WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual risk program

  1. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  2. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  3. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  4. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: GAS DISTRIBUTION STAGE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Gas Distribution Stage 1 souce category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Gas Distribution Stage 1 source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  5. Risk-Based Approach to Developing National Residue Sampling Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee of the Food Safety Authority of Ireland

    2014-01-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and medicated feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the National Residue Control Plan. In the context of food sampling and residue testing for the National Residue Control Plan, there is firstly, the risk to human health from residues of chemical substances in food and secondly, the issue of non-compliance with regulations relating ...

  6. Residue Management: A Computer Program About Conservation Tillage Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Steve J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, Residue Management, which is designed to supplement discussions on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the impact of tillage on soil properties for introductory soil courses. The program advances the user through three stages of residue management. Information on obtaining the program is also included. (ML)

  7. Risk and maximum residue limits: a study of hops production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper examines how maximum residue limits (MRLs) affect the optimal choice by growers of chemical applications to control pests and diseases. In practice, growers who export balance both yield risk and pesticide residue uncertainty when making chemical application decisions. To address these is...

  8. Public Risk Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeck, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The Public Entry Risk Assessment (PERA) program addresses risk to the public from shuttle or other spacecraft re-entry trajectories. Managing public risk to acceptable levels is a major component of safe spacecraft operation. PERA is given scenario inputs of vehicle trajectory, probability of failure along that trajectory, the resulting debris characteristics, and field size and distribution, and returns risk metrics that quantify the individual and collective risk posed by that scenario. Due to the large volume of data required to perform such a risk analysis, PERA was designed to streamline the analysis process by using innovative mathematical analysis of the risk assessment equations. Real-time analysis in the event of a shuttle contingency operation, such as damage to the Orbiter, is possible because PERA allows for a change to the probability of failure models, therefore providing a much quicker estimation of public risk. PERA also provides the ability to generate movie files showing how the entry risk changes as the entry develops. PERA was designed to streamline the computation of the enormous amounts of data needed for this type of risk assessment by using an average distribution of debris on the ground, rather than pinpointing the impact point of every piece of debris. This has reduced the amount of computational time significantly without reducing the accuracy of the results. PERA was written in MATLAB; a compiled version can run from a DOS or UNIX prompt.

  9. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  10. Residual heat removal pump retrofit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudiak, J.G.; McKenna, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Residual Heat Removal (RHR) pumps installed in pressurized water reactor power plants are used to provide the removal of decay heat from the reactor and to provide low head safety injection in the event of loss of coolant in the reactor coolant system. These pumps are subjected to rather severe temperature and pressure transients, therefore, the majority of pumps installed in the RHR service are vertical pumps with a single stage impeller. RHR pumps have traditionally been a significant maintenance item for many utilities. The close-coupled pump design requires disassembly of the casing cover from the lower pump casing while performing these routine maintenance tasks. The casing separation requires the loosening of numerous highly torqued studs. Once the casing is separated, the impeller is dropped from the motor shaft to allow removal of the mechanical seal and casing cover from the motor shaft. Galling of the impeller to the motor shaft is not uncommon. The RHR pump internals are radioactive and the separation of the pump casing to perform routine maintenance exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. The handling of the impeller also exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. This paper introduces a design modification developed to convert the close-coupled RHR pumps to a coupled configuration

  11. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

  12. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  13. CING: an integrated residue-based structure validation program suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doreleijers, Jurgen F.; Sousa da Silva, Alan W.; Krieger, Elmar; Nabuurs, Sander B.; Spronk, Christian A. E. M.; Stevens, Tim J.; Vranken, Wim F.; Vriend, Gert; Vuister, Geerten W.

    2012-01-01

    We present a suite of programs, named CING for Common Interface for NMR Structure Generation that provides for a residue-based, integrated validation of the structural NMR ensemble in conjunction with the experimental restraints and other input data. External validation programs and new internal validation routines compare the NMR-derived models with empirical data, measured chemical shifts, distance- and dihedral restraints and the results are visualized in a dynamic Web 2.0 report. A red–orange–green score is used for residues and restraints to direct the user to those critiques that warrant further investigation. Overall green scores below ∼20 % accompanied by red scores over ∼50 % are strongly indicative of poorly modelled structures. The publically accessible, secure iCing webserver (https://nmr.le.ac.ukhttps://nmr.le.ac.uk) allows individual users to upload the NMR data and run a CING validation analysis.

  14. [Joint application of mathematic models in assessing the residual risk of hepatitis C virus transmitted through blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Jia, Yao; Xie, Yun-zheng; Li, Xiu-mei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wu, Xiao-fei

    2011-09-01

    The practicable and effective methods for residual risk assessment on transfusion-transmitted disease was to establish the mathematic models. Based on the characteristics of the repeat donors which donated their blood on a regular base, a model of sero-conversion during the interval of donations was established to assess the incidence of the repeat donors. Based on the characteristics of the prevalence in the population, a model of 'prevalence increased with the age of the donor' was established to assess the incidence of those first-time donors. And based on the impact of the windows period through blood screening program, a model of residual risk associated with the incidence and the length of the windows period was established to assess the residual risk of blood transfusion. In this paper, above said 3 kinds of mathematic models were jointly applied to assess the residual risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) which was transmitted through blood transfusion in Shanghai, based on data from the routine blood collection and screening program. All the anti-HCV unqualified blood donations were confirmed before assessment. Results showed that the residual risk of HCV transmitted through blood transfusion during Jan. 1(st), 2007 to Dec. 31(st), 2008 in Shanghai was 1:101 000. Data showed that the results of residual risk assessment with mathematic models was valuable. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in Shanghai was at a safe level, according to the results in this paper.

  15. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  16. Moxidectin residues in tissues of lambs submitted to three endoparasite control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Angela Machado; Gilaverte, Susana; Bianchi, Michele Dell; da Silva, Claudio José Araujo; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Monteiro, Alda Lucia Gomes

    2017-10-01

    The indiscriminate and continuous use of anthelmintic drugs has promoted the selection of resistant parasites population, the presence of drug residues in food products, and heavy environmental contamination. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antiparasitic drug residues in 42-days old lamb serum and tissues, submitted to three endoparasite control programs: preventive treatment (PT) using moxidectin (MOX) at every 28days; selective treatment (FEC) using MOX when fecal egg count was greater than or equal to 700; and selective treatment (FMC), using MOX when FAMACHA/FMC score was 3 and above. For this purpose, MOX residues were quantified in serum, muscle, fat, liver and kidney. Lambs were slaughtered when reaching 30kg of body weight, and after a 28-day MOX withdrawal period. Before slaughter, blood was collected to determine the concentration of MOX in serum. Tissues and organ samples were collected at slaughter. The quantitation of MOX residues was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the 756 tissue samples analyzed, only one sample of fat from the PT group showed residue levels (586.3μg/kg) above the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 500μg/kg. No treated lambs presented traces of MOX residues in fat and liver, suggesting possible environmental contamination. In conclusion, all weaned lambs, produced in continuous grazing and subjected to gastrointestinal parasite control programs via selective (FEC and FMC) or preventive (PT) treatment, displayed a low risk (residues above the MRL in muscle, fat, kidney, and liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  18. Communicating Risk to Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Program Managers (PM) can protect program resources and improve chances of success by anticipating, understanding and managing risks. Understanding the range of potential risks helps one to avoid or manage the risks. A PM must choose which risks to accept to reduce fire fighting, must meet the expectations of stakeholders consistently, and avoid falling into costly "black holes" that may open. A good risk management process provides the PM more confidence to seize opportunities save money, meet schedule, even improve relationships with people important to the program. Evidence of managing risk and sound internal controls can mean better support from superiors for the program by building a trust and reputation from being on top of issues. Risk managers have an obligation to provide the PM with the best information possible to allow the benefits to be realized (Small Business Consortium, 2004). The Institute for Chartered Accountants in England and Wales sees very important benefits for companies in providing better information about what they do to assess and manage key business risks. Such information will: a) provide practical forward-looking information; b) reduce the cost of capital; c) encourage better risk management; and d) improve accountability for stewardship, investor protection and the usefulness of financial reporting. We are particularly convinced that enhanced risk reporting will help listed companies obtain capital at the lowest possible cost (The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England &Wales, June 2002). Risk managers can take a significant role in quantifying the success of their department and communicating those figures to executive (program) management levels while pushing for a broader risk management role. Overall, risk managers must show that risk management work matters in the most crucial place-the bottom line- as they prove risk management can be a profit center (Sullivan, 2004).

  19. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  20. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of {sup 230}Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of {sup 226}Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since {sup 230}Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with {sup 226}Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed {sup 226}Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of {sup 232}Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for {sup 228}Ra, and since {sup 228}Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for {sup 228}Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation.

  1. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of 230 Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of 226 Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since 230 Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the 226 Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with 226 Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed 226 Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of 232 Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for 228 Ra, and since 228 Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for 228 Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation

  2. 75 FR 58468 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Terrorism Risk...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding... or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  3. Radiation risk education program - local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.; Archer, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    This article points out the lack of knowledge by the general public and medical profession concerning the true risks of radiation exposure. The author describes an educational program which can be implemented at the local level to overcome this deficiency. The public must understand the enormous extent of benefit derived from radiation applications in our society

  4. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities

  5. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Yew

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities. (author)

  6. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Inputs to the Pulp and Paper Industry October 2011 Residual Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has to conduct risk assessments on each source category subject to MACT standards and determine if additional standards are needed to reduce residual risks.

  8. The circumstances of severe accident measure implementation and 'the residual risk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Mitsumasa

    2011-01-01

    Time-series sequence and direct and root causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were up to validation of Hatamura's investigation committee on the accident but it would be clear that measure against tsunamis was not good enough. Based on this unprecedented accident, revision of safety design review guide and regulatory requirements of severe accident (SA) measure were under consideration while SA measure had been implemented as public self-safety management by administrative guidance. History of SA measure preparation including the introduction of 'the residual risk' for expansion and upgrade of SA measure in new review guide of seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities was looked back to learn lessons for better safety operation of nuclear facilities. Nuclear operators established accident management (AM) incorporating appropriate SA measure extracted from probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in 2002, which had been expanded and reinforced by periodic safety review (PSR). At the revision of regulation in 2003, PSA became requirement of operational safety program but not mandatory as before and lost the chance of regulatory review at the PSR. Extent of SA measure had not been expanded based on latest knowledge of SA research and PSA technology. Evaluation of 'the residual risk' obtained by seismic PSA could not be reported at seismic back check so far because seismic evaluation against ground motion was obliged to be preferred. Safety regulation system based on safety culture of both nuclear operators and regulators should be established for implementation of advanced AM for a certainty. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  10. Management of nonregulatory driven program risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.R.; Hutterman, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation of program risk is a significant part of any environmental restoration (ER) activity. While significant efforts have been made to assess risk to human health and the environment, program risks outside of CERCLA are handled on a fire drill basis. This paper explains a process that looks at program risk, directs mitigation efforts in the most useful path, and focuses corrective actions to obtain the most benefits from the resources used

  11. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  13. Can pleiotropic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) impact residual cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, John R; True, Wayne S; Le, Viet; Mason, R Preston

    2017-11-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk persists even in statin-treated patients with optimized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Other pathways beyond cholesterol contribute to CV risk and the key to reducing residual risk may be addressing non-cholesterol risk factors through pleiotropic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature relating to the potential role of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in reducing residual CV risk. The literature shows that EPA can robustly lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels without raising LDL-C levels and documents EPA to have a broad range of beneficial effects on the atherosclerotic pathway, including those on lipids, lipoproteins, inflammation, oxidation, phospholipid membranes, and the atherosclerotic plaque itself. Clinical imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that EPA decreases plaque vulnerability and prevents plaque progression. The evidence therefore points to a potential role for EPA to reduce residual CV risk. A large randomized study of statin-treated Japanese patients demonstrated that EPA ethyl ester reduced major coronary events by 19% (P = 0.011). However, while there has been significant benefit demonstrated in this and another Japanese CV outcomes study, the question as to whether EPA can play a role in reducing residual CV risk remains to be addressed in broader populations. The large, global, ongoing, randomized, placebo-controlled REDUCE-IT study of high-risk statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia is currently underway to investigate the potential of icosapent ethyl (high-purity prescription EPA ethyl ester) as an add-on therapy to reduce residual CV risk.

  14. Pesticide residues in raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) and dietary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Jankowska, M; Rutkowska, E; Hrynko, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of 140 pesticides in raspberries from north-eastern Poland (2005-2010). Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD) was used. Among the 128 samples, 66 (51.6%) were found to detect residues: 14.1% contained one pesticide and around 38% multiple pesticide residues. The most frequently detected were pyrimethanil residues (36.0%). Twenty-seven (21.1%) raspberry samples exceeded the maximum residue limits. The estimated daily intakes ranged from 0.003% to 3.183% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for adults 0.008% and 9.7% for toddlers, respectively. The most critical case is procymidone, the acute risk was 180.9% of acute reference dose (ARfD) for toddlers and for adults (83% of ARfD) which is high.

  15. Travel-Associated Rabies in Pets and Residual Rabies Risk, Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Cliquet, Florence; Gautret, Philippe; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Le Pen, Claude; Bourhy, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, countries in western Europe were declared free of rabies in nonflying mammals. Surveillance data for 2001-2013 indicate that risk for residual rabies is not 0 because of pet importation from countries with enzootic rabies. However, the risk is so low (7.52 × 10(-10)) that it probably can be considered negligible.

  16. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential demal exposure of florists to fungicide residues on flowers and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Khaoula; Joly, L.; Vleminckx, C.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Flowers are susceptible to many pests and diseases. Therefore, they can be sprayed several times during their growth considering that no MRL are set for flow-ers. High levels of pesticide residues potentially expose daily the florists who han-dle cut flowers and possibly could endanger their health. A study was carried out to evaluate the risk for florists exposed to fungicide residues during normal profes-sional tasks. Cotton gloves were distributed to 20 florists (two pairs to each florist)...

  18. Food toxicology. Residues and contaminants: Risks and consumer protection; Lebensmitteltoxikologie. Rueckstaende und Kontaminanten: Risiken und Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, H. [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, ZA Lebensmitteltoxikologie (Germany); Steinberg, P. [Potsdam Univ., Inst. fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft (Germany); Kietzmann, M. (eds.) [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie/Pharmazie (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In a detailed introduction, the basic methods of risk assessment for potentially toxic food constituents are presented as well as the analytical methods applied for measuring even very small concentrations of contaminants. The main classes of substances relevant in foods ar represented, i.e. animal drugs, fungicides and herbicides, natural toxins, contaminants, prions from BSE-infested animals and residues of 'new' proteins and 'new' DNA from genetically modified foods. New legislation in Germany and Europe is presented including the National Residue Monitoring Plant which is to enable annual monitoring of residue concentrations in foods derived from animals. (orig.)

  19. Residual Risk of Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus through Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood transfusion necessitates screening of transmissible infectious pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) to curtail post transfusion risk of infection. The study re-examined this approach by evaluating the efficiency of solely testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) marker for blood transfusion, the efficacy of the ...

  20. Transfusion complications:Estimate of the residual risk of transfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pan- demic. However, there is a lack of multicenter data on the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV from blood centers in sub-Saharan Africa. Study design and methods: The incidence of HIV infections in the blood donations ...

  1. HIV prevalence, incidence and residual risk of transmission by transfusions at REDS-II blood centers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Ester C; Gonçalez, Thelma T; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Sarr, Moussa; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Sampaio, Divaldo A; Salles, Nanci A; Wright, David J.; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background In Brazil nationally representative donor data are limited on HIV prevalence, incidence and residual transfusion risk. The objective of this study was to analyze HIV data obtained over 24 months by the REDS-II program in Brazil. Methods Donations reactive to 3rd and 4th generation immunoassays (IAs) were further confirmed by a less-sensitive (LS) IA algorithm and Western blot (WB). Incidence was calculated for first-time (FT) donors using the LS-EIA results and for repeat donors with a model developed to include all donors with a previous negative donation. Residual risk was projected by multiplying composite FT/repeat donor incidence rates by HIV marker-negative infectious window periods. Results HIV prevalence among FT donors was 92.2/105 donations. FT, repeat donor and composite incidence were 38.5 (95%CI: 25.6–51.4), 22.5 (95%CI: 17.6–28.0) and 27.5 (95%CI: 22.0–33.0) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Male and community donors had higher prevalence and incidence rates than female and replacement donors. Estimated residual risk of HIV transfusion-transmission was 11.3 per 106 donations (95%CI: 8.4–14.2), which could be reduced to 4.2 per 106 donations (95%CI: 3.2–5.2) by use of individual donation nucleic acid testing (NAT). Conclusion Incidence and residual transfusion risk of HIV infection are relatively high in Brazil. Implementation of NAT testing will not be sufficient to decrease transmission rates to levels seen in the US or Europe, therefore other measures focused on decreasing donations by at-risk individuals are also necessary. PMID:21981109

  2. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-01-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  3. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  4. Risk Leveling in Program Environments—A Structured Approach for Program Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Rasheed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Programs are demarcated as administrative structures established to realize planned organizational strategies through multi-project activities. Programs occupy a distinct locus in organizational hierarchy, so therefore necessitate specialized management approaches. Risks in programs tend to widen the gap between the organizational plans and the actual program realizations. However, effective risk management can minimize these gaps. This research frames a structured approach for program risk management, called Risk Leveling in Program Environments (RLPE, which suggests (a a deliberate shift of risks to the right organizational level where they can be addressed most effectively; and (b a unique procedure for risk management, which attempts to stabilize the risky contexts in programs. RLPE tracks the standard risk management process, preserves distinct program locus, and employs certain qualitative and quantitative measures to achieve risk leveled environments for program success. It has been demonstrated how certain tools and concepts, such as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP, standard deviation, etc. can be employed for risk oriented decision making in programs. RLPE is an instrumental approach, which can help the policy makers in controlling the risky contexts thereby providing sustainable growth for development programs. The offered approach can be particularly advantageous for risk management in large-scale (development programs.

  5. Dithiocarbamates residues in Brazilian food and the potential risk for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E D; Miranda, M C C; Conceição, M H; de Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a non-systemic group of pesticides widely used to protect crops from fungal diseases. The current methodology used by monitoring laboratories to determine dithiocarbamates in food involves the analysis of CS(2) generated after hydrolysis of the compound present in the sample. This method does not identify the origin of the CS(2) detected, which may or may not be related to the presence of pesticides leading to a potential overestimation of the dietary dithiocarbamate intake. In this paper, 520 food samples (papaya, banana, apple, strawberry, orange, potato, tomato, rice and dry beans) collected in the local market of the Federal District, Brazil, were analyzed for dithiocarbamate content. Detectable levels (> or =10.10 mg/kg CS(2)) were found in 60.8% of the samples, with the highest levels (up to 3.8 mg/kg) found in strawberry, papaya and banana. No residues were found in rice (polished) and only one dry bean sample had detectable levels of the fungicides. Detectable residues were found in the pulp of banana, papaya (including the seeds) and orange (50-62% of the analyzed samples). An exposure assessment, based on dithiocarbamate levels detected in the food crops analyzed in this study, confirms that the intake of dithiocarbamates through food consumption in the country does not represent a health risk to consumers, i.e., the estimated daily intake is less than the acceptable daily intake. Furthermore, the implementation of more selective methodologies to individually analyze these compounds in food monitoring programs in Brazil is not necessary.

  6. [Health risks of residual fumigants in international transport containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Budnik, L T; Preisser, A M

    2010-03-01

    The increasing transport of goods worldwide is mainly carried in standard containers. These containers are frequently fumigated in order to protect freight from pests and to follow regulations of importing countries. Fumigants as well as toxic industrial chemicals can adsorb to goods and be emitted from them over various periods of time. This review is based on a literature search, analyses of air samples from a randomized selection of import containers at the port of Hamburg and clinical investigations of intoxicated subject. These data indicate that about 70% of imported containers exceed national or international threshold levels, about one sixth exceeding occupational exposure limits of fumigants and/or toxic industrial chemical, 0.5% had concentrations immediately dangerous to life or health. Intoxications by inhalation mainly occur in workers in the logistics area. No information exists on possible fumigation in small and medium-sized companies where the container units are unloaded. Neurological and respiratory ailments dominated in patients from our outpatient clinic and those reported in the literature: symptoms were often misdiagnosed. Our results confirm findings of other investigators that subjects who unload containers or have otherwise intensive contact with imported goods are frequently exposed to toxic or very toxic volatile chemicals. It can be assumed that there are many unrecognized cases and also health risks to the ultimate consumers of transported goods. History taking targeted on potential exposure is of great diagnostic importance in elucidating typical temporal relationship between exposure by inhalation and symptoms such as headache, skin irritation, cough, dyspnea, diarrhoea and neurological deficits. Detailed investigations by medical specialists is necessary to confirm suspected diagnoses. This should be combined with immediate special analyses of air samples and laboratory tests (biological monitoring). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  7. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios.

  8. Desertification risk assessment and management program

    OpenAIRE

    M. Akbari; M. Ownegh; H.R. Asgari; A. Sadoddin; H. Khosravi

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment provides the possibility of planning and management to prevent and reduce the risk of desertification. The present study is aimed to assess the hazard and risk of desertification and to develop management programs in the semi-arid western regions of Golestan Province in Iran. Desertification rate was obtained using the Iranian model of desertification potential assessment. Since the rating system was considered for the indicators, data analyses were carried out according to th...

  9. Pesticide residues in water, sediment and fish from Tono Reservoir and their health risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoto, Osei; Azuure, Augustine Asore; Adotey, K D

    2016-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues in fish, sediments and water and their health risk associated with the consumption of the fish from the Tono Reservoir, Ghana were evaluated. The analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues using ultrasound sonication and soxhlet extraction and their subsequent quantification using GC equipped with electron capture detector and pulse flame photometric detector after clean-up on activated silica gel/anhydrous sodium sulphate. A total of 29 pesticides comprising 16 OCs and 13 OPs were analyzed, out of which aldrin, p , p '-DDE and p , p '-DDD were detected in fish and sediment samples. The results showed that all the residues in water had their concentrations below the detection limit. Mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in fish ranged from 0.017 to 0.17, 0.043 to 0.30, 0.027 to 0.243 and 0.097 to 0.263 µg/g in Sarotherodon galilaeus , Clarias anguillaris , Schilbe intermedius and Marcusenius senegalensis respectively. Mean concentrations of organophosphates pesticides ranged from 0.080 to 0.090, 0.080 to 0.087 and 0.050 to 0.063 µg/g in C. anguillaris , S. intermedius and M. senegalensis respectively. The level of chlorpyrifos in S. galilaeus was 0.160 µg/g. Mean concentrations of OCP residue in sediments ranged from 0.047 to 0.090 µg/g. Aldrin recorded the highest level while p , p '-DDD recorded the lowest level. The mean concentrations for all the detected residues were below the WHO/FAO maximum residue limits. Health risk estimation revealed that aldrin in M. senegalensis had great potential for systemic toxicity to consumers.

  10. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite...

  11. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Phoungthong, Khamphe; Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-08-01

    Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO3 and CaSiO3 began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca3(PO4)2 leached at pHleaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO3>Ca3(PO4)2>CaCO3. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pHleaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the theoretical basis for the risk assessment pertaining to LCS clogging in landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetal programming and eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Candace; Pearce, Brad; Barrera, Ingrid; Mummert, Amanda

    2017-09-07

    Fetal programming describes the process by which environmental stimuli impact fetal development to influence disease development later in life. Our analysis summarizes evidence for the role of fetal programming in eating disorder etiology through review of studies demonstrating specific obstetric complications and later eating risk of anorexia or bulimia. Using Pubmed, we found thirteen studies investigating obstetric factors and eating disorder risk published between 1999 and 2016. We then discuss modifiable maternal risk factors, including nutrition and stress, that influence anorexia or bulimia risk of their offspring. Translation of these findings applies to preventative strategies by health organizations and physicians to provide optimal health for mothers and their children to prevent development of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics, Residue and Risk Assessment of Nitenpyram in Rice and Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Xue-xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Residues dynamics, final residual levels and dietary intake risk of nitenpyram in rice and paddy field were investigated in three dif-ferent regions of China(Shandong, Henan and Anhui. A method was illustrated to detect nitenpyram residues in paddy, plant, brown rice, paddy water and soil. The residues in paddy and rice were extracted with methanol+phosphate buffer(0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0(60+40, adjust pH to 2.5, then cleaned up with solid phase extraction column and 0.22 μm filter membrane, and then analyzed by HPLC with an ul-traviolet detector at 260 nm. When spiked 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy plant and brown rice were 78.4%~94.7% and 84.0%~94.2%, respectively. The residues in paddy water and soil were extracted with phosphate buffer (0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0, when spiked 0.01, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy water and soil were 84.6%~98.0% and 93.7%~97.1%, respective-ly, which indicated this method match the requirement of the detection. Two years results showed that nitenpyram belongs to easily degraded pesticides, because all half-lives were below 1.4 d in rice plant, as well as below 4.2 d in paddy water. Final residual levels of nitenpyram in rice were all below 0.05 mg·kg-1,which was far below the Japanese maximum residue limit(0.5 mg·kg-1. The risk quotients (RQs were low for different populations in China, which indicated its low risk in rice. Therefore, the rice with nitenpyram applied, according to the recom-mend method, 45 g·hm-2 application once, with 21 days collection interval, was safe.

  14. Assessment of direct exposure and leaching risk from PAHs in roadway and stormwater system residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azah, Edmund; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

    2017-12-31

    Wastes generated from municipal cleaning activities such as street sweeping, ditch cleaning, stormwater pond maintenance, and catch basin sediment removal require appropriate management. Beneficial use of these types of waste is a good alternative to landfilling; however, there are genuine concerns about possible soil and groundwater contamination by pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study assessed the potential risks associated with beneficial use of roadway and stormwater system residuals collected from 14 cities across the state of Florida, USA. Total and leachable concentrations of 16 priority PAHs in the residual samples were measured and compared to appropriate risk-based regulatory threshold values. The bioaccessibility of the PAHs found in the waste streams was also determined using in vitro gastrointestinal leaching test. Of the PAHs studied, benzo [a] pyrene measured concentrations were above appropriate risk-based regulatory threshold values for soil and groundwater, while all other detected PAHs measured concentrations were below. Benzo [a] pyrene concentration (mg/kg) in street sweepings was 1.2 times higher than residential threshold values and 6 times lower than industrial threshold values. The in vitro study found PAH bioaccessibility to range from 1.7% to 49% in six roadway and stormwater system residual samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Residue analysis and risk assessment of tebuconazole in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Li, Yiqiang; Wang, Xiuguo; Xu, Jinli; Zheng, Xiao; Sui, Chengcheng

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a sensitive and reliable analytical method, based on a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe procedure, was established for determination of tebuconazole in jujube. After extraction with acetonitrile, the samples were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. At fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 2.0 mg kg -1 , the average recoveries of tebuconazole in jujube were in the range 97.6-101.9%, with relative standard deviations of 1.5-3.5%. The dissipation and residual levels of tebuconazole in jujube under field conditions were investigated. Tebuconazole dissipated relatively slowly in jujube, with a half-life of 33.0 days. The terminal residue experiments of tebuconazole in jujube were conducted in four locations in China and the risk was evaluated using risk quotients (RQ). RQ values were found to be significantly lower than RQ = 1, indicating that the risk to human health of using the recommended doses of tebuconazole in jujube was not significant. This study could provide guidance for the safe and reasonable use of tebuconazole in jujube and serve as a reference for the establishment of limit of maximum residue in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Cumulative risk assessment for consumers of agricultural crops polluted with one chemical class pesticide residues (case of triazole fungicides)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval'chuk, N M; Omel'chuk, S T

    2011-01-01

    Different indices of cumulative risk assessment of combination of residues of pesticides which may simultaneously be present in raw agricultural crops, based on toxic evaluation of such combination have been presented. Risk for population health due to consumption of raw agricultural crops with triazole residues is acceptable on hazard index, point of departure index and cumulative risk index, exceeds allowable level on criterion "total margin of exposure".

  17. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Statin-Treated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirimarco, Gaia; Labreuche, Julien; Bruckert, Eric

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment with statins reduces the rate of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients, but residual risk persists. At least part of that risk may be attributable to atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≤40 mg/dL) and high......% of subjects in PERFORM and 9% in SPARCL had atherogenic dyslipidemia after ≥3 months on start statin therapy. After a follow-up of 2.3 years (PERFORM) and 4.9 years (SPARCL), a major cardiovascular event occurred in 1123 and 485 patients in the 2 trials, respectively. The risk of major cardiovascular events...... was higher in subjects with versus those without atherogenic dyslipidemia in both PERFORM (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.63) and SPARCL (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.85). The association was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95...

  18. Desertification risk assessment and management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akbari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment provides the possibility of planning and management to prevent and reduce the risk of desertification. The present study is aimed to assess the hazard and risk of desertification and to develop management programs in the semi-arid western regions of Golestan Province in Iran. Desertification rate was obtained using the Iranian model of desertification potential assessment. Since the rating system was considered for the indicators, data analyses were carried out according to the Mann-Whitney test. The risk of desertification was calculated based on hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability assessment maps. The intensity of desertification was estimated to be medium. Among the factors affecting desertification, agriculture by the weighted average of 3.22 had the highest effect, followed by soil, vegetation, water and wind erosion criteria by weighted averages of 2.45, 2.32, 2.15 and 1.6 respectively. Desertification risk assessment results also showed that about 78% of central and northern parts of the region, with the largest population and residential centers, surface and underground water resources, agriculture and horticulture, is confronted with a high to very high degree of risk. Management plans and control measures, based on risk values were presented in four activities (with two management priorities under critical and non-critical conditions. For the management program with the largest area. Control measures and strategies such as the establishment of halophytic and xerophytic plants, drainage networks, resilient facilities and infrastructure were proposed. Reducing the risk of desertification, could play a crucial role in the sustainable development of drylands and desert ecosystems.

  19. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a

  20. Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients: The Role of Fibrate Statin Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. The use of statins significantly reduces the rate of CVD events but many T2DM patients, especially those with mixed dyslipidaemia (MD, have residual CVD risk. The use of fibrates, which improve triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, is beneficial for the treatment of patients with MD. Evidence from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD Lipid study showed a possible beneficial effect on CVD events of the addition of fenofibrate (FF to statin treatment in patients with T2DM and atherogenic MD. Furthermore, FF has been associated with slowing of the progression of early diabetic retinopathy. The combination of statin with a fibrate may improve the residual CVD risk and microvascular complications of patients with T2DM. However, trials specifically designed to assess the effects of fibrate-statin combination on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2DM are missing.

  1. Drug residues in urban water: A database for ecotoxicological risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrieux, Doriane; Laurent, François; Budzinski, Hélène; Pedelucq, Julie; Vervier, Philippe; Gerino, Magali

    2017-12-31

    Human-use drug residues (DR) are only partially eliminated by waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), so that residual amounts can reach natural waters and cause environmental hazards. In order to properly manage these hazards in the aquatic environment, a database is made available that integrates the concentration ranges for DR, which cause adverse effects for aquatic organisms, and the temporal variations of the ecotoxicological risks. To implement this database for the ecotoxicological risk assessment (ERA database), the required information for each DR is the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), along with the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). The risk assessment is based on the ratio between the PNECs and the PECs. Adverse effect data or PNECs have been found in the publicly available literature for 45 substances. These ecotoxicity test data have been extracted from 125 different sources. This ERA database contains 1157 adverse effect data and 287 PNECs. The efficiency of this ERA database was tested with a data set coming from a simultaneous survey of WWTPs and the natural environment. In this data set, 26 DR were searched for in two WWTPs and in the river. On five sampling dates, concentrations measured in the river for 10 DR could pose environmental problems of which 7 were measured only downstream of WWTP outlets. From scientific literature and measurements, data implementation with unit homogenisation in a single database facilitates the actual ecotoxicological risk assessment, and may be useful for further risk coming from data arising from the future field survey. Moreover, the accumulation of a large ecotoxicity data set in a single database should not only improve knowledge of higher risk molecules but also supply an objective tool to help the rapid and efficient evaluation of the risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Residual risks of the 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology'' and ''ethics of responsibility''. (orig.)

  3. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Phoungthong, Khamphe; Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO 3 was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO 3 and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO 3 and CaSiO 3 began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 leached at pH < 12. CaSO 4 could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO 3 > Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 > CaCO 3 . The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO 3 and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the theoretical basis for the risk assessment pertaining to LCS clogging in landfills

  4. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Phoungthong, Khamphe [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui [Changzhou Domestic Waste Treatment Center, Changzhou 213000 (China); Shao, Li-Ming [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pin-Jing, E-mail: solidwaste@tongji.edu.cn [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO{sub 3} was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO{sub 3} and CaSiO{sub 3} began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leached at pH < 12. CaSO{sub 4} could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO{sub 3} > Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} > CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the

  5. 38 CFR 41.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance supplement. (d) Inherent risk of the Federal program. (1) The nature of a Federal program may... program risk. 41.525 Section 41.525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation of...

  6. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  7. Strategy utilized for assessing baseline risks to human health from K-65 and metal oxide residues stored at the Fernald Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Janke, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site in southwestern Ohio. The 425-hectare site consists of a former 55-hectare Production Area, an adjacent Waste Storage Area and various support facilities. From 1952 until 1989, the FEMP processed uranium into metallic {open_quotes}feed{close_quotes} materials for other DOE facilities in the nation`s defense program. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the FEMP site is currently listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). To facilitate an expeditious cleanup effort, environmental issues associated with site cleanup are being managed under five operable units. This paper summarizes the risk assessment strategy employed to determine baseline human health risks associated with K-65 and metal oxide residues currently stored in Operable Unit 4. The K-65 and metal oxide residues were generated during the 1950s as a result of the extraction of uranium from uranium-bearing ores and concentrates. These residues are currently stored within Operable Unit 4 in concrete silos. Silos I and 2 contain approximately 6,120 cubic meters [m{sup 3}] (8,005 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of K-65 residues, while silos 3 contains approximately 3890 m{sup 3} (5,080 yd{sup 3}) of cold metal oxides. These concrete silos are beyond their design life and require remedial action. The risk assessment conducted for Operable Unit 4 constitutes the first detailed human health risk assessment to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the CERCLA clean-up effort at the FEMP Site. This paper discusses the FEMP`s use of a Risk Information Quality Objective process in concert with the traditional risk assessment approach to determine baseline risk to human health and the environment posed by Operable Unit 4. A summary of the baseline risks to human health is also presented.

  8. Analysis and Risk Assessment of Seven Toxic Element Residues in Raw Bovine Milk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xue-Yin; Zheng, Nan; Zhou, Xue-Wei; Li, Song-Li; Wang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Wen-Ju

    2018-05-01

    The object of this study is to analyze the levels of seven toxic elements residues in raw bovine milk in China and assess the potential health risk of those residues. The 178 raw bovine milk samples were collected from eight main milk-producing provinces and from three types of milk stations in China, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and nickel (Ni) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Al, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cr, and As were detected in 47.8, 29.2, 28.1, 23.6, 12.4, and 9.0% of total milk samples, respectively, and Cd were not detected in all samples. The raw bovine milk samples with high levels of toxic elements were found in industrial areas, such as Heilongjiang and Shanxi. Nemerow pollution index analysis showed that the levels were lower in the samples from the processing plants than that from the large-scale farms and small farm cooperatives. The margin of exposure (MOE) values suggest that the levels of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Al, and Ni in the raw milk samples are not causing a health risk for Chinese consumers, including adults and children. Nevertheless, the risk of Pb for infant and young children was more serious than adult.

