles IWB and IWC of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Accordingly, volumetric and/or surface examinations are performed on heat exchanger shell, head, nozzle-to-head, and nozzle-to-shell welds. Inspection difficulties associated with the implementation of these Code-required examinations have forced operating nuclear power plants to seek relief from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The nature of these relief requests are generally concerned with metallurgical, geometry, accessibility, and radiation burden. Over 60% of licensee requests to the NRC identify significant radiation exposure burden as the principle reason for relief from the ASME Code examinations on regenerative heat exchangers. For the residual heat removal heat exchangers, 90% of the relief requests are associated with geometry and accessibility concerns. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was funded by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to review current practice with regard to volumetric and/or surface examinations of shell welds of letdown heat exchangers regenerative heat exchangers and residual (decay) heat removal heat exchangers Design, operating, common preventative maintenance practices, and potential degradation mechanisms are reviewed. A detailed survey of domestic and international PWR-specific operating experience was performed to identify pressure boundary failures (or lack of failures) in each heat exchanger type and NSSS design. The service data survey was based on the PIPExp- database and covers PWR plants worldwide for the period 1970-2004. Finally a risk assessment of the current ASME Code inspection requirements for residual heat removal, letdown, and regenerative heat exchangers is performed. The results are then reviewed to discuss the examinations relative to plant safety and

  18. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and on the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  19. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model). The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and at the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  20. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  1. Development of a General Modelling Methodology for Vacuum Residue Hydroconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Oliveira L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the development of a methodology for kinetic modelling of refining processes, and more specifically for vacuum residue conversion. The proposed approach allows to overcome the lack of molecular detail of the petroleum fractions and to simulate the transformation of the feedstock molecules into effluent molecules by means of a two-step procedure. In the first step, a synthetic mixture of molecules representing the feedstock for the process is generated via a molecular reconstruction method, termed SR-REM molecular reconstruction. In the second step, a kinetic Monte-Carlo method (kMC is used to simulate the conversion reactions on this mixture of molecules. The molecular reconstruction was applied to several petroleum residues and is illustrated for an Athabasca (Canada vacuum residue. The kinetic Monte-Carlo method is then described in detail. In order to validate this stochastic approach, a lumped deterministic model for vacuum residue conversion was simulated using Gillespie’s Stochastic Simulation Algorithm. Despite the fact that both approaches are based on very different hypotheses, the stochastic simulation algorithm simulates the conversion reactions with the same accuracy as the deterministic approach. The full-scale stochastic simulation approach using molecular-level reaction pathways provides high amounts of detail on the effluent composition and is briefly illustrated for Athabasca VR hydrocracking.

  2. On residual stress prescriptions for fitness for service assessment of pipe girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao; Kim, Myung H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a detailed assessment of some of the existing residual stress profiles stipulated in widely used fitness-for-service assessment codes and standards, such as BS 7910 Appendix Q and API 579 RP Annex E, by taking advantage of some comprehensive residual stress studies that have recently become available. After presenting a case study on which residual stress measurements are available for validating finite element based residual stress analysis procedure, residual stress profiles stipulated in BS 7910 for pipe girth welds are selected for detailed evaluation by comparing residual stress distribution characteristics shown in parametric finite element results. A shell theory based full-field residual stress profile estimation scheme is then presented to illustrate how an improved estimation of residual stress profiles can be achieved in light of some of the deficiencies in BS 7910 and API 579 identified in this study. - Highlights: • Critically assessed girth weld residual stress profiles in major FFS Codes and Standards. • Identified deficiencies in relating to pipe geometry, heat input, and axial distance from weld. • Presented a shell theory based scheme for prescribing full-field residual stress profiles

  3. House in Bessine-sur-Gartempe (87) built on uranium ore waste rocks and residues. Assessment of radon contents of the indoor air and induced health risks for dwellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    After having recalled the origin of radon and how characterization measurements of exposure pathways are performed, this document reports an expertise investigation of the exposure to radon of dwellers of a house. It presents the main results of environmental radiological measurements: exposure to beta/gamma radiation and to radon, assessment of average radon concentrations in the house (measurement strategy, interpretation of average values). It reports the assessment of annual exposures to radon. It discusses the assessment of risks: status of knowledge of impacts of radon on health (radon and risk of lung cancer, other potential health effects of radon), risk assessment based on the efficient dose, method and results of assessment of the risk of lung cancer, impact of tobacco on this assessment, assessment of the risk of leukaemia

  4. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    binding than previously understood. Differences were also observed between MSWI bottom ash DOM and the natural DOM for which the geochemical speciation models SHM and NICA-Donnan are calibrated. Revised parameter values for speciation modelling are therefore suggested. Additions of salt or natural DOM in the influent did not change the leachate concentration of Cu. Thus, although Cl and natural DOM might be present in the influent in the field due to road salting or infiltration of soil water, this is of minor importance for the potential environmental impact from MSWI bottom ash. This thesis allows estimates of long-term leaching and toxicity to be improved and demonstrates the need for broadening the system boundaries in order to highlight the tradeoffs between different types of impact. For decisions on whether incinerator residues should be utilised or landfilled, the use of a life cycle perspective in combination with more detailed assessments is recommended

  5. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang; Wonka, Peter; Ghanem, Bernard; Jiang, Caigui

    2015-01-01

    Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed

  6. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  7. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  8. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  9. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  10. Assessing Risk and Driving Risk Mitigation for First-of-a-Kind Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Collins

    2011-09-01

    Planning and decision making amidst programmatic and technological risks represent significant challenges for projects. This presentation addresses the four step risk-assessment process needed to determine clear path forward to mature needed technology and design, license, and construct advanced nuclear power plants, which have never been built before, including Small Modular Reactors. This four step process has been carefully applied to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. STEP 1 - Risk Identification Risks are identified, collected, and categorized as technical risks, programmatic risks, and project risks, each of which result in cost and schedule impacts if realized. These include risks arising from the use of technologies not previously demonstrated in a relevant application. These risks include normal and accident scenarios which the SMR could experience including events that cause the disablement of engineered safety features (typically documented in Phenomena Identification Ranking Tables (PIRT) as produced with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and design needs which must be addressed to further detail the design. Product - Project Risk Register contained in a database with sorting, presentation, rollup, risk work off functionality similar to the NGNP Risk Management System . STEP 2 - Risk Quantification The risks contained in the risk register are then scored for probability of occurrence and severity of consequence, if realized. Here the scoring methodology is established and the basis for the scoring is well documented. Product - Quantified project risk register with documented basis for scoring. STEP 3 - Risk Handling Strategy Risks are mitigated by applying a systematic approach to maturing the technology through Research and Development, modeling, test, and design. A Technology Readiness Assessment is performed to determine baseline Technology Readiness Levels (TRL). Tasks needed to mature the technology are developed and documented in a roadmap

  11. Assessing Risk and Driving Risk Mitigation for First-of-a-Kind Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and decision making amidst programmatic and technological risks represent significant challenges for projects. This presentation addresses the four step risk-assessment process needed to determine clear path forward to mature needed technology and design, license, and construct advanced nuclear power plants, which have never been built before, including Small Modular Reactors. This four step process has been carefully applied to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. STEP 1 - Risk Identification Risks are identified, collected, and categorized as technical risks, programmatic risks, and project risks, each of which result in cost and schedule impacts if realized. These include risks arising from the use of technologies not previously demonstrated in a relevant application. These risks include normal and accident scenarios which the SMR could experience including events that cause the disablement of engineered safety features (typically documented in Phenomena Identification Ranking Tables (PIRT) as produced with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and design needs which must be addressed to further detail the design. Product - Project Risk Register contained in a database with sorting, presentation, rollup, risk work off functionality similar to the NGNP Risk Management System . STEP 2 - Risk Quantification The risks contained in the risk register are then scored for probability of occurrence and severity of consequence, if realized. Here the scoring methodology is established and the basis for the scoring is well documented. Product - Quantified project risk register with documented basis for scoring. STEP 3 - Risk Handling Strategy Risks are mitigated by applying a systematic approach to maturing the technology through Research and Development, modeling, test, and design. A Technology Readiness Assessment is performed to determine baseline Technology Readiness Levels (TRL). Tasks needed to mature the technology are developed and documented in a roadmap

  12. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101275080

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  13. Impact of a proposed revision of the IESTI equation on the acute risk assessment conducted when setting maximum residue levels (MRLs) in the European Union (EU): A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Nicolas; Vial, Gaelle; Pattingre, Lauriane; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Mahieu, Karin; Reich, Hermine; Rietveld, Anton; Sieke, Christian; van der Velde-Koerts, Trijntje; Sarda, Xavier