  9. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process

  10. Basic elements of a risk management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Varnado, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    The modern industrial manger faces the challenge of safely and efficiently operating increasingly complex, sophisticated, and expensive plants in an atmosphere of reduced resources and increased competition, and frequently with heightened political and public oversight. These political and public concerns have become especially significant where the Federal Government regulates and/or funds programs that have a significant potential for adverse public safety or environmental impacts. Under these circumstances, a major accident or environmental insult could translate into major programmatic delay, redirection, or even plant closing. After-the-fact (reactive) resolution of safety and/or environment problems is both costly and time-consuming process. Therefore, it is prudent for managers at all levels to initiate aggressive proactive efforts to identify and control the risks (hazards) associated with their programs. Unfortunately, risk is not a concept with a single, universally accepted definition. It is most often represented as the product of the probability of occurrence of undesired events and the resultant consequences of those events. The consequences of concern may include: loss of human health, reduction in life expectancy, or loss of life; material or financial losses; environmental damage; or even societal disturbances. This paper discusses risk management and systems safety interest in which has intensified over the post decade principally because of public perceptions of the risks associated with nuclear power and the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes

  11. Fetal programming of children's obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Stephanie A; Espel, Emma V; Sandman, Curt A; Glynn, Laura M; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2015-03-01

    Childhood obesity affects nearly 17% of children and adolescents in the United States. Increasing evidence indicates that prenatal maternal stress signals influence fetal growth, child obesity, and metabolic risk. Children exhibiting catch-up growth, a rapid and dramatic increase in body size, within the first two years of life are also at an increased risk for developing metabolic disorder and obesity. We evaluate the potential role of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and placental axis in programming risk for child obesity. This prospective longitudinal study measured placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) and maternal plasma cortisol at 15, 19, 25, 30, and 37 gestational weeks and collected child body mass index (BMI) at birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Participants included 246 mothers and their healthy children born full term. Each child's BMI percentile (BMIP) was determined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards based on age and sex. Child BMIP profiles from birth to two years of age were characterized using general growth mixture modeling (GGMM). We evaluated whether fetal exposure to placental CRH and maternal cortisol are associated with BMIP profiles. Placental CRH at 30 gestational weeks was highly associated with both BMIP (pfetal programming of obesity risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmail Singh; Reenu Takker; Gurminder Singh Chahil; Gaganjyot; Sanjay Kumar Sahoo; Balwinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG) was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin ...

  13. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in milled rice (Oryza sativa) on the Chinese market and dietary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Yun; Chen, Mingxue; Chen, Zhijun; Qian, Yongzhong

    2009-03-01

    The present study investigates the occurrence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues in milled rice samples obtained form local markets in China during the period 2004-2006 and estimates their cumulative exposure. Concentrations of OP pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). The results showed that 9.3% of the samples contained detectable residues of at least one of the seven target OP pesticides (chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, omethoate, methamidophos, parathion-methyl, parathion and triazophos) mainly used for agriculture in China, with concentrations ranging 0.011-1.756 mg kg(-1). Rice consumption data was obtained from an individual food consumption survey. Relative potency factors (RPFs) for each pesticide were calculated with methamidophos as the index compound (IC), using 1- or 2-year chronic non-observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) for AChE inhibition, mostly in rat brain, obtained from international evaluations of pesticides. Exposure to AChE-inhibiting pesticides for the population above 7 years old at P99.9 represented 52-94.5% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) expressed as methamidophos. Estimated exposure for children aged 2-4 and 4-7 years at P99.9 were 119 and 104.3% of the ADI level, respectively. This study suggests that a yearly monitoring program for OP pesticide residues and strict implementation of the national safety standard for milled rice is necessary.

  14. Risk Assessment of Florists Exposed to Pesticide Residues through Handling of Flowers and Preparing Bouquets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Khaoula; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane; Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-05-13

    Flowers are frequently treated with pesticides and, as a result, florists handling daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to pesticide residues. A study was conducted among twenty volunteer florists located in Namur Province and in the Brussels Capital Region of Belgium in order to assess their potential dermal exposure to dislodgeable pesticide residues transferred from flowers to hands. Two pairs of cotton gloves were worn during two consecutive half days while handling flowers and preparing bouquets (from min 2 h to max 3 h/day). The residual pesticide deposits on the glove samples were extracted with a multi-residue Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method and analyzed by a combination of gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS) by an accredited laboratory. A total of 111 active substances (mainly insecticides and fungicides) were detected, with an average of 37 active substances per sample and a total concentration per glove sample of 22.22 mg/kg. Several predictive levels of contamination were considered to assess the risk. The potential dermal exposures (PDE) of florists were estimated at the average, for different percentiles, and at the maximum concentration of residues in samples. At the PDE P90 and at the PDE MAX (or worst case) values, three and five active substances respectively exceed the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (AOEL), indicating risk situations. For the systemic exposure (SE), one active substance (clofentezine) exceeds the AOEL at the P90 predictive level. In the worst case, SE MAX (at the maximum concentrations), four active substances (clofentezine, famoxadone, methiocarb, and pyridaben) exceed their respective AOEL values. Among the 14 most frequently detected active substances, two have SE MAX values exceeding the AOEL. Exposure could be particularly critical for clofentezine with an SE MAX value four times higher than the AOEL (393%). The exposure of florists appeared to

  15. Assessing the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections in the Philippine blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hilton Y; Belizario, Vicente Y; Juban, Noel R; Alejandria, Marissa M; Castillo-Carandang, Nina; Arcellana-Nuqui, Elizabeth; Mirasol, Ma Angelina; Cordero, Cynthia P; Sison, Olivia T; Rivera, Adovich S

    2014-09-01

    Due to a USAID-funded study on blood banks, a national policy was instituted in 1994 that set standards for Philippine blood services, promoted voluntary donation, and led to a ban on commercial blood banks. In this follow-up study, we assess the safety of the supply by determining the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections (syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV). We also identified unsafe facility practices and generated policy recommendations. A 1992 study found that transfusion-ready blood was not safe using the LQAS method (P > 0.05). We found that the 2012 residual risk became 0 to 0.9 percent attributable to the national policy. We noted poor to fair adherence to this policy. We identified unsafe practices such as use of rapid tests and lack of random blood retesting. Training and use of regional networks may improve safety. Despite improvement in safety, facilities complain of funding and logistical issues regarding compliance with the policy.

  16. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  17. Residue decline and risk assessment of fluopyram + tebuconazole (400SC) in/on onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Badal V; Chawla, Suchi; Gor, Hetal; Upadhyay, Payal; Parmar, Kaushik D; Patel, Anil R; Shah, Paresh G

    2016-10-01

    A method was validated for estimating fluopyram and tebuconazole in onion on LC-MS/MS using dispersive QuEChERS. Three sprays of a combination fungicide fluopyram + tebuconazole (Luna experience, 400 SC) were applied @ 75 + 75 and 150 + 150 g a.i. ha -1 at an interval of 10 days on onion using Knapsack sprayer. First spray was made at bulb setting stage. Spring onion samples were drawn at 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 days and matured onion bulb at harvest (52 days) after the last spray. Soil samples were also drawn at harvest. Foliar application of the combination product resulted in 1.14 and 2.86 mg kg -1 fluopyram residues on spring onion at standard and double dose, respectively, one hour after the last application. The levels of fluopyram residues gradually declined and recorded 0.25 and 0.58 mg kg -1 on 20th day of application with half-lives of 8.8 and 9.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. For tebuconazole, the corresponding residues observed after 1 h (0 day) of application were 0.92 and 2.29 mg kg -1 . The levels declined gradually to 0.12 and 0.33 mg kg -1 on 20th days with half-life of 6.7 to 7.7 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Here, we are proposing a pre-harvest interval of 7 day for fluopyram and tebuconazole in spring onion when applied at 75 + 75 g a.i. ha -1 (400 SC). Risk assessment was done by calculating hazard quotient and by comparing theoretical maximum residue intake (TMRI) with maximum permissible intake (MPI). In all the cases, results of the study showed that HQ (Hazard Quotient) ≤1 and TMDI < MPI. Hence, the use of this combination product can be recommended with pre harvest interval of 7 days. The data can be used in establishing MRLs (maximum residue limits) for spring onion after considering multilocation trials.

  18. 29 CFR 99.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identification in the compliance supplement. (d) Inherent risk of the Federal program. (1) The nature of a... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Criteria for Federal program risk. 99.525 Section 99.525... Auditors § 99.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be...

  19. Global assessment of river flood protection benefits and corresponding residual risks under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Yamazaki, Dai; Koirala, Sujan; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Dadson, Simon J.; Hall, Jim W.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming increases the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and this could lead to more intense rainfalls and possibly increasing natural hazards in the form of flooding in some regions. This implies that traditional practice of using historical hydrological records alone is somewhat limited for supporting long-term water infrastructure planning. This has motivated recent global scale studies to evaluate river flood risks (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014, Sadoff et al., 2015) and adaptations benefits (e.g., Jongman et al., 2015). To support decision-making in river flood risk reduction, this study takes a further step to examine the benefits and corresponding residual risks for a range of flood protection levels. To do that, we channelled runoff information of a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and each CMIP5 model (historic and future periods) into a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011). We incorporated the latest global river width data (Yamazaki et al., 2014) into CaMa-Flood and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the flood protection benefits. We quantify the corresponding residual risks using a mathematical approach that is consistent with the modelling structure of CaMa-Flood. Globally and regionally, we find that the benefits of flood protection level peak somewhere between 20 and 500 years; residual risks diminish

  20. Cl app: android-based application program for monitoring the residue chlorine in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Chaitavon, Kosom; Vuttivong, Sirajit

    2015-07-01

    A farmer usually uses a cheap chemical material called chlorine to destroy the cell structure of unwanted organisms and remove some plant effluents in a baby shrimp farm. A color changing of the reaction between chlorine and chemical indicator is used to monitor the residue chlorine in water before releasing a baby shrimp into a pond. To get rid of the error in color reading, our previous works showed how a smartphone can be functioned as a color reader for estimating the chlorine concentration in water. In this paper, we show the improvement of interior configuration of our prototype and the distribution to several baby shrimp farms. In the future, we plan to make it available worldwide through the online market as well as to develop more application programs for monitoring other chemical substances.

  1. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideker, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP's waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP's RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators' understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations

  2. Fact Sheet: Risk Management Plan (RMP) Audit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk management programs, which consist of a hazard assessment, a prevention program, and an emergency response program; must be periodically audited to assess whether the plans are adequate or need to be revised to comply with the regulation.

  3. On using residual risk to assess the cost effectiveness and health protectiveness of remedy selection at superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Peter T.; Kastenberg, William E.

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the importance of determining residual risk and its impact on remedy selection at Superfund Sites. Within this examination, risks are assessed using probabilistic models that incorporate the uncertainty and variability of the input parameters, and utilize parameter distributions based on current and applicable site-specific data. Monte Carlo methods are used to propagate these uncertainties and variabilities through the risk calculations resulting in a distribution for the estimate of both risk and residual risk. Such an approach permits an informed decision based on a broad information base which involves considering the entire uncertainty distribution of risk rather than a point estimate for each exposure scenario. Using the probabilistic risk estimates, with current and applicable site-specific data, alternative decisions regarding cleanup are obtained for two Superfund Sites

  4. Risk for the development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) due to feeding of calves with milk containing residues of antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, A.; Allende, A.; Bolton, D.; Chemaly, M.; Davies, R.; Fernández Escámez, P.S.; Girones, R.; Koutsoumanis, K.; Lindqvist, R.; Nørrung, B.; Robertson, I.; Ru, G.; Sanaa, M.; Simmons, M.; Skandamis, P.; Snary, E.; Speybroeck, N.; ter Kuile, B.; Threlfall, J.; Wahlström, H.; Bengtsson, B.; Bouchard, D.; Randall, L.; Tenhagen, B.A.; Verdon, E.; Wallace, J.; Brozzi, R.; Guerra, B.; Liebana, E.; Stella, P.; Herman, L.

    2017-01-01

    EFSA was requested to: 1) assess the risk for the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to feeding on farm of calves with colostrum potentially containing residues of antibiotics; 2) assess the risk for the development of AMR due to feeding on farm of calves with milk of cows treated

  5. 7 CFR 3052.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... risk. OMB plans to provide this identification in the compliance supplement. (d) Inherent risk of the... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 3052.525 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination...

  6. Pre-transplantation minimal residual disease with cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic features improves risk stratification in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Betül; Jorgensen, Jeff L; Marin, David; Wang, Sa; Ahmed, Sairah; Alousi, Amin M; Andersson, Borje S; Bashir, Qaiser; Bassett, Roland; Lyons, Genevieve; Chen, Julianne; Rezvani, Katy; Popat, Uday; Kebriaei, Partow; Patel, Keyur; Rondon, Gabriela; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to improve outcome prediction after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia by combining cytogenetic and molecular data at diagnosis with minimal residual disease assessment by multicolor flow-cytometry at transplantation. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission in whom minimal residual disease was assessed at transplantation were included and categorized according to the European LeukemiaNet classification. The primary outcome was 1-year relapse incidence after transplantation. Of 152 patients eligible, 48 had minimal residual disease at the time of their transplant. Minimal residual disease-positive patients were older, required more therapy to achieve first remission, were more likely to have incomplete recovery of blood counts and had more adverse risk features by cytogenetics. Relapse incidence at 1 year was higher in patients with minimal residual disease (32.6% versus 14.4%, P=0.002). Leukemia-free survival (43.6% versus 64%, P=0.007) and overall survival (48.8% versus 66.9%, P=0.008) rates were also inferior in patients with minimal residual disease. In multivariable analysis, minimal residual disease status at transplantation independently predicted 1-year relapse incidence, identifying a subgroup of intermediate-risk patients, according to the European LeukemiaNet classification, with a particularly poor outcome. Assessment of minimal residual disease at transplantation in combination with cytogenetic and molecular findings provides powerful independent prognostic information in acute myeloid leukemia, lending support to the incorporation of minimal residual disease detection to refine risk stratification and develop a more individualized approach during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  7. Residues, Sources and Potential Biological Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Sediments of Qiandao Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayun; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Weidong; Liu, Qi; Tu, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed to comprehensively characterize the concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of organochlorine pesticides in Qiandao Lake, China. Concentrations of sumHCH and sumDDT in sediments ranged from 0.03 to 5.75 ng/g dry weight and not detected to 14.39 ng/g dry weight. The predominant β-HCH and the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs were derived not only from historical technical HCH use but also from additional usage of lindane. Ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT and DDD/DDE suggested that both dicofol-type DDT and technical DDT applications may be present in most study areas. Additionally, based on two sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT could be the main organochlorine pesticides species of ecotoxicological concern in Qiandao Lake.

  8. Beyond statin therapy: a review of the management of residual risk in diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2010-09-01

    Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol exhibit an independent, strong, continuous correlation with cardiovascular events. The effectiveness of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis is well-established. However, despite the lowering of LDL targets and the increased use of statins, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) continue to experience a higher proportion of adverse coronary artery disease events. This is as a result of an atherogenic dyslipidaemia, characterized by low levels of high-density lipoprotein and elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations, often with high levels of cholesterol-rich remnant particles. This article will review dyslipidaemia and its role in DM, and will discuss available treatment modalities that address residual cardiovascular risk in this disease.

  9. Drug residues and endocrine disruptors in drinking water: risk for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraud, Evelyne; Roig, Benoit; Sumpter, John P; Coetsier, Clémence

    2011-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in the environment raises many questions about risk to the environment and human health. Environmental exposure has been largely studied, providing to date a realistic picture of the degree of contamination of the environment by pharmaceuticals and hormones. Conversely, little information is available regarding human exposure. NSAIDS, carbamazepine, iodinated contrast media, β-blockers, antibiotics have been detected in drinking water, mostly in the range of ng/L. it is questioned if such concentrations may affect human health. Currently, no consensus among the scientific community exists on what risk, if any, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors pose to human health. Future European research will focus, on one hand, on genotoxic and cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs and, on the other hand, on the induction of genetic resistance by antibiotics. This review does not aim to give a comprehensive overview of human health risk of drug residues and endocrine disruptors in drinking water but rather highlight important topics of discussion. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Program package for data preparation of RISK events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denes, E.; Wagner, I.; Nagy, J.

    1980-01-01

    A FORTRAN program package written for the CDC-6500 computer is presented. The SMHV program is designed to transform data obtained from events of RISK streamer chamber by means of measuring SAMET or PUOS devices to the HEVAS data tormat format needed by the geometrical reconstruction program. Such a transformation provides the standartization of measurement data procession inside the RISK collaboration and capability of the direct input into program of event geometrical reconstruction registered on a film of RISK streamer chamber

  11. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  12. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  13. Designing a Flood-Risk Education Program in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschaart, Adwin; van der Schee, Joop; Kuiper, Wilmad

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on designing a flood-risk education program to enhance 15-year-old students' flood-risk perception. In the flood-risk education program, learning processes were modeled in such a way that the arousal of moderate levels of fear should prompt experiential and analytical information processing. In this way, understanding of flood…

  14. Designing a flood-risk education program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaert, A.; van der Schee, J.; Kuiper, W.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on designing a flood-risk education program to enhance 15-year-old students’ flood-risk perception. In the flood-risk education program, learning processes were modeled in such a way that the arousal of moderate levels of fear should prompt experiential and analytical information

  15. The role of conservation programs in drought risk adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Wallander; Marcel Aillery; Daniel Hellerstein; Michael Hand

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the extent to which farms facing higher levels of drought risk are more likely to participate in conservation programs, and fi nds a strong link between drought risk and program participation. Prior research has shown that climate-related risk exposure infl uences production decisions such as crop choice; our research shows that adaptation also...

  16. Risk management considerations for seismic upgrading of an older facility for short-term residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additon, S.L.; Peregoy, W.L.; Foppe, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Building 707 and its addition, Building 707A, were selected, after the production mission of Rocky Flats was terminated a few years ago, to stabilize many of the plutonium residues remaining at the site by 2002. The facility had undergone substantial safety improvements to its safety systems and conduct of operations for resumption of plutonium operations in the early 1990s and appeared ideally suited for this new mission to support accelerated Site closure. During development of a new authorization basis, a seismic evaluation was performed. This evaluation addressed an unanalyzed expansion joint and suspect connection details for the precast concrete tilt-up construction and concluded that the seismic capacity of the facility is less than half of that determined by previous analysis. Further, potential seismic interaction was identified between a collapsing Building 707 and the seismically upgraded Building 707A, possibly causing the partial collapse of the latter. Both the operating contractor and the Department of Energy sought a sound technical basis for deciding how to proceed. This paper addresses the risks of the as-is facility and possible benefits of upgrades to support a decision on whether to upgrade the seismic capacity of Building 707, accept the risk of the as-is facility for its short remaining mission, or relocate critical stabilization missions. The paper also addresses the Department of Energy's policy on natural phenomena

  17. Hazard index, a tool for a long term risk assessment of pesticide residues in some commodities, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad Alla, Sohair A; Loutfy, Naglaa M; Shendy, Amr H; Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic

    2015-12-01

    Samples of some vegetables were analyzed for pesticides residues using the accredited (QuEChERS) method. The method allowed the determination of 215 compounds of different pesticide chemical groups. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were used for residues quantification. In a total number of 116 samples, no pesticides residues were detected in 34 samples (29.3%), while 82 samples (70.7%) had detectable pesticide residues, with some samples exceeding the MRLs levels established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The hazard index (HI %), representing the long--term risk assessment was in the range of 0.01%-15.04% of the ADI's. The highest exposure was observed for ethion, followed by chlorpyifos, both of them are organophosphates, at 15.04% and 2.45% of ADI respectively. The acute (short-term) exposure was also estimated. Results showed a potential risk for children posed by 3 pesticides, meanwhile, residues of one pesticides showed potential risk to adults (>100% of ARfD). The present work is an attempt to provide a model for the use of WHO template for calculating the short term intake. This model is especially useful for developing countries where information about consumption rate is rather meager. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of hazardous waste residuals from Environmental Restoration Program activities at DOE installations: Waste management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Esposito, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigators at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with support from associates at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), have assembled an inventory of the types and volumes of radioactive, toxic or hazardous, and mixed waste likely to be generated over the next 30 years as the US Department of Energy (DOE) implements its nationwide Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The inventory and related analyses are being considered for integration into DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) covering the potential environmental impacts and risks associated with alternative management practices and programs for wastes generated from routine operations. If this happens, the ER-generated waste could be managed under a set of alternatives considered under the PEIS and selected at the end of the current National Environmental Policy Act process

  19. High-risk residual gastric content in fasted patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: a prospective cohort study of prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S; Liang, S S; Formaz-Preston, A; Stewart, P A

    2015-11-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we examined the residual gastric contents of 255 fasted patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. The volume and pH of residual gastric contents collected by suction under direct visualisation during gastroscopy were accurately quantified. All patients completed the minimum two-hour fast for clear fluids and 97.2% of patients completed the minimum six-hour fast for solids. High-risk residual gastric content, defined as volume >25 ml and pH fasting, males presenting for endoscopy are more likely to have high-risk gastric content than females, and that the incidence appears to be reduced with increasing age, and by the use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine type 2 receptor antagonists, we were unable to confirm or exclude an effect of body mass index, peptic pathology, diabetes or other clinical or demographic factors in our study population.

  20. RISKS IDENTIFYING IN INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS OF METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євгенія Сергіївна ШВЕЦЬ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of risk management in innovative programs of metallurgical enterprises are examined; the causes of risks, their classification on the basic signs and stages of the risk management process and methods of risk management in innovative programs of metallurgical enterprises are described in modern conditions of Ukraine. The advanced and simplified methods of audit risk are characterized and the most common methods of quantitative risk analysis are listed. Conclusions were made about the essential things that are important especially for risks arising in the company due innovative development selecting.

  1. Assessment of human health risk from organochlorine pesticide residues in Cidade dos Meninos, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Asmus,Carmen Ildes R. Fróes; Alonzo,Herling Gregorio Aguilar; Palácios,Marisa; Silva,Alexandre Pessoa da; Filhote,Maria Isabel de Freitas; Buosi,Daniela; Câmara,Volney de Magalhães

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a heath risk assessment in Cidade dos Meninos, an area contaminated with organochlorine pesticide residues located in the county (municipality) of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) risk assessment methodology was applied. The following organochlorine compounds exceeded the established limits and were considered target pollutants: HCH and its isomers (in eggs, milk, and soil); DDT and...

  2. Effect of processing on the disappearance of pesticide residues in fresh-cut lettuce: Bioavailability and dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Miguel A; Barba, Alberto; Cermeño, Sandra; Martinez, Gracia; Oliva, Jose

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this research is to establish the processing factors of six pesticides durong the preparation of fresh-cut lettuce and to assess the risk of ingestion of pesticide residues associated with the consumption of the same. A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides (imidacloprid, tebufenozide, cypermethrin) and three fungicides (metalaxyl, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin) during treatment conditions simulating those used for commercial fresh-cut lettuce. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceed the established Maximum Residue Limits. The processing factors were generally less than 1 (between 0.34 for tebufenozide and 0.53 for imidacloprid), indicating that the process, as a whole, considerably reduces residue levels in processed lettuce compared to fresh lettuce. It is confirmed that cutting, followed by washing and drying, considerably reduces the residues. A matrix effect in the dialyzation of the pesticides is observed and the in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity (<15%). The EDI/ADI ratios found in all cases were well below their ADI values, and the dietary exposure assessed (EDI) in fresh-cut lettuce showed no concerns for consumer health.

  3. Technical Risk Identification at Program Inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Higher level risk assessments are informed largely by historical data. Middle level risks also include the risk of interface and interaction...identify, track, and report risks that they assume to be implicitly accepted (e.g., use of heritage designs, risk of damage during launch environment ...customer and contractor functional organizations. X X X X Process “When the facts change, I change my mind.” -John Maynard Keynes , Economist 12 ID

  4. Ingestion and potential risks to wildlife from Exxon Valdez oil residues in mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, R.

    1995-01-01

    Mussels are important bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a toxicologically important fraction of crude oils. In some dense mussel beds in Prince William Sound, oil and PAH residues derived from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) have persisted. The potential risks to wildlife from the consumption of these mussels are related to the degree of contamination of the mussels, the dietary intake of mussels, and the toxicity of the oils. Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), and American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmanil) were identified as species that consumed significant quantities of mussels. The consumption of mussels was estimated from the percentage of mussels in the diet and the caloric requirements of each species. Caloric requirements were taken either from direct observations or calculated from allometric equations adjusted for nonbasal energy expenditures. Daily intakes of oils were estimated from the percentage of PAHs in oils, PAH levels in mussels from contaminated beds, and mussel consumption by these species. The highest estimated daily oil intake occurred in Black Oystercatchers at 22 mg/kg bodyweight, assuming that these birds consumed mussels at the 95th percentile of oil contamination and that 75% of the caloric requirements are obtained from mussels. These levels of estimated oil ingestion are considerably lower than levels which have been found to produce toxicological effects in extended feeding studies in surrogate species

  5. Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic.

  6. [Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Fresh Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Changchun, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Qi-cun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in fresh vegetables. A total of Z14 samples from seven types of vegetables were collected from the suburb in Changchun City. The OPs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Target hazard quotients (THQ) were applied to estimate the potential health risk to inhabitants. Results showed that OPs concentrations exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in more than 23. 4% samples, and were not detected in only 7. 9% samples. Detection rates of OPs was as follow in the decreased order: diazinon (82. 2%) > phorate (45. 8%) > dimethoate (29. 4%) > parathion-methyl (27. 6%) > omethoate (23. 8%) > dichlorvos (22. 9%) > fenitrothion (21%) > fenthion (18. 7%) > parathion (18. 2%) > methamidophos (17. 3%) > malathion (12. 1%). The percentages above MRL for leaves were higher than for non-leafy vegetables. The order of percentages of OPs above MRL was as follows: green onion (82. 5%) > radish (37. 5%) > red pepper (17. 2%) > Chinese vegetable (14. 3%) > cucumber (3. 2%) > eggplant (2. 9%) > tomato (0%). 49. 5% vegetables samples showed more than one OP. The average target hazard quotients (ave THQ) were all less than one and the average Hazard Index (ave HI) was 0. 462, so that inhabitants who expose average OP levels may not experience adverse health effects.

  7. Statin non-adherence and residual cardiovascular risk: There is need for substantial improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Maciej; Stulc, Tomas; Dent, Ricardo; Toth, Peter P

    2016-12-15

    Although statin therapy has proven to be the cornerstone for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are many patients for whom long-term therapy remains suboptimal. The aims of this article are to review the current complex issues associated with statin use and to explore when novel treatment approaches should be considered. Statin discontinuation as well as adherence to statin therapy remain two of the greatest challenges for lipidologists. Evidence suggests that between 40 and 75% of patients discontinue their statin therapy within one year after initiation. Furthermore, whilst the reasons for persistence with statin therapy are complex, evidence shows that low-adherence to statins negatively impacts clinical outcomes and residual CV risk remains a major concern. Non-adherence or lack of persistence with long-term statin therapy in real-life may be the main cause of inadequate low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering with statins. There is a large need for the improvement of the use of statins, which have good safety profiles and are inexpensive. On the other hand, in a non-cost-constrained environment, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors should arguably be used more often in those patients in whom treatment with statins remains unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  9. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  10. Does Head Start differentially benefit children with risks targeted by the program's service model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 3540) were used to test for differential benefits of Head Start after one program year and after kindergarten on pre-academic and behavior outcomes for children at risk in the domains targeted by the program's comprehensive services. Although random assignment to Head Start produced positive treatment main effects on children's pre-academic skills and behavior problems, residualized growth models showed that random assignment to Head Start did not differentially benefit the pre-academic skills of children with risk factors targeted by the Head Start service model. The models showed detrimental impacts of Head Start for maternal-reported behavior problems of high-risk children, but slightly more positive impacts for teacher-reported behavior. Policy implications for Head Start are discussed.

  11. Human health risks associated with residual pesticide levels in edible tissues of slaughtered cattle in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in meat is of growing concern due to possible adverse effects on humans. Pesticide levels were assessed in five edible cattle parts: muscle, liver, kidney and tongue tissues to determine human health risk associated with consumption of these tissues. Health risk estimates were analysed using estimated daily intake (EDI, hazard quotient (HQ and hazard index (HI for two (2 age/weight categories: 1–11years/30 kg for children while 70 kg was used for adult. Risks were categorized for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects and measured at the average, maximum, 50th and 95th percentiles of the measured exposure concentrations (MEC. Total pesticide residues ranged from 2.38 to 3.86 μg/kg (muscle, 3.58 to 6.3 μg/kg (liver, 1.87 to 4.59 μg/kg (kidney and 2.54 to 4.35 μg/kg (tongue. Residual pesticide concentrations in the tissues were in the order: Liver > Tongue > Muscle > Kidney. The concentrations of all the assessed pesticides observed in the tissues were however lower than the recommended maximum residual limits (MRLs. Human health risk estimations for the children showed EDI values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin and dieldrin exceeding threshold values. Non-cancer risk posed to children on consumption of contaminated cattle parts showed HQ values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin and HI values for organochlorines exceeding 1, indicating the possibility of non-carcinogenic health risks to consumers especially children from consumption of cattle meat from the selected abattoirs.

  12. Linking Energy- and Land-Use Systems: Energy Potentials and Environmental Risks of Using Agricultural Residues in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Terrapon-Pfaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess whether renewable energy self-sufficiency can be achieved in the crop production and processing sector in Tanzania and if this could be accomplished in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to answer these questions the theoretical energy potential of process residues from commercially produced agricultural crops in Tanzania is evaluated. Furthermore, a set of sustainability indicators with focus on environmental criteria is applied to identify risks and opportunities of using these residues for energy generation. In particular, the positive and negative effects on the land-use-system (soil fertility, water use and quality, biodiversity, etc. are evaluated. The results show that energy generation with certain agricultural process residues could not only improve and secure the energy supply but could also improve the sustainability of current land-use practices.

  13. Pesticide residues in selected food commodities: results from the Danish National Pesticide Monitoring Program 1995-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhler, R K; Lauridsen, M G; Christensen, M R; Hilbert, G

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents results of analyses of 4182 samples collected from January 1995 to December 1996 for the Danish National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The program basis is a random sample control supplemented with a target control. The objectives of the control are to monitor consumer exposure to health hazards and to enforce national and European Community regulations. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration is responsible for establishing methods, data manipulation, and evaluation, but actual analyses are performed at 4 regional laboratories. In addition to a description of the Danish National Pesticide Monitoring Program on food, the effects of lowering the reporting limits are discussed. Pesticides included are those in current use as well as chlorinated pesticides like lindane, DDT, and HCB, occurring in food now primarily as a result of environmental contamination. Commodities analyzed are fruits, vegetables, cereals, bran, fish, and animal products such as meat, butter, cheese, fat, and eggs. In fruits and vegetables, residues were detected in 10% of 2515 samples, with higher incidences of detection for foreign commodities. Violation rate was 0.6%. In food of animal origin, low levels of organochlorine pesticides were detected in most fish samples and in more than half of the animal product samples. However, no results exceeding maximum residue limits were found. No residues of organophosphorus pesticides were detected in the 231 meat samples analyzed.

  14. 75 FR 45563 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... 31 CFR Part 50 RIN 1505-AC24 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting AGENCY: Departmental... (``Treasury'') is issuing this proposed rule as part of its implementation of Title I of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (``TRIA'' or ``the Act''), as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of...

  15. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou

    2017-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  16. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The differences in residue pattern between Italy and South Africa, the main exporters of table grapes to the Danish market, were investigated. The results showed no major differences with respect to the number of samples with residues, with residues being found in 54-78% of the samples. Exceedances......, no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day......(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients, the exposure were...

  17. Risk Assessment of Florists Exposed to Pesticide Residues through Handling of Flowers and Preparing Bouquets

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Khaoula; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane; Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Flowers are frequently treated with pesticides and, as a result, florists handling daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to pesticide residues. A study was conducted among twenty volunteer florists located in Namur Province and in the Brussels Capital Region of Belgium in order to assess their potential dermal exposure to dislodgeable pesticide residues transferred from flowers to hands. Two pairs of cotton gloves were worn during two consecutive half days while handling fl...

  18. Development of regulatory technical rationale for risk monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In Korea, the risk monitoring program will be developed and applied to each plants till 2003 by the severe accident management plan to enhance the safety functions of the nuclear power plants. Through this plan, the risk monitoring for the full power and low power and shutdown operation will be performed. Therefore the development of consistent risk monitoring system and overall regulatory guides for the risk monitoring program are necessary. The objective of this study is the development of regulatory technical rationales for the nuclear power plant risk monitoring program and the derivation of the requirements need for the development of risk monitoring system. Through this the improvement of regulatory effectiveness to assure the safe operation of nuclear power plant, is expected.

  19. Dietary risk assessment in the WIC program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Dietary Risk Assessment in the WIC Program

    2002-01-01

    .... This book documents that nearly all low-income women in the childbearing years and children 2 years and over are at risk because their diets fail to meet the recommended numbers of servings of the food guide pyramid...

  20. Small Business and the Risk Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet helps small businesses comply with the regulation requiring companies that use regulated substances, hazardous chemical such as ammonia and chlorine, to develop a risk management plan, to help prevent accidental toxic or flammable releases.

  1. Analytical approach, dissipation pattern and risk assessment of pesticide residue in green leafy vegetables: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Waziha; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Shin, Ho-Chul; Wang, Jing; Shin, Sung Shik; Shim, Jae-Han

    2018-01-01

    The category of 'leafy vegetables' comprises a wide range of plants, including cabbage, lettuce, leeks, spinach, Swiss chard and kale, and it forms a significant component of the human diet. Typically, leafy vegetables are low in calories and fat, are great sources of vitamins, protein, dietary fibre and minerals (including iron, calcium, and nitrates), and are rich in phytochemicals. To counter the impact of pests on vegetables, a broad variety of pesticides are used. Because of their large surface areas, leafy vegetables are expected to have high residual pesticide levels. As such, a sound analytical approach is needed to detect and quantify residue levels that are equal to or lower than the maximum residue limits, thus rendering the products safe for consumption. Overall, leafy vegetables consumed raw (after a tap water wash only), boiled or steamed contribute 2% of total vegetable consumption globally, and they might have a comparatively greater influence on health than cereal ingestion. Consequently, in this review paper, we highlight the importance of leafy vegetables, the pesticides that are commonly used on them and various analytical techniques, including sample preparation, extraction, clean-up and final detection. The effects on dissipation patterns, pre-harvest residue limits and safety/risks imposed by various pesticides are also reviewed and discussed. In conclusion, environmentally friendly extraction methods coupled with high-throughput techniques with greater reproducibility and lower uncertainty are needed for quantifying residues in leafy vegetables at very low concentrations. Commercial and household food preparation, such as washing, peeling, blanching and cooking are effective in removing most of the pesticide residues that are loosely attached on vegetables. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Determinants of residual risk in secondary prevention patients treated with high- versus low-dose statin therapy: the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, Samia; Wenger, Nanette K.; Demicco, David A.; Breazna, Andrei; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Deedwania, Prakash; Kastelein, John J. P.; Waters, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular events occur among statin-treated patients, albeit at lower rates. Risk factors for this "residual risk" have not been studied comprehensively. We aimed to identify determinants of this risk above and beyond lipid-related risk factors. A total of 9251 coronary patients with

  3. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kones R

    2013-10-01

    the conditional pleiotropic actions of HDL. Non-HDL cholesterol reflects the cholesterol in all atherogenic particles containing apolipoprotein B, and has outperformed LDL cholesterol as a lipid marker of cardiovascular risk and future mortality. In addition to including a measure of residual risk, the advantages of using non-HDL cholesterol as a primary lipid target are now compelling. Reinterpretation of data from the Treating to New Targets study suggests that better control of smoking, body weight, hypertension, and diabetes will help lower residual risk. Although much improved, control of risk factors other than LDL cholesterol currently remains inadequate due to shortfalls in compliance with guidelines and poor patient adherence. More efficient and greater use of proven simple therapies, such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, combined with statin therapy, may be more fruitful in improving outcomes than using other complex therapies. Comprehensive, intensive, multimechanistic, global, and national programs using primordial, primary, and secondary prevention to lower the total level of cardiovascular risk are necessary.Keywords: cardiovascular prevention, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, statin drugs, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, niacin, AIM-HIGH study, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, endothelial progenitor cells, fibrate drugs

  4. Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

    2003-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

  5. Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program: Overview of Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Over the last three years, a team of national laboratory experts, working in partnership with the energy industry, has successfully applied the methodology as part of OCIP's Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program (VRAP...