    2018-06-03

    Proposals to update the methodology for the international estimated short-term intake (IESTI) equations were made during an international workshop held in Geneva in 2015. Changes to several parameters of the current four IESTI equations (cases 1, 2a, 2b, and 3) were proposed. In this study, the overall impact of these proposed changes on estimates of short-term exposure was studied using the large portion data available in the European Food Safety Authority PRIMo model and the residue data submitted in the framework of the European Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) review under Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. Evaluation of consumer exposure using the current and proposed equations resulted in substantial differences in the exposure estimates; however, there were no significant changes regarding the number of accepted MRLs. For the different IESTI cases, the median ratio of the new versus the current equation is 1.1 for case 1, 1.4 for case 2a, 0.75 for case 2b, and 1 for case 3. The impact, expressed as a shift in the IESTI distribution profile, indicated that the 95th percentile IESTI shifted from 50% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) with the current equations to 65% of the ARfD with the proposed equations. This IESTI increase resulted in the loss of 1.2% of the MRLs (37 out of 3110) tested within this study. At the same time, the proposed equations would have allowed 0.4% of the MRLs (14 out of 3110) that were rejected with the current equations to be accepted. The commodity groups that were most impacted by these modifications are solanacea (e.g., potato, eggplant), lettuces, pulses (dry), leafy brassica (e.g., kale, Chinese cabbage), and pome fruits. The active substances that were most affected were fluazifop-p-butyl, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin.

  14. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  15. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Christopher S.; Karp, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in the laboratory have lead to substantial improvements in clinical decision-making by the use of pre-treatment prognostic risk stratification factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Unfortunately similar progress has not been made in treatment response criteria, with the definition of “complete remission” in AML largely unchanged for over half a century. Several recent clinical trials have demonstrated that higher sensitivity measurements of residual disease burden during or after treatment can be performed, that results are predictive for clinical outcome and can be used to improve outcomes by guiding additional therapeutic intervention to patients in clinical complete remission but at increased relapse risk. We review here these recent trials, the characteristics and challenges of the modalities currently used to detect minimal residual disease (MRD), and outline opportunities to both refine detection and better clinically utilize MRD measurements. MRD measurement is already the standard of care in other myeloid malignancies such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is our belief that response criteria for non-APL AML should be updated to include assessment for molecular complete remission (mCR) and that recommendations for post-consolidation surveillance should include regular monitoring for molecular relapse as a standard of care. PMID:23799371

  16. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  17. Comparison of neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements of residual stress in bead-on-plate weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowska, A.M.; Price, J.W.; Finlayson, T.R.; Lienert, U.; Ibrahim, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of neutron and synchrotron diffractions for the evaluation of residual stresses in welded components. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve very good agreement between the two independent diffraction techniques. This study shows the significance of the weld start and end sites on the residual strain/stress distribution. Quantitative evaluation of the residual stress development process for multibead weldments has been presented. Some measurements were also taken before and after postweld stress relieving to establish the reduction and redistribution of the residual stress. The detailed measurements of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of residual stress in welded components.

  18. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  19. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  20. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  1. The recovery of sulphur, uranium, and gold from residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhmer, W.T.; Botha, F.; Adams, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the Amuran project in the Welkom area, which is being conducted by six members of the Anglo American Group. The project comprises three plants for the flotation of pyrite, a twin-stream uranium plant for the recovery of gold from calcines. Details of these plants including capital costs and estimated production are given. Mention is made of the adsorption of gold onto activated charcoal and wet high-intensity magnetic separation as possible suitable processes for these residues [af

  2. Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models

  3. Status of persistent organic pesticide residues in water and food and their effects on environment and farmers: a comprehensive review in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norida Mazlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide helps to enhance agricultural production, however, it significantly affect both socio and environmental entities of a country. In Nigeria, pesticide is widely used, thus its traces have been detected in water, soil and air. Several studies have already indicated that most of the environmental ecology (air, water, and soil in Nigeria has been contaminated by persistent organic pesticides like organochlorine and organophosphate. Other reasons of high pesticide residues present in Nigeria environment is due to inappropriate dosage applied of pesticides that leaves behind excess. However, its residues are found above safety levels in the air, water, and soil across the nation. Based on previous analysis, it is indicated that 125,000-130,000 metric ton pesticides are being applied annually in Nigeria. Despite banned of some pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane- and -Hexachlorocyclohexane, they are still being used by farmers in their agricultural production. Many of the Class 1 (high extremely toxic pesticides are still being used in developing countries like Nigeria. Hence, there is need to sensitize and educate the general public especially the end-users (farmers particularly on management practices of pesticides. Considering these entire hazardous situations, in this article the history of pesticide used in Nigeria has been reviewed in detail. The article also discussed the effects of pesticide use in Nigerian waters, soil and on crops. The risk of residual pesticide on agricultural workers, pesticide residue risk preventive measures by the Federal Government of Nigeria, banned and restricted pesticides in Nigeria, Nigerian Government and its efforts to eliminate persistent organic pesticides in use are also reviewed in details.

  4. Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

  5. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  6. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  7. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  8. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  9. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  10. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  11. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  12. Residual stress analysis of drive shafts after induction hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Guilherme Vieira Braga; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes, E-mail: lemos_gl@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Algre, RS (Brazil); Hirsch, Thomas Karl [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (IWT), Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Typically, for automotive shafts, shape distortion manifests itself in most cases after the induction hardening by an effect known as bending. The distortion results in a boost of costs, especially due to machining parts in the hardened state to fabricate its final tolerances. In the present study, residual stress measurements were carried out on automotive drive shafts made of DIN 38B3 steel. The samples were selected in consequence of their different distortion properties by an industrial manufacturing line. One tested shaft was straightened, because of the considerable dimensional variation and the other one not. Firstly, the residual stress measurements were carried out by using a portable diffractometer, in order to avoid cutting the shafts and evaluate the original state of the stresses, and afterwards a more detailed analysis was realized by a conventional stationary diffractometer. The obtained results presented an overview of the surface residual stress profiles after induction hardening and displayed the influence of the straightening process on the redistribution of residual stresses. They also indicated that the effects of the straightening in the residual stresses cannot be neglected. (author)

  13. A review of novel strategies of sample preparation for the determination of antibacterial residues in foodstuffs using liquid chromatography-based analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marazuela, M.D., E-mail: marazuela@quim.ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Bogialli, S [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Piazza Aldo Moro, 5 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-10

    The determination of trace residues and contaminants in food has been of growing concern over the past few years. Residual antibacterials in food constitute a risk to human health, especially because they can contribute to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria through the food chain. Therefore, to ensure food safety EU and USA regulatory agencies have established lists of forbidden or banned substances and tolerance levels for authorized veterinary drugs (e.g. antibacterials). In addition, the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC has set requirements about the performance of analytical methods for the determination of veterinary drug residues in food and feedstuffs. During the past years, the use of powerful mass spectrometric detectors in combination with innovative chromatographic technologies has solved many problems related to sensitivity and selectivity of this type of analysis. However sample preparation still remains as the bottleneck step, mainly in terms of analysis time and sources of error. This review covering research published between 2004 and 2008 intends to provide an update overview of the past five years, on recent trends in sample preparation for the determination of antibacterial residues in foods, making special emphasis in on-line, high-throughput, multi-class methods and including several applications in detail.

  14. Visual Memory : The Price of Encoding Details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Kromm, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Studies on visual long-term memory have shown that we have a tremendous capacity for remembering pictures of objects, even at a highly detailed level. What remains unclear, however, is whether encoding objects at such a detailed level comes at any cost. In the current study, we examined how the

  15. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Eve

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  16. Understanding Brains: Details, Intuition, and Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  17. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Marder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  18. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  19. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  20. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  1. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  2. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  3. Bound xenobiotic residues in food commodities of plant and animal origin: IUPAC Reports on Pesticides (40)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skidmore, M.W.; Paulson, G.D.; Kuiper, H.A.; Ohlin, B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary risk resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary drugs the nature of the chemical residues on food commodities needs to be determined. Elucidation of the nature of the chemical residue is carried out using radiolabelled studies where the radiolabelled xenobiotic

  4. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  5. ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Sokol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level.doi:10.5219/69

  6. Pesticide Residues in Food: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Misconceptions among Conventional and Organic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are

  7. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  8. Post Entitlement Management Information - Detail Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains data that supports the detailed and aggregate receipt, pending and clearance data, as well as other strategic and tactical MI for many Title II and Title...