  6. C-130: Results of center wing residual strength and crack propagation test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.; Snider, H. L.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings which had experienced from approximately 4,000 to 13,000 hours of flight service and its associated fatigue damage were tested to destruction, seven in upbending and seven in downbending. Six wings were tested directly for static residual strength in the fatigue-damaged condition as received from field service. The other eight wings were tested in crack propagation cyclic testing at a prescribed stress level for a maximum of 10,000 cycles. Then the stress level was reduced and testing was continued up to a maximum of 20,000 total cycles. Cyclic testing was performed with constant-amplitude stresses at a stress ratio of +0.1. Maximum cyclic skin stresses were approximately 18,000 psi. At the conclusion of cyclic testing, a static test to destruction was conducted to determine the residual strength of each fatigue-damaged specimen.

  7. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day...

  8. A view on the analytical design of future risk based residue control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Leendert A.; Sterk, Saskia S.

    2016-01-01

    The current laboratory network system in support of residue monitoring programmes within the EU formally started in the early 1990s. Since then, it has undergone a gentle evolution incorporating new techniques and methods for quality assurance and, in parallel to the extension of the European

  9. Subseabed disposal risk assessment: review and program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides a basis for the performance of risk assessment studies for seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. The risk analysis is divided into two phases: pre-disposal which includes all transport, handling and emplacement activities and long-term (post-disposal) which addresses the potential hazard after waste is safely emplaced. A preliminary definition of information requirements for both the pre-disposal and long-term risk analysis is presented. Available information that might be relevant to seabed risk assessment is reviewed with special emphasis on the continental waste disposal programs. Based on these scoping studies a work plan is developed for future detailed risk assessment analysis

  10. Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Emami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health. Methods: Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS.The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3 ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. Results: Identified pesticides included Fenitrothion, Carbaryl and Diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples of the samples. Conclusion: All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.

  11. Risk Management for Study Abroad Programs: Issues and Resources to Inform Program Development, Administration, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a practical background to the health and safety risks and challenges for U.S. colleges and universities and other program providers. Potential risks, field-based guidelines, good practices, and resources to support the management of risks by study abroad offices will be covered.

  12. Mitigating fall risk: A community fall reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Humberto; McCaffrey, Ruth G; Taylor, David W M

    One fourth of all American's over 65 years of age fall each year. Falls are a common and often devastating event that can pose a serious health risk for older adults. Healthcare providers are often unable to spend the time required to assist older adults with fall risk issues. Without a team approach to fall prevention the system remains focused on fragmented levels of health promotion and risk prevention. The specific aim of this project was to engage older adults from the community in a fall risk assessment program, using the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries (STEADI) program, and provide feedback on individual participants' risks that participants could share with their primary care physician. Older adults who attended the risk screening were taking medications that are known to increase falls. They mentioned that their health care providers do not screen for falls and appreciated a community based screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk communication in environmental restoration programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    The author advocates adoption of a convergence model in place of the traditional source-receiver model of communication for communicating with members of the public who have a stake in remediation of a nearby site. The source-receiver model conceives of communication as the transmission of a message from a risk management agency (sender) to a target audience of the public (receivers). The underlying theme is that the sender intends to change the perception of the receiver of either the issue or the sender of information. The theme may be appropriate for health campaigns which seek to change public behavior; however, the author draws on her experience at a DOE site undergoing remediation to illustrate why the convergence model is more appropriate in the context of cleanup. This alternative model focuses on the Latin derivation of communication as sharing or making common to many, i.e., as involving a relationship between participants who engage in a process of communication. The focus appears to be consistent with recently issued DOE policy that calls for involving the public in identifying issues and problems and in formulating and evaluating decision alternatives in cleanup. By emphasizing context, process and participants, as opposed to senders and receivers, the model identifies key issues to address in facilitating consensus concerning the risks of cleanup. Similarities between the institutional context of DOE and DOD suggest that a convergence model may also prove to be an appropriate conceptual foundation for risk communication at contaminated DOD sites.

  14. Implementing a risk management program at Falconbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechta, G.

    2003-01-01

    A corporate overview of Falconbridge was presented. Falconbridge, founded in 1928 is a leading producer of nickel, copper, cobalt and platinum group metals at low cost. A map displaying its worldwide locations was shown. In Canada, Falconbridge operates in Ontario and Nunavik Territory. The experience in Norway was briefly described, touching on market volatility, market intelligence, portfolio management, and risk management guidelines. The author then explained the purpose of the Energy Project Team, which was responsible for preparing for deregulation, developing strategies for purchasing energy, and minimizing the cost of purchased energy in a competitive market. The plan was described, and the emphasis placed on the core Ontario team. Communication played a large part. The management system functions were reviewed, and analysis provided. The financial integration model was presented. Risk management was dealt with, followed by market intelligence and operational hedge. Division impact was discussed. The major Falconbridge issues were: budget exposure to electricity price variability, how much fixed-price power supply and how long should the contracts be, regulatory structure, market purchase timing, and adhere to corporate risk management policy. The procurement process was described. The author concluded that the product must be kept simple and the number of products limited. A realistic schedule must by adhered to, and a short bidding period of four hours proved ideal. Supplier relationship must be consumer driven. The importance of communication plan was emphasized. Getting pre-approval to make the deal is important. tabs., figs

  15. Residual neuromuscular block as a risk factor for critical respiratory events in the post anesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M; Xará, D; Parente, D; Barbosa, M; Abelha, F J

    2013-04-01

    Residual neuromuscular block is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. The purpose of this study was to access the incidence of residual neuromuscular block in a post-anesthesia care unit and to evaluate its association with critical respiratory events. Prospective cohort study was conducted in a Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU) for a period of 3 weeks. Two hundred two adult patients who submitted to scheduled non-cardiac and non-intracranial surgery were eligible to the study. The primary outcome variable was residual neuromuscular block after arrival to PACU that was defined as train-of-four ratio <0.9 and objectively quantified using acceleromyography. Demographic data, perioperative variables, lengths of hospital and recovery room stay and critical respiratory events were recorded. Inadequate emergence was classified in its different forms according to the Richmond agitation and sedation scale 10 min after admission to the recovery room. Residual neuromuscular block incidence in the post-anesthesia care unit was 29.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.4, 36.1). Patients with residual neuromuscular block had more frequently overall critical respiratory events (51% versus 16%, P<0.001), airway obstruction (10% versus 2%, P=0.029), mild-moderate hypoxemia (23% versus 4%, P<0.001), severe hypoxemia (7% versus 1%, P=0.033), respiratory failure (8% versus 1%, P=0.031), inability to breathe deeply (38% versus 12%, P<0.001) and muscular weakness (16% versus 1%, P<0.001). Residual neuromuscular block was more common after high-risk surgery (53% versus 33%, P=0.011) and was more often associated with post-operative hypoactive emergence as defined by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (21% versus 6%, P=0.001). This study suggests that residual neuromuscular block is common in the PACU and is associated with more frequent critical respiratory events. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimaci

  16. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG01-96EW56093) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program and presents a synopsis of the effort that began in 1995 and will officially conclude on April 30, 2000. (author)

  17. Risk-based technical specifications program: Site interview results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.R.; Baker, A.J.; Johnson, R.L.

    1991-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute and Pacific Gas and Electric Company are sponsoring a program directed at improving Technical Specifications using risk-based methods. The major objectives of the program are to develop risk-based approaches to improve Technical Specifications and to develop an Interactive Risk Advisor (IRA) prototype. The IRA is envisioned as an interactive system that is available to plant personnel to assist in controlling plant operation. Use of an IRA is viewed as a method to improve plant availability while maintaining or improving plant safety. In support of the program, interviews were conducted at several PWR and BWR plant sites, to elicit opinions and information concerning risk-based approaches to Technical Specifications and IRA requirements. This report presents the results of these interviews, including the functional requirements of an IRA. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  19. Ecological risk assessment of pesticide residues in coastal lagoons of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; Tolosa, Immaculada; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Lacayo, Martha; Cruz, Adela

    2002-10-01

    A detailed investigation on the contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorous pesticides of the coastal lagoon system of Chinandega district, Nicaragua, allowed the identification of contaminant sources and lagoon areas currently more contaminated. The discharge of rivers into the lagoons is the main transport pathway of pesticide residues; whereas atmospheric depositions are likely to be the main pathway for the introduction of PCBs into the lagoons. Analysis of water samples indicates widespread contamination with soluble organophosphorous compounds, such as dichlorvos, up to 410 ng L(-1), diazinon, up to 150 ng L(-1), and chlorpyrifos, up to 83 ng L(-1). Analyses of suspended matter for low solubility organochlorine (OC) compounds revealed very high concentrations of toxaphene, up to 17,450 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), total DDTs up to 478 ng g(-1), Aroclor 1254, up to 119 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations for other compounds. Lagoon sediments contain high concentrations also of toxaphene, from 7.9 to 6,900 ng g(-1) (dw), and DDTs, from 1.5 to 321 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane and other residues. Concentrations of OCs in soft tissues of clams are statistically correlated with the concentrations of the same compounds in bottom sediments, indicating that sediments are a source of contaminants to biota. In some areas of the lagoon system, concentration of residues in sediments are far above recommended threshold guideline values for protection of aquatic life, and may cause acute and chronic toxic effects on more sensitive aquatic species. Despite the ban on the use of toxaphene and DDT, residues of these compounds are still entering the lagoons due to erosion of, and leaching from, agriculture soils in the region. Measures for protection of the lagoon ecosystem are discussed.

  20. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  1. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground open-quote The First Step,close-quote provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget

  2. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  3. Practical recommendations for the management of cardiovascular risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, with special attention to residual risk. Spanish adaptation of a European Consensus of Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document has discussed clinical approaches to managing cardiovascular risk in clinical practice, with special focus on residual cardiovascular risk associated with lipid abnormalities, especially atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD). A simplified definition of AD was proposed to enhance understanding of this condition, its prevalence and its impact on cardiovascular risk. AD can be defined by high fasting triglyceride levels (≥2.3mmol/L / ≥200mg/dL) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels (≤1,0 / 40 and ≤1,3mmol/L / 50mg/dL in men and women, respectively) in statin-treated patients at high cardiovascular risk. The use of a single marker for the diagnosis and treatment of AD, such as non-HDL-c, was advocated. Interventions including lifestyle optimization and low density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering therapy with statins (±ezetimibe) are recommended by experts. Treatment of residual AD can be performed with the addition of fenofibrate, since it can improve the complete lipoprotein profile and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with AD. Others clinical condictions in which fenofibrate may be prescribed include patients with very high TGs (≥5.6mmol/L / 500mg/dL), patients who are intolerant or resistant to statins, and patients with AD and at high cardiovascular risk. The fenofibrate-statin combination was considered by the experts to benefit from a favorable benefit-risk profile. In conclusion, cardiovascular experts adopt a multifaceted approach to the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, with lifestyle optimization, LDL-lowering therapy and treatment of AD with fenofibrate routinely used to help reduce a patient's overall cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Human health risk assessment on the consumption of fruits and vegetables containing residual pesticides: A cancer and non-cancer risk/benefit perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Bourgault, Marie-Hélène; Rochette, Louis; Normandin, Louise; Samuel, Onil; Belleville, Denis; Blanchet, Carole; Phaneuf, Denise

    2017-11-01

    Pesticide residues in food is a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate health risk and benefit associated with chronic consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) containing residual pesticides in the province of Quebec, Canada. Based on a representative sample of Quebecers (n=4727, aged 1-79) enrolled in the Canadian nutrition survey, population's mean chronic dietary exposure through consumption of F&V was evaluated for 169 different pesticide active ingredients (PAI), including 135 for which toxicological reference values (TRV) were available in the literature. Total lifetime cancer risk was estimated to be 3.3×10 -4 considering the 28 substances for which an oral slope factor was also available. Non-cancer risk quotients greater than 1 were obtained at the 95th percentile of children's exposure for 10 of the 135 PAIs, and considering the most severe pesticide-specific TRV. Dithiocarbamates and imazalil are the authorized PAI that contribute the most to cancer and non cancer risk; they are therefore identified as "priority" PAI. For each estimated case of cancer triggered by PAI exposure, at least 88 cases were deemed prevented by the consumed F&V, based on the population's etiological fraction of the cancer risk that F&V prevent. Concluding, chronic health risks investigated are low and health benefits of F&V consumption by far outweigh the PAI-related risk. However, risk estimates are not negligeable and uncertainties remain. Thus, reducing PAI exposure through F&V consumption with a particular focus on "priority" PAI mentionned above, while maintaining an abundant and varied F&V diet, is desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FUSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board`s FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee`s recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials.

  6. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FURSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board's FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee's recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials

  7. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  8. TRECII: a computer program for transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    A risk-based fault tree analysis method has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis of nuclear fuel cycle operations. This methodology was developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a risk analysis tool for evaluating high level waste management systems. A computer package consisting of three programs was written at that time to assist in the performance of risk assessment: ACORN (draws fault trees), MFAULT (analyzes fault trees), and RAFT (calculates risk). This methodology evaluates release consequences and estimates the frequency of occurrence of these consequences. This document describes an additional risk calculating code which can be used in conjunction with two of the three codes for transportation risk assessment. TRECII modifies the definition of risk used in RAFT (prob. x release) to accommodate release consequences in terms of fatalities. Throughout this report risk shall be defined as probability times consequences (fatalities are one possible health effect consequence). This methodology has been applied to a variety of energy material transportation systems. Typically the material shipped has been radioactive, although some adaptation to fossil fuels has occurred. The approach is normally applied to truck or train transport systems with some adaptation to pipelines and aircraft. TRECII is designed to be used primarily in conjunction with MFAULT; however, with a moderate amount of effort by the user, it can be implemented independent of the risk analysis package developed at PNL. Code description and user instructions necessary for the implementation of the TRECII program are provided

  9. TRECII: a computer program for transportation risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    A risk-based fault tree analysis method has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis of nuclear fuel cycle operations. This methodology was developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a risk analysis tool for evaluating high level waste management systems. A computer package consisting of three programs was written at that time to assist in the performance of risk assessment: ACORN (draws fault trees), MFAULT (analyzes fault trees), and RAFT (calculates risk). This methodology evaluates release consequences and estimates the frequency of occurrence of these consequences. This document describes an additional risk calculating code which can be used in conjunction with two of the three codes for transportation risk assessment. TRECII modifies the definition of risk used in RAFT (prob. x release) to accommodate release consequences in terms of fatalities. Throughout this report risk shall be defined as probability times consequences (fatalities are one possible health effect consequence). This methodology has been applied to a variety of energy material transportation systems. Typically the material shipped has been radioactive, although some adaptation to fossil fuels has occurred. The approach is normally applied to truck or train transport systems with some adaptation to pipelines and aircraft. TRECII is designed to be used primarily in conjunction with MFAULT; however, with a moderate amount of effort by the user, it can be implemented independent of the risk analysis package developed at PNL. Code description and user instructions necessary for the implementation of the TRECII program are provided.

  10. Dietary risk ranking for residual antibiotics in cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Li, Le; Zhang, Cong; Qiu, Liping; Fan, Limin; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Chen, Jiazhang; Liu, Ying; Mao, Aimin

    2017-10-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture and therefore may be present as a dietary risk in cultured aquatic products. Using the Tai Lake Basin as a study area, we assessed the presence of 15 antibiotics in 5 widely cultured aquatic species using a newly developed dietary risk ranking approach. By assigning scores to each factor involved in the ranking matrices, the scores of dietary risks per antibiotic and per aquatic species were calculated. The results indicated that fluoroquinolone antibiotics posed the highest dietary risk in all aquatic species. Then, the total scores per aquatic species were summed by all 15 antibiotic scores of antibiotics, it was found that Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) had the highest dietary risks. Finally, the most concerned antibiotic category and aquatic species were selected. This study highlighted the importance of dietary risk ranking in the production and consumption of cultured aquatic products around Tai Lake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk evaluation for motor operated valves in an Inservice Testing Program at a PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.C.; Chen, K.T.; Su, Y.L.; Ting, K.; Chien, F.T.; Li, G.D.; Huang, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Safety related valves such as Motor Operated Valves (MOV), Air Operated Valves (AOV) or Check Valves (CV) play an important role in nuclear power plant. Functioning of these valves mainly aim at emergency reactivity control, post-accident residue heat removal, post-accident radioactivity removal and containment isolation when a design basis accident occurred. In order to maintain these valves under operable conditions, an Inservice Testing Program (IST) is defined for routine testing tasks based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code section XI code requirements. Risk based Inservice Testing Programs have been studied and developed extensively in the nuclear energy industry since the 1990s. Risk Based evaluations of IST can bring positive advantages to the licensee such as identifying the vulnerability of the system, reducing unnecessary testing burden, concentrating testing resources on the critical pass oriented valves and saving plant’s personnel dose exposure. This risk evaluation is incorporated with quantitative and qualitative analyses to the Motor Operated Valves under current Inservice Testing Program for PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan. With the outcome of the risk classifications for the safety related MOVs through numerical or deterministic analyses, a risk based testing frequency relief is suggested to demonstrate the benefits received from the risk based Inservice Testing Program. The goal made of this study, it could be as a reference and cornerstone for the licensee to perform overall scope Risk-Informed Inservice Testing Program (RI-IST) evaluation by referring relevant methodologies established in this study.

  12. A computerized program to educate adults about environmental health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.; Dewey, J.; Schur, P.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized program called Environmental Risk Appraisal (ERA) has been developed to educate adults about environmental health risks and to motivate positive behavior change. A questionnaire addresses issues such as radon, environmental tobacco smoke, pesticides, lead, air and water pollution, and work-site risks. Responses are computer processed in seconds to produce an individualized computer printout containing a score, educational messages, and phone numbers to call for more information. A variety of audiences including environmental groups, worksites, women's organizations and health professionals were represented in this study of 269 participants. Many respondents indicated they were exposed to important environmental hazards and nearly 40 percent reported they had, or might have had, an environmental related illness at some time. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program is effective as an educational tool in raising awareness of environmental health risks

  13. A quantitative assessment of risks of heavy metal residues in laundered shop towels and their use by workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Kevin; Magee, Brian

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a risk assessment of exposure to metal residues in laundered shop towels by workers. The concentrations of 27 metals measured in a synthetic sweat leachate were used to estimate the releasable quantity of metals which could be transferred to workers' skin. Worker exposure was evaluated quantitatively with an exposure model that focused on towel-to-hand transfer and subsequent hand-to-food or -mouth transfers. The exposure model was based on conservative, but reasonable assumptions regarding towel use and default exposure factor values from the published literature or regulatory guidance. Transfer coefficients were derived from studies representative of the exposures to towel users. Contact frequencies were based on assumed high-end use of shop towels, but constrained by a theoretical maximum dermal loading. The risk estimates for workers developed for all metals were below applicable regulatory risk benchmarks. The risk assessment for lead utilized the Adult Lead Model and concluded that predicted lead intakes do not constitute a significant health hazard based on potential worker exposures. Uncertainties are discussed in relation to the overall confidence in the exposure estimates developed for each exposure pathway and the likelihood that the exposure model is under- or overestimating worker exposures and risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Teachers' Perceptions of a Multiple High-Risk Behavior Prevention Program and Delivery of Universal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the success of high-risk behavior prevention programs rests with teachers who deliver the curriculum however; few studies have investigated teachers' perceptions of program implementation. The objective of this phenomenological study was to answer the question, "What are the experiences of teachers who are asked to be involved in the…

  15. Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E.; Stenner, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly.

  16. Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E.; Stenner, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly

  17. Residual expression of reprogramming factors affects the transcriptional program and epigenetic signatures of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Sommer

    Full Text Available Delivery of the transcription factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and c-Myc via integrating viral vectors has been widely employed to generate induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines from both normal and disease-specific somatic tissues, providing an invaluable resource for medical research and drug development. Residual reprogramming transgene expression from integrated viruses nevertheless alters the biological properties of iPSCs and has been associated with a reduced developmental competence both in vivo and in vitro. We performed transcriptional profiling of mouse iPSC lines before and after excision of a polycistronic lentiviral reprogramming vector to systematically define the overall impact of persistent transgene expression on the molecular features of iPSCs. We demonstrate that residual expression of the Yamanaka factors prevents iPSCs from acquiring the transcriptional program exhibited by embryonic stem cells (ESCs and that the expression profiles of iPSCs generated with and without c-Myc are indistinguishable. After vector excision, we find 36% of iPSC clones show normal methylation of the Gtl2 region, an imprinted locus that marks ESC-equivalent iPSC lines. Furthermore, we show that the reprogramming factor Klf4 binds to the promoter region of Gtl2. Regardless of Gtl2 methylation status, we find similar endodermal and hepatocyte differentiation potential comparing syngeneic Gtl2(ON vs Gtl2(OFF iPSC clones. Our findings provide new insights into the reprogramming process and emphasize the importance of generating iPSCs free of any residual transgene expression.

  18. Residual heat removal pump and low pressure safety injection pump retrofit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudiak, J.G.; McKenna, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Residual Heat Removal (RHR) and low pressure safety injection (LPSI) pumps installed in pressurized water-to-reactor power plants are used to provide low-head safety injection in the event of loss of coolant in the reactor coolant system. Because these pumps are subjected to rather severe temperature and pressure transients, the majority of pumps installed in the RHR service are vertical pumps with a single stage impeller. Typically the pump impeller is mounted on an extended motor shaft (close-coupled configuration) and a mechanical seal is employed at the pump end of the shaft. Traditionally RHR and LPSI pumps have been a significant maintenance item for many utilities. Periodic mechanical seal of motor bearing replacement often is considered routine maintenance. The closed-coupled pump design requires disassembly of the casing cover from the lower pump casing while performing these routine maintenance tasks. This paper introduces a design modification developed to convert the close-coupled RHR and LPSI pumps to a coupled configuration

  19. Residual risks of the 13{sup th} amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act; Restrisiken der 13. Atomgesetzaenderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-08-15

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology

  20. Contamination of food with residues of antibiotics in the sulphonamide class, risk can be avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadiazine are the most common usedsulfonamides in veterinary practice. The recommended withdrawal periods if not observed before slaughteringof the medicated animals, the products may obtain from such animals may be contaminated with residue. Theinterest in having reliable methods able to detect low amounts of sulfonamides in food is very actual. In thisstudy, a multiresidue analysis was performed to simultaneously determine those four sulfonamides in chickenmuscle tissue by the Waters LC.Criteria of validation: specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and linearity,according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, show that the method can detect differentkinds of sulfonamides within one run, without mass spectrometry analyses, or Fluor metric derivatization ofanalyts.The method is accurate, simple, economical in both time and cost, capable of detecting sulfonamidesresidues below the maximum residue limits (MRL and easy to perform to routine samples, in normal conditionof laboratory.The sulfonamides were extracted with acetonitrile and acetone and dichloromethane. N-hexane wasadded for defeating the sample. Separation was carried out on a Zorbax SB- C18 analytical column, using asmobile phase a mixture of 75:25 = di-natrium-hydrogenphosphat solution 6 g/1000 ml (pH = 8.5 : methanol.The detection wavelength was set at: 254 nm Calibration graphs were linear with very good correlationcoefficients in the concentration range from 0.320 to 1.5μg /mL. The limits of quantification (LOQ for thesulfonamides were in the range of 6.6–0.34 μg /kg. The recovery for spiked chicken muscle with 50–150 μg/kg ranged more than 70%. The relative standard deviation (Reds of the sulfonamides for six measurementsat 50 go/kg, 100 μg /kg and 150 μg /kg was less then 15%.The applicability of the method to the analysis of chicken muscle tissue was

  1. Assessing the distribution and human health risk of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from selected rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2016-02-01

    Sediment samples from major agricultural producing areas in Edo state Nigeria were analysed for α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and ∑DDT with the aim of elucidating contamination profiles, distribution characteristics, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of these compounds in these regions. Analysis was done using a gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD), while health risk assessment was carried out using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) and the chronic daily intake (CDI). Results showed varying concentrations of α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and ∑DDT pesticides in sediment samples with hexachlorocyclohexane (∑HCHs) (4.6 µg/g/dw) being the dominant contaminants as it was widely detected in all samples and stations. Source identification revealed that the current levels of HCHs and DDT in sediments were attributed to both historical use and fresh usage of these pesticides. Risk estimates using ILCR and CDI showed that the risk of cancer and non-cancer effects was highest when exposure route was through ingestion. Furthermore, model projections highlights children as high risk population groups for non-dietary exposure to OCPs. These findings suggests the need for increased monitoring programmes, with a wider scope for both currently used pesticides and legacy/banned pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program (NRAMP) is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the NRAMP project and presents a synopsis of the NRAMP effort which occurred from 1995 to 2000. The primary goals of the DOE in awarding the cooperative agreement establishing NRAMP were to (I) use a risk-based approach to evaluate the consequences of alternative actions in DOE's Environmental Remediation Programs at sites in Nevada and (2) use a neutral and credible institution outside the DOE to perform the risk assessments and contribute to public education about environmental management issues at the Nevada Test Site. (author)

  3. The influence of tomato processing on residues of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides and their associated dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiler, Emilie; Jørs, Erik; Bælum, Jesper; Huici, Omar; Alvarez Caero, Maria Mercedes; Cedergreen, Nina

    2015-09-15

    Due to the increasing food demand, the use of pesticides in agriculture is increasing. Particularly in low income countries poor training among farmers, combined with the use of obsolete pesticides may result in a high risk for the consumers. In this study six organochlorines and five organophosphates were analyzed in 54 samples of tomatoes from small scale farmers in Bolivia. The analyses were done on unprocessed, stored, washed and peeled tomatoes. The cumulated risk associated with consumption of the tomatoes after different storage times and processing treatments was evaluated using the Hazard Index (HI) for acute risk assessment. All 11 pesticides were detected in the analyses although several of them are obsolete and included in the Stockholm convention ratified by Bolivia. The organochlorines were found in the μg pesticide/kg tomato range and below the HI, while the organophosphates were present in the mg pesticide/kg tomato range and most often above the HI. The low organochlorine concentrations were not significantly affected by time or treatment, but storage significantly decreased the concentrations of organophosphates. Washing decreased the initial concentrations to between 53% (malathion) down to 2% (ethyl parathion), while peeling had a larger effect reducing the initial concentrations to between 33% (malathion) and 0.7% (chlorpyriphos). Both the acute and chronic cumulative risk assessment of organophosphates showed a dietary risk for unprocessed tomatoes three days after harvest. For children, also the consumption of washed tomatoes constituted a dietary risk. To reduce the dietary risk of pesticide residues in Bolivia, there is an urgent need of farmer education and introduction of less hazardous pesticides as well as resources for surveillance and enforcement of legislation in order to ensure public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The reverse logistics importance in the management of residues of plastic packaging of lubricants and the program jogue limpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Francisco da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate the importance of the Reverse Logistics in the management of solid residues through the Jogue Limpo program, an initiative dedicated to the destination and recycling of lubricant packaging. In the current context, where natural resources are scarce, the environmental issue is a factor of differentiation in business, so the destination of the waste we produce along the production chain and the possibility of reuse and mitigation of possible environmental impacts are extremely important for the society. The article seeks to show how the Reverse Logistics is the means to interconnect stakeholders for the correct destination and reuse of resources, as well as the benefits of this initiative for the society.

  5. Analysis of removal of residual decay heat from interim storage facilities by means of the CFD program FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratmann, W.; Hages, P.

    2004-01-01

    Within the scope of nuclear licensing procedures of on-site interim storage facilities for dual purpose casks it is necessary, among other things, to provide proof of sufficient removal of the residual decay heat emitted by the casks. The results of the analyses performed for this purpose define e.g. the boundary conditions for further thermal analyses regarding the permissible cask component temperatures or the maximum permissible temperatures of the fuel cladding tubes of the fuel elements stored in the casks. Up to now, for the centralized interim storage facilities in Germany such analyses were performed on the basis of experimental investigations using scaled-down storage geometries. In the engineering phase of the Lingen on-site interim storage facility, proof was furnished for the first time using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) program FLUENT. The program FLUENT is an internationally recognized and comprehensively verified program for the calculation of flow and heat transport processes. Starting from a brief discussion of modeling and the different boundary conditions of the computation, this contribution presents various results regarding the temperatures of air, cask surfaces and storage facility components, the mass flows through the storage facility and the heat transfer at the cask surface. The interface point to the cask-specific analyses is defined to be the cask surface

  6. 77 FR 57990 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program Correction In rule document 2012-02091, appearing on pages 55155-5167 in the issue of Thursday, February 2, 2012, make the...

  7. Library Literacy Programs and the At-Risk Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Defines at-risk adolescent students, including remedial readers, pregnant teenagers, handicapped students, speakers of English as a Second Language, and public library dropouts; and describes literacy programs that enhance self-esteem and establish the library as an alternative learning source, many developed in a literacy course at the University…

  8. Risk Management: Earning Recognition with an Automated Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberry, Linden; Strasburger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is a huge task that requires diligent oversight to avoid penalties, fines, or lawsuits. Add in the burden of limited resources that schools face today, and the challenge of meeting the required training, reporting, compliance, and other administrative issues associated with a safety program is almost insurmountable. Despite an…

  9. Integrated Risk Management Within NASA Programs/Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connley, Warren; Rad, Adrian; Botzum, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    As NASA Project Risk Management activities continue to evolve, the need to successfully integrate risk management processes across the life cycle, between functional disciplines, stakeholders, various management policies, and within cost, schedule and performance requirements/constraints become more evident and important. Today's programs and projects are complex undertakings that include a myriad of processes, tools, techniques, management arrangements and other variables all of which must function together in order to achieve mission success. The perception and impact of risk may vary significantly among stakeholders and may influence decisions that may have unintended consequences on the project during a future phase of the life cycle. In these cases, risks may be unintentionally and/or arbitrarily transferred to others without the benefit of a comprehensive systemic risk assessment. Integrating risk across people, processes, and project requirements/constraints serves to enhance decisions, strengthen communication pathways, and reinforce the ability of the project team to identify and manage risks across the broad spectrum of project management responsibilities. The ability to identify risks in all areas of project management increases the likelihood a project will identify significant issues before they become problems and allows projects to make effective and efficient use of shrinking resources. By getting a total team integrated risk effort, applying a disciplined and rigorous process, along with understanding project requirements/constraints provides the opportunity for more effective risk management. Applying an integrated approach to risk management makes it possible to do a better job at balancing safety, cost, schedule, operational performance and other elements of risk. This paper will examine how people, processes, and project requirements/constraints can be integrated across the project lifecycle for better risk management and ultimately improve the

  10. A simulation model of IT risk on program trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bingying; Jiang, Wenbao; Luo, Guangxuan

    2015-12-01

    The biggest difficulty for Program trading IT risk measures lies in the loss of data, in view of this situation, the current scholars approach is collecting court, network and other public media such as all kinds of accident of IT both at home and abroad for data collection, and the loss of IT risk quantitative analysis based on this database. However, the IT risk loss database established by this method can only fuzzy reflect the real situation and not for real to make fundamental explanation. In this paper, based on the study of the concept and steps of the MC simulation, we use computer simulation method, by using the MC simulation method in the "Program trading simulation system" developed by team to simulate the real programming trading and get the IT risk loss of data through its IT failure experiment, at the end of the article, on the effectiveness of the experimental data is verified. In this way, better overcome the deficiency of the traditional research method and solves the problem of lack of IT risk data in quantitative research. More empirically provides researchers with a set of simulation method are used to study the ideas and the process template.

  11. Risk-based decision making and risk management of European Union regional programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalopoulos Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalized method for management decision making incorporating risk assessment techniques. The risk based decision making methodology is applied to European Union expenditure programs used to implement its regional policy, such as the community support framework, community initiatives, special initiatives and other European policies. An example is presented for the development of an audit (inspection program in the region of West Macedonia, Greece, during the implementation of the 3rd Community Structural Support Framework Operational Program. The generic nature of the method permits its use in the management of similar European regional programs in Greece and other European countries. It is also applicable to many other industries interested in applying risk-based management decisions to physical or process based systems. .

  12. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  13. Assessment of radon-induced health risk for occupants of a house built on uranium ore residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clero, E.; Marie, L.; Challeton-De Vathaire, C.; Laurier, D.; Rannou, A.

    2016-01-01

    At the request of French public authorities, the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety has assessed the radiological situation of a house built on uranium ore residues in Haute-Vienne and the health risks induced from exposure to radon for all occupants. Classified as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization, radon is a proven cause of lung cancer in case of regular inhalation over a long period, and the risk increases with cumulative exposure. Radon exposure was reconstructed for various standard profiles of house occupancy. A risk model derived from a European epidemiological study was used to calculate the lifetime probability of death from lung cancer according to these standard profiles. Risk assessment of the occupants of the house highlighted the following main findings. For a resident school child having been exposed to radon from birth to the age of 7, the lifetime relative risk (LRR) was estimated at 5. For last adult and young adult residents having lived more than 10 years in the house, the probability of death from lung cancer was in the same order of magnitude as that of a regular cigarette smoker, with a LRR from 10 to 13 and a lifetime probability of death from lung cancer between 3 and 4%. If these individuals smoked regularly, in addition to being exposed to radon, this probability would be between 6 and 32% (supposing an additive or multiplicative interaction). For former occupants (non-smokers) having been exposed 10 years during childhood, the LRR was two-fold lower. For children having been in day care in the house, the increased probability of death from lung cancer was low, with a LRR lower than 2. Supposing, as in adults, that the risk decreases beyond 30 years after the end of radon exposure, the increase was almost zero for former occupants exposed during childhood and during day care, with a LRR close to 1. (authors)

  14. Software requirements specification for the program analysis and control system risk management module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAEFER, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    TWR Program Analysis and Control System Risk Module is used to facilitate specific data processes surrounding the Risk Management program of the Tank Waste Retrieval environment. This document contains the Risk Management system requirements of the database system

  15. Residues, Distributions, Sources, and Ecological Risks of OCPs in the Water from Lake Chaohu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99 ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes > Western Lakes > Eastern Lakes and water area. The sources of the HCHs were mainly from the historical usage of lindane. DDTs were degraded under aerobic conditions, and the main sources were from the use of technical DDTs. The ecological risks of 5 OCPs were assessed by the species sensitivity distribution (SSD method in the order of heptachlor > γ-HCH > p,p′-DDT > aldrin > endrin. The combining risks of all sampling sites were MS > JC > ZM > TX, and those of different species were crustaceans > fish > insects and spiders. Overall, the ecological risks of OCP contaminants on aquatic animals were very low.

  16. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...) part 2. Send or deliver information identified as CBI only to the following address: Roberto Morales... facility-specific maximum risk values based on MACT-allowable emissions. The docket for this rulemaking... and health benchmarks are the latest values recommended by the EPA for HAP and other toxic air...

  17. Optimising an integrated crop-livestock farm using risk programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Visagie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have analysed farm planning decisions focusing on producer risk preferences. Few studies have focussed on the farm planning decisions in an integrated croplivestock farm context. Income variability and means of managing risk continues to receive much attention in farm planning research. Different risk programming models have attempted to focus on minimising the income variability of farm activities. This study attempts to identify the optimal mix of crops and the number of animals the farm needs to keep in the presence of crop production risk for a range of risk levels. A mixed integer linear programming model was developed to model the decision environment faced by an integrated crop-livestock farmer. The deviation of income from the expected value was used as a measure of risk. A case study is presented with representative data from a farm in the Swartland area. An investigation of the results of the model under different constraints shows that, in general, strategies that depend on crop rotation principles are preferred to strategies that follow mono-crop production practices.

  18. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Johnson, Charles B; Garshelis, David L; Parker, Keith R

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001-2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI.

  20. Risk Analysis on Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in Potato and Carrot from Conventional and Organic Farms in Citarum Watershed Area, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphia Rahmawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Six samples of carrot and potatoes were collected from conventional and organic farms. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs residue was analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The concentration of OCPs residue together with the consumption pattern were used to calculate the potential risk. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI of OCPs residue in carrots and potatoes both from conventional and organic farms were below the standard given in SNI 7313:2008 and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs from USEPA . Hazard quotient (HQ and Hazard Index (HI as effect analysis were below the unity, thus there may not be a concern for non-carcinogenic effect. Risk analysis on cancer effects indicated that potatoes samples were above the recommended risk by EPA (10-6. In addition, risk of potatoes samples from organic samples was higher compare to that of the conventional farm. Cancer risk analysis of carrot samples were found below the recommended risk by EPA. Cancer risk effect of carrot samples from conventional farm was slightly higher compare to that of the organic farm.

  1. RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENCE OF ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESIDUES IN MEAT PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL SLAUGHTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Bataeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks associated with the presence of antimicrobial drug residues in meat and products of animal slaughter were determined. One of them is the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms isolated from meat and products of animal slaughter. It was established that Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Pseudomonas were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, tylosin and cephalolexin. However, Listeria monocytogenes did not have resistance to these antibiotics. It was also established that when entering an animal body, antimicrobials were accumulated mostly in liver and kidneys of an animal followed by meat and, to the least degree, in fat. It was found that up to 65% of the tested samples were contaminated with antimicrobials to a greater or lesser degree.

  2. Risk management program for the 283-W water treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This Risk Management (RM) Program covers the 283-W Water Treatment Facility (283W Facility), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. A RM Program is necessary for this facility because it stores chlorine, a listed substance, in excess of or has the potential to exceed the threshold quantities defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 68 (EPA, 1998). The RM Program contains data that will be used to prepare a RM Plan, which is required by 40 CFR 68. The RM Plan is a summary of the RM Program information, contained within this document, and will be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ultimately for distribution to the public. The RM Plan will be prepared and submitted separately from this document

  3. Risk management programs in the chemical industry from Bhopal onward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.J.; Greenberg, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical process safety has long been a consideration in industry but the tragedy at Bhopal in late 1984 resulted in significantly increased attention from industry, government, and the public. Whereas Bhopal had a major effect on regulations in the US, two earlier, highly publicized accidents affected regulations in the United Kingdom and Europe. A 1974 cyclohexane explosion at a chemical manufacturing plant in Flixborough, England, caused a number of fatalities, while a 1976 runaway reaction at a chemical works near Sevesco, Italy, contaminated surrounding farmland and water supplies with dioxin. Although the public's interest can be fickle, the residual concern from all these incidents has been sufficient to affect important regulatory and industry initiatives in the US and abroad. The development of the most important of the US initiatives are reviewed here. Common elements in various process safety management programs are noted and the latest regulatory developments reported. Application can be made to the nuclear industry

  4. Physicochemical Characterization of various Vietnamese Biomass Residue-derived Biochars (wood, bamboo and risk husk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien

    2016-04-01

    This study compares the physico-chemical characteristics of various biocchars produced from biomass residues in Vietnam such as fired wood, rice husk, and bamboo. Wood biochar (WBC), rice husk biochar (RHBC), and bamboo biochar (BBC) were produced under limited oxygen conditions using equipment available locally in Vietnam, known as a Top-Lift Updraft Drum (TLUD). The three biochars are alkaline with pH around 10, but were found to have quite significantly different physico-chemical characteristics. Surface areas (measured by BET) were found to be very significantly higher for WBC and BBC with 479.34 m2/g and 434.53 m2/g, respectively, compared to RHBC (3.29 m2/g). The SEM images correspond with the BET surface area, showing a smooth surface for RHBC, a hollow surface for BBC, and a rough surface for WBC. Total carbon (TC) of WBC and BBC are above 80%, while RHBC has only 47.95% TC. Despite having different TC, the content of hydrogen among the biochars is similar, ranging from 2.07% to 2.34%, and the ratio of H/C also follows the same trend. Thus, although the biochars are produced by the same method, the various feedstocks lead to different physico-chemical properties. Ongoing work is linking these physico-chemical properties to fertiliser efficiencies in terms of nitrate and ammonia adsorption and retention capacities, in order to design optimal biochar properties for use in fertilisation. Key words: physico-chemical characteristic, biochar, surface area, SEM, total carbon, feedstock

  5. Risk assessment of dimethylfumarate residues in dwellings following contamination by treated furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselle, C; Pernelet-Joly, V; Mourton-Gilles, C; Lepoittevin, J P; Vincent, R; Lefranc, A; Garnier, R

    2014-05-01

    Recently, numerous cases of dermatitis induced by dimethylfumarate (DMFu) have been reported in Europe. DMFu has been used to prevent mold development in various items, although it is not registered as a biocide. In France, from October 2008 to December 2009, more than 100 cases were reported. Despite a ban on articles containing DMFu and the removal of potentially contaminated products, some people were still suffering from dermatitis or other health problems. The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety was mandated to assess whether the existence in the past of DMFu-contaminated items in dwellings could continue to pose a threat to the health of inhabitants. A risk assessment was performed based on the classical risk analysis approach for environmental contaminants. Hazard assessment of DMFu with regard to its sensitizing properties was performed, based on human case reports collected in France between January 2009 and February 2010. For around half of the 132 individual cases reported, the causal link to DMFu was considered at least probable. An Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) local lymph node assay performed in a study on mice showed strong sensitizing potential for DMFu. Exposure was assessed by measuring DMFu in items sampled in preselected dwellings. These investigations demonstrated that DMFu exposure can persist after removal of the primary contaminated items. We therefore concluded that there was clearly a risk of skin reactions in patients previously sensitized to DMFu. Furthermore, the available data do not support the existence of significant health effects through the respiratory route. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Program -- IRKM-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) IRKM-P tightly couples risk management and knowledge management processes and tools to produce an effective "modern" work environment. IRKM-P objectives include: (1) to learn lessons from past and current programs (Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station); (2) to generate and share new engineering design, operations, and management best practices through preexisting Continuous Risk Management (CRM) procedures and knowledge-management practices; and (3) to infuse those lessons and best practices into current activities. The conceptual framework of the IRKM-P is based on the assumption that risks highlight potential knowledge gaps that might be mitigated through one or more knowledge management practices or artifacts. These same risks also serve as cues for collection of knowledge particularly, knowledge of technical or programmatic challenges that might recur.

  7. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  8. Development of a risk informed fire protection program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; McDevitt, B.; Sawyer, O.; Volk, M.A.; Drennan, J.; Sweely, C.

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, one of the largest challenges for the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operator in the United States has been the implementation of risk-informed, performance-based (RI-PB) fire protection strategies into their fire protection program. Regardless of whether a utility decides to fully transition their licensing basis from deterministic to risk based, or if they simply complete a fire probabilistic risk assessment (FPRA) in order to augment their current program, it is clear that risk-informed, performance based fire protection strategies and the associated challenges are the growing trend in the United States and are here to stay. The experience of the nuclear industry in the United States with the implementation of RI-PB fire protection strategies can provide a great deal of insight for plants and utilities that follow, either by choice or necessity, a similar path. The similarities in the design of the United States and Spanish nuclear plants make these insights even more significant contributions to the strategy and planning for the Spanish fleet. The experience in United States will provide guidance to avoid similar missteps and better plan for the challenges of the transition process. As the Spanish fleet develops risk-informed and deterministic strategies to improve fire safety, an understanding of the challenges and lessons learned from the United States experience will save time and money. (Author)

  9. Transportation System Risk Assessment on DOE Defense Program shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumburgh, G.P.; Kimura, C.Y.; Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Substantial effort has been expended concerning the level of safety provided to persons, property, and the environment from the hazards associated with transporting radioactive material. This work provided an impetus for the Department of Energy to investigate the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to supplement the deterministic approach to transportation safety. The DOE recently decided to incorporate the methodologies associated with PRAs in the process for authorizing the transportation of nuclear components, special assemblies, and radioactive materials affiliated with the DOE Defense Program. Accordingly, the LLNL, sponsored by the DOE/AL, is tasked with developing a safety guide series to provide guidance to preparers performing a transportation system risk assessment

  10. COMSAT: Residue contact prediction of transmembrane proteins based on support vector machines and mixed integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiling; Huang, Qingsheng; Bei, Zhendong; Wei, Yanjie; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present COMSAT, a hybrid framework for residue contact prediction of transmembrane (TM) proteins, integrating a support vector machine (SVM) method and a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) method. COMSAT consists of two modules: COMSAT_SVM which is trained mainly on position-specific scoring matrix features, and COMSAT_MILP which is an ab initio method based on optimization models. Contacts predicted by the SVM model are ranked by SVM confidence scores, and a threshold is trained to improve the reliability of the predicted contacts. For TM proteins with no contacts above the threshold, COMSAT_MILP is used. The proposed hybrid contact prediction scheme was tested on two independent TM protein sets based on the contact definition of 14 Å between Cα-Cα atoms. First, using a rigorous leave-one-protein-out cross validation on the training set of 90 TM proteins, an accuracy of 66.8%, a coverage of 12.3%, a specificity of 99.3% and a Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.184 were obtained for residue pairs that are at least six amino acids apart. Second, when tested on a test set of 87 TM proteins, the proposed method showed a prediction accuracy of 64.5%, a coverage of 5.3%, a specificity of 99.4% and a MCC of 0.106. COMSAT shows satisfactory results when compared with 12 other state-of-the-art predictors, and is more robust in terms of prediction accuracy as the length and complexity of TM protein increase. COMSAT is freely accessible at http://hpcc.siat.ac.cn/COMSAT/. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Applying Incremental Sampling Methodology to Soils Containing Heterogeneously Distributed Metallic Residues to Improve Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, J L; Georgian, T; Gardner, K H; Douglas, T A

    2018-01-01

    This study compares conventional grab sampling to incremental sampling methodology (ISM) to characterize metal contamination at a military small-arms-range. Grab sample results had large variances, positively skewed non-normal distributions, extreme outliers, and poor agreement between duplicate samples even when samples were co-located within tens of centimeters of each other. The extreme outliers strongly influenced the grab sample means for the primary contaminants lead (Pb) and antinomy (Sb). In contrast, median and mean metal concentrations were similar for the ISM samples. ISM significantly reduced measurement uncertainty of estimates of the mean, increasing data quality (e.g., for environmental risk assessments) with fewer samples (e.g., decreasing total project costs). Based on Monte Carlo resampling simulations, grab sampling resulted in highly variable means and upper confidence limits of the mean relative to ISM.

  12. Changing incidence and residual lifetime risk of common osteoporosis-related fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, J B; Schwarz, Peter; Lund, B

    1993-01-01

    1735 fractures of the distal radius, 747 fractures of the proximal humerus, 878 cervical and 635 trochanteric hip fractures were included. In men 273 cervical and 232 trochanteric hip fractures were included. The fractures were registered during the period 1976 to 1984 and changes in age.......05) during the observation period, while no significant decrease was found in the incidence of trochanteric fractures. No significant changes in incidence were observed in women with radial or humeral fractures, or in men with hip fractures. A women 60 years old with a life expectancy of 81 years had......Changes in incidence and lifetime risk of fractures are of major importance in the epidemiology of osteoporosis. We focused on hip fractures in women and men and on radial and humeral fractures in women. The study subjects comprised 4500 women and men 20 years old or more with fractures. In women...

  13. Potential risks of the residue from Samarco's mine dam burst (Bento Rodrigues, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Fabiana Roberta; Nunes, Emilene Arusievicz; Paniz, Fernanda Pollo; Paulelli, Ana Carolina Cavalheiro; Rodrigues, Gabriela Braga; Braga, Gilberto Úbida Leite; Dos Reis Pedreira Filho, Walter; Barbosa, Fernando; Cerchiaro, Giselle; Silva, Fábio Ferreira; Batista, Bruno Lemos

    2016-11-01

    On November 5th, 2015, Samarco's iron mine dam - called Fundão - spilled 50-60 million m 3 of mud into Gualaxo do Norte, a river that belongs to Rio Doce Basin. Approximately 15 km 2 were flooded along the rivers Gualaxo do Norte, Carmo and Doce, reaching the Atlantic Ocean on November 22nd, 2015. Six days after, our group collected mud, soil and water samples in Bento Rodrigues (Minas Gerais, Brazil), which was the first impacted area. Overall, the results, water samples - potable and surface water from river - presented chemical elements concentration according to Brazilian environmental legislations, except silver concentration in surface water that ranged from 1.5 to 1087 μg L -1 . In addition, water mud-containing presented Fe and Mn concentrations approximately 4-fold higher than the maximum limit for water bodies quality assessment, according to Brazilian laws. Mud particle size ranged from 1 to 200 μm. SEM-EDS spot provided us some semi quantitative data. Leaching/extraction tests suggested that Ba, Pb, As, Sr, Fe, Mn and Al have high potential mobilization from mud to water. Low microbial diversity in mud samples compared to background soil samples. Toxicological bioassays (HepG2 and Allium cepa) indicated potential risks of cytotoxicity and DNA damage in mud and soil samples used in both assays. The present study provides preliminary information aiming to collaborate to the development of future works for monitoring and risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk assessment to an integrated planning model for UST programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US Postal Service maintains the largest civilian fleet in the United States totaling approximately 180,000 vehicles. To support the fleets daily energy requirements, the Postal Service also operates one of the largest networks of underground storage tanks nearly 7,500 nationwide. A program to apply risk assessment to planning, budget development and other management actions was implemented during September, 1989. Working closely with a consultant, the postal service developed regulatory and environmental risk criteria and weighting factors for a ranking model. The primary objective was to identify relative risks for each underground tank at individual facilities. Relative risks at each facility were determined central to prioritizing scheduled improvements to the tank network. The survey was conducted on 302 underground tanks in the Northeast Region of the US. An environmental and regulatory risk score was computed for each UST. By ranking the tanks according to their risk score, tanks were classified into management action categories including, but the limited to, underground tank testing, retrofit, repair, replacement and closure

  15. Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program scientific peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, E.J. Jr.; Bentz, C.B.; O'Hora, T.D.; Chen, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The 1,350 square-mile Nevada Test Site and additional sites in Nevada served as the continental sites for US nuclear weapons testing from 1951 to 1992. The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program (NRAMP) is a currently on-going effort of the Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and the firm of E. J. Bentz and Associates, Inc., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Program. Argonne National Laboratory is one of several public and private organizations supporting personnel appointed by the NRAMP to the NRAMP Scientific Peer Review Panel. The NRAMP is part of a national effort by the DOE to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication, and public outreach relevant to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous materials management and site remediation activities. This paper describes the development, conduct, and current results of the scientific peer review process which supports the goals of the NRAMP

  16. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9

  17. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  18. A proposed methodology for performing risk analysis of state radiation control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornsife, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is comprised of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. Topics discussed include barriers to effective risk assessment and management, and real versus perceived risk for various radiation programs in the state of Pennsylvania. Calculation results for Pennsylvania are provided for low-level radioactive waste transportation risks, indoor radon risk, and cancer morbidity risk from x-rays. A methodology for prioritizing radiation regulatory programs based on risk is presented with calculations for various Pennsylvania programs

  19. ePORT, NASA's Computer Database Program for System Safety Risk Management Oversight (Electronic Project Online Risk Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    ePORT (electronic Project Online Risk Tool) provides a systematic approach to using an electronic database program to manage a program/project risk management processes. This presentation will briefly cover the standard risk management procedures, then thoroughly cover NASA's Risk Management tool called ePORT. This electronic Project Online Risk Tool (ePORT) is a web-based risk management program that provides a common framework to capture and manage risks, independent of a programs/projects size and budget. It is used to thoroughly cover the risk management paradigm providing standardized evaluation criterion for common management reporting, ePORT improves Product Line, Center and Corporate Management insight, simplifies program/project manager reporting, and maintains an archive of data for historical reference.

  20. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-01-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  1. Pesticide residue levels in strawberry processing by-products that are rich in ellagitannins and an assessment of their dietary risk to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sójka

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the pesticide residue contents in strawberry by-products are higher than in fresh fruits, the suggested doses of the by-products are lower. Therefore, the dietary risk to consumers from strawberry by-products is comparable to that from fresh fruits.

  2. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...

  3. Reducing Technical Risk in the Environmental Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, M.; Krahn, St.; Gerdes, K.; Bush, S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Office of Engineering and Technology is to reduce the technical risk and uncertainty in the Environmental Management program. The office identifies and advances technologies, processes, and technical practices that improve the performance of Environmental Management projects over their entire life cycle, from planning to disposal. Within this office is the Office of Waste Processing, the Office of Groundwater and Soil, and the Office of Decontamination and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering. Each of these offices 1) develops policy and guidance; 2) assesses projects and programs through technical reviews and oversight; 3) provides technical assistance and support to the Field and other HQ offices, and 4) implements the Technology, Development and Deployment Program. This paper describes the efforts underway to reduce technical risks, including the External Technical Reviews being led by the Office of Engineering and Technology. In addition, the paper addresses the efforts underway to identify the technology needs and gaps as well as the strategic plan/road-map to address those needs. (authors)

  4. Programs and Place: Risk and Asset Mapping for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Motlagh, Audry S; Smith, Donald R; Boolani, Ali; Horel, Scott A; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-01-01

    Identifying ways to measure access, availability, and utilization of health-care services, relative to at-risk areas or populations, is critical in providing practical and actionable information to key stakeholders. This study identified the prevalence and geospatial distribution of fall-related emergency medical services (EMS) calls in relation to the delivery of an evidence-based fall prevention program in Tarrant County, Texas over a 3-year time period. It aims to educate public health professionals and EMS first respondents about the application of geographic information system programs to identify risk-related "hot spots," service gaps, and community assets to reduce falls among older adults. On average, 96.09 (±108.65) calls were received per ZIP Code (ranging from 0 calls to 386 calls). On average, EMS calls per ZIP Code increased from 30.80 (±34.70) calls in 2009 to 33.75 (±39.58) calls in 2011, which indicate a modest annual call increase over the 3-year study period. The percent of ZIP Codes offering A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader Model (AMOB/VLL) workshops increased from 27.3% in 2009 to 34.5% in 2011. On average, AMOB/VLL workshops were offered in ZIP Codes with more fall-related EMS calls over the 3-year study period. Findings suggest that the study community was providing evidence-based fall prevention programming (AMOB/VLL workshops) in higher-risk areas. Opportunities for strategic service expansion were revealed through the identification of fall-related hot spots and asset mapping.

  5. Dynamics of the public concern and risk communication program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryabova, Victoria; Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The public concern about electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure varies due to different reasons. A part of them are connected with the better and higher quality of information that people receive from science, media, Internet, social networks, industry, but others are based on good communication programs performed by the responsible institutions, administration and persons. Especially, in Bulgaria, public concern follows interesting changes, some of them in correlation with the European processes of concern, but others following the economic and political processes in the country. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the public concern over the last 10 years. Our explanation of the decrease of the people's complaints against EMF exposure from base stations for mobile communication is as a result of our risk communication program that is in implementation for >10 years.

  6. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L; Crandall, Jill P; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Hamman, Richard F; Montez, Maria G; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopause status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. The study population included women in premenopause (n = 708), women in natural postmenopause (n = 328), and women with bilateral oophorectomy (n = 201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose-intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance, and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy use. After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of hormone therapy use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.63-2.64) or placebo arms (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.74-2.55). Among women at high risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a decreased diabetes risk.

  7. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Crandall, Jill P.; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Montez, Maria G.; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. Methods The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use. Results After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55). Conclusions Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:21709591

  8. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Risk Reduction Cryo Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noel, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A., Jr.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; hide

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  9. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the Program... extension approval by the Office of Management and Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office... [email protected] or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk...

  10. Multi-country assessment of residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in malaria control on different surface types: results from program monitoring in 17 PMI/USAID-supported IRS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengela, Dereje; Seyoum, Aklilu; Lucas, Bradford; Johns, Benjamin; George, Kristen; Belemvire, Allison; Caranci, Angela; Norris, Laura C; Fornadel, Christen M

    2018-01-30

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the application of insecticide to the interior walls of household structures that often serve as resting sites for mosquito vectors of malaria. Human exposure to malaria vectors is reduced when IRS involves proper application of pre-determined concentrations of the active ingredient specific to the insecticide formulation of choice. The impact of IRS can be affected by the dosage of insecticide, spray coverage, vector behavior, vector susceptibility to insecticides, and the residual efficacy of the insecticide applied. This report compiles data on the residual efficacy of insecticides used in IRS campaigns implemented by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)/United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 17 African countries and compares observed length of efficacy to ranges proposed in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Additionally, this study provides initial analysis on variation of mosquito mortality depending on the surface material of sprayed structures, country spray program, year of implementation, source of tested mosquitoes, and type of insecticide. Residual efficacy of the insecticides used for PMI/USAID-supported IRS campaigns was measured in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The WHO cone bioassay tests were used to assess the mortality rate of mosquitoes exposed to insecticide-treated mud, wood, cement, and other commonly used housing materials. Baseline tests were performed within weeks of IRS application and follow-up tests were continued until the mortality of exposed mosquitoes dropped below 80% or the program monitoring period ended. Residual efficacy in months was then evaluated with respect to WHO guidelines that provide suggested ranges of residual efficacy for insecticide formulations recommended for use in IRS. Where the data allowed, direct

  11. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2012-10-11

    glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma) PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization), the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins - are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  12. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-10-01

    related to the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization, the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins – are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  13. A Literature Review of Afterschool Mentoring Programs for Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara; Yarbrough, Anna-Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Afterschool programs such as tutoring and school-based or community-based programs have effectively functioned as prevention and intervention programs for children at risk. This literature review focuses on afterschool mentoring programs for children at risk. The purpose of reviewing the literature was to (a) determine the breadth and scope of the…

  14. Extreme Conditioning Programs: Potential Benefits and Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit, Insanity, Gym Jones, and P90X are examples of extreme conditioning programs (ECPs). ECPs typically involve high-volume and high-intensity physical activities with short rest periods between movements and use of multiple joint exercises. Data on changes in fitness with ECPs are limited to CrossFit investigations that demonstrated improvements in muscle strength, muscular endurance, aerobic fitness, and body composition. However, no study has directly compared CrossFit or other ECPs to other more traditional forms of aerobic and resistance training within the same investigation. These direct comparisons are needed to more adequately evaluate the effectiveness of ECPs. Until these studies emerge, the comparisons with available literature suggest that improvements in CrossFit, in terms of muscular endurance (push-ups, sit-ups), strength, and aerobic capacity, appear to be similar to those seen in more traditional training programs. Investigations of injuries in ECPs are limited to two observational studies that suggest that the overall injury rate is similar to that seen in other exercise programs. Several cases of rhabdomyolysis and cervical carotid artery dissections have been reported during CrossFit training. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these are reviewed here. Until more data on ECPs emerge, physical training should be aligned with US Army doctrine. If ECPs are included in exercise programs, trainers should (1) have appropriate training certifications, (2) inspect exercise equipment regularly to assure safety, (3) introduce ECPs to new participants, (4) ensure medical clearance of Soldiers with special health problems before participation in ECPs, (4) tailor ECPs to the individual Soldier, (5) adjust rest periods to optimize recovery and reduce fatigue, (6) monitor Soldiers for signs of overtraining, rhabdomyolysis, and other problems, and (7) coordinate exercise programs with other unit training activities to eliminate redundant activities

  15. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  16. Risk evaluation of the Arctic environmental POP exposure based on critical body residue and critical daily dose using captive Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as surrogate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Eulaers, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The risk from POP (persistent organic pollutant) exposure and subsequent reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects was evaluated in a classical parallel trial on Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber. First...... quotients (RQDD: DD/CDD; RQBR: BR/CBR; ≥1 indicates risk). The results showed that risk quotients for reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects were significantly lowest in the control group (p... on body residues (RQBR) (all pimmunotoxic effects while those for liver histopathological effects ranged from 0.7-3.0. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and chlordanes were the dominant driver behind high immune and reproductive RQs...

  17. Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual levels of seven frequently used pesticides were investigated in 140 samples of two common vegetables, eggplants and tomatoes, from agricultural fields in the Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A large percentage of the eggplants (50% and tomatoes (60% from the Narayanganj district were contaminated with pesticides, and all of the levels were above the maximum residual limit (MRL proposed by the EC regulation. Diazinon was the most common (35% pesticide detected in the vegetable samples at a concentration of 45–450 times higher than the MRL. The health risk index for diazinon was highest for both eggplant and tomato samples, which may be due to its physiochemical properties. Fenitrothion and linuron are the two second most common types of pesticides detected in the vegetable samples. Regular monitoring of the use of common pesticides on vegetables should be conducted.

  18. Insite: Canada's landmark safe injecting program at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucker Ernest

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract InSite is North Americas first supervised injection site and a landmark public heath initiative operating in Vancouver since 2003. The program is a vital component of that cities internationally recognized harm reduction approach to its serious problems with drugs, crime, homelessness and AIDS. InSite currently operates under a waiver of Federal rules that allow it to provide services as a research project. An extensive evaluation has produced very positive results for thousands of users. Normally such strong evidence documenting the successes of such a program, and the medical and public health significance of these positive outcomes, would be the basis for celebration and moves to expand the model and provide similar services elsewhere in Canada. Instead, there is a distinct possibility that InSite will be closed by the newly elected Canadian Prime Minister Paul Harper – a conservative who has traveled to the US to visit George WQ Bush and come back antagonistic to harm reduction in all its forms. Because InSites federal waiver is expiring and up for renewal in September, the fear is that Mr. Harpers will not renew the approval and that the program will be forced to close down. The risks associated with the potential closure of InSite need to be fully understood. This editorial lays out these public health risks and the associated economic impact if InSite were to be closed. In addition to preventable deaths and disease, InSites closure will cost Vancouver and British Columbia between $3.8 and $ 8.8 million in preventable health care expenses over the next two years.

  19. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Jill P; Polsky, Sarit; Howard, Andrea A; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Brown-Friday, Janet; Whittington, Tracy; Foo, Sandra; Ma, Yong; Edelstein, Sharon L

    2009-09-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes. The objectives were to determine associations between alcohol consumption and diabetes risk factors and whether alcohol consumption was a predictor of incident diabetes in individuals enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). DPP participants (n = 3175) had impaired glucose tolerance (2-h glucose: 7.8-11.1 mmol/L), elevated fasting glucose (5.3-7.0 mmol/L), and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) > or =24. Participants were randomly assigned to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification and were followed for a mean of 3.2 y. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and year 1 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was diagnosed by annual oral-glucose-tolerance testing and semiannual fasting plasma glucose measurement. Participants who reported higher alcohol consumption tended to be male, older, white, and less obese and to have a higher calorie intake and a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower insulin secretion at any level of insulin sensitivity. We found lower incidence rates of diabetes with higher alcohol consumption in the metformin (P alcohol consumption, there was a reduced risk of incident diabetes in those who reported modest daily alcohol intake and were assigned to metformin or lifestyle modification. Moderate daily alcohol intake is associated with lower insulin secretion-an effect that warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00038727.

  20. Risk element sorption/desorption characteristics of dry olive residue: a technique for the potential immobilization of risk elements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Miloš; Száková, Jiřina; García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Acebal, Mercedes Blanc; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Olive oil production is one of the most relevant agroindustrial activities in the Mediterranean region and generates a huge amount of both solid and semi-solid wastes, the uncontrolled disposal of which might lead to serious environmental problems. Due to its organic matter and mineral nutrient content, the waste material can be applied to agricultural soil as a fertilizer. However, due to its high organic matter content, dry olive residue (DOR), commonly called "alperujo," has the potential to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils. The main objective of this study was to assess the possible effect of DOR on sorption of risk elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the soil. A set of batch sorption experiments were carried out to assess the ability of DOR to adsorb Cd, Pb, and Zn where the effect of the preceding biotransformation of DOR by four species of fungi: Penicillium chrysogenum, Coriolopsis floccosa, Bjerkhandera adusta, and Chondrostereum purpureum was compared. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were calculated to assess the sorption characteristics of both transformed and non-transformed DOR. The results showed good potential sorption capacity of DOR, especially for Pb and to a lesser extent for Cd and Zn. Better sorption characteristics were reported for the biotransformed DOR samples, which are expected to show higher humification of the organic matter. However, the desorption experiments showed weakness and instability of the DOR-bound elements, especially in the case of Zn. Thus, future research should aim to verify the DOR sorption pattern in contaminated soil as well as the potential stabilization of the DOR element bounds where the increase of the pH levels of the DOR samples needs to be taken into account.

  1. Large breast size as a risk factor for late adverse effects of breast radiotherapy: Is residual dose inhomogeneity, despite 3D treatment planning and delivery, the main explanation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, Christy; Haviland, Joanne; Tsang, Yat; Sydenham, Mark; Yarnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Large breast size is associated with an increased risk of late adverse effects after breast conservation surgery and radiotherapy, even when 3D dosimetry is used. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that residual dose inhomogeneity is sufficient to explain the association. Methods: Patients previously treated after breast conservation surgery with whole breast radiotherapy using 3D dosimetry and followed up in the UK FAST hypofractionation trial were selected for this analysis. The residual level of dose inhomogeneity across the whole breast treatment volume was used to test for association between residual dosimetry and post-treatment change in breast appearance at 2 years post-radiotherapy. Results: At 2 years, 201/279 (72%) of women had no change in photographic breast appearance, 61 (22%) had mild change and 17 (6%) had marked change. Breast size and dosimetry were both significantly associated with late effects in univariate analyses, but only breast size remained an independent significant risk factor for change in breast appearance when included in a multiple regression model together with other prognostic factors (p = 0.006 for trend). Conclusion: Large-breasted women are more likely to suffer change in breast size and shape after whole breast radiotherapy delivered using 3D dosimetry, but residual dose inhomogeneity is insufficient to explain the association.

  2. Association Between Corporate Wellness Program Participation and Changes in Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John C; Hartley, Stephen; Ozminkowski, Ronald J

    2015-10-01

    To assess the relationship between wellness program participation and employee health risks. Data from 173,901 health-risk appraisals and wellness program participation records were used to assess changes in seven health risks (blood pressure, body weight, cholesterol level, nutrition, physical inactivity, stress, and tobacco use). Controlling for baseline covariates, high-risk members who completed only a coaching program were significantly more likely to lower five out of seven health risks than were high-risk members in the comparison group. Participation in multiple wellness activities (eg, biometric screening) increased the odds that risks would be reduced.In addition, the number of risk levels that improved was greater than the total that worsened. This study provides evidence that wellness program participation was associated with significant risk reduction, particularly among individuals who participated in more than one program.

  3. Sustainable production program in the Mexican mining industry: occupational risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zavala Reyna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Speaking of mining and sustainability sounds contradictory, as the environmental impact generated by resource extraction is well known. However, there are mining companies that are working to be safe and environmentally friendly. An example of this is presented in this study aimed at identifying occupational risks generated by the activities of a small-scale gold and silver mine located in northwestern Mexico. The methodology followed was a Sustainable Production Program (SPP based on a continuous cycle of five steps in which the tools of cleaner production and pollution prevention are adapted. As a result of this project, it was possible to implement SPP activities: training for workers, use of personal protective equipment and adequate handling of chemicals. As a conclusion, it was verified that SPP application helped this mining company move towards sustainable patterns of production.

  4. Prevalence of Serological Markers for Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Brazilian Blood Donors, and Incidence and Residual Risk of Transfusion-Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Liu, Jing; Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Mendrone-Junior, Alfredo; Salles, Nanci Alves; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Wright, David J.; Basques, Fernando Valadares; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluate the current prevalence of serological markers for HBV and HCV in blood donors and estimated HCV incidence and residual transfusion-transmitted risk at three large Brazilian blood centers. Material and Methods Data on whole blood and platelet donations were collected from January through December 2007 and analyzed by center, donor type (replacement vs. community), age, sex, donation status (first-time vs. repeat), and serological results for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV. HBV (HBsAg+/anti-HBc+) and HCV (anti-HCV) prevalence rates were calculated for all first time donations. HCV incidence was derived including inter-donation intervals that preceded first repeat donations given during the study and HCV residual risk was estimated for transfusions derived from repeat donors. Results There were 307,354 donations from January through December 2007. Overall prevalence of concordant HBsAg and anti-HBc reactivity was 289 per 100,000 donations and of anti-HCV confirmed reactivity 191 per 100,000 donations. There were significant associations between older age and hepatitis markers, especially for HCV. HCV incidence was 3.11 (95% CI 0.77-7.03) per 100,000 person-years, and residual risk of HCV window-phase infections was estimated at 5.0 per million units transfused. Conclusion Improvement in blood donor selection, socioeconomic conditions and preventive measures, implemented over time, may have helped to decrease prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses, relative to previous reports. Incidence and residual risk of HCV are also diminishing. Ongoing monitoring of hepatitis B and C viral markers among Brazilian blood donors should help guide improved recruitment procedures, donor selection, laboratory screening methods and counseling strategies. PMID:22882510

  5. Reasoned opinion on the dietary risk assessment for proposed temporary maximum residue levels (MRLs) of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC)

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    EFSA was requested by the European Commission to perform a dietary exposure assessment for the proposed temporary maximum residue levels (MRLs) for didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) (0.1 mg/kg, respectively, for all food commodities covered by the EU MRL legislation). Based on the information, EFSA did not identify potential consumer health risks for these proposed MRLs. Thus, the proposed MRLs are considered to be sufficiently protective. However, due to...

  6. Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about safe medication use during pregnancy is limited, yet about two of every three women take at least one prescription medication during pregnancy, furthermore, there is a lack of rigorous studies evaluating birth outcomes associated with in utero exposure to medications. The Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP) is intended to provide a mechanism for collaborative pharmacoepidemiological research to address the safety of pharmaceutical product exposure during pregnancy, through the development of standardized data requirements and of the necessary data linkages of mother-infant pairs to conduct multi-site investigations. This presentation will describe the program, the types of data collected, and progress to date. The current MEPREP population includes female health plan members of 11 distinct health management entities within three research centres who have delivered an infant between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2007, along with the administrative and birth certificate data on over one million children linked to mothers. There is information on all the medications those mothers took, as well as most of the outcomes of the babies. One of the benefits of this dataset is the information that could be investigated, such as birth weight, fetal growth, congenital anomalies, perinatal conditions, etc., against various demographics of the women in the dataset. The population size within the dataset suggests that various parameters could be studied with at least a modest degree of power.