  9. Detailed Safety Review of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    To date, 18 human studies have assessed the safety of anthrax vaccination. These studies, some stretching back almost 50 years, reported adverse events after vaccination in varying degrees of detail...

  10. Cleaner combustion developing detailed chemical kinetic models

    CERN Document Server

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Simmie, John M

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the reactive chemistry of minor pollutants within extensively validated detailed mechanisms for traditional fuels, and also for innovative surrogates, describing the complex chemistry of new, environmentally important bio-fuels.

  11. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  12. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  13. Factors influencing detail detectability in radiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated

  14. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  15. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  16. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  17. Combining specificity determining and conserved residues improves functional site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the location of functionally important sites from protein sequence and/or structure is a long-standing problem in computational biology. Most current approaches make use of sequence conservation, assuming that amino acid residues conserved within a protein family are most likely to be functionally important. Most often these approaches do not consider many residues that act to define specific sub-functions within a family, or they make no distinction between residues important for function and those more relevant for maintaining structure (e.g. in the hydrophobic core. Many protein families bind and/or act on a variety of ligands, meaning that conserved residues often only bind a common ligand sub-structure or perform general catalytic activities. Results Here we present a novel method for functional site prediction based on identification of conserved positions, as well as those responsible for determining ligand specificity. We define Specificity-Determining Positions (SDPs, as those occupied by conserved residues within sub-groups of proteins in a family having a common specificity, but differ between groups, and are thus likely to account for specific recognition events. We benchmark the approach on enzyme families of known 3D structure with bound substrates, and find that in nearly all families residues predicted by SDPsite are in contact with the bound substrate, and that the addition of SDPs significantly improves functional site prediction accuracy. We apply SDPsite to various families of proteins containing known three-dimensional structures, but lacking clear functional annotations, and discusse several illustrative examples. Conclusion The results suggest a better means to predict functional details for the thousands of protein structures determined prior to a clear understanding of molecular function.

  18. Assessment of the residual lifetime of the units 3 and 4 of the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojkinski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to present the methodology for the residual lifetime assessment for the buildings and facilities during the decommissioning. An analysis of the existing facilities and constructions is made and requirements for further exploitation are set. A quantitative assessment is made of the residual lifetime for the buildings and auxiliary objects for the units 3 and 4. A detailed analysis is made for the ventilation systems and other equipment. Recommendations are given for the extension of the equipment lifetime

  19. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  20. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodemetallization of different origin vacuum residues : new modeling approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira , Cristina; Tayakout-Fayolle , Melaz; Guibard , Isabelle; Lemos , Francisco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In order to be able to upgrade the heaviest part of the crude oil one needs to remove several impurities, such as sulfur or metals. Residue hydrotreatment in fixed beds, under high hydrogen pressure can achieve high removal performances, with an industrial catalysts optimized staging. Despite the recent improvements, petroleum residues remain very difficult to describe and characterize in detail. Several kinetic models have been developed, but mostly they are feed depe...

  1. Demosaicing and Superresolution for Color Filter Array via Residual Image Reconstruction and Sparse Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guangling

    2012-01-01

    A framework of demosaicing and superresolution for color filter array (CFA) via residual image reconstruction and sparse representation is presented.Given the intermediate image produced by certain demosaicing and interpolation technique, a residual image between the final reconstruction image and the intermediate image is reconstructed using sparse representation.The final reconstruction image has richer edges and details than that of the intermediate image. Specifically, a generic dictionar...

  2. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da

    2017-06-12

    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  3. Determination of drug residues in urine of dogs receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry: is there an environmental or occupational risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamscher, Gerd; Mohring, Siegrun A I; Knobloch, Anna; Eberle, Nina; Nau, Heinz; Nolte, Ingo; Simon, Daniela