  7. Establishing a program for individuals at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiz, Fernando; Kuerer, Henry M; Puga, Julio; Camacho, Jamile; Cunill, Eduardo; Arun, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our need to create a program for individuals at high risk for breast cancer development led us to research the available data on such programs. In this paper, we summarize our findings and our thinking process as we developed our own program. Breast cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Even though there are known risk factors for breast cancer development, approximately 60% of patients with breast cancer have no known risk factor, although this situation will probably change with further research, especially in genetics. For patients with risk factors based on personal or family history, different models are available for assessing and quantifying risk. Assignment of risk levels permits tailored screening and risk reduction strategies. Potential benefits of specialized programs for women with high breast cancer risk include more cost -effective interventions as a result of patient stratification on the basis of risk; generation of valuable data to advance science; and differentiation of breast programs from other breast cancer units, which can result in increased revenue that can be directed to further improvements in patient care. Guidelines for care of patients at high risk for breast cancer are available from various groups. However, running a high-risk breast program involves much more than applying a guideline. Each high-risk program needs to be designed by its institution with consideration of local resources and country legislation, especially related to genetic issues. Development of a successful high-risk program includes identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; developing a promotion plan; choosing a risk assessment tool; defining "high risk"; and planning screening and risk reduction strategies for the specific population served by the program. The information in this article may be useful for other institutions considering creation of programs for patients with high breast cancer risk.

  8. Fetal programming and the risk of noncommunicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D

    2013-03-01

    The "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that environmental conditions during fetal and early post-natal development influence lifelong health and capacity through permanent effects on growth, structure and metabolism. This has been called 'programming'. The hypothesis is supported by epidemiological evidence in humans linking newborn size, and infant growth and nutrition, to adult health outcomes, and by experiments in animals showing that maternal under- and over-nutrition and other interventions (e.g., glucocorticoid exposure) during pregnancy lead to abnormal metabolism and body composition in the adult offspring. Early life programming is now thought to be important in the etiology of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, opening up the possibility that these common diseases could be prevented by achieving optimal fetal and infant development. This is likely to have additional benefits for infant survival and human capital (e.g., improved cognitive performance and physical work capacity). Fetal nutrition is influenced by the mother's diet and body size and composition, but hard evidence that the nutrition of the human mother programmes chronic disease risk in her offspring is currently limited. Recent findings from follow-up of children born after randomised nutritional interventions in pregnancy are mixed, but show some evidence of beneficial effects on vascular function, lipid concentrations, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Work in experimental animals suggests that epigenetic phenomena, whereby gene expression is modified by DNA methylation, and which are sensitive to the nutritional environment in early life, may be one mechanism underlying programming.

  9. Conformal coating value/risk assessment for Sandia satellite programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russick, Edward Mark; Thayer, Gayle Echo

    2008-03-01

    Conformal coatings are used in space applications on printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies primarily as a protective barrier against environmental contaminants. Such coatings have been used at Sandia for decades in satellite applications including the GPS satellite program. Recently, the value of conformal coating has been questioned because it is time consuming (requiring a 5-6 week schedule allowance) and delays due to difficulty of repairs and rework performed afterward are troublesome. In an effort to find opportunities where assembly time can be reduced, a review of the literature as well as discussions with satellite engineers both within and external to Sandia regarding the value of conformal coating was performed. Several sources on the value of conformal coating, the functions it performs, and on whether coatings are necessary and should be used at all were found, though nearly all were based on anecdotal information. The first section of this report, titled 'Conformal Coating for Space Applications', summarizes the results of an initial risk-value assessment of the conformal coating process for Sandia satellite programs based on information gathered. In the process of collecting information to perform the assessment, it was necessary to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the entire satellite box assembly process. A production time-line was constructed and is presented in the second section of this report, titled 'Satellite Box Assembly', specifically to identify potential sources of time delays, manufacturing issues, and component failures related to the conformal coating process in relation to the box assembly. The time-line also allows for identification of production issues that were anecdotally attributed to the conformal coating but actually were associated with other production steps in the box assembly process. It was constructed largely in consultation with GPS program engineers with empirical knowledge of times required

  10. 76 FR 72220 - Incorporation of Risk Management Concepts in Regulatory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0269] Incorporation of Risk Management Concepts in... vision to better incorporate risk management concepts into its regulatory programs. To continue NRC's longstanding goal to move toward more risk-informed, performance- based approaches in its regulatory programs...

  11. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  12. Graf Type-IV Hips Have a Higher Risk of Residual Acetabular Dysplasia at 1 Year of Age Following Successful Pavlik Harness Treatment for Developmental Hip Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Eduardo N; Sanders, Julia; Kestel, Lauryn A; Carry, Patrick M; Meyers, Mariana L

    2016-09-22

    We asked whether patient-specific factors and ultrasound (US) measurements of hip dysplasia severity at initial examination influence short-term residual acetabular dysplasia in patients successfully treated with Pavlik harness for developmental hip dysplasia. After IRB approval, 134 hips (84 patients) successfully treated by the Pavlik method between August 2011 and October 2014 with follow-up at 12 months of age were identified. Early successful treatment was defined as normal examination and US after approximately 12 weeks of Pavlik treatment. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with acetabular index (AI) measurements at 12 months as well as factors associated with an increase in AI between the 6- and 12-month timepoints (dysplastic progression). The study consisted of 134 hips (84 patients). The distribution of dysplastic, Barlow, and Ortolani hips was 44.8% (N=60), 30.6% (N=41), and 24.6% (N=33), respectively. The crude incidence of residual dysplasia at the 6-month visit (AI>30 degrees) was 11.7% (12/102). The incidence of residual dysplasia at the 12-month visit (AI>28 degrees) was 11.8% (13/111). Graf type was the only variable associated with AI values at the 12-month visit (mean difference: Graf type-IV-Other, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-4.9; P=0.026). The risk of residual acetabular dysplasia after normal hip US following Pavlik treatment is not negligible. Radiographic surveillance is warranted to monitor and screen for dysplasia progression. Patients with dislocated Graf type-IV hips at diagnosis are at increased risk of residual acetabular dysplasia at 1 year after successful treatment with the Pavlik method. Level III-therapeutic study.

  13. Risk factors for poor outcome of a single Epley maneuver and residual positional vertigo in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Go; Sekine, Kazunori; Matsuda, Kazunori; Takeda, Noriaki

    2013-11-01

    The findings suggest that in patients with posterior semicircular canal (PSCC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (P-BPPV), head trauma and prolonged bedrest, but not inner ear disease, are risk factors for poor outcome of a single Epley maneuver and persistent residual positional vertigo. We first examined the efficacy of a single Epley maneuver and then assessed the time course in remission of residual positional vertigo in patients with idiopathic P-BPPV and secondary P-BPPV. A total of 157 patients with idiopathic P-BPPV and 40 patients with secondary P-BPPV (secondary to head trauma in 8 patients, to prolonged bedrest in 14 patients, and to inner ear disease in 18 patients) were treated with a single Epley maneuver. The negative rates of the Dix-Hallpike test on day 7 after a single Epley maneuver in both patients with P-BPPV secondary to head trauma (25%) and those with prolonged bedrest (36%) were significantly lower than that (73%) in patients with idiopathic P-BPPV. Additionally, the remission of residual positional vertigo in the former groups of patients was significantly delayed in comparison with that of the latter group. However, there were no significant differences in the efficacy of a single Epley maneuver and persistent residual positional vertigo between idiopathic P-BPPV and P-BPPV secondary to inner ear disease.

  14. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea: a long-term study on safety and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Woong; Kim, Kwang Gon; Choi, Eun Ah; Kang, Gyeong Ri; Kim, Tae Sun; Yang, Yong Shik; Moon, Su Jin; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Cho, Bae Sik

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has a unique food culture. South Koreans enjoy wrapping meat and eating or making kimchi (traditionally fermented Korean food) and eating using raw leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables. Therefore, there is a high chance of being exposed to pesticide residues of vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea. A total of 8496 samples were mainly collected from Gwangju and Jeonnam area (the largest production region of leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables) in South Korea from 2010 to 2014. A total of 230 pesticides were used for multi-residue analysis of pesticides. Among 8496 samples, 61 different pesticides (1029 times) were detected in 890 samples, of which 118 samples (1.4%) exceeded the Korea maximum residue limits (MRLs). Samples exceeding the MRLs were mostly found in leafy vegetables (brassica lee ssp. namai, leafy lettuce, spinach, perilla leaves, crown daisy, marsh mallow, aster scaber, pimpinella brachycarpa) and Chinese chive. Procymidone, dimethomorph and azoxystrobin were the most frequently found pesticides. A risk assessment of pesticides exceeding the MRLs was evaluated by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) and the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ratio of EDI to ADI was 0.003-30.4%.

  15. Startup circuit training program reduces metabolic risk in Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie Nicole; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Vanni, Amanda A; Meija, Mathew; Tung, Amy; Schroeder, E Todd; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to test the effects of a circuit training (CT; aerobic + strength training) program, with and without motivational interviewing (MI) behavioral therapy, on reducing adiposity and type 2 diabetes risk factors in Latina teenagers. Thirty-eight Latina adolescents (15.8 ± 1.1 yr) who are overweight/obese were randomly assigned to control (C; n = 12), CT (n = 14), or CT + MI (n = 12). The CT classes were held twice a week (60-90 min) for 16 wk. The CT + MI group also received individual or group MI sessions every other week. The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one-repetition maximum; cardiorespiratory fitness (V·O 2max) by submaximal treadmill test; physical activity by accelerometry; dietary intake by records; height, weight, waist circumference; total body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and hepatic fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging; and glucose/insulin indices by fasting blood draw. Across-intervention group effects were tested using repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons. CT and CT + MI participants, compared with controls, significantly increased fitness (+16% and +15% vs -6%, P = 0.03) and leg press (+40% vs +20%, P = 0.007). Compared with controls, CT participants also decreased waist circumference (-3% vs +3%; P < 0.001), subcutaneous adipose tissue (-10% vs 8%, P = 0.04), visceral adipose tissue (-10% vs +6%, P = 0.05), fasting insulin (-24% vs +6%, P = 0.03), and insulin resistance (-21% vs -4%, P = 0.05). CT may be an effective starter program to reduce fat depots and improve insulin resistance in Latino youth who are overweight/obese, whereas the additional MI therapy showed no additive effect on these health outcomes.

  16. Analysis of the effect of risk management practices on the performance of new product development programs

    OpenAIRE

    Oehmen, Josef; Olechowski, Alison; Kenley, C. Robert; Ben-Daya, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Risk management is receiving much attention, as it is seen as a method to improve cost, schedule, and technical performance of new product development programs. However, there is a lack of empirical research that investigates the effective integration of specific risk management practices proposed by various standards with new product development programs and their association with various dimensions of risk management success. Based on a survey of 291 product development programs, this paper...

  17. Risk evaluation of the Arctic environmental POP exposure based on critical body residue and critical daily dose using captive Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as surrogate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Eulaers, Igor; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Letcher, Robert J; Rigét, Frank F; Styrishave, Bjarne; Dietz, Rune

    2016-03-01

    The risk from POP (persistent organic pollutant) exposure and subsequent reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects was evaluated in a classical parallel trial on Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber. First the critical body residues (CBRs) were estimated using the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for seven POP compounds based on rat critical daily doses (CDDs). These were then compared with the actual daily oral POP doses (DD) and body residues (BR) in the sledge dogs by calculating risk quotients (RQDD: DD/CDD; RQBR: BR/CBR; ≥1 indicates risk). The results showed that risk quotients for reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects were significantly lowest in the control group (preproductive and immunotoxic effects while those for liver histopathological effects ranged from 0.7-3.0. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and chlordanes were the dominant driver behind high immune and reproductive RQs while dieldrin was the most important factor behind RQs for liver histopathology. Principal component analyses and Spearman rank correlation analyses showed that complement and cellular immune parameters were significantly negative correlated with RQBR (all pdogs. It is also clear that RQBR is the best reflector of health effects from POP exposure and that it is especially accurate in predicting immune and reproductive effects. We recommend that PBPK modelled (CBR) and RQBR should be used in the assessment of POP exposure and health effects in Arctic top predators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in market-sold vegetables and fish in a northern metropolis of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanyan; Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yanmei; Die, Qingqi; Liu, Feng; He, Jie; Huang, Qifei

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns about food safety and stricter national standards in China, attention has focused on vegetables and fish as they are an important part of the Chinese daily diet, and pesticide residues can accumulate in these foodstuffs. The local consumption habits of vegetables and fish were determined using questionnaires distributed in the major regions of the northern metropolis. Then, the samples of fruit-like vegetables, leafy and root vegetables, and five species of fish (freshwater and marine) were collected from supermarkets and traditional farmers' markets in the city. The concentrations and profiles of pesticide residues (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), and endosulfan) in the samples were determined and compared. For the vegetables, the concentration ranges of ΣDDT, ΣHCH, and Σendosulfan were not detectable (ND) to 10.4 ng/g fresh weight (f.w.), ND to 58.8 ng/g f.w., and ND to 63.9 ng/g f.w., respectively. For the fish samples, the corresponding values were 0.77-25.0 ng/g f.w., 0.02-1.42 ng/g f.w., and 1.22-22.1 ng/g f.w., respectively. Only one celery sample exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of HCH residues set by Chinese regulations (GB2763-2014). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using data from the recently published Exposure Factors Handbook for the Chinese Population. The EDIs and HRs showed that the levels of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in vegetables and fish in this area are safe.

  19. Analysis of the effect of risk management practices on the performance of new product development programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehmen, Josef; Olechowski, Alison; Kenley, C. Robert

    2014-01-01

    performance: (A) Quality Decision Making; (B) High Program Stability; (C) Open, problem solving organization; (D) Overall new product development project success; and (E) overall product success. The results show that six categories of risk management practices are most effective: (1) Develop risk management......Risk management is receiving much attention, as it is seen as a method to improve cost, schedule, and technical performance of new product development programs. However, there is a lack of empirical research that investigates the effective integration of specific risk management practices proposed...... by various standards with new product development programs and their association with various dimensions of risk management success. Based on a survey of 291 product development programs, this paper investigates the association of risk management practices with five categories of product development program...

  20. Analysis of class 1 residual solvents in pharmaceuticals using headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel; Fernández Laespada, M A Esther; García Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2007-02-02

    A sensitive method is presented for the fast screening and determination of residual class 1 solvents (1,1-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride and benzene) in pharmaceutical products. The applicability of a headspace (HS) autosampler in combination with GC equipped with a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a MS detector is explored. Different injection techniques were compared. The benefits of using solvent vent injection instead of split or splitless-hot injection for the measurement of volatile compounds are shown: better peak shapes, better signal-to-noise ratios, and hence better detection limits. The proposed method is extremely sensitive. The limits of detection ranged from 4.9 ppt (benzene) to 7.9 ppt (1,2-dichloroethane) and precision (measured as the relative standard deviation) was equal to or lower than 12% in all cases. The method was applied to the determination of residual solvents in nine different pharmaceutical products. The analytical performance of the method shows that it is appropriate for the determination of residual class 1 solvents and has much lower detection limits than the concentration limits proposed by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) of Technical Requirements for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. The proposed method achieves a clear improvement in sensitivity with respect to conventional headspace methods due to the use of the PTV.

  1. Risk-based priority scoring for Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the process of estimating the risk associated with environmental restoration programs under the Brookhaven National Laboratory Office of Environmental Restoration. The process was part of an effort across all Department of Energy facilities to provide a consistent framework to communicate risk information about the facilities to senior managers in the DOE Office of Environmental Management to foster understanding of risk activities across programs. the risk evaluation was a qualitative exercise. Categories considered included: Public health and safety; site personnel safety and health; compliance; mission impact; cost-effective risk management; environmental protection; inherent worker risk; environmental effects of clean-up; and social, cultural, political, and economic impacts

  2. Optimal Risk Reduction in the Railway Industry by Using Dynamic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Todinov; Eberechi Weli

    2013-01-01

    The paper suggests for the first time the use of dynamic programming techniques for optimal risk reduction in the railway industry. It is shown that by using the concept ‘amount of removed risk by a risk reduction option’, the problem related to optimal allocation of a fixed budget to achieve a maximum risk reduction in the railway industry can be reduced to an optimisation problem from dynamic programming. For n risk reduction options and size of the available risk reduction budget B (expres...

  3. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Analysis of Deltamethrin Residue on the Impregnated Bed Nets during a Leishmaniasis Control program in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: The control of leishmaniasis, a tropical neglected disease, has been concern of Iranian health authori­ties due to the increasing number of cases during the last two decades. The objective of this study was to determine del­tamethrine residue on the impregnated bed nets using HPTLC technique in a leishmaniasis control program in Iran.Methods: During this experimental study, a total of 130 small pieces of polyester netting were sewn to top, upper, and lower sides of some bed nets and then were impregnated with deltamethrin .The treated bed nets were distributed in Isfahan and Mashhad areas in April 2003. The samples were cut randomly after impregnation intervals. Deltame­thrin was extracted using acetone from samples and the extract was applied for spotting onto plates. The plates were devel­oped with n-hexane: ethyl acetate, 90+10(v/v, as a mobile phase in a Camage chamber. The qualifying of resi­due was observed in UV cabinet with λ=254 nm wavelength. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. and Stata Ver­sion 8. A three way ANOVA was used to compare the means of deltamethrin residue in each area, group and measur­ing time. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the means of residue for each of these factors with the con­trol separately.Results: The retardation factor of deltamethrin was calculated 0.50±0.02. The residues of deltamethrin persisted well on impregnated nets at least for 15 weeks after impregnation. No significant difference could be detected in the loss of residue of insecticide in comparison to measuring times and positions of sampling pieces on the bed nets in these ar­eas.Conclusion:  Based on the results of the present study the use of HPTLC technique is recommended instead of other chro­matographic methods for analysis of insecticide residue on the impregnated bed nets.

  4. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Analysis of Deltamethrin Residue on the Impregnated Bed Nets during a Leishmaniasis Control program in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: The control of leishmaniasis, a tropical neglected disease, has been concern of Iranian health authori­ties due to the increasing number of cases during the last two decades. The objective of this study was to determine del­tamethrine residue on the impregnated bed nets using HPTLC technique in a leishmaniasis control program in Iran."nMethods: During this experimental study, a total of 130 small pieces of polyester netting were sewn to top, upper, and lower sides of some bed nets and then were impregnated with deltamethrin .The treated bed nets were distributed in Isfahan and Mashhad areas in April 2003. The samples were cut randomly after impregnation intervals. Deltame­thrin was extracted using acetone from samples and the extract was applied for spotting onto plates. The plates were devel­oped with n-hexane: ethyl acetate, 90+10(v/v, as a mobile phase in a Camage chamber. The qualifying of resi­due was observed in UV cabinet with λ=254 nm wavelength. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. and Stata Ver­sion 8. A three way ANOVA was used to compare the means of deltamethrin residue in each area, group and measur­ing time. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the means of residue for each of these factors with the con­trol separately."nResults: The retardation factor of deltamethrin was calculated 0.50±0.02. The residues of deltamethrin persisted well on impregnated nets at least for 15 weeks after impregnation. No significant difference could be detected in the loss of residue of insecticide in comparison to measuring times and positions of sampling pieces on the bed nets in these ar­eas."nConclusion:  Based on the results of the present study the use of HPTLC technique is recommended instead of other chro­matographic methods for analysis of insecticide residue on the impregnated bed nets.

  5. The atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio [log(TG/HDL-C] is associated with residual vascular risk, beta-cell function loss and microangiopathy in type 2 diabetes females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Michel P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD, defined as low HDL-C plus elevated triglycerides (TG, comorbid to T2DM, increases cardiometabolic risk for CAD even when LDL-C is at target. In T2DM males, AD was shown to correlate with β-cell function loss, yet it is not established whether this applies across gender. Aim To establish the prevalence and severity of AD in T2DM females, and to determine how it relates to cardiometabolic phenotype, glucose homeostasis, micro- and macrovascular complications, and 10-year absolute CV risk (UKPDS Risk Engine. Methods 340 T2DM females were ranked according to quintiles (Q of the continuous variable log(TG/HDL-C, with AD prevalence defined as HDL-C -1 plus TG ≥150 mg.dL-1, and β-cell function assessed with HOMA. Results AD prevalence was 35%; mean HDL-C and TG were 52 (15 and 160 (105 mg.dL-1. AD was significantly related to central fat, metabolic syndrome, sedentarity and skeletal sarcopenia, as well as to hsCRP, fibrinogen, uric acid, cystatin-C, Big ET-1, and 10-year UKPDS CV risk. AD correlated stepwise with lower β-cell function and hyperbolic product, and with accelerated loss of residual insulin secretion, higher HbA1c and prevalent microangiopathy. Conclusions log(TG/HDL-C is a simple means to grade AD and residual macrovascular risk in T2DM females. This ratio associates with major non-LDL cardiometabolic variables and ranks predicted CAD risk. In addition, log(TG/HDL-C identifies worsening glucose homeostasis, poorer glycemic control, and prevalent microangiopathy.

  6. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  7. FIELD NOTES: PEOPLE, PROGRAMS, & POLICIES Farmers' Market Produce Delivery Program for Mitigating Nutritional Risk in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Sally E; Buys, David R; Allocca, Sally; Locher, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    Community-dwelling older adults in disadvantaged neighborhoods may face nutritional risks not mitigated by existing programs. The Senior Market Basket Program, administered by nonprofit organization P.E.E.R., Inc., is a unique approach to serving community-dwelling senior adults and a valuable model for integrating targeted social services into local food systems. The program ensures access to fresh produce during the growing season for a defined target population.

  8. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  9. Favorable Local Control From Consolidative Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Despite Gross Residual Disease, Positive Margins, or Nodal Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Matthew J; Danish, Hasan; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Deng, Claudia; George, Bradley A; Goldsmith, Kelly C; Wasilewski, Karen J; Cash, W Thomas; Khan, Mohammad K; Eaton, Bree R; Esiashvili, Natia

    2017-03-15

    To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38.8%) failed distantly; 4 of these patients also failed locally. One patient progressed locally without distant failure. Local control was 92.5%, and total disease control was 59.5%. No benefit was demonstrated for RT doses over 21.6 Gy with respect to local relapse-free survival (P=.55), disease-free survival (P=.22), or OS (P=.72). With respect to local relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, and OS, no disadvantage was seen for positive lymph nodes on surgical pathology, positive surgical margins, or gross residual disease. Of the patients with gross residual disease, 75% (6 of 8) went on to have no evidence of disease at time of last follow-up, and the 2 patients who failed did so distantly. Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in this series maintained excellent local control, with no benefit demonstrated for radiation doses over 21.6 Gy, and no disadvantage demonstrated for gross residual disease after surgery, positive surgical margins, or pathologic lymph node positivity. Though the limitations of a retrospective review for an uncommon disease must be kept in mind, with small numbers in some of the subgroups, it seems that dose escalation should be considered only in exceptional circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [es

  11. Favorable Local Control From Consolidative Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Despite Gross Residual Disease, Positive Margins, or Nodal Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Matthew J., E-mail: mjferri@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Danish, Hasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deng, Claudia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); George, Bradley A.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Wasilewski, Karen J.; Cash, W. Thomas [Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K.; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38.8%) failed distantly; 4 of these patients also failed locally. One patient progressed locally without distant failure. Local control was 92.5%, and total disease control was 59.5%. No benefit was demonstrated for RT doses over 21.6 Gy with respect to local relapse–free survival (P=.55), disease-free survival (P=.22), or OS (P=.72). With respect to local relapse–free survival, disease-free survival, and OS, no disadvantage was seen for positive lymph nodes on surgical pathology, positive surgical margins, or gross residual disease. Of the patients with gross residual disease, 75% (6 of 8) went on to have no evidence of disease at time of last follow-up, and the 2 patients who failed did so distantly. Conclusions: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in this series maintained excellent local control, with no benefit demonstrated for radiation doses over 21.6 Gy, and no disadvantage demonstrated for gross residual disease after surgery, positive surgical margins, or pathologic lymph node positivity. Though the limitations of a retrospective review for an uncommon disease must be kept in mind, with small numbers in some of the subgroups, it seems that dose escalation should be considered only in exceptional circumstances.

  12. Optimising an integrated crop-livestock farm using risk programming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous studies have analysed farm planning decisions focusing on producer risk preferences. Few studies have focussed on the farm planning decisions in an integrated croplivestock farm context. Income variability and means of managing risk continues to receive much attention in farm planning research. Different risk ...

  13. Economic efficiency and risk character of fire management programs, Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Frederick W. Bratten

    1988-01-01

    Economic efficiency and risk have long been considered during the selection of fire management programs and the design of fire management polices. The risk considerations was largely subjective, however, and efficiency has only recently been calculated for selected portions of the fire management program. The highly stochastic behavior of the fire system and the high...

  14. Urban Tree Risk Management:A Community Guide to Program Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Pokorny; Joseph O' Brien; Richard Hauer; Gary Johnson; Jana Albers; Peter Bedker; Manfred Mielke

    2003-01-01

    Urban Tree Risk Management: A Community Guide to Program Design and Implementation is a fully illustrated, easy to read training manual written for community leaders, administrators, city foresters, parks and public works staff, and private tree care practitioners. The manual is designed to assist communities design, adopt and implement tree risk management programs,...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5181 - Bank interest rate risk management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....5181 Bank interest rate risk management program. (a) The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank interest rate risk management program. 615.5181 Section 615.5181 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND...

  16. Between Vulnerability and Risk: Promoting Access and Equity in a School-University Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Alan; Jayman, Alison Jenkins

    2011-01-01

    This article utilizes interview data to explore how notions of risk operate in a school-university partnership program. Our analysis traces the divergence between conceptualizations of "at-risk" in scholarship, its use in policy, and students' responses to this terminology. Although students targeted in such programs are often…

  17. 12 CFR 1710.19 - Compliance and risk management programs; compliance with other laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance and risk management programs; compliance with other laws. 1710.19 Section 1710.19 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE... Practices and Procedures § 1710.19 Compliance and risk management programs; compliance with other laws. (a...

  18. ESP and NOAH: computer programs for flood-risk analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Montague, D.F.; Rooney, J.J.; Fussell, J.B.; Baker, L.S.

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a computer program package that aids in assessing the impact of floods on risk from nuclear power plants. The package consists of two distinct computer programs: ESP and NOAH. The ESP program improves the efficiency of a flood analysis by screening accident sequences and identifying accident sequences that are potentially significant contributors to risk in the event of a flood. Input to ESP includes accident sequences from an existing risk assessment and flood screening criteria. The NOAH program provides detailed qualitative analysis of the plant systems identified by ESP. NOAH performs a qualitative flood simulation of the fault tree

  19. Validation of QuEChERS based method for determination of fenitrothion residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector: Decline pattern and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag; Boulangé, Julien; Abdelraheem, Ehab; Abd Allah, Osama; Abd El-Hamid, Rania; Abd El-Salam, Shokr

    2017-08-15

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) determination method was developed to detect residue levels and investigate the dissipation pattern and safe use of fenitrothion in tomatoes. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) using an ethyl acetate-based extraction, followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) with primary-secondary amine (PSA) and graphite carbon black (GCB) for clean up, was applied prior to GC-FPD analysis. The method showed satisfactory linearity, recovery and precision. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.01mg/kg, respectively. The residue levels of fenitrothion were best described by first order kinetics with a half-life of 2.2days in tomatoes. The potential health risks posed by fenitrothion were not significant, based on supervised residue trial data. The current findings could provide guidance for safe and reasonable use of fenitrothion in tomatoes and prevent health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human health risk comparisons for environmental management baseline program and integration opportunities (discussion draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, S.A.; Jones, J.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1998-02-01

    This report documents the process and results of human health risk assessments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide programs for high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, and spent nuclear fuel. The DOE baseline programs and alternatives for these five material types were characterized by disposition maps (system flow diagrams) and supporting information in the May 1997 report A Contractor Report to the Department of Energy on Environmental Baseline Programs and Integration Opportunities (Discussion Draft). Risk analyses were performed using the Simplified Risk Model (SRM), developed to support DOE Environmental Management (EM) integration studies. The SRM risk analyses consistently and comprehensively cover the entire programs for the five material types, from initial storage through final disposition. Risk results are presented at several levels: DOE complex-wide, material type program, individual DOE sites, and DOE site activities.

  1. Estimating risk reduction required to break even in a health promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Goetzel, Ron Z; Santoro, Jan; Saenz, Betty-Jo; Eley, Christine; Gorsky, Bob

    2004-01-01

    To illustrate a formula to estimate the amount of risk reduction required to break even on a corporate health promotion program. A case study design was implemented. Base year (2001) health risk and medical expenditure data from the company, along with published information on the relationships between employee demographics, health risks, and medical expenditures, were used to forecast demographics, risks, and expenditures for 2002 through 2011 and estimate the required amount of risk reduction. Motorola. 52,124 domestic employees. Demographics included age, gender, race, and job type. Health risks for 2001 were measured via health risk appraisal. Risks were noted as either high or low and related to exercise/eating habits, body weight, blood pressure, blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, depression, stress, smoking/drinking habits, and seat belt use. Medical claims for 2001 were used to calculate medical expenditures per employee. Assuming a dollar 282 per employee program cost, Motorola employees would need to reduce their lifestyle-related health risks by 1.08% to 1.42% per year to break even on health promotion programming, depending upon the discount rate. Higher or lower program investments would change the risk reduction percentages. Employers can use information from published studies, along with their own data, to estimate the amount of risk reduction required to break even on their health promotion programs.

  2. Increased risks of malaria due to limited residual life of insecticide and outdoor biting versus protection by combined use of nets and indoor residual spraying on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley John

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, with year-round transmission. In 2004 an intensive malaria control strategy primarily based on indoor residual spraying (IRS was launched. The limited residual life of IRS poses particular challenges in a setting with year-round transmission, such as Bioko. Recent reports of outdoor biting by Anopheles gambiae are an additional cause for concern. In this study, the effect of the short residual life of bendiocarb insecticide and of children spending time outdoors at night, on malaria infection prevalence was examined. Methods Data from the 2011 annual malaria indicator survey and from standard WHO cone bioassays were used to examine the relationship between time since IRS, mosquito mortality and prevalence of infection in children. How often children spend time outside at night and the association of this behaviour with malaria infection were also examined. Results Prevalence of malaria infection in two to 14 year-olds in 2011 was 18.4%, 21.0% and 28.1% in communities with median time since IRS of three, four and five months respectively. After adjusting for confounders, each extra month since IRS corresponded to an odds ratio (OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.15–1.81 for infection prevalence in two to 14 year-olds. Mosquito mortality was 100%, 96%, 81% and 78%, at month 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively after spraying. Only 4.1% of children spent time outside the night before the survey between the hours of 22.00 and 06.00 and those who did were not at a higher risk of infection (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.50–1.54. Sleeping under a mosquito net provided additive protection (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86. Conclusions The results demonstrate the epidemiological impact of reduced mosquito mortality with time since IRS. The study underscores that in settings of year-round transmission there is a compelling need for longer-lasting IRS insecticides, but that in the interim, high coverage of long

  3. Quantitative analysis and reduction of the eco-toxicity risk of heavy metals for the fine fraction of automobile shredder residue (ASR) using H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Chang, Yoon-Young

    2016-02-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) fraction (size <0.25mm) can be considered as hazardous due to presence of high concentrations of heavy metals. Hydrogen peroxide combined with nitric acid has been used for the recovery of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr) from the fine fraction of ASR. A sequential extraction procedure has also been used to determine the heavy metal speciation in the fine fraction of ASR before and after treatment. A risk analysis of the fine fraction of ASR before and after treatment was conducted to assess the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals. These results showed that the recovery of heavy metals from ASR increased with an increase in the hydrogen peroxide concentration. A high concentration of heavy metals was found to be present in Cbio fractions (the sum of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions) in the fine fraction of ASR, indicating high toxicity risk. The Cbio rate of all selected heavy metals was found to range from 8.6% to 33.4% of the total metal content in the fine fraction of ASR. After treatment, Cbio was reduced to 0.3-3.3% of total metal upon a treatment with 2.0% hydrogen peroxide. On the basis of the risk assessment code (RAC), the environmental risk values for heavy metals in the fine fraction of ASR reflect high risk/medium risk. However, after treatment, the heavy metals would be categorized as low risk/no risk. The present study concludes that hydrogen peroxide combined with nitric acid is a promising treatment for the recovery and reduction of the eco-toxicity risk of heavy metals in ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Presence of antibiotic residues in various environmental compartments of Shandong province in eastern China: Its potential for resistance development and ecological and human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Nada; Sun, Pan; Sun, Qiang; Li, Xuewen; Yang, Xiwei; Ji, Xiang; Zou, Huiyun; Ottoson, Jakob; Nilsson, Lennart E; Berglund, Björn; Dyar, Oliver James; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in different types of environmental samples including water samples in rural Shandong province, China. Further, to characterize the potential ecological risk for development of antibiotic resistance in the environment, and the potential direct human health risk of exposure to antibiotics via drinking water and vegetables. Environmental samples (n = 214) (river water, waste water, drinking water, sediments, manure, soil and edible parts of vegetables) were collected in twelve villages in Shandong province in eastern China. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to determine the concentration of antibiotic residues. The ratio of the measured environmental concentrations (MEC) to the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) was used to evaluate the ecological risk (risk quotient, RQ) for development of antibiotic resistance. The potential risks to human health through exposure to antibiotics in drinking water were assessed by comparing measured environmental concentrations (MEC) and predicted no-effect concentration in drinking water (PNEC DW ), and in vegetables by comparing estimated daily intake (EDI) to ADI. Sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, doxycycline, and metronidazole were detected at concentrations ranging between 0.3 and 3.9 ng/L in river water, 1.3 and 12.5 ng/L in waste water, 0.5 and 21.4 ng/L in drinking water, 0.31 and 1.21 μg/kg in river sediment, 0.82 and 1.91 μg/kg in pig manure, 0.1 and 11.68 μg/kg in outlet sediment, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/kg in soil, and 6.3 and 27.2 μg/kg in vegetables. The RQs for resistance development were >1 for enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ranged between 0.1 and 1 for ciprofloxacin. MECs/PNEC DW ratios were <1 from exposure to antibiotics through drinking water for both adults and children. EDI/ADI ratios were <0.1 from

  5. A Complex Systems Perspective of Risk Mitigation and Modeling in Development and Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to define elegance in system architecture. Procedia Computer Science, 16, 927–936. Shannon, C. E. (1948). A...can be defined as “a measure of future uncertainties in achieving program performance goals and objectives within defined cost, schedule and...Defense in the DoD Risk Management Guide (DoD, 2006) defines risk as follows: Risk is a measure of future uncertainties in achieving program

  6. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  7. School-Based Programs to Reduce Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Article reviews the major school-based approaches implemented during the last two decades to reduce sexual risk-taking behaviors, examining their evidence for success and providing recommendations for effective programs and program evaluations. The article focuses on programs that educators believed would reduce unprotected sex. (SM)

  8. Guidance for Facilities on Risk Management Programs (RMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Includes supplemental guidance specific to ammonia refrigeration, wastewater treatment, propane storage, warehouses, chemical distributors, offsite consequence analysis, retail agriculture, applicability of program levels, prevention, emergency response.

  9. Risk maps for targeting exotic plant pest detection programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Magarey; D.M. Borchert; J.S. Engle; M Garcia-Colunga; Frank H. Koch; et al

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, pest risk maps are used by the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey for spatial and temporal targeting of exotic plant pest detection programs. Methods are described to create standardized host distribution, climate and pathway risk maps for the top nationally ranked exotic pest targets. Two examples are provided to illustrate the risk mapping...

  10. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Roybal, A.L. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  11. Impact of age on the cancer-specific survival of patients with localized renal cell carcinoma: martingale residual and competing risks analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyan Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age at diagnosis has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC in several studies. We used contemporary statistical methods to reevaluate the effect of age on the cancer-specific survival (CSS of localized RCC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1,147 patients with localized RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy between 1993 and 2009 were identified in our four institutions. The association between age and CSS was estimated, and the potential threshold was identified by a univariate Cox model and by martingale residual analysis. Competing risks regression was used to identify the independent impact of age on CSS. The median age was 52 years (range, 19-84 years. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 6-144 months for survivors. A steep increasing smoothed martingale residual plot indicated an adverse prognostic effect of age on CSS. The age cut-off of 45 years was most predictive of CSS on univariate Cox analysis and martingale residual analysis (p = 0.005. Age ≤45 years was independently associated with a higher CSS rate in the multivariate Cox regression model (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.05-2.40, p = 0.027 as well as in competing risks regression (HR = 3.60, 95% CI = 1.93-6.71, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age was associated with a higher incidence of cancer-specific mortality of localized RCC. Age dichotomized at 45 years would maximize the predictive value of age on CSS, and independently predict the CSS of patients with localized RCC.

  12. Impact of age on the cancer-specific survival of patients with localized renal cell carcinoma: martingale residual and competing risks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Muyan; Wei, Jinhuan; Zhang, Zhiling; Zhao, Hongwei; Qiu, Yunqiao; Fang, Yong; Gao, Zhenli; Cao, Jiazheng; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Fangjian; Xie, Dan; Luo, Junhang

    2012-01-01

    Age at diagnosis has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in several studies. We used contemporary statistical methods to reevaluate the effect of age on the cancer-specific survival (CSS) of localized RCC. 1,147 patients with localized RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy between 1993 and 2009 were identified in our four institutions. The association between age and CSS was estimated, and the potential threshold was identified by a univariate Cox model and by martingale residual analysis. Competing risks regression was used to identify the independent impact of age on CSS. The median age was 52 years (range, 19-84 years). The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 6-144 months) for survivors. A steep increasing smoothed martingale residual plot indicated an adverse prognostic effect of age on CSS. The age cut-off of 45 years was most predictive of CSS on univariate Cox analysis and martingale residual analysis (p = 0.005). Age ≤45 years was independently associated with a higher CSS rate in the multivariate Cox regression model (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.05-2.40, p = 0.027) as well as in competing risks regression (HR = 3.60, 95% CI = 1.93-6.71, p = 0.001). Increasing age was associated with a higher incidence of cancer-specific mortality of localized RCC. Age dichotomized at 45 years would maximize the predictive value of age on CSS, and independently predict the CSS of patients with localized RCC.

  13. 75 FR 16821 - Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-21] Housing Finance Agency Risk... Housing Finance Agencies (HFAs) to underwrite and process loans. HUD provides full mortgage insurance on.... This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Finance Agency Risk...

  14. Assessing Risk Management: How Effective Is Your Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries may occur more often in physical education due to the nature of the activities taught. Because of this, the issue of negligence is an important concern. Risk management is one method physical educators use to decrease the occurrence of injuries and negligence. The purpose of this article is to introduce a Risk Management Inventory that…

  15. Optimising an integrated crop-livestock farm using risk programming

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Numerous studies have analysed farm planning decisions focusing on producer risk prefer- ences. Few studies have focussed on the farm planning decisions in an integrated crop- livestock farm context. Income variability and means of managing risk continues to re- ceive much attention in farm planning research.

  16. [Residues and health risk assessment of HCHs, DDTs and heavy metals in water and Tilapias from fish ponds of Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ping; Zhu, Xin-Ping; Zheng, Guang-Ming; Ma, Li-Sha

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, hexachlorcyclohexane (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) in the water and the fish samples collected separately from fish pond, markets and supermarkets in four cities of Guangdong Province were measured by using GC-ECD, flame atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Health risk assessments associated with Cu, Pd, Cd, As, HCHs and DDTs were conducted based on the model of health risk assessment recommended by the US EPA. The results showed that the concentration ranges of Cu, Pd, Cd, As, HCHs and DDTs in water samples were nd-0.101 mg x L(-1), nd-0.097 mg x L(-1), nd-0.003 27 mg x L(-1), 0.0121-0.08127 mg x L(-1), 2.63-37.18 ng x L(-1) and 2.05-12.21 ng x L(-1), respectively. The health risk assessment indicates that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of Cu, Pd, Cd, HCHs and DDTs in Tilapias both lower than the highest acceptable level of risk set by ICRP, but As cancer risk value slightly exceeded the upper limit of the acceptable risk levels in city population.

  17. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Quantification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourson, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The quantitative procedures associated with noncancer risk assessment include reference dose (RfD), benchmark dose, and severity modeling. The RfD, which is part of the EPA risk assessment guidelines, is an estimation of a level that is likely to be without any health risk to sensitive individuals. The RfD requires two major judgments: the first is choice of a critical effect(s) and its No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); the second judgment is choice of an uncertainty factor. This paper discusses major assumptions and limitations of the RfD model.

  18. Effects of a Stroke Primary Prevention Program on Risk Factors for At-Home Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol

    2015-01-01

    Background To prevent stroke from occurring, stroke risk factors in at-risk subjects should be controlled and the diseases causing stroke should be managed. This study evaluated a nursing intervention to prevent stroke in at-risk elderly living at home. The program consisted of stroke and nutrition education as well as exercise guidance. Material/Methods This study targeted 93 elderly people living at home residing in E province with 1 or more stroke risk factors, including high blood pressur...

  19. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  20. Risk element immobilization/stabilization potential of fungal-transformed dry olive residue and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi application in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Stejskalová, Tereza; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2017-10-01

    The use of biotransformed dry olive residue (DOR) as organic soil amendment has recently been proposed due to its high contents of stabilized organic matter and nutrients. The potential of biotransformed DOR to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils might qualify DOR as a potential risk element stabilization agent for in situ soil reclamation practices. In this experiment, the mobility of risk elements in response to Penicillium chrysogenum-10-transformed DOR, Funalia floccosa-transformed DOR, Bjerkandera adusta-transformed DOR, and Chondrostereum purpureum-transformed DOR as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Funneliformis mosseae, inoculation was investigated. We evaluated the effect of these treatments on risk element uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants in a pot experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn contaminated soil. The results showed a significant impact of the combined treatment (biotransformed DOR and AMF inoculation) on wheat plant growth and element mobility. The mobile proportions of elements in the treated soils were related to soil pH; with increasing pH levels, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn mobility decreased significantly (r values between -0.36 and -0.46), while Ca and Mg mobility increased (r = 0.63, and r = 0.51, respectively). The application of biotransformed DOR decreased risk element levels (Cd, Zn), and nutrient concentrations (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the aboveground biomass, where the elements were retained in the roots. Thus, biotransformed DOR in combination with AMF resulted in a higher capacity of wheat plants to grow under detrimental conditions, being able to accumulate high amounts of risk elements in the roots. However, risk element reduction was insufficient for safe crop production in the extremely contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Technology and Risk Sciences Program. FY99 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regens, James L.

    2000-01-01

    In making the transition from weapons production to environmental restoration, DOE has found that it needs to develop reliable means of defining and understanding health and environmental risks and of selecting cost-efficient environmental management technologies so that cleanup activities can be appropriately directed. Through the Technology and Risk Sciences Project, the Entergy Spatial Analysis Research Laboratory attempts to provide DOE with products that incorporate spatial analysis techniques in the risk assessment, communication, and management processes; design and evaluate methods for evaluating innovative environmental technologies; and collaborate and access technical information on risk assessment methodologies, including multimedia modeling and environmental technologies in Russia and the Ukraine, while in addition training and developing the skills of the next generation of scientists and environmental professionals

  2. Residual toxicity of insecticides used in Tunisian citrus orchards on the imported parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Implications for IPM program of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Harbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus agro-industry is globally harshened mainly by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, the most worldwide destructive tephritid fruit fly species. Citrus agro-industry is one of the pillars of Tunisia economy, and by hence, harshened by this species. Tunisia has established an Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme against citrus pests, including C. capitata, that rely on the structured use of pesticides, on the application several trapping protocols, along with pilot-scale sterile insect technique program and, since 2013, with pilot-scale releases of the braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Insecticide side-effects on parasitoids and other natural enemies are being requested for a successful implementation of biological control within any IPM programme. However, these data are almost scarce for the braconid species D. longicaudata. To this end, we have determined the side-effects of malathion, methidathion, acetamiprid, azadiractin, abamectin, deltametrin+thiacloprid and spinosad, as the most popular insecticides used in Tunisia either as fresh residues or at several aged time points, on the parasitoid D. longicaudata according the IOBC pesticide harm-classification. IOBC classification evolution of residues over time had allowed determining the best combination of pesticide applications in a structured fashion with the viable releases of D. longicaudata for the control of C. capitata in Tunisian citrus agro-ecosystems.

  3. Ecological and health risks assessment and spatial distribution of residual heavy metals in the soil of an e-waste circular economy park in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Gao, Guanghai; Geng, Jinyao; Li, Yao; Wang, Yingying

    2018-04-01

    Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model. According to the ecological risk assessment, Cu, Sb, Cd, Zn and Co were seriously enriched in the soil of the studied area. The health risk assessment proposed by USEPA indicated no significant health risks to the population. Soil properties, such as pH and organic matter, were found to correlate with the enrichment of heavy metals. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were found positively correlated to dead bacteria concentrations. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that Ziya Circular Economy Park was the dominant pollution source in the studied area. Findings in this study suggest that enough attention should be payed to the heavy metal pollution in Ziya Circular Economy Park. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide—Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran. We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust, and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1–1,428 (median: 29 bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning. Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations.

  5. Evaluation of a cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program at a workplace medical clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Kara L; Renn, Tracy A; Gray, David A; Englund, Joanne M; Olsen, Geary W; Letourneau, Barbara K

    2013-10-01

    The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program (CVRRP) was implemented in the 3M Medical Clinic in December 2009. The goal of the CVRRP was to evaluate 3M employees at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and address any related modifiable risk factors with appropriate intervention strategies through clinic visits with a 3M nurse practitioner or physician and, if needed, a registered dietitian and/or exercise professional. Data for the first 100 participants were analyzed to initially assess the effectiveness of the program. Based on this evaluation, the 3M CVRRP and active collaboration between participants and providers in the workplace successfully reduced modifiable CVD risk factors. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Impact of financial incentives on behavior change program participation and risk reduction in worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stefan B; Anderson, David R; Koland, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of financial incentives on behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Retrospective cohort study conducted to observe the relationship between financial incentives and behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Large public- or private-sector employers. Twenty-four organizations (n = 511,060 eligible employees) that offered comprehensive worksite health promotion (WHP) programs. Financial incentives offered for completion of a behavior change program as part of a WHP program. Behavior change program registration and completion data were obtained from standard reports. Company-level risk change was calculated from the average per-person number of risks on baseline and follow-up health risk assessments. Incentive design was determined from questionnaires completed by WHP program managers. Average registration rates, program completion rates, and risk improvement rates were compared using t-tests for companies that did versus did not offer incentives. Comparisons were also made between companies with incentives of less than $100 and those with incentives of $100 or more. Correlations between incentive value and outcome variables were assessed using Pearson correlations. Companies that offered incentives had significantly higher health coaching completion rates than companies not offering an incentive (82.9% vs. 76.4%, respectively, p = .017) but there was no significant association with registration (p = .384) or risk improvement rates (p = .242). Incentive values were not significantly associated with risk improvement rates (p = .240). Offering incentives for completing behavior change programs may increase completion rates, but increased health improvement does not necessarily follow.

  7. The PERICLES research program: An integrated approach to characterize the combined effects of mixtures of pesticide residues to which the French population is exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crépet, A.; Héraud, F.; Béchaux, C.; Gouze, M.E.; Pierlot, S.; Fastier, A.; Leblanc, J.Ch.; Le Hégarat, L.; Takakura, N.; Fessard, V.; Tressou, J.; Maximilien, R.; Sousa, G. de; Nawaz, A.; Zucchini-Pascal, N.; Rahmani, R.; Audebert, M.; Graillot, V.; Cravedi, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of pesticide usages, consumers are exposed to mixtures of residues, which may have combined effects on human health. The PERICLES research program aims to test the potential combined effects of pesticide mixtures, which are likely to occur through dietary exposure. The co-exposure of the French general population to 79 pesticide residues present in the diet was first assessed. A Bayesian nonparametric model was then applied to define the main mixtures to which the French general population is simultaneously and most heavily exposed. Seven mixtures made of two to six pesticides were identified from the exposure assessment. An in vitro approach was used for investigating the toxicological effects of these mixtures and their corresponding individual compounds, using a panel of cellular models, i.e. primary rat and human hepatocytes, liver, intestine, kidney, colon and brain human cell lines. A set of cell functions and corresponding end-points were monitored such as cytotoxicity, real-time cell impedance, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis and PXR nuclear receptor transactivation. The mixtures were tested in equimolar concentrations. Among the seven mixtures, two appeared highly cytotoxic, five activated PXR and depending on the assay one or two were genotoxic. In some experiments, the mixture effect was quantitatively different from the effect expected from the addition concept. The PERICLES program shows that, for the most pesticides mixtures to which the French general population is exposed, the toxic effects observed on human cells cannot be easily predicted based on the toxic potential of each compound. Consequently, additional studies should be carried on in order to more accurately define the mixtures of chemicals to which the consumers are exposed, as well as to improve the investigation, prediction and monitoring of their potential human health effects

  8. Prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus among community and replacement first-time blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Claudia C; Sabino, Ester C; Gonçalez, Thelma T; Laycock, Megan E; Pappalardo, Brandee L; Salles, Nanci A; Wright, David J; Chamone, Dalton F; Busch, Michael P

    2005-11-01

    Concerted efforts have been directed toward recruitment of community rather than replacement donors in Brazil. Time trends and demographic correlates of human immunodeficiency (HIV) prevalence and incidence among first-time (FT) donors in Brazil were examined by donation type. HIV residual risk from FT-donor transfusions, and projected yield of p24 antigen and nucleic acid test (NAT) screening were estimated. HIV prevalence data and seroreactive specimens were obtained at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro-de-São Paulo from 1995 to 2001. To estimate incidence, confirmed-positive samples from July 1998 through December 2001 were tested with a less-sensitive (detuned) enzyme immunoassay to detect recent seroconversions. Incidence data were used to estimate residual risk and p24 and NAT yield based on published window periods (WPs). HIV prevalence was 22 percent higher among the FT community donors than replacement donors (19.6 vs. 16.1 per 10,000; p < 0.01) and 48 percent higher among men than women (19.1 vs. 12.9; p < 0.01). In the multivariable logistic regression, both variables remained significant predictors of HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence decreased from 20.4 (1995) to 13.1 per 10,000 FT donations (2001). HIV incidence was 2.7 per 10,000 person-years. The estimated rate of infected antibody-negative donations was 14.9 per 1,000,000 units (95% confidence interval, 9.8-20.0). It was estimated that addition of p24 antigen, minipool NAT, and individual-donation NAT assays would detect 3.9 (2.0-5.8), 8.3 (5.3-11.3), and 10.8 (7.1-14.5) WP units per 1,000,000 FT donations, respectively. HIV incidence and residual transfusion risk estimates are approximately 10 times higher in Brazil FT donors compared to US and European FT donors. Community FT donors had higher HIV prevalence than replacement FT donors. The yield of p24 antigen or RNA screening will be low in Brazilian donors, but substantially higher than in US donors.

  9. Organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and supportive workplace culture might reduce presenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Steultjens; E. Baker; N. Aas; W. Randi

    2012-01-01

    To determine if Workplace Health Promotion programs (WHPs) are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objective was to identify characteristics of successful programmes and potential risk factors for presenteeism. The Cochrane Library, Medline and other electronic databases were searched

  10. NURail Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Summer Program in Multimodal Freight Transportation Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NURail hosted an REU Summer Program in Multimodal Freight Transportation Risk at the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC...

  11. An Ounce of Prevention Is Worth. . . The Life of a Student: Reducing Risk in International Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, William P.; Rhodes, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    Highlights the issues of risk and legal liability in international study abroad programs for college and university administrators and their counsel. Seeks to encourage increased institutional commitment of resources to protect participants from reasonably foreseeable harm. (EV)

  12. The Importance of Health Risk Communication in the Creation of the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Bradley

    2001-01-01

    ... press. This paper suggests that a more proactive educational program with a greater utilization of health risk communication techniques would have reduced much of the negative reaction to the anthrax vaccine...

  13. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership Orbital Debris Management and Risk Mitigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership (APPEL) is excited to announce the public release of Orbital Debris Management and Risk Mitigation,...

  14. Cost/benefit and risk/benefit analyses in LMFBR program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.T.; Benson, R.A.; Palmer, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: incentives analyses, uranium availability, electrical demand, the present value of future savings, alternatives to the breeder, environmental considerations, development program risks, results and conclusions. (U.K.)

  15. Risk assessment scenarios of children's exposure to aflatoxin M1 residues in different milk types from the Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Ioannis N; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Vlachou, Maria I; Renieri, Elisabet A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2013-06-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was determined in 196 milk samples (conventional, organic and kids milk) from the Greek market during November 2009 to June 2010. AFM1 content was analyzed using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) commercial kit. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 46.5% of the samples. 46.5% of the samples were found positive for AFM1. The most frequent range of detection was between 5 and 10 ng/l. Based on the EU regulation only 2 milk samples presented AFM1 levels higher than the maximum residue limits. Two different scenarios were used for the determination of hazard index: (a) scenario 1 using only positive (detected AFM1) samples and (b) scenario 2 when missing values where imputed with Limit of Detection (LOD) divided by 2. Significant statistical differences between different milk categories were presented only when the results were imputed with LOD/2 values. Exposure assessment scenarios were developed for ages 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 and their respective estimated weights and daily milk consumption. Under the worst-case scenario all milk types presented a Hazard Index (HI) less than one. The highest HI values appear in the ages of 1-3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.

  17. Risk Analysis of Loblolly Pine Controlled Mass Pollination Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.D. Byram; F.E. Bridgwater

    1999-01-01

    The economic success of controlled mass pollination (CMP) depends both upon the value of the genetic gain obtained and the cost per seed. Crossing the best six loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) parents currently available in each deployment region of the Western Gulf Forest Tree Improvement Program will produce seed with an average additional gain in mean...

  18. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  19. Juvenile Violence: An Overview of Risk Factors and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    Literature review provides list of risk factors associated with violent behaviors in adolescents. Identifies protective factors that have the potential to protect youth from violent lifestyles. Suggests approaches for prevention and describes recommendations for action: early prevention; identification; individualized assessment; trained…

  20. Educators and Programs Reaching Out to At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. Linda

    1990-01-01

    Presents examples of how using technology can help raise self-esteem and improve academic performance for students who are identified as being at-risk. Topics discussed include the use of computer labs, filmstrips, and videos to strengthen academic skills, and to deal with such social issues as drop-outs, alcoholism, pregnancy, and suicide. Two…

  1. SIMUL - a program for the simulation of interactions in the streamer chamber RISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebel, W.; Gajewski, J.; Halm, I.

    1976-08-01

    A program for the simulation of interactions in the streamer chamber RISK is described. This program allows first investigations and tests for planning and preparing experiments. In the program the trajectories of all particles taking part in the interaction are computed. Selected points are projected onto film planes serving as measurement points for the use in the geometrical reconstruction. The program is used for testing a geometry program. But it also seems to be very helpful in investigating counter and trigger constellations and in the calculation of counting rates and trigger effectivities. (author)

  2. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-06-15

    The total concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9ngg(-1) (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6ngg(-1). The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Residues, spatial distribution and risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs in agricultural soil and crops from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2016-04-01

    Due to its high elevation and cold temperature, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is regarded as the "Third Pole". Different from other polar regions, which are truly remote, the TP has a small population and a few agricultural activities. In this study, agricultural soil and crop samples (including highland barley and rape) were collected in the main farmland of the TP to obtain the contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the Tibetan agricultural system as well as the relevant human exposure risks. The average concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the agricultural soil, highland barley and rape were 1.36, 0.661, 1.03 ng/g dw and 0.349, 0.0364, 0.0225 ng/g dw, respectively. In the agricultural soil, DDTs and HCHs metabolism (DDE, DDD and β-HCH) were abundant, which indicated a "historical" source, whereas crops contained a similar composition ((DDE + DDD)/DDT, α/β-HCH and α/γ-HCH) to that of wild plants, suggesting that the DDTs and HCHs in crops are likely from long range atmospheric transport. The human health risks via non-dietary and dietary to DDTs and HCHs in the farmland were assessed. All of the hazard index (HI) values of DDTs and HCHs for non-carcinogenic risks were Tibetan residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Risks Of Using Workplace Wellness Programs To Foster A Culture Of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Kristin M

    2016-11-01

    In many respects, employers are well positioned to take a leading role in helping create a culture of health. Employers have access to many programs that could be beneficial to their employees' health. The potential for financial gains related to health improvement may motivate employers to offer these programs, and if the gains are realized, they may help finance the programs. At the same time, employers' involvement in such programs may create substantial risks. Enthusiasm about the financial and health gains that wellness programs might yield coexists with concerns about health costs shouldered by employees, the possibility of employment discrimination, and the potential for employers' invasion of employees' privacy. A fragmented regulatory regime, including a recently issued final rule under the Americans with Disabilities Act, has been created to address these concerns. Whether the regime strikes the right balance between wellness program benefits and risks remains to be determined. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Reducing the Risk: Unemployed Migrant Youth and Labour Market Programs. Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Inst. of Multicultural Affairs, Melbourne (Australia).

    This booklet is an overview and summary of the publication "Reducing the Risk: Unemployed Migrant Youth and Labour Market Programs" which reviews programs and services for migrant and refugee youth in Australia. The unemployment rate for this group is higher than for their Australian-born peers, and their participation in governmental…

  6. Effects of Participation in a Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program on Psychological Distress following Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouilso, Emily R.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a…

  7. Effects on Reading of an Early Intervention Program for Children at Risk of Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valenzuela, María-José; Martín-Ruiz, Isaías

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects on reading of an early oral and written language intervention program for Spanish children at risk of learning difficulties. The goal of this classroom-based program was to prioritize a systematic approach to reading and writing and to foster phonological knowledge and the development of oral language…

  8. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  9. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  10. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  11. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  12. At-Risk Students in a Rural Context: Benefits and Gains from a Coping Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Chelsea; Frydenberg, Erica

    2008-01-01

    There are increasing demands in schools to provide social-emotional learning opportunities for students. This article reports on the utility of a universal coping skills program for young people at risk for depression in a rural context. The study deals specifically with the utility of the Best of Coping (BOC) program implemented to all students…

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  14. Implementation of an enterprise risk-management program in a community teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behamdouni, Genefer; Millar, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    As the complexity of healthcare and expectations of comprehensive and transparent public accountability heighten, so too must a hospital's approach to assessing and managing risk. Over a period of two years, the area of patient safety and risk at our hospital has moved from a traditional focus on clinical risk management to an enterprise-wide risk management approach. One of the first community hospitals to embrace enterprise risk management (ERM), St. Joseph's Health Centre, in Toronto, Ontario, has seen early benefits in this transformational journey. This article discusses our approach to the development of an ERM program, tools used and lessons learned.

  15. A Risk and Prevention Counselor Training Program Model: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…

  16. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  17. HIV Risk Behavior among Amphetamine Injectors at U.S. Syringe Exchange Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braine, Naomi; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All interviews…

  18. Survey and Design of Master Level Programs in Disaster Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results obtained from performing a semistructured search to identify the number of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) master level programs (MPs) offered in the western European and Scandinavian countries. The purpose of this activity is to map the external environment in wh...... in which the EU Erasmus project Knowledge for Resilient Society (K-FORCE) future MP in DRM will be operating as well as to evaluate what program organization and curriculum content the new program preferrably should incorporate....

  19. Survey and Design of Master Level Programs in Disaster Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results obtained from performing a semistructured search to identify the number of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) master level programs (MPs) offered in the western European and Scandinavian countries. The purpose of this activity is to map the external environment...... in which the EU Erasmus project Knowledge for Resilient Society (K-FORCE) future MP in DRM will be operating as well as to evaluate what program organization and curriculum content the new program preferrably should incorporate....

  20. Unstable housing as a factor for increased injection risk behavior at US syringe exchange programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Braine, Naomi; Friedmann, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    To assess variation in injection risk behavior among unstably housed/homeless injecting drug users (IDUs) across programs in a national sample of US syringe exchange programs. About 23 syringe exchange programs were selected through stratified random sampling of moderate to very large US syringe exchange programs operating in 2001-2005. Subjects at each program were randomly sampled. Risk behavior interviews were collected using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI). "Unstable housing/homelessness" was operationally defined as having lived "on the street or in a shanty" or "living in a shelter or single room occupancy hotel (SRO)" at any time in the 6 months prior to the interview. "Receptive sharing" was operationally defined as having injected with a needle or syringe that "had been used by someone else" in the 30 days prior to the interview. Six very large and nine moderate-to-large programs had at least 50 subjects who reported unstable housing, and these 15 programs were used in the analyses. There was considerable variation among the 15 programs in the percentages of unstably housed participants (range from 35 to 74%, P lack of significant variation in the odds ratios for increased injection risk suggests that none of the programs were "better" or "worse" at reducing injection risk behavior among unstably housed participants. Reduction in injecting risk behavior among syringe exchange participants may require greater efforts to provide stable housing or the development of dramatically new interventions to reduce injecting risk behavior among IDUs with persistent unstable housing.

  1. Assessing and mitigating risks of engineering programs with lean management techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, A.; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of lean management techniques as a risk mitigation approach for large-scale engineering programs. The key research questions are how lean best practices with the highest risk mitigation potential are identified, how the most relevant lean best practices for a speci...... by the Project Management Institute (PMI), that both include Risk Management as a focal activity [MSP 2011, PMI 2013]....

  2. The association of technology in a workplace wellness program with health risk factor reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppke, Ron; Edington, Dee; Bender, Joel; Reynolds, Ashley

    2013-03-01

    Determine whether there is a relationship between level of engagement in workplace wellness programs and population/individual health risk reductions. A total of 7804 employees from 15 employers completed health risk appraisal and laboratory testing at baseline and again after 2 years of participating in their personalized prevention plan. Population and individual health risk transitions were analyzed across the population, as well as by stage of engagement. Of those individuals who started in a high risk category at baseline, 46% moved down to medium risk and 19% moved down to low risk category after 2 years on their prevention plan. In the group that only engaged through the Web-based technology, 24% reduced their health risks (P technology and interactive Web-based tools can empower individuals to be more proactive about their health and reduce their health risks.

  3. Occurrence, ecotoxicological effects and risk assessment of antihypertensive pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Aline A; Kummrow, Fábio; Pamplin, Paulo Augusto Z

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a review of the investigated antihypertensives in different aquatic compartments. It aims to compare these data with those regarding ecotoxicity effects in order to find out ecotoxicological data gaps for these pharmaceuticals and to point out the need for future studies. In addition, part of this article is dedicated to the risk assessment of the parent compounds atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol and verapamil, which are of great environmental concern in terms of contamination levels and for which there are sufficient ecotoxicological data available. 79 articles were retrieved presenting quantization data for 34 different antihypertensives and/or their metabolites. Only 43 articles were found regarding acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of antihypertensive drugs. The results indicated that the beta-blockers atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol are the antihypertensives most frequently detected in the aquatic environment. They are also the drugs which reached the highest maximum concentrations in surface waters in the data reported in the literature. The highest percentages of ecotoxicity data regarding antihypertensives were also related to these beta-blockers. On the other hand, there is clearly a lack of ecotoxicity data, especially the chronic ones, regarding other antihypertensives. The environmental risk assessment (ERA) showed that all three of the evaluated beta-blockers can pose a potential long-term risk for non-target organisms of both fresh and marine water species. However, more meaningful ecotoxicity data for antihypertensives, including saltwater species, are required to refine and enlarge these results. Additional studies focusing on potential interactions between pharmaceutical mixtures, including antihypertensives, are also an urgent need. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk Management and Nuclear Insurance Program within Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havris, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    This paper shall present the Risk Management and associated nuclear insurance program developed within Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A, owner and operator of Units 1 and 2 Cernavoda NPP, the Nuclear Fuel Plant and in charge with commissioning of Units 3 and 4. From the risk management perspective, the main aspects that energy industry has to face due to global economic changes within a dynamic business environment are highlighted. In order to mitigate the operational and investment associated risks, Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. successfully developed, implemented and maintained a coherent insurance program both on local and international insurance market. (authors)

  5. Risk Management and Nuclear Insurance Program within Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havris, Alexandru [Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica S.A, 65 Polona Street, code 010494, sector 1, Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    This paper shall present the Risk Management and associated nuclear insurance program developed within Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A, owner and operator of Units 1 and 2 Cernavoda NPP, the Nuclear Fuel Plant and in charge with commissioning of Units 3 and 4. From the risk management perspective, the main aspects that energy industry has to face due to global economic changes within a dynamic business environment are highlighted. In order to mitigate the operational and investment associated risks, Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. successfully developed, implemented and maintained a coherent insurance program both on local and international insurance market. (authors)

  6. ARIES Oxide Production Program Assessment of Risk to Long-term Sustainable Production Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lloyd, Jane Alexandria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Majors, Harry W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-04

    This report describes an assessment of risks and the development of a risk watch list for the ARIES Oxide Production Program conducted in the Plutonium Facility at LANL. The watch list is an active list of potential risks and opportunities that the management team periodically considers to maximize the likelihood of program success. The initial assessments were made in FY 16. The initial watch list was reviewed in September 2016. The initial report was not issued. Revision 1 has been developed based on management review of the original watch list and includes changes that occurred during FY-16.

  7. Health risk reduction programs in employer-sponsored health plans: Part II-law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L

    2009-08-01

    We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests.

  8. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II—Law and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests. PMID:19625971

  9. Performance of children at risk for reading difficulties submitted to an intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nathane Sanches Marques; Crenitte, Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro

    To assess the applicability of an intervention program to children at risk for reading disabilities. This experimental study compared 10 children at risk for reading difficulty submitted to a phonological decoding intervention program (study group) with 10 other children at risk for reading difficulty not submitted to the program (control group). The intervention program was based on two international studies. It comprised 24 sessions: the first 12 sessions were conducted with groups of two to three children, whereas the others were performed individually. The sessions lasted 50 minutes and were held twice a week. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. Children at risk for reading difficulties submitted to the phonological decoding intervention program showed statistically significant improvement at post-assessment in the performance of the following skills: letter naming; phoneme-grapheme relationship; phonological awareness; phonological working memory for non-words; phonological working memory for digits in direct order; alphabet recognition in sequence; writing under dictation of words and pseudowords; reading of words and pseudowords. The phonological decoding intervention program showed applicability to improve the prerequisite skills of reading and writing of children at risk for reading disabilities.

  10. The effectiveness of risk management program on pediatric nurses' medication error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Bayat, Fariba; Salehi, Tahmineh; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2013-09-01

    Medication therapy is one of the most complex and high-risk clinical processes that nurses deal with. Medication error is the most common type of error that brings about damage and death to patients, especially pediatric ones. However, these errors are preventable. Identifying and preventing undesirable events leading to medication errors are the main risk management activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a risk management program on the pediatric nurses' medication error rate. This study is a quasi-experimental one with a comparison group. In this study, 200 nurses were recruited from two main pediatric hospitals in Tehran. In the experimental hospital, we applied the risk management program for a period of 6 months. Nurses of the control hospital did the hospital routine schedule. A pre- and post-test was performed to measure the frequency of the medication error events. SPSS software, t-test, and regression analysis were used for data analysis. After the intervention, the medication error rate of nurses at the experimental hospital was significantly lower (P error-reporting rate was higher (P medical environment, applying the quality-control programs such as risk management can effectively prevent the occurrence of the hospital undesirable events. Nursing mangers can reduce the medication error rate by applying risk management programs. However, this program cannot succeed without nurses' cooperation.

  11. Chemical Exposure Assessment Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A risk based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The University of California Contract And DOE Order 5480.10 require that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) perform health hazard assessments/inventories of all employee workplaces. In response to this LANL has developed the Chemical Exposure Assessment Program. This program provides a systematic risk-based approach to anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of chemical workplace exposures. Program implementation focuses resources on exposures with the highest risks for causing adverse health effects. Implementation guidance includes procedures for basic characterization, qualitative risk assessment, quantitative validation, and recommendations and reevaluation. Each component of the program is described. It is shown how a systematic method of assessment improves documentation, retrieval, and use of generated exposure information

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center Space Transportation Directorate Risk Management Implementation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luis Alberto; Kross, Denny (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The US civil aerospace program has been a great contributor to the creation and implementation of techniques and methods to identify, analyze, and confront risk. NASA has accomplished mission success in many instances, but also has had many failures. Anomalies have kept the Agency from achieving success on other occasions, as well. While NASA has mastered ways to prevent risks, and to quickly and effectively react and recover from anomalies or failures, it was not until few years ago that a comprehensive Risk Management process started being implemented in some of its programs and projects. A Continuous Risk Management (CRM) cycle process was developed and has been promoted and used successfully in programs and projects across the Agency.

  13. An experiential program to reduce AIDS risk among female sex partners of injection-drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, F; Wolitski, R J; Thornton-Johnson, S

    1992-11-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention program for female sex partners of male injection-drug users. Four psychoeducational workshops were designed to motivate personal risk reduction, provide participants with necessary cognitive and behavioral skills, and enhance participants' perceived ability to enact positive changes in their lives. The development of the workshop modules was guided by traditional theories of health behavior change and social learning. Also included in the intervention are referral and advocacy services, personal risk reduction counseling, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Preliminary results indicate that the program has made a significant impact on the AIDS risk of participants--91 percent of women who completed the program reported that they had made positive changes in their lives to reduce their risk of HIV infection.

  14. Probabilistic consequence study of residual radiological effects from a hypothetical ten-ton inadvertent nuclear yield. Weapons Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.; Peters, L.; Serduke, F.; Edwards, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we study the potential radiological consequences of a strategic bomber accident, in which one of the assumed on-board nuclear weapons explodes with an arbitrarily chosen 10-ton nuclear yield. The frequency of such an occurrence is infinitesimal. The safety design features in today s nuclear weapons' systems essentially forbid its occurrence. We have a chosen a military base which has the feature of being a representative combination of urban and rural populations. The assumed ''crash site'' is near the northwest comer of the military base, close to civilian housing located just across the street from the base. A worst case wind would be from the ESE (east south east). This would cause fission debris to be dispersed toward the largest population centers and, thus, would lead to the largest Pu ''collective'' doses (i.e., a dose integrated over time and summed over individuals). Also, if an ESE wind were blowing at accident time, some people in nearby housing could receive lethal gamma-ray doses from fallout before evacuation could occur. It is assumed only one weapon undergoes nuclear yield; the other on-board weapons would HE detonate and the Pu would be aerosolized and lofted. We assume an activity-size distribution and lofting similar to those used to predict fallout measured at NTS. The main thrust of our study is to provide estimates of probabilistic radiological risks to the population local to a strategic bomber crash site. The studied radiological consequences are: cloud-passage doses from Pu inhalation; doses from groundshine due to gamma-producing radionuclides; and areal contamination from Pu and the long-lived fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90

  15. Minimal residual disease-based risk stratification in Chinese childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by flow cytometry and plasma DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Hang Cheng

    Full Text Available Minimal residual disease, or MRD, is an important prognostic indicator in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In ALL-IC-BFM 2002 study, we employed a standardized method of flow cytometry MRD monitoring for multiple centers internationally using uniformed gating, and determined the relevant MRD-based risk stratification strategies in our local patient cohort. We also evaluated a novel method of PCR MRD quantitation using peripheral blood plasma. For the bone marrow flow MRD study, patients could be stratified into 3 risk groups according to MRD level using a single time-point at day-15 (Model I (I-A: 10%, or using two time-points at day-15 and day-33 (Model II (II-A: day-15<10% and day-33<0.01%, II-B: day-15 ≥ 10% or day-33 ≥ 0.01% but not both, II-C: day-15 ≥ 10% and day-33 ≥ 0.01%, which showed significantly superior prediction of relapse (p = .00047 and <0.0001 respectively. Importantly, patients with good outcome (frequency: 56.0%, event-free survival: 90.1% could be more accurately predicted by Model II. In peripheral blood plasma PCR MRD investigation, patients with day-15-MRD ≥ 10(-4 were at a significantly higher risk of relapse (p = 0.0117. By multivariate analysis, MRD results from both methods could independently predict patients' prognosis, with 20-35-fold increase in risk of relapse for flow MRD I-C and II-C respectively, and 5.8-fold for patients having plasma MRD of ≥ 10(-4. We confirmed that MRD detection by flow cytometry is useful for prognostic evaluation in our Chinese cohort of childhood ALL after treatment. Moreover, peripheral blood plasma DNA MRD can be an alternative where bone marrow specimen is unavailable and as a less invasive method, which allows close monitoring.