    2010-04-01

    Cytotoxic drugs, previously used only in human medicine, are increasingly utilized for cancer treatment in veterinary practice. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) method to determine vincristine, vinblastine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin in canine urine. Sample pretreatment consisted of liquid-liquid extraction, and LC separation was carried out on an RP C(18) column employing a 0.5% formic acid/methanol gradient system. The analytes were detected in positive ion mode using the MS-MS scan mode. The mean recoveries in six different urine samples were between 64.2% and 86.9%. Limits of quantitation were 0.5 microg/L for vincristine and vinblastine, 1 microg/L for cyclophosphamide, and 5 microg/L for doxorubicin; limits of detection were approximately 0.25 microg/L for vincristine, vinblastine, and cyclophosphamide and 0.5 microg/L for doxorubicin. It could be demonstrated that all investigated drugs are found in urine of dogs undergoing chemotherapy. In samples from day 1 after chemotherapy, as much as 63 microg/L vincristine, 111 microg/L vinblastine, and 762 microg/L doxorubicin could be detected. Cyclophosphamide showed only minor concentrations on day 1, but up to 2583 microg/L could be found directly after chemotherapy. These initial data show that there might be a potential contamination risk when administering cytotoxics in veterinary medicine.

  4. Investigation into Variations of Welding Residual Stresses and Redistribution Behaviors for Different Repair Welding Widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chiyong; Lee, Hweesueng; Huh, Namsu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the variations in welding residual stresses in dissimilar metal butt weld due to width of repair welding and re-distribution behaviors resulting from similar metal welding (SMW) and mechanical loading. To this end, detailed two-dimensional axi-symmetric finite element (FE) analyses were performed considering five different repair welding widths. Based on the FE results, we first evaluated the welding residual stress distributions in repair welding. We then investigated the re-distribution behaviors of the residual stresses due to SMW and mechanical loads. It is revealed that large tensile welding residual stresses take place in the inner surface and that its distribution is affected, provided repair welding width is larger than certain value. The welding residual stresses resulting from repair welding are remarkably reduced due to SMW and mechanical loading, regardless of the width of the repair welding

  5. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  6. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Pulsar timing residuals due to individual non-evolving gravitational wave sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Ming-Lei; Zhao Cheng-Shi; Yan Bao-Rong; Yang Ting-Gao; Gao Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The pulsar timing residuals induced by gravitational waves from non-evolving single binary sources are affected by many parameters related to the relative positions of the pulsar and the gravitational wave sources. We will analyze the various effects due to different parameters. The standard deviations of the timing residuals will be calculated with a variable parameter fixing a set of other parameters. The orbits of the binary sources will be generally assumed to be elliptical. The influences of different eccentricities on the pulsar timing residuals will also be studied in detail. We find that the effects of the related parameters are quite different, and some of them display certain regularities

  8. Residual stress effects in LMFBR fracture assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two post-yield fracture mechanics methods, which have been developed into fully detailed failure assessment procedures for ferritic structures, have been reviewed from the point of view of the manner in which as-welded residual stress effects are incorporated, and comparisons then made with finite element and theoretical models of centre-cracked plates containing residual/thermal stresses in the form of crack-driving force curves. Applying the procedures to austenitic structures, comparisons are made in terms of failure assessment curves and it is recommended that the preferred method for the prediction of critical crack sizes in LMFBR austenitic structures containing as-welded residual stresses is the CEGB-R6 procedure based on a flow stress defined at 3% strain in the parent plate. When the prediction of failure loads in such structures is required, it is suggested that the CEGB-R6 procedure be used with residual/thermal stresses factored to give a maximum total stress of flow stress magnitude

  9. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  10. Air barrier details: How effective are they

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A project was initiated to measure the air leakage through three typical details in wood frame walls: the header joist, electric outlets, and window openings. Three construction methods were tested: the poly approach, where a sealed internal polyethylene sheet and caulking provide the air barrier; an external air barrier approach using a continuous vapor permeable membrane sandwiched between two layers of external wall sheathing; and the airtight drywall approach (ADA), where the interior gypsum board finish along with framing and gaskets are the air barrier. Twelve sample panels using each of the three details were built using each of the construction approaches. A traditional wood-frame wall construction detail, with no effort made to create a continuous air barrier, was also built and tested for comparison. The samples were put in a test chamber so that air pressures could create infiltration or exfiltration through the panel under loads similar to those due to wind action. Measurements were made at several stages during construction of each sample to see the effect of different components on the air leakage. Overall, all but the traditional samples and the ADA electrical outlet panel exceeded the current tightness standards for glass and aluminum curtain walls. All three approaches could meet the airtightness standards of the R-2000 program. The total air leakage calculated for each approach is under 20% of that in traditional construction. Of the details tested, window detailing offers the greatest potential for increasing overall airtightness compared to traditional methods. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  12. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  13. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  14. Fatigue-Prone Details in Steel Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Heshmati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of a comprehensive investigation including more than 100 fatigue damage cases, reported for steel and composite bridges. The damage cases are categorized according to types of detail. The mechanisms behind fatigue damage in each category are identified and studied. It was found that more than 90% of all reported damage cases are of deformation-induced type and generated by some kind of unintentional or otherwise overlooked interaction between different load-carrying members or systems in the bridge. Poor detailing, with unstiffened gaps and abrupt changes in stiffness at the connections between different members were also found to contribute to fatigue cracking in many details.