  16. Minimal residual disease-based risk stratification in Chinese childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by flow cytometry and plasma DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Suk Hang; Lau, Kin Mang; Li, Chi Kong; Chan, Natalie P H; Ip, Rosalina K L; Cheng, Chi Keung; Lee, Vincent; Shing, Matthew M K; Leung, Alex W K; Ha, Shau Yin; Cheuk, Daniel K L; Lee, Anselm C W; Li, Chak Ho; Luk, Chung Wing; Ling, Siu Cheung; Hrusak, Ondrej; Mejstrikova, Ester; Leung, Yonna; Ng, Margaret H L

    2013-01-01

    Minimal residual disease, or MRD, is an important prognostic indicator in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In ALL-IC-BFM 2002 study, we employed a standardized method of flow cytometry MRD monitoring for multiple centers internationally using uniformed gating, and determined the relevant MRD-based risk stratification strategies in our local patient cohort. We also evaluated a novel method of PCR MRD quantitation using peripheral blood plasma. For the bone marrow flow MRD study, patients could be stratified into 3 risk groups according to MRD level using a single time-point at day-15 (Model I) (I-A: 10%), or using two time-points at day-15 and day-33 (Model II) (II-A: day-15<10% and day-33<0.01%, II-B: day-15 ≥ 10% or day-33 ≥ 0.01% but not both, II-C: day-15 ≥ 10% and day-33 ≥ 0.01%), which showed significantly superior prediction of relapse (p = .00047 and <0.0001 respectively). Importantly, patients with good outcome (frequency: 56.0%, event-free survival: 90.1%) could be more accurately predicted by Model II. In peripheral blood plasma PCR MRD investigation, patients with day-15-MRD ≥ 10(-4) were at a significantly higher risk of relapse (p = 0.0117). By multivariate analysis, MRD results from both methods could independently predict patients' prognosis, with 20-35-fold increase in risk of relapse for flow MRD I-C and II-C respectively, and 5.8-fold for patients having plasma MRD of ≥ 10(-4). We confirmed that MRD detection by flow cytometry is useful for prognostic evaluation in our Chinese cohort of childhood ALL after treatment. Moreover, peripheral blood plasma DNA MRD can be an alternative where bone marrow specimen is unavailable and as a less invasive method, which allows close monitoring.

  17. Erika: evaluation of residual sanitary risks linked to the beaches-going after cleaning-up; Erika: evaluation des risques sanitaires residuels lies a la frequentation des plages apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the sanitary risks for the populations frequenting the coast beaches affected by the fuel oils of the tanker Erika, after their cleaning up. This quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks is led according to a protocol developed jointly between the two institutes ( the national institute of industrial environment and risks, I.N.E.R.I.S., and the national institute of sanitary watch I.n.V.S.). It does not give the risks in function the residual pollution level of concerned beaches but supplies to the authorities elements of scientific information in order to allow them to choose criteria appropriate for the management of eventual residual risks. (N.C.)

  18. Residuals, bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of PAHs in winter wheat grains from areas influenced by coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Bao, Huanyu; Zhang, Xuechen; Shi, Taoran; Liu, Xueping; Wu, Fuyong

    2018-03-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in atmospheric and soil was serious, which is mainly due to high level of emission of PAHs in China resulted from the predominating use of coal in energy consumption and continuous development of economy and society for years. However, the status of PAHs in winter wheat grains from the areas influenced by coal combustion in China was still not clear. During harvest season, the winter wheat grains were collected from agricultural fields surrounding coal-fired power plants located in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces. This study found that the mean concentrations of 15 priority PAHs ranged from 69.58 to 557.0μgkg -1 . Three-ring PAHs (acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene) were dominant in the grains, accounting for approximately 70-81% of the total PAHs. The bioaccessibility of low molecular weight (LMW, 2-3 ring) PAHs (51.1-52.8%), high molecular weight (HMW, 4-6 ring) PAHs (19.8-27.6%) and total PAHs (40.9-48.0%) in the intestinal condition was significantly (pvalues of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for children, adolescents, adults and seniors were all higher than the baseline value (10 -6 ) and some even fell in the range of 10 -5 -10 -4 , which indicated that most grains from the areas affected by coal combustion possessed considerable cancer risk. The present study also indicated that the children were the age group most sensitive to PAHs contamination. The pilot research provided relevant information for the regulation of PAHs in the winter wheat grains and for the safety of the agro-products growing in the PAHs-contaminated areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  20. School-Based Programs To Reduce Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors: Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education, Health Clinics, and Condom Availability Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Douglas

    This paper reviews published research on school-based programs to reduce sexual risk-taking behaviors. Analysis of 23 studies of school-based programs supports several conclusions about these programs. About 93 percent of all high schools offer sexuality or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) education, and the majority of these programs include…

  1. Probabilistic dietary risk assessment of pesticide residues in foods for the German population based on food monitoring data from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieke, Christian; Michalski, Britta; Kuhl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Dietary risks for the German population owing to pesticide residues in foods were assessed based on food monitoring data, consumption surveys for children and adults and compound specific toxicological reference values or general thresholds of toxicological concern. A tiered probabilistic modelling was conducted to screen 700 pesticides for significant long- and short-term dietary exposures. Especially for the short-term dietary exposure, the probabilistic methodology used allows simultaneous consideration of the complete daily consumption, whereas most regulatory bodies still rely on single commodity approaches. After screening, refined exposure assessments were conducted for 19 compounds under consideration of conversion factors for toxicologically relevant metabolites, processing information, experimentally derived variability factors and the edible portion for each food item. In total, for 693 compounds the dietary exposure was unlikely to present a chronic or acute public health concern for the German population. In contrast, the refined assessments indicate that the short-term dietary exposure for chlorpyrifos and the cumulative short-term dietary exposure for dimethoate and omethoate may present a public health concern. For copper, owing to exposure assessment limitations, as well as for dimethylvinphos, halfenprox and tricyclazole, which exceeded the thresholds of toxicological concern, the dietary risk assessment remained inconclusive.

  2. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  3. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  4. Development and implementation of a reduced risk peach arthropod management program in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasso, Atanas; Shearer, Peter W; Hamilton, George; Polk, Dean

    2002-08-01

    We implemented a 2-yr program to reduce organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide use and mitigate their associated risks as they relate to peach production in New Jersey and elsewhere. The main thrust integrated mating disruption with ground cover management practices to reduce oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae), abundance and damage. This Reduced Risk Peach Arthropod Management Program was compared with adjacent conventionally managed peach orchards. In 1999, we found 2.3 times fewer L. lineolaris and stink bugs (Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), Acrostemum hilare (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and 2.0 times less heteropteran damaged peaches in reduced-risk orchards when compared with conventionally managed orchards. In 2000, we observed 4.9 times fewer heteropteran insects in reduced-risk orchards but damage levels were not significantly different between the two programs. In both years, G. molesta mating disruption gave at least 4 mo of noninsecticidal control of this major pest. The reduced-risk program provided a level of pest control that was equal to or better than conventional peach pest management programs while using fewer organophosporus and carbamate insecticides.

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  6. [Residual levels in air, soil and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides in Hami region of Xinjiang and its potential ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-Long; Mao, Xiao-Xuan; Ding, Zhong-Yuan; Gao, Hong; Huang, Tao; Tian, Hui; Guo, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in soil and air of urban/rural/forestry centre locations in the Hami region of Xinjiang were monitored for a year by passive atmospheric sampling in order to study the residual levels and air-soil exchange and evaluate ecological risk. The study results showed that the annual average concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in the air of Hami were 107.1 pg x m(-3) and 43.9 pg x m(-3), respectively, and the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in summer and autumn were generally higher than those in winter and spring. It was deduced that the HCHs and DDTs tended to evaporate into the air because of the higher temperatures in summer and autumn. For OCPs in the air of study area, HCHs were dominanted the main pollution compared with DDTs. Meanwhile, alpha-HCH contributed the largest portion among all HCHs isomers, and p,p'-DDE dominated the residual levels of DDTs. Moreover, the values of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH were in the range of 3 to 7, which indicated that the use of technical HCHs or the long distance atmosphere transport of HCHs may play a significant role for HCHs in the air of Hami region. Furthermore, ratios of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs were in the range of 0.4-0.9, 71.4% of which were higher than 0.5, indicating that DDTs in the air were mainly from historical usage and no new DDTs sources emerged in Hami recently. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in soil were between 0.344-6.954 ng x g(-1) and 0.104-26.397 ng x g(-1), respectively, which did not exceed the National Soil Quality Standard Level I. In addition, DDTs predominated in soil OCPs, in which beta-HCH accounting for a huge percentage in HCHs isomers, while o,p'-DDT predominated in pollution caused by DDTs isomers. From study results, it was also suggested that the important cause of DDTs residues in soil of Hami area could be the recent inputs of new sources since the value of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs were lower than 0.5. The sources of HCHs and DDTs in soil and atmosphere were not consistent

  7. A Successful ED Fall Risk Program Using the KINDER 1 Fall RiskAssessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ann B; Valle-Ortiz, Marisol; Sansweet, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    Emergency nurses did not perform falls risk assessments routinely on our ED patients; the instrument used was aimed at inpatients. We identified a need to revise fall assessment practices specific to our emergency department. The purpose of the performance improvement project was to reduce ED falls and evaluate the use of an ED-specific fall risk tool, the KINDER 1 Fall Risk Assessment. The plan was to establish fall risk assessment practices at point of ED entry and to decrease total falls. We retrospectively reviewed ED fall data for each quarter of 2013, which included risk assessments scores, the total number of falls, and the circumstances of each fall. Using Kotter's framework to guide a successful change process, we implemented the KINDER 1 to assess fall risk. During the first 4 weeks of the project, 937 patients (27%) were identified as high risk for falls using the KINDER 1. During the subsequent 3 quarters, the total number of falls decreased; reported falls without injuries dropped from 0.21 to 0.07 per 1000 patients, and falls with injuries were reduced from 0.21 to 0.0 per 1000 patients. The results of this project represented a valuable step toward achieving our goal to keep ED patients safe from injuries as a result of falls. The findings add to the body of nursing knowledge on the application of clinical-based performance improvement projects to improve patient outcomes and to provide data on the use of the KINDER 1 tool, which has not been extensively tested. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment reduction for children and young adults with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia defined by minimal residual disease (UKALL 2003): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Ajay; Goulden, Nick; Wade, Rachel; Mitchell, Chris; Hancock, Jeremy; Hough, Rachael; Rowntree, Clare; Richards, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most sensitive and specific predictor of relapse risk in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during remission. We assessed whether treatment intensity could be adjusted for children and young adults according to MRD risk stratification. Between Oct 1, 2003 and June 30, 2011, consecutive children and young adults (aged 1-25 years) with ALL from the UK and Ireland were recruited. Eligible patients were categorised into clinical standard, intermediate, and high risk groups on the basis of a combination of National Cancer Institute (NCI) criteria, cytogenetics, and early response to induction therapy, which was assessed by bone marrow blast counts taken at days 8 (NCI high-risk patients) and 15 (NCI standard-risk patients) after induction began. Clinical standard-risk and intermediate-risk patients were assessed for MRD. Those classified as MRD low risk (undetectable MRD at the end of induction [day 29] or detectable MRD at day 29 that became undetectable by week 11) were randomly assigned to receive one or two delayed intensification courses. Patients had received induction, consolidation, and interim maintenance therapy before they began delayed intensification. Delayed intensification consisted of pegylated asparaginase on day 4; vincristine, dexamethasone (alternate weeks), and doxorubicin for 3 weeks; and 4 weeks of cyclophosphamide and cytarabine. Computer randomisation was done with stratification by MRD result and balancing for sex, age, and white blood cell count at diagnosis by method of minimisation. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was event-free survival (EFS), which was defined as time to relapse, secondary tumour, or death. Our aim was to rule out a 7% reduction in EFS in the group given one delayed intensification course relative to that given two delayed intensification courses. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is

  9. Evaluation of a Successful High Risk Nursing Student Assistance Program: One ADN Program's Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ciaran Anthony Mary

    2013-01-01

    A college education is, for many in America, part and parcel of the American Dream, and is certainly achievable. For countless reasons, students may enroll at community colleges underprepared, unprepared, anxious, and destined for a high risk of failure. Although community colleges are higher education institutions open and accessible to all who…

  10. Molecular detection of minimal residual disease is a strong predictive factor of relapse in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia with medium risk features. A case control study of the International BFM study group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biondi, A; Valsecchi, MG; Seriu, T; D'Aniello, E; Willemse, MJ; Fasching, K; Pannunzio, A; Gadner, H; Schrappe, M; Kamps, WA; Bartram, CR; van Dongen, JJM; Panzer-Grumayer, ER

    2000-01-01

    The medium-risk B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for 50-60% of total childhood ALL and comprises the largest number of relapses still unpredictable with diagnostic criteria. To evaluate the prognostic impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) in this specific group, a case

  11. Do school-based dental sealant programs reach higher risk children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark D; Detty, Amber M Richardson

    2010-01-01

    This report compares sealant prevalence by caries risk status among third graders at Ohio schools with and without school-based dental sealant programs (S-BSPs), and estimates the percent of children receiving sealants in S-BSPs who are higher risk for dental caries. We analyzed data from a statewide open-mouth oral health survey of Ohio third grade schoolchildren for sealant prevalence by S-BSP availability and caries risk classification. Children were classified as higher or lower risk for dental caries based on school lunch program enrollment and other non-clinical access-related indicators. Differences between groups were evaluated by the chi-square test (P dental sealants than lower risk children (28.7 percent versus 42.7 percent, P sealant prevalence for both risk categories was equivalent for higher and lower risk children (59.4 percent, 63.4 percent, P = 0.428). Higher risk children at schools with S-BSPs were more than twice as likely to have a sealant as higher risk children at non-S-BSP schools (59.4 percent versus 28.7 percent, P sealant, 61 percent attended a school with an S-BSP compared with 12.3 percent of lower risk children with at least one sealant. Higher risk children accounted for at least 75 percent of children receiving sealants through S-BSPs. In Ohio, targeting S-BSPs by family income-based school-level criteria was effective in reaching higher risk children.

  12. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  13. Engaging children at-risk through World Vision Australia’s Kids Hope Aus. Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Larmar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a pilot study examining teacher perceptions of the efficacy of the Kids Hope Aus. program. Kids Hope Aus. is an early intervention and prevention program for children at risk of social and academic disengagement. The program emphasises the significance of developing a child’s social skills to build resilience and enhance the child’s social engagement and general academic achievement within the school setting. The intervention incorporates an adult/child-mentoring framework that serves to ameliorate the effects of specific risk factors that place children at greater risk of vulnerability. The evaluation involved 188 teachers drawn from rural and metropolitan districts in the State of Victoria, Australia, of children who participated in the Kids Hope Aus. program. The findings of the study provide preliminary data that identifies the Kids Hope Aus. program as a cogent intervention framework for fostering greater social inclusion and academic enhancement for young children that can be easily disseminated in regular school communities.  Keywords:  mentoring, at-risk children, Kids Hope Aus., early intervention and prevention.

  14. Implementation of a fall screening program in a high risk of fracture population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Katherine; Olney, Amanda; Shofer, Jane; Phelan, Elizabeth A; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2017-10-31

    Fall prevention is an important way to prevent fractures in person with osteoporosis. We developed and implemented a fall screening program in the context of routine osteoporosis care. This program was found to be feasible and showed that a significant proportion of persons with osteoporosis are at risk of falling. Falls are the most common cause of fracture in persons with osteoporosis. However, osteoporosis care rarely includes assessment and prevention of falling. We thus sought to assess the feasibility of a fall screening and management program integrated into routine osteoporosis care. The program was developed and offered to patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia seen at an outpatient clinic between May 2015 and May 2016. Feasibility was measured by physical therapist time required to conduct screening and ease of integrating the screening program into the usual clinic workflow. Self-report responses and mobility testing were conducted to describe the fall and fracture risk profile of osteoporosis patients screened. Effects on fall-related care processes were assessed via chart abstraction of patient participation in fall prevention exercise. Of the 154 clinic patients who presented for a clinic visit, 68% met screening criteria and completed in two thirds of persons. Screening was completed in a third of the time typically allotted for traditional PT evaluations and did not interfere with clinic workflow. Forty percent of those screened reported falling in the last year, and over half had two or more falls in the past year. Over half reported a balance or lower extremity impairment, and over 40% were below norms on one or more performance tests. Most patients who selected a group exercise fall prevention program completed all sessions while only a quarter completed either supervised or independent home-based programs. Implementation of a fall risk screening program in an outpatient osteoporosis clinic appears feasible. A substantial proportion of people

  15. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  16. Creating the Action Model for High Risk Infant Follow Up Program in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Jodiery, Behzad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Heidarabadi, Seifollah; HabibeLahi, Abbas

    2013-11-01

    Intervention in early childhood development as one of the social determinants of health, is important for reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow up program in Iran. This study was carreid out to design high risk infants follow up care program with the practical aim of creating an model action for whole country, in 2012. This qualitative study has been done by the Neonatal Department of the Deputy of Public Health in cooperation with Pediatrics Health Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. After study of international documents, consensus agreement about adapted program for Iran has been accomplished by focus group discussion and attended Delphi agreement technique. After compiling primary draft included evidence based guidelines and executive plan, 14 sessions including expert panels were hold to finalize the program. After finalizing the program, high risk infants follow up care service package has been designed in 3 chapters: Evidence based clinical guidelines; eighteen main clinical guidelines and thirteen subsidiaries clinical guidelines, executive plan; 6 general, 6 following up and 5 backup processes. Education program including general and especial courses for care givers and follow up team, and family education processes. We designed and finalized high risk infants follow up care service package. It seems to open a way to extend it to whole country.

  17. Residue behaviors and dietary risk assessment of dinotefuran and its metabolites in Oryza sativa by a new HPLC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijuan; Liu, Tongjin; Cui, Shuhua; Zhang, Sicong; Yu, Jianlei; Song, Guochun

    2017-11-15

    In this study, we developed a new method to detect dinotefuran and its metabolites (UF and DN) in Oryza sativa (Rice) by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. The recovery rates for dinotefuran, UF and DN were 82.3-85.8%, 83.7-89.0%, and 81.6-90.2%, respectively. The dissipation kinetics of dinotefuran in rice followed a combined first+first kinetic model, where the half-lives of dinotefuran and its metabolites were determined to be between 0.5 and 2.3days. The dinotefuran residue in brown rice sampled at day 7, 14, and 21 after the last application was 0.4131mg/kg with a very low risk quotient (RQ) value. We recommend that the safety interval of application for rice is 7days. The method developed in this study is simple and rapid, with high accuracy and precision which meet the requirements for quantitative analysis of dinotefuran in rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; Genest, Jacques; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Libby, Peter; Gotto, Antonio M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Mora, Samia; MacFadyen, Jean G; Glynn, Robert J; Kastelein, John J P

    2010-07-31

    for apolipoprotein A1 showed an equivalent strong relation to frequency of primary outcomes in the placebo group but little association in the rosuvastatin group. Although measurement of HDL-cholesterol concentration is useful as part of initial cardiovascular risk assessment, HDL-cholesterol concentrations are not predictive of residual vascular risk among patients treated with potent statin therapy who attain very low concentrations of LDL cholesterol. AstraZeneca. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Avaliação de risco crônico da ingestão de resíduos de pesticidas na dieta brasileira Chronic dietary risk assessment for pesticide residues in Brazilian food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Dutra Caldas

    2000-10-01

    Alimentarius. RESULTS: The TMDI was higher than the ADI (%ADI>100 at least in one Brazilian metropolitan region for 23 pesticides. Sixteen compounds are organophosphate insecticides, with methyl parathion having the TMDI exceeding the most toxicological parameter (%ADI N=9,300. Rice, beans, citrus and tomato were the commodities which most contributed to the ingestion. From the compounds under higher risk, only 6 were registered according to the Law 98.816/90, which concerns the use of pesticides in the country. CONCLUSIONS: The compounds identified in the study as presenting a potential health concern to the Brazilian consumers, and the commodities which most contributed to the ingestion, should be prioritized by the government in pesticide residue monitoring programs and in the re-registration process. In addition, residue data in food as consumed, processing factors and appropriate consumption data should be generated to allow further studies.

  20. Risk Management System and Project Staff Education Program for Overseas Construction Project Using the Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    The turnover of the Japanese contractors and the consulting firms has kept the same level since 1983, in spite of the fact that the size of domestic market is shrinking. This is why they do not have a proper management system, especially risk management system for the overseas construction projects. This study aims at building risk management system and developing education program that can be applied to reinforcing the ability, based on the author’s experience. Risk is defined as “uncertain ...

  1. School program for screening students at risk for diabetes: the School Nurse Childhood Obesity Prevention Education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Shirley; Bobo, Nichole

    2009-07-01

    Accurate height and weight and BMI assessment by the school nurse is the first step in identifying students at risk for developing type 2 diabetes or other health consequences. Additional screening for children at or above the 95th percentile for BMI identifies those students most at risk. MAP affiliate sites indicate that when this assessment and communication is done in a private, sensitive, and caring manner--with emphasis on the health of the child-parents/ guardians are receptive to the information. School nurses, with the knowledge and skills provided by the S.C.O.P.E. program, alert parents/guardians to address their children's health risks and contact their health care providers. School nurses are also taught how they can provide guidance for school leadership and community coalitions to incorporate effective changes to food and physical activity offerings to students. The S.C.O.P.E. program can enhance the role of the school nurse in the global fight against childhood obesity so school-age children are healthy and ready to learn.

  2. Using employee experts to offer an interprofessional diabetes risk reduction program to fellow employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Thomas L; Gillespie, Nicole D; Skrabal, Maryann Z; Faulkner, Michele A; Skradski, Jessica J; Ferguson, Liz A; Pagenkemper, Joni J; Moore, Geri A; Jorgensen, Diane

    2013-03-01

    A recent increase in the incidence of diabetes and pre-diabetes is causing many employers to spend more of their healthcare benefit budgets to manage the conditions. A self-insured university in the USA has implemented an interprofessional diabetes mellitus risk reduction program using its own employee faculty and staff experts to help fellow employees manage their diabetes and pre-diabetes. The interprofessional team consists of five pharmacists, a dietitian, an exercise physiologist, a health educator and a licensed mental health practitioner. In addition, the participant's physician serves as a consultant to the program, as does a human resources healthcare benefits specialist and a wellness coordinator. The volunteer program takes place at the worksite during regular business hours and is free of charge to the employees. The faculty and staff delivering the program justify the cost of their time through an interprofessional educational model that the program will soon provide to university students.

  3. 75 FR 2545 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR); Availability of the Final Expert Panel Report on Soy...

  4. Factors Associated with Adolescent Participation in a Cardiovascular Risk Factor Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Frank C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A student attitude survey was administered to 195 high school seniors to determine attitudinal and behaviorial factors associated with participation in a cardiovascular risk factor screening program. Differences between participants and nonparticipants are discussed, as are differences between Black and White participants. (MT)

  5. Assessing and mitigating risks of engineering programs with lean management techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, A.; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, E.

    2014-01-01

    in higher risks, which can lead to significant cost-overruns and large delays in schedule [Oehmen et al. 2012, Cantarelli et al. 2010, Flyvbjerg et al. 2003, GAO 2006]. Program success depends on four dimensions: delivery capability, organizational capability, marketing capability and innovative capability...

  6. Designing a Computerized Neuro-Cognitive Program for Early Diagnosing Children at Risk for Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Delavarian

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: This program has an acceptable validity and reliability. It could be useful as an accurate assessment tool in predicting dyslexia before the occurrence of psychological scars and can be used as a quick screening tool for children at risk for dyslexia.

  7. Availability of High School Extracurricular Sports Programs and High-Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Taylor, Stephanie L.; Zonta, Michela; Vestal, Katherine D.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Surgeon General has called for an expansion of school-based extracurricular sports programs to address the obesity epidemic. However, little is known about the availability of and participation in high school extracurricular sports and how participation in these sports is related to high-risk behaviors. Methods: We surveyed Los…

  8. Programmed Ventricular Stimulation for Risk Stratification in the Brugada Syndrome: A Pooled Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sroubek, Jakub; Probst, Vincent; Mazzanti, Andrea; Delise, Pietro; Hevia, Jesus Castro; Ohkubo, Kimie; Zorzi, Alessandro; Champagne, Jean; Kostopoulou, Anna; Yin, Xiaoyan; Napolitano, Carlo; Milan, David J.; Wilde, Arthur; Sacher, Frederic; Borggrefe, Martin; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Theodorakis, George; Nault, Isabelle; Corrado, Domenico; Watanabe, Ichiro; Antzelevitch, Charles; Allocca, Giuseppe; Priori, Silvia G.; Lubitz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of programmed ventricular stimulation in identifying patients with Brugada syndrome at the highest risk for sudden death is uncertain. We performed a systematic review and pooled analysis of prospective, observational studies of patients with Brugada syndrome without a history of sudden

  9. Classroom Practices and Academic Outcomes in Urban Afterschool Programs: Alleviating Social-Behavioral Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H. J.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Yates, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Given the potential of afterschool programs to support youth in urban, low-income communities, we examined the role of afterschool classroom ecology in the academic outcomes of Latino and African American youth with and without social-behavioral risk. Using multireporter methods and multilevel analysis, we find that positive classroom ecology…

  10. Evaluation of HIV Risk Reduction and Intervention Programs via Latent Growth Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichuan; Siegal, Harvey A.; Falck, Russel S.; Carlson, Robert G.; Rahman, Ahmmed

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates how the latent growth model can be applied to the evaluation of programs targeting HIV risk behavior among drug users. Multigroup piecewise latent growth models were fit to longitudinal data with three repeated response measures. Participants were 430 drug users and their sex partners. (SLD)

  11. Effects of a Summer Learning Program for Students at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Songtian; Benner, Gregory J.; Silva, Rayann M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of a summer learning program for students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). We used a quasi-experimental design with pre and post assessments for both the treatment and comparison groups. Participants were fourth grade students (N = 92) below…

  12. A School/Curricular Intervention Martial Arts Program for At-Risk Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    Statistics clearly demonstrate the need to assist students who may drop out of school or who may graduate with inadequate academic, social, and emotional skills. This paper describes efforts at one elementary school to address some of the needs of at-risk students. The program revolves around a structured martial arts class designed to develop…

  13. ''The place of the fatigue risks in the PWR maintenance programs''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechelotte, J.; Bordes, P.; Pages, C.; Friedrich, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The parts of components submitted to fatigue risk are more particularly controlled in operation. Three main cases are identified: the mechanical oligo-cyclic fatigue, the vibrating fatigue and the thermal fatigue. These cases are presented in this paper. As a precaution a complementary investigation program is implementing during the Number two decennial inspections of the 900 MW PWR. (A.L.B.)

  14. Gateway to College: Lessons from Implementing a Rigorous Academic Program for At-Risk Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Jacklyn Altuna; Bayes, Brian; Martinez, John

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the implementation of Gateway to College, a program whose mission is to serve students who have dropped out of high school, or who are at risk of dropping out of high school, by allowing them to earn a high school diploma and credits toward a postsecondary degree. Gateway to College is uniquely ambitious in providing…

  15. Green Construction and Energy Training Program for At-Risk Individuals: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Carla Lopez; Crowson, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    Training individuals who are at risk of unemployment/underemployment to increase their employability is a mission of many nonprofit agencies. These training programs, often supported by government funding, attempt to reduce these individuals' reliance on government assistance. The purpose of this study is to obtain hard data and an in-depth…

  16. Self-Regulation Programs for At-Risk Youth: Are Teachers Affected Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtinger, Einat; Leichtentritt, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study examines changes experienced by teachers of youth at socioeconomic risk during and after conducting self-regulation programs with their students. Participants' self-reports were classified into 3 change models. Teachers in the 1st model reported changes in their interaction with the school, their role with the students, and their own…

  17. Assessment of Dithiocarbamate Residues on Tomatoes Conventionally Grown in Uganda and the Effect of Simple Washing to Reduce Exposure Risk to Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuhaire, Aggrey; Kaye, Emmanuel; Mutambuze, Innocent Louis

    2017-01-01

    such tomatoes. Results revealed that mancozeb was the only reported dithiocarbamate, and 47.4% and 14% of farm and market samples, respectively, had dithiocarbamate residues exceeding the Codex alimentarius maximum residue limit of 2 mgCS2/kg. Mixing concentration had a positive significant effect...

  18. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  19. Simultaneous determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in muscles, liver, eggs and milk by MLC with a monolithic column and time-programmed UV detection: application to baby food and formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Jenny Jeehan; Shalan, Shereen; Belal, Fathalla

    2014-01-01

    Tylosin and Josamycin are macrolide antibiotics. They are used in the treatment of pneumonia, arthritis and mastitis in cattle, and mycoplasma infections in poultry. The incorrect use of antibiotics has lead to the presence of antibiotic residues in foods. The residues cause toxic effects on consumers. A simple and sensitive method was optimized and validated for the analysis of tylosin and josamycin residues in food samples. Analytical separation was performed in less than 10 min using a RP C18 monolithic column with time-programmed UV detection at 287 nm and 232 nm and a micellar solution of 0.17 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 14% methanol and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid buffered at pH 4 as the mobile phase. The method was fully validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. The micellar method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine tylosin and josamycin residues in spiked chicken muscles, chicken liver, bovine muscles, liver, milk and eggs. It was also extended to the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in chicken-based baby food and baby formulae. The compounds were separated by a monolithic column which, on account of its particular structure, could bear higher flow rates than usually found for this kind of analysis. High extraction efficiency for tylosin and josamycin was obtained without matrix interference in the extraction process and in the subsequent chromatographic determination. No organic solvent was used during the pretreatment step. Hence, it is considered an interesting technique for "green" chemistry. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in spiked chicken muscles, chicken liver, bovine muscles, liver, milk and eggs. It was also extended to the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in chicken-based baby food and baby formulae.

  20. Determining the Relative Criticality of Diverse Exploration Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle; Anton, Wilma; Robotham, Kwesi

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks, primarily in the context of Continuous Risk Management. Each risk is evaluated in terms of two missions (a six month stay on the Moon and a thirty month round trip to Mars) and three types of consequences (in-mission crew health, post-mission crew health, and in-mission performance). The lack of a common metric between the three consequence scales, such as financial costs or quality adjusted life years lost, makes it difficult to compare the relative criticality of the risks. We are, therefore, exploring the use of a ternary scale of criticality based on the common metric of influencing an operational decision. The three levels correspond to the level of concern the risk generates for a "go/no-go" decision to launch a mission: 1) no-go; 2) go with significant reservations; 3) go. The criticality of each of the 27 risks is scored for the three types of consequence in both types of mission. The scores are combined to produce an overall criticality rating for each risk. The overall criticality rating can then be used to guide the prioritization of resources to affect the greatest amount of risk reduction.

  1. The F-16 Multinational Staged Improvement Program: A Case Study of Risk Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    N-3618-AF, 1993. SK I. Mayer, The Development of the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile: A Case Study of Risk and Reward in Weapon System...Advanced medium range air-to-air missile, a critical element in the Block 40 upgrade. APG-68 The fire-control radar used in a series of variations in...F-16 SPO. YPA F-16 directorate of acquisition planning, dosed during MSIP. YPC F-16 directorate of configuration management. YPD F-16 directorate of

  2. Dissonance-based eating disorder program reduces cardiac risk: A preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melinda A; Willis, Mary; Fernandez-Kong, Kristen; Reyes, Shuhan; Linkhart, Ruby; Johnson, Molly; Thorne, Tyler; Kroska, Emily; Woodward, Halley; Lindberg, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a randomized, controlled preliminary trial to examine the effect of a dissonance-based eating disorder program on eating disorder symptoms and cardiac risk indices in a community sample of women with subclinical and clinical symptoms (N = 47), examining the efficacy of the program in both the indicated prevention and treatment realms. Eating disorder symptoms, body mass index, and biomarkers of cardiac risk were examined in dissonance and assessment-only control conditions at baseline, postintervention, and 2-month follow-up. Specifically, we assessed mean R wave amplitude, QT interval length, vagal tone (high frequency spectral power of heart rate variability), and sympathetic tone (low/high frequency spectral power ratio) via electocardiography (ECG) at each assessment period. We predicted a statistically significant 2 (condition: control, dissonance) × 3 (time: baseline, postintervention, 2-month follow-up) interaction in the mixed factorial MANOVA results. Results confirmed this hypothesis. Eating disorder symptoms and cardiac risk indices decreased significantly among participants in the dissonance condition at postintervention and 2-month follow-up compared with baseline. Results provide support for the efficacy of a dissonance-based program in the reduction of eating disorder symptoms and cardiac risk indices among women with subclinical and clinical eating disorder symptoms. Findings establish the efficaciousness of this dissonance-based approach in the indicated prevention and treatment realms and establish its efficacy in reducing cardiac risk indicators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A Program for At-Risk High School Students Informed by Evolutionary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan; Kauffman, Richard A.; Purdy, Miriam S.