  15. Contribution to a Theory of Detailed Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    It has been recognised, that literature actually do not propose a theory of detailed design. In this paper a theory contribution is proposed, linking part design to organ design and allowing a type of functional reasoning. The proposed theory satisfies our need for explaining the nature of a part...... structure, for support of synthesis of part structure, i.e. detailed design, and our need for digital modelling of part structures.The aim of this paper is to contribute to a design theory valid for detailed design. The proposal is based upon the theory's ability to explain the nature of machine parts...... and assemblies, to support the synthesis of parts and to allow the modelling, especially digital modelling of a part structure. The contribution is based upon Theory of Technical Systems, Hubka, and the Domain Theory, Andreasen. This paper is based on a paper presented at ICED 99, Mortensen, but focus...

  16. Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Rau, Uwe [IEF5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The limiting efficiency of photovoltaic devices follows from the detailed balance of absorption and emission of a diode according to the Shockley-Queisser theory. However, the principle of detailed balance has more implications for the understanding of photovoltaic devices than only defining the efficiency limit. We show how reciprocity relations between carrier collection and dark carrier injection, between electroluminescence emission and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and between open circuit voltage and light emitting diode quantum efficiency all follow from the principle of detailed balance. We also discuss the validity range of the Shockley-Queisser limit and the reciprocity relations. Discussing the validity of the reciprocity relations helps to deepen the understanding of photovoltaic devices and allows us to identify interrelationships between the superposition principle, the diode ideality and the reciprocity relations. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Memory for details with self-referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbun, Sarah J; Shih, Joanne Y; Gutchess, Angela H

    2011-11-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or whether they also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgements in reference to the self, a close other (one's mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). The results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can also disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details.

  18. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  19. Severn Barrage project. Detailed report - V. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the present programme of work, the effects which a tidal power barrage would have on the region, during both construction and operation, had not been studied in detail. This volume of the Detailed Report therefore represents a significant extension of work into these aspects of the Severn Barrage Project. In the Regional Study, a number of benefits have been identified, some of which may represent net benefits nationally. The economic assessment of both regional and national benefits and costs is presented. The second part of this volume reports on the work done on the Legal Background for the Project. (author).

  20. Detail in architecture: Between arts & crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulencin, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students' bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its economic cost, an

  1. The Study of Residual Voltage of Induction Motor and the Influence of Various Parameters on the Residual Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Zhao, Chen; Tan, Weipu

    2017-05-01

    The majority important load of industrial area is mainly composed of induction motor, it is more common that induction motor becomes sluggishness and even tripping due to the lose of power supply or other malfunction in the practical work. In this paper, space vector method is used to establish a reduced order model of induction motor, and then study the changes of motor electromagnetic after losing electricity. Based on motion equations of the rotor and magnetic flux conservation principle, it uses mathematical methods to deduce the expression of rotor current, rotor flux, the stator flux and the residual voltage of stator side. In addition, relying on thermal power plants, it uses the actual data of power plants, takes DIgsilent software to simulate the residual voltage of motor after losing electricity. analyses the influence on the residual voltage with the changes of the moment of inertia, load ratio, initial size of slip and the load characteristic of induction motor. By analysis of these, it has a more detailed understanding about the changes of residual voltage in practical application, in additional, it is more beneficial to put into standby power supply safely and effectively, moreover, reduce the influence of the input process to the whole system.

  2. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  3. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  4. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  5. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo [College of Medicine, Asan Meidcal Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord.

  6. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo

    1991-01-01

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord

  7. Discharge of residual debt: Do private and institutional lenders differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchkamp, Oliver; Prömpers, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the help of lab experiments we study the impact of discharging insolvent debtors of their residual debt. We investigate the impact of different participation rules and the impact of different types of lenders. We find that higher participation rates encourage risk taking behaviour of borrowers. Higher participation rates also reduce the amount of moonlighting. Most importantly, institutional lenders can suffer more from moonlighting than private lenders.

  8. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.; Smietana, E.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Program, a new manual has been developed, entitled UCRL-CR-106554, open-quotes Structural Concepts and Details for Seismic Design.close quotes This manual describes and illustrates good practice for seismic-resistant design

  9. 16 CFR 1750.5 - Detailed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detailed requirements. 1750.5 Section 1750.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION REFRIGERATOR SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR... directed perpendicularly to the plane of the door and applied anywhere along the latch edge of the inside...

  10. New details emerge from the Einstein files

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, D

    2002-01-01

    For many years the FBI spied on Einstein. New details of this surveilance are emerging in "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist," by Fred Jerome, who sued the government with the help of the Public Citizen Litigation Group to obtain a less censored version of the file (1 page).

  11. Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.

  12. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  13. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  14. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  15. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  16. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  17. Contributo para a melhoria de solos marginais destinados a pastagens pela aplicação de lama residual urbana, sem riscos ambientais Contribution to the improvement of degraded soils under pastures through sewage sludge application, without environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    ções de biomassa, por melhoria do teor de fósforo “assimilável” no solo, a LRU não provocou poluição do solo, um ano após a sua aplicação, quanto aos compostos orgânicos pesquisados, nem aumentou a flora microbiana patogénica, nos dois ciclos culturais. Contudo, a maior dose de LRU aumentou a concentração de Cu extraível por água régia no solo (0-10 cm para níveis superiores ao máximo legislado em Portugal (100 mg kg-1 e reduziu apreciavelmente a população de rizóbio, no 1º ciclo cultural e a proporção de leguminosas, no 2º ciclo. Os teores foliares de Cu foram muito inferiores ao nível máximo tolerável para a dieta de pequenos ruminantes (25 mg kg-1, o que sugere, nitidamente, que da aplicação da LRU não deverão ocorrer efeitos nocivos para a nutrição animal. Face aos efeitos indesejáveis do nível mais elevado de LRU, a dose L1 (12 t/ha seria a recomendável.Sewage sludge (SS application to soils reserved for pastures, still scarcely used in the country, often contributes to improve organic matter (O.M. and some plant nutrient contents and to reduce the erosion risk, by increasing the soil vegetation cover. However, the occasional occurrence in SS of high levels of heavy metals, organic pollutant compounds, and pathogenic organisms restrict the SS rate to apply and makes indispensable their control in the soils to which they were applied. Also, the high nitrogen concentration often present in SS can inhibit the symbiotic rhizobium activity, with sequent damage in the leguminous species survival in grassland. In this work, dry matter yield, floristic composition, and copper (Cu concentration in the plant biomass were evaluated, in two successive years of a field experiment with a sown pasture mixture, established in a poor Haplic Luvisol in the Mértola region. A biologically treated SS from Évora, rich in Cu, was applied. The evolution in the topsoil of the O.M., some plant nutrients, and aqua regia extractable Cu concentrations

  18. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempah, K.C.

    2009-02-01

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  19. Dissipation and Residue Level of Thifluzamide in Rice Field Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient modified QuEChERS method combined with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-MS/MS was established and evaluated for the residue analysis of thifluzamide in rice grain, husk, straw, seedling, paddy water, and soil. Thifluzamide residues were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up with primary secondary amine (PSA, and then determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The fortified recoveries were 76%–106% with RSDs of 3%–13%. The results of the supervised field trials at two experiment sites showed that thifluzamide dissipated rapidly in paddy fields, and the half-lives in paddy water, soil, and rice seedling were 0.3–0.6 d, 1.8–3.6 d, and 4.3–13.9 d, respectively. At harvest time, when the preharvest interval (PHI was set as 21 d, the final residues of thifluzamide in rice grains were below the maximum residue limit (MRL of 0.5 mg/kg set by Japan, whereas the final residues in rice husk and straw were still high (the highest value reached 1.36 mg/kg in rice husk and 0.83 mg/kg in rice straw. The results indicated that the highest residue in rice grain was 0.23 mg/kg when PHI was 21 d, and only 6.9–11.0% of acute risk quotient of thifluzamide was occupied by the dietary daily intake in Chinese population consuming rice.

  20. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.