    2011-01-01

    Improving the academic performance of at-risk high school students has proven difficult, often calling for an extended day, extended school year, and other expensive measures. Here we report the results of a program for at-risk 9th and 10th graders in Binghamton, New York, called the Regents Academy that takes place during the normal school day and year. The design of the program is informed by the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation and learning, in general and for our species as a unique product of biocultural evolution. Not only did the Regents Academy students outperform their comparison group in a randomized control design, but they performed on a par with the average high school student in Binghamton on state-mandated exams. All students can benefit from the social environment provided for at-risk students at the Regents Academy, which is within the reach of most public school districts. PMID:22114703

  4. Effect of a Dissonance-Based Prevention Program on Risk for Eating Disorder Onset in the Context of Eating Disorder Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff; Shaw, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Test (a) whether a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program that reduces thin-ideal internalization mitigates the effects of risk factors for eating disorder onset and (b) whether the risk factors moderate the effects of this intervention on risk for eating disorder onset, to place the effects of this intervention within the context of established risk factors. Female adolescents (N=481) with body image concerns were randomized to the dissonance-based program, healthy weight control program, expressive writing control condition, or assessment-only control condition. Denial of costs of pursuing the thin-ideal was the most potent risk factor for eating disorder onset during the 3-year follow-up (OR=5.0). The dissonance program mitigated the effect of this risk factor. For participants who did not deny costs of pursuing the thin-ideal, emotional eating and externalizing symptoms increased risk for eating disorder onset. Negative affect attenuated the effects of each of the active interventions in this trial. Results imply that this brief prevention program offsets the risk conveyed by the most potent risk factor for eating disorder onset in this sample, implicate three vulnerability pathways to eating pathology involving thin-ideal pursuit, emotional eating, and externalizing symptoms, and suggest that negative affect mitigates the effects of eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:21975593

  5. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  6. Risk assessment of inbreeding and outbreeding depression in a captive-breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Njal; Keith, Dave M; Houde, Aimee Lee S; Debes, Paul V; McBride, Meghan C; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    Captive-breeding programs can be implemented to preserve the genetic diversity of endangered populations such that the controlled release of captive-bred individuals into the wild may promote recovery. A common difficulty, however, is that programs are founded with limited wild broodstock, and inbreeding can become increasingly difficult to avoid with successive generations in captivity. Program managers must choose between maintaining the genetic purity of populations, at the risk of inbreeding depression, or interbreeding populations, at the risk of outbreeding depression. We evaluate these relative risks in a captive-breeding program for 3 endangered populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In each of 2 years, we released juvenile F(1) and F(2) interpopulation hybrids, backcrosses, as well as inbred and noninbred within-population crosstypes into 9 wild streams. Juvenile size and survival was quantified in each year. Few crosstype effects were observed, but interestingly, the relative fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding varied from year to year. Temporal variation in environmental quality might have driven some of these annual differences, by exacerbating the importance of maternal effects on juvenile fitness in a year of low environmental quality and by affecting the severity of inbreeding depression differently in different years. Nonetheless, inbreeding was more consistently associated with a negative effect on fitness, whereas the consequences of outbreeding were less predictable. Considering the challenges associated with a sound risk assessment in the wild and given that the effect of inbreeding on fitness is relatively predictable, we suggest that risk can be weighted more strongly in terms of the probable outcome of outbreeding. Factors such as genetic similarities between populations and the number of generations in isolation can sometimes be used to assess outbreeding risk, in lieu of experimentation. © 2014 Society for

  7. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifestyle Medicine-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factor Changes in Employees Participating in a Pharmacist-Run Risk Reduction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyue Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the leading cause of death among American adults accounting for approximately one-third of all deaths. It has been shown, however, that the actual causes of death are related to lifestyle behaviors such as tobacco use, poor diet and physical activity and alcohol consumption. A pharmacist-run employee health program, started in 2008, sought to lower CVD risk through the use of individualized lifestyle behavior programming, medication therapy management, and care coordination activities. Following one year of participation in the program, employee participants were shown to significantly increase exercise quantity (p < 0.001, fruit and vegetable consumption (p < 0.001, and decrease self-reported stress level (p = 0.006. The percentage of program participants simultaneously adherent to the recommended levels of exercise, combined fruit and vegetable intake and tobacco abstinence at one-year was 34.5% vs. 5.5% at baseline. This compares with only 5.1% of the U.S. population adherent to the same three behaviors. Pharmacists can positively impact healthy lifestyle behaviors when working in an employee health setting.

  9. Lifestyle Medicine-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factor Changes in Employees Participating in a Pharmacist-Run Risk Reduction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lenz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the leading cause of death among American adults accounting for approximately one-third of all deaths. It has been shown, however, that the actual causes of death are related to lifestyle behaviors such as tobacco use, poor diet and physical activity and alcohol consumption. A pharmacist-run employee health program, started in 2008, sought to lower CVD risk through the use of individualized lifestyle behavior programming, medication therapy management, and care coordination activities. Following one year of participation in the program, employee participants were shown to significantly increase exercise quantity (p < 0.001, fruit and vegetable consumption (p < 0.001, and decrease self-reported stress level (p = 0.006. The percentage of program participants simultaneously adherent to the recommended levels of exercise, combined fruit and vegetable intake and tobacco abstinence at one-year was 34.5% vs. 5.5% at baseline. This compares with only 5.1% of the U.S. population adherent to the same three behaviors. Pharmacists can positively impact healthy lifestyle behaviors when working in an employee health setting.   Type: Original Research

  10. An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Bartell, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents guidelines for evaluating uncertainty in mathematical equations and computer models applied to assess human health and environmental risk. Uncertainty analyses involve the propagation of uncertainty in model parameters and model structure to obtain confidence statements for the estimate of risk and identify the model components of dominant importance. Uncertainty analyses are required when there is no a priori knowledge about uncertainty in the risk estimate and when there is a chance that the failure to assess uncertainty may affect the selection of wrong options for risk reduction. Uncertainty analyses are effective when they are conducted in an iterative mode. When the uncertainty in the risk estimate is intolerable for decision-making, additional data are acquired for the dominant model components that contribute most to uncertainty. This process is repeated until the level of residual uncertainty can be tolerated. A analytical and numerical methods for error propagation are presented along with methods for identifying the most important contributors to uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation with either Simple Random Sampling (SRS) or Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is proposed as the most robust method for propagating uncertainty through either simple or complex models. A distinction is made between simulating a stochastically varying assessment endpoint (i.e., the distribution of individual risks in an exposed population) and quantifying uncertainty due to lack of knowledge about a fixed but unknown quantity (e.g., a specific individual, the maximally exposed individual, or the mean, median, or 95%-tile of the distribution of exposed individuals). Emphasis is placed on the need for subjective judgement to quantify uncertainty when relevant data are absent or incomplete

  11. Risk averse optimal operation of a virtual power plant using two stage stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajeddini, Mohammad Amin; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan; Soroudi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    VPP (Virtual Power Plant) is defined as a cluster of energy conversion/storage units which are centrally operated in order to improve the technical and economic performance. This paper addresses the optimal operation of a VPP considering the risk factors affecting its daily operation profits. The optimal operation is modelled in both day ahead and balancing markets as a two-stage stochastic mixed integer linear programming in order to maximize a GenCo (generation companies) expected profit. Furthermore, the CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) is used as a risk measure technique in order to control the risk of low profit scenarios. The uncertain parameters, including the PV power output, wind power output and day-ahead market prices are modelled through scenarios. The proposed model is successfully applied to a real case study to show its applicability and the results are presented and thoroughly discussed. - Highlights: • Virtual power plant modelling considering a set of energy generating and conversion units. • Uncertainty modelling using two stage stochastic programming technique. • Risk modelling using conditional value at risk. • Flexible operation of renewable energy resources. • Electricity price uncertainty in day ahead energy markets

  12. Increase plant safety and reduce cost by implementing risk-informed In-Service Inspection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Monette, P.; Doumont, C.

    2000-01-01

    The idea behind the program is that it is possible to 'inspect less, but inspect better'. In other words, the risk-informed In-Service Inspection (ISI) process is used to improve the effectiveness of examination of piping components, i.e. concentrate inspection resources and enhance inspection strategies on high safety significant locations, and reduce inspection requirements on others. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) risk-informed ISI process has already been applied for full scope (Millstone 3, Surry 1) and limited scope (Beznau, Ringhals 4, Asco, Turkey Point 3). By examining the high safety significant piping segments for the different fluid piping systems, the total piping core damage frequency is reduced. In addition, more than 80% of the risk associated with potential pressure boundary failures is addressed with the WOG risk-informed ISI process, while typically less than 50% of this same risk is addressed by the current inspection programs. The risk-informed ISI processes are used: to improve the effectiveness of inspecting safety-significant piping components; to reduce inspection requirements on other piping components; to evaluate improvements to plant availability and enhanced safety measures, including reduction of personnel radiation exposure; and to reduce overall Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs while maintaining regulatory compliance. A description of the process as well as benefits of past projects is presented, since the methodology is applicable for VVER plant design. (author)

  13. Increase plant safety and reduce cost by implementing risk-informed in-service inspection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Monette, P.

    2001-01-01

    The idea behind the program is that it is possible to 'inspect less, but inspect better'. In other words, the risk-informed In-Service Inspection (ISI) process is used to improve the effectiveness of examination of piping components, i.e. concentrate inspection resources and enhance inspection strategies on high safety significant locations, and reduce inspection requirements on others. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) risk-informed ISI process has already been applied for full scope (Millstone 3, Surry 1) and limited scope (Beznau, Ringhals 4, Asco, Turkey Point 3). By examining the high safety significant piping segments for the different fluid piping systems, the total piping core damage frequency is reduced. In addition, more than 80% of the risk associated with potential pressure boundary failures is addressed with the WOG risk-informed ISI process, while typically less that 50% of this same risk is addressed by the current inspection programs. The risk-informed ISI processes are used to improve the effectiveness of inspecting safety-significant piping components, to reduce inspection requirements on other piping components, to evaluate improvements to plant availability and enhanced safety measures, including reduction of personnel radiation exposure, and to reduce overall Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs while maintaining regulatory compliance. A description of the process as well as benefits from past projects is presented, since the methodology is applicable for WWER plant design. (author)

  14. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  15. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  16. Time-Tagged Risk/Reliability Assessment Program for Development and Operation of Space System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yuki; Takegahara, Haruki; Aoyagi, Junichiro

    We have investigated a new method of risk/reliability assessment for development and operation of space system. It is difficult to evaluate risk of spacecraft, because of long time operation, maintenance free and difficulty of test under the ground condition. Conventional methods are FMECA, FTA, ETA and miscellaneous. These are not enough to assess chronological anomaly and there is a problem to share information during R&D. A new method of risk and reliability assessment, T-TRAP (Time-tagged Risk/Reliability Assessment Program) is proposed as a management tool for the development and operation of space system. T-TRAP consisting of time-resolved Fault Tree and Criticality Analyses, upon occurrence of anomaly in the system, facilitates the responsible personnel to quickly identify the failure cause and decide corrective actions. This paper describes T-TRAP method and its availability.

  17. Examination of Lifestyle Behaviors and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in University Students Enrolled in Kinesiology Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Gina M; Lutsch, Andrea; Connors, Kimberly E; Shearer, Jane; Brown, Haley C; Ash, Garrett; Pescatello, Linda S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Barfield, Whitney; Dubis, Gabriel; Houmard, Joseph A; Hoffman, Eric P; Hittel, Dustin S

    2016-04-01

    Preventing physical inactivity and weight gain during college is critical in decreasing lifelong obesity and associated disease risk. As such, we sought to compare cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors between college students enrolled in kinesiology and non-kinesiology degree programs to assess whether health and exercise degree programs may influence health behaviors and associated disease risk outcomes. Anthropometrics, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and HbA1c%, blood pressure, and peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) were assessed in 247 healthy college students. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA) was calculated using glucose and insulin levels. Self-reported physical activity from the Paffenbarger questionnaire was collected to estimate the average caloric expenditure due to different types of physical activities. Despite no significant differences in body mass index or waist circumference between groups, kinesiology majors presented with ∼20% lower fasting insulin levels and HOMA (p = 0.01; p 300 metabolic equivalent-h·wk, whereas non-kinesiology majors engaged in students enrolled in kinesiology degree programs display improved healthy behaviors and associated outcomes (parameters of glucose homeostasis). Practical outcomes of this research indicate that implementing components of a comprehensive kinesiology curriculum encourages improved health behaviors and associated cardiometabolic risk factors.

  18. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; He, Li, E-mail: li.he@ncepu.edu.cn; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design.

  19. Development of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment program RiskA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There are four parts in the structure of RiskA. User input part lets users input the PSA model and some necessary data by GUI or model transformation tool. In calculation engine part, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, importance analysis and failure mode and effects analysis are supplied. User output part outputs the analysis results, user customized reports and some other data. The last part includes reliability database, some other common tools and help documents. • RiskA has several advanced features. Extensible framework makes it easy to add any new functions, making RiskA to be a large platform of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. It is very fast to analysis fault tree in RiskA because many advanced algorithm improvement were made. Many model formats can be imported and exported, which made the PSA model in the commercial software can be easily transformed to adapt RiskA platform. Web-based co-modeling let several users in different places work together whenever they are online. • The comparison between RiskA and other mature PSA codes (e.g. CAFTA, RiskSpectrum, XFTA) has demonstrated that the calculation and analysis of RiskA is correct and efficient. Based on the development of this code package, many applications of safety and reliability analysis of some research reactors and nuclear power plants were performed. The development of RiskA appears to be of realistic and potential value for academic research and practical operation safety management of nuclear power plants in China and abroad. - Abstract: PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) software, the indispensable tool in nuclear safety assessment, has been widely used. An integrated reliability and PSA program named RiskA has been developed by FDS Team. RiskA supplies several standard PSA modules including fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, failure mode and effect analysis and reliability

  20. Milk quality parameters associated with the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in bulk tank milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Cristina Almeida Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Veterinary drug residues in bulk tank milk are important to all sectors of the dairy chain because they are one of the major factors which determine the safety of the final product. This study attempted to identify milk quality parameters that are associated with the occurrence of veterinary drug residues using multivariate principal component analysis (PCA. A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected from 45 dairy farms in the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil and analyzed for 42 analytes, including pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Out of the 132 milk samples, 40 samples tested positive for at least one analyte (above the detection limit. The milk parameters associated with the antimicrobial residues by confirmatory tests were lactose and nonfat concentrations, as revealed by PCA. This analysis showed that fat and total solid concentrations, as well as the somatic cell and total bacteria counts were associated with macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk. A PCA assessing pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk revealed that the lactose and nonfat solid concentrations and titratable acidity were inversely associated with these residues. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the veterinary drug residues were associated with certain milk quality parameters that can be used to target farms at higher risk of veterinary drug residue contamination for testing programs in combination with incentives, education and training programs to improve mammary health, milk hygiene and safety.

  1. Qualification program of the ASTRID SFR project: definition, methodology and associated risk evaluation and management - 15093

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Dirat, J.F.; Traina, A.; Christofari, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Preconceptual Design phase of the ASTRID French Sodium Fast Reactor project had the objective to integrate innovative options to meet the requirements of the 4. generation reactors and to comply with the related specifications. It was followed by the conceptual phase studies (AVP2 phase 2013-2015) where some technical options are left opened with an advanced option and a backup alternative. In the same time of the AVP2 phase studies, the qualification program related to ASTRID project was initiated. It consists in collecting the exhaustive list of research/development (R/D) needs and technological demonstration tests to be fulfilled on representative mockup prior to component implementation in the prototype. The ASTRID Qualification Program (AQP) objectives are to collect needs expressed by all engineering companies involved in ASTRID, and then to organize the answer to this expression of needs. This significant work of needs compilation has been divided in several tasks, according to the ASTRID project decomposition in the Product Breakdown Structure (PBS). Compilation of needs was jointly performed by engineering company, R/D responsible and coordinated by the ASTRID Qualification project responsible. It was associated with an evaluation of the maturity level of the technical options thanks to a Technological Readiness Level grid (TRL ranking table), an identification of major risks, and an evaluation of the R/D potentiality and associated facility platform. The methodology applied for the ASTRID Qualification Program (AQP) is presented. It is explained what methodology was used associated to the TRL process, and how is managed the associated risk analysis evaluation: evaluation of major risks, definition of a risk portfolio and a corresponding Action Plan for risk reduction (synthesized under the REM acronym: Risk Evaluation and Management). This methodology is a mean used to facilitate ASTRID risk-informed decision making, technology qualification and

  2. Evolution and Innovations of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos de Céspedes; Manuel Saborío; Rafael Trejos; Gabriela Abarca; Avelino Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    We present the evolution, organization and results of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica (PNT). This program has been working uninterruptedly for more than fourteen years. Costa Rica currently has a literacy rate of 95%. To August 2004 the rate of infant mortality was 9.74 per 1000 births and to 2003, life expectancy was 76.3 years for men and 81.1 years for women. The control of infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as of severe malnutrition, has given r...

  3. Evolution and Innovations of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de Céspedes, Carlos; Saborío, Manual; Trejos, Rafael; Abarca, Gabriela; Sánchez, Avelino; Rojas, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We present the evolution, organization and results of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica (PNT). This program has been working uninterruptedly for more than fourteen years. Costa Rica currently has a literacy rate of 95%. To August 2004 the rate of infant mortality was 9.74 per 1000 births and to 2003, life expectancy was 76.3 years for men and 81.1 years for women. The control of infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as of severe malnutrition, has given r...

  4. INFORMATION SECURITY RISKS OPTIMIZATION IN CLOUDY SERVICES ON THE BASIS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses theoretical aspects of secure cloud services creation for information processing of various confidentiality degrees. A new approach to the reasoning of information security composition in distributed computing structures is suggested, presenting the problem of risk assessment as an extreme problem of decisionmaking. Linear programming method application is proved to minimize the risk of information security for given performance security in compliance with the economic balance for the maintenance of security facilities and cost of services. An example is given to illustrate the obtained theoretical results.

  5. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  6. Prioritizing stream types according to their potential risk to receive crop plant material--A GIS-based procedure to assist in the risk assessment of genetically modified crops and systemic insecticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Kuhn, Ulrike; Bundschuh, Mirco; Naegele, Caroline; Elsaesser, David; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Oehen, Bernadette; Hilbeck, Angelika; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Hofmann, Frieder

    2016-03-15

    Crop plant residues may enter aquatic ecosystems via wind deposition or surface runoff. In the case of genetically modified crops or crops treated with systemic pesticides, these materials may contain insecticidal Bt toxins or pesticides that potentially affect aquatic life. However, the particular exposure pattern of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., via plant material) is not properly reflected in current risk assessment schemes, which primarily focus on waterborne toxicity and not on plant material as the route of uptake. To assist in risk assessment, the present study proposes a prioritization procedure of stream types based on the freshwater network and crop-specific cultivation data using maize in Germany as a model system. To identify stream types with a high probability of receiving crop materials, we developed a formalized, criteria-based and thus transparent procedure that considers the exposure-related parameters, ecological status--an estimate of the diversity and potential vulnerability of local communities towards anthropogenic stress--and availability of uncontaminated reference sections. By applying the procedure to maize, ten stream types out of 38 are expected to be the most relevant if the ecological effects from plant-incorporated pesticides need to be evaluated. This information is an important first step to identifying habitats within these stream types with a high probability of receiving crop plant material at a more local scale, including accumulation areas. Moreover, the prioritization procedure developed in the present study may support the selection of aquatic species for ecotoxicological testing based on their probability of occurrence in stream types having a higher chance of exposure. Finally, this procedure can be adapted to any geographical region or crop of interest and is, therefore, a valuable tool for a site-specific risk assessment of crop plants carrying systemic pesticides or novel proteins, such as insecticidal Bt toxins, expressed

  7. Exploring shared risks through public-private partnerships in public health programs: a mixed method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Wadi B

    2017-06-12

    The natural assimilation of the process through which health partners sustain long-term relationships is a key issue in maintaining social well-being, reducing health risk factors, and sustaining public health programs. One global initiative in building effective healthcare systems is public-private partnerships (PPPs). This study elucidates the proposed key performance indicators initiated by the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia based on the projections of the government, known as Vision 2030, from the perspective of health risk factors. Through an inductive content analysis, this study assessed primary and secondary data in relation to the Saudi National Transformation Program (NTP). To identify the institutions that played a role in formulating the new Saudi Healthcare System, health policies, regulations, and reports published between 1996 and 2016 were categorized. After ranking the risk factors, the investigator selected 13 healthcare professionals in four focus group interviews to insightfully explore the challenges that the NTP faces from a health risk perspective. Thus, the study employed qualitative data gathered through focus group interviews with key figures as well as data extracted from written sources to identify distinct but interrelated partnerships practiced within risk management. A methodological overview of NTP priority and implementation offered practical guidance in the healthcare context. The five critical factors in maintaining successful and sustainable PPPs were (1) trustworthiness, (2) technological capability, (3) patient-centeredness, (4) competence, and (5) flexibility. Concession on primary and secondary healthcare services might be a good option based on the literature review and considering its popularity in other countries. A high outcome-based risk of PPPs was found as the most commonly shared perspective in risk management. Although the impact of the NTP rise has yet to be explored, its potential for challenging health

  8. A Preliminary Controlled Comparison of Programs Designed to Reduce Risk of Eating Disorders Targeting Perfectionism and Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M.; Durbridge, Mitchell R.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to find out whether programs targeting perfectionism and media literacy are more effective than control classes in reducing eating disorder risk factors. Finding reveals that perfectionism programs are well suited to individuals of mid- to late adolescent age and shows the importune of making prevention programs developmentally…

  9. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  10. Organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and supportive workplace culture might reduce presenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Steultjens, Esther; Baker, Nancy; Aas, Randi Wågø

    2012-01-01

    Objective of review: To determine if Workplace Health Promotion programs (WHPs) are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objective was to identify characteristics of successful programmes and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Search strategy: The Cochrane Library, Medline and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to January 2010 for all studies that examined WHP. A highly sensitive search strategy was used including reference list checking, hand searching, an...

  11. Termination of pregnancy: development of a high-risk screening and counseling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameau, B

    1993-01-01

    The Social Work Department of The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia, developed a social work service for women presenting for elective termination of pregnancy. They used a high social risk identification and screening process and developed a protocol describing essential elements of the clinical social work practice. Program development was practice-based and empirical, using practice experience and drawing from relevant literature.

  12. Tryon Trekkers: An Evaluation of a STEM Based Afterschool Program for At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels Anderson, Chessa

    This study contributed to the body of research that supports a holistic model of afterschool learning through the design of an afterschool intervention that benefits elementary school students of low socioeconomic status. This qualitative study evaluated a science focused afterschool curriculum that was designed using principles from Risk and Resiliency Theory, academic motivation theories, science core ideas from the Next Generation Science Standards, and used environmental education philosophy. The research question of this study is: how does an outdoor and STEM based afterschool program impact at-risk students' self-efficacy, belonging and engagement and ability to apply conceptual knowledge of environmental science topics? The study collected information about the participants' affective experiences during the intervention using structured and ethnographic observations and semi-structured interviews. Observations and interviews were coded and analyzed to find patterns in participants' responses. Three participant profiles were developed using the structured observations and ethnographic observations to provide an in depth understanding of the participant experience. The study also assessed the participants' abilities to apply conceptual understanding of the program's science topics by integrating an application of conceptual knowledge task into the curriculum. This task in the form of a participant project was assessed using an adapted version of the Portland Metro STEM Partnership's Application of Conceptual Knowledge Rubric. Results in the study showed that participants demonstrated self-efficacy, a sense of belonging and engagement during the program. Over half of the participants in the study demonstrated a proficient understanding of program concepts. Overall, this holistic afterschool program demonstrated that specific instructional practices and a multi-modal science curriculum helped to support the social and emotional needs of at-risk children.

  13. Effects of Comprehensive Risk Management Program on the Preparedness of Rofeide Rehabilitation Hospital in Disasters and Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Rajabi

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Considering the positive impact of the implementation of the risk management program on the preparedness of Rofeide Rehabilitation Hospital and promotion of its preparedness level from poor to moderate, as well as relatively high vulnerability of hospitals against internal and external risks, national hospitals are recommended to use the comprehensive hospital risk management model to be more prepared for disasters.

  14. Quality assurance and risk management: a survey of dental schools and recommendations for integrated program management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredekind, Richard E; Cuny, Eve J; Nadershahi, Nader A

    2002-04-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and risk management (RM) programs are intended to improve patient care, meet accreditation standards, and ensure compliance with liability insurance policies. The purpose of this project was to obtain and disseminate information on whether dental schools integrate QA and RM and what mechanisms have been most effective in measuring accomplishments in these programs. All sixty-five U.S. and Canadian dental schools were sent a twenty-nine-item survey, and forty-six (71 percent) schools responded. The main findings are as follows: 66 percent had a written QA program combined with a QA committee; 95 percent received administrative support; there was wide variation in the makeup of the QA committee; many institutions reported significant changes resulting from the QA program; and over half of the respondents merged QA and RM in some fashion. To develop or maintain an effective QA/RM program, the authors propose the following: obtain active support from the dean; develop goals and mission/vision statements; include trained personnel on the committee; establish wide levels of involvement in the QA program; develop QA measurements to ensure compliance with institutionally developed standards of patient care; and establish continuous cycles of improvement.

  15. 40 CFR 180.564 - Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.564 Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  16. 40 CFR 180.176 - Mancozeb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mancozeb; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.176 Mancozeb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances for residues of a fungicide which is a...

  17. 40 CFR 180.324 - Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.324 Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues...

  18. 40 CFR 180.314 - Triallate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triallate; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.314 Triallate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  19. 40 CFR 180.210 - Bromacil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromacil; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.210 Bromacil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide...

  20. 40 CFR 180.298 - Methidathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methidathion; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.298 Methidathion; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  1. 40 CFR 180.299 - Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.299 Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  2. 40 CFR 180.227 - Dicamba; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicamba; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.227 Dicamba; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of...

  3. 40 CFR 180.209 - Terbacil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terbacil; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.209 Terbacil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.249 - Alachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alachlor; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.249 Alachlor; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of...

  5. 40 CFR 180.128 - Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.128 Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.208 - Benfluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benfluralin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.208 Benfluralin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  7. 40 CFR 180.178 - Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.178 Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for residues of...

  8. 40 CFR 180.241 - Bensulide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bensulide; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.241 Bensulide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the residues...

  9. 40 CFR 180.263 - Phosalone; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosalone; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.263 Phosalone; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  10. 40 CFR 180.258 - Ametryn; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ametryn; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.258 Ametryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the desiccant...

  11. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Simazine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.213 Simazine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  12. 40 CFR 180.269 - Aldicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.269 Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  13. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methamidophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.315 Methamidophos; tolerances for residues. (a) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  14. 40 CFR 180.235 - Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.235 Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the...

  15. 40 CFR 180.222 - Prometryn; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prometryn; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.222 Prometryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  16. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoprop; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.262 Ethoprop; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the nematocide...

  17. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.198 Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  18. 40 CFR 180.304 - Oryzalin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oryzalin; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.304 Oryzalin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide...

  19. 40 CFR 180.169 - Carbaryl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbaryl; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.169 Carbaryl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  20. 40 CFR 180.220 - Atrazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atrazine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.220 Atrazine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  1. 40 CFR 180.122 - Parathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parathion; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.122 Parathion; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  2. 40 CFR 180.200 - Dicloran; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicloran; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.200 Dicloran; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  3. 40 CFR 180.133 - Lindane; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lindane; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.133 Lindane; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide...

  4. 40 CFR 180.328 - Napropamide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Napropamide; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.328 Napropamide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  5. 40 CFR 180.132 - Thiram; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiram; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.132 Thiram; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the fungicide...

  6. 40 CFR 180.243 - Propazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propazine; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.243 Propazine; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for negligible residues (N) of...

  7. 40 CFR 180.301 - Carboxin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxin; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.301 Carboxin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  8. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety; Programa de geracao termonuclear: seus riscos e segurancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-07-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process.

  9. The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case Study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Day, Diane T.; Secunda, Mark S.; Rosecrans, Glenn P.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory will be launched in early 2004 to examine the dynamic process of gamma ray burst (GRB) events. The multi-wavelength Observatory will study the GRB afterglow characteristics, which will help to answer fundamental questions about both the structure and the evolution of the universe. The Swift Observatory Contamination Control Program has been developed to aid in ensuring the success of the on-orbit performance of two of the primary instruments: the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). During the design phase of the Observatory, the contamination control program evolved and trade studies were performed to assess the risk of contaminating the sensitive UVOT and XRT optics during both pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations, within the constraints of the overall program cost and schedule.

  10. Effectiveness of an Internet-based program for reducing risk factors for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzelberg, A J; Eppstein, D; Eldredge, K L; Wilfley, D; Dasmahapatra, R; Dev, P; Taylor, C B

    2000-04-01

    This study evaluated an Internet-delivered computer-assisted health education (CAHE) program designed to improve body satisfaction and reduce weight/shape concerns--concerns that have been shown to be risk factors for the development of eating disorders in young women. Participants were 60 women at a public university randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Intervention participants completed the CAHE program Student Bodies. Measures of body image and disordered eating attitudes were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. At follow-up, intervention participants, compared with controls, reported a significant improvement in body image and a decrease in drive for thinness. This program provides evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of providing health education by means of the Internet.

  11. Music enrichment programs improve the neural encoding of speech in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-09-03

    Musicians are often reported to have enhanced neurophysiological functions, especially in the auditory system. Musical training is thought to improve nervous system function by focusing attention on meaningful acoustic cues, and these improvements in auditory processing cascade to language and cognitive skills. Correlational studies have reported musician enhancements in a variety of populations across the life span. In light of these reports, educators are considering the potential for co-curricular music programs to provide auditory-cognitive enrichment to children during critical developmental years. To date, however, no studies have evaluated biological changes following participation in existing, successful music education programs. We used a randomized control design to investigate whether community music participation induces a tangible change in auditory processing. The community music training was a longstanding and successful program that provides free music instruction to children from underserved backgrounds who stand at high risk for learning and social problems. Children who completed 2 years of music training had a stronger neurophysiological distinction of stop consonants, a neural mechanism linked to reading and language skills. One year of training was insufficient to elicit changes in nervous system function; beyond 1 year, however, greater amounts of instrumental music training were associated with larger gains in neural processing. We therefore provide the first direct evidence that community music programs enhance the neural processing of speech in at-risk children, suggesting that active and repeated engagement with sound changes neural function. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411913-06$15.00/0.

  12. The donor advocacy team: a risk management program for living organ, tissue, and cell transplant donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Susumu; Soyama, Akihiko; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Kurihara, Shintaro; Hidaka, Masaaki; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Hara, Takanobu; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kanetaka, Kengo; Takatsuki, Mistuhisa

    2017-08-01

    Although the incidence of living donor death is low in Japan, statistics show one living liver donor death in more than 7000 living liver transplants. Thus, medical transplant personnel must recognize that the death of a living organ or tissue transplant donor can occur and develop an appropriate risk management program. We describe how Nagasaki University Hospital established and implemented a Donor Advocacy Team (DAT) program: a risk management program for initiation in the event of serious, persistent, or fatal impairment of an organ, tissue, or cell transplantation from a living donor. The purposes of the DAT program are as follows: 1. To disclose official information without delay. 2. To provide physical and psychological care to the patient experiencing impairment and their family. 3. To provide psychological care to the medical staff in charge of the transplant. 4. To standardize the responses of the diagnosis and treatment department staff and other hospital staff. 5. To minimize the damage that the whole medical transplantation system may suffer and leverage the occurrence for improvement. To address (1) and (5), actions, such as reporting and responses to the government, mass media, transplant-related societies, and organ transplant networks, have been established to ensure implementation.

  13. Measuring success in a pesticide risk reduction program among migrant farmworkers in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Acosta, Martha Soledad; Chapman, Phillip; Bigelow, Philip L; Kennedy, Catherine; Buchan, Roy M

    2005-03-01

    Farmworkers in the US largely consist of young undocumented Hispanics with a median education of 6 years and limited English skills. The High Plains Intermountain Center for Agricultural Health and Safety bilingual pesticide risk reduction program, which complied with the Worker Protection Standard for migrant farmworkers was evaluated. A pretest/posttest comparison of farmworkers (n = 152) assigned to either the experimental or control group was used. Independent variables included demographics, agricultural experience, and health locus of control. Dependent variables were pesticide knowledge, safety risk perception (SRP), and safety-behavior outcomes. The bilingual pesticide program effectively increased farmworker's pesticide knowledge (P = 0.0001), SRP (P = 0.0001), and two (out of four) behavior outcomes. Workers with external health locus of control were less likely to adopt safety behaviors (P = 0.0001). The cognitive decision-making process whereby farmworkers' readiness to change and permanently adopt safety behaviors was supported by the pesticide program. Our results support the need for long-term sustained bilingual, intervention programs that demonstrated effectiveness using integrative methodology.

  14. Dental students' and faculty members' concepts and emotions associated with a caries risk assessment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; Isyutina, Olga

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify concepts and emotions associated with using an established Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) and Caries Risk Management (CRM) program in a dental school. Five focus groups with students and faculty members were conducted. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were qualitatively analyzed for emotions, using Plutchik's wheel of emotions, and were inductively evaluated for concepts (stability coefficients, Scott's π, 0.65-0.71). A total of twenty-five students took part in three focus groups (D2, D3, and D4 separately), and fifteen faculty members participated in two groups. Few frequency differences existed across students and faculty in terms of emotions (278 in faculty members' discourse; 276 in students'). From these, 535 concepts were assembled in seven groups of semantically distinct concepts. Faculty members verbalized more numerous concepts than students (300 vs. 235). Skepticism about the effectiveness of the CRA/CRM program represented the most significant barrier to comprehensive student and faculty support. The findings also suggested that, in order to dispel misconceptions, clearer messages, simpler forms and systems, and better tailored foci of the program for diverse patient, student, and faculty subgroups are needed. Ultimately, buy-in from users depends on CRA forms and programs that are seen as relevant, useful, and simple, offering tangible outcomes for patients and clinicians.

  15. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy.

  16. The perceived influence of financial risk factors on the viability of nurse anesthesia educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sonja J; Martin-Sheridan, Denise

    2002-10-01

    Monetary cutbacks have occurred in the healthcare industry with increasing incidence since the mid-1980s. Attempts at self-preservation through cost-constraint have been instituted by hospitals, Medicare and Medicaid, and private insurance companies. Curtailment of expenditures, as well as reestablishing profit, has taken many forms. These include managed care, mergers, changing profit status, and aggressive competition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether directors of nurse anesthesia programs (NAPs) perceived these items as being detrimental to their NAPs. Data were gathered by descriptive survey design by completing a survey tool. Findings identified directors perceived NAPs at moderate to high risk for closure because of the financial constraints hospitals are experiencing as a result of healthcare reimbursement cutbacks. We found it interesting that many directors were either unaware or considered the hospitals' financial burdens as not impacting their NAP. However, directors who had taken courses or seminars with a focus on issues affecting the financing and reimbursement of healthcare institutions perceived significantly greater risk than those who did not. Potential learning opportunities and strategies to ameliorate risk were identified. Additional education may provide the knowledge and insight to find alternatives to risk, develop strategies, and promote more successful and stable nurse anesthesia educational programs.

  17. Development of a national sport event risk management training program for college command groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stacey A

    2013-01-01

    The US Department of Homeland Security identified college sport venues as terrorist targets due to the potential for mass casualties and catastrophic social and economic impact. Therefore, it is critical for college sport safety and security personnel to implement effective risk management practices. However, deficiencies have been identified in the level of preparedness of college sport event security personnel related to risk management training and effective emergency response capabilities. To address the industry need, the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security designed, developed, and evaluated a national sport event risk management training program for National Collegiate Athletic Association command groups. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the design, development, and evaluation process.

  18. A risk characterization of safety research areas for Integral Fast Reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure of critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR Safety and related Base Technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorites

  19. A risk characterization of safety research areas for integral fast reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Tibbrook, R.W.; Wei, T.Y.; Wright, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of integral fast reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure to critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR safety and related base technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorities

  20. Programs to reduce teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and associated sexual risk behaviors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goesling, Brian; Colman, Silvie; Trenholm, Christopher; Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    This systematic review provides a comprehensive, updated assessment of programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or associated sexual risk behaviors. The review was conducted in four steps. First, multiple literature search strategies were used to identify relevant studies released from 1989 through January 2011. Second, identified studies were screened against prespecified eligibility criteria. Third, studies were assessed by teams of two trained reviewers for the quality and execution of their research designs. Fourth, for studies that passed the quality assessment, the review team extracted and analyzed information on the research design, study sample, evaluation setting, and program impacts. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the data extraction and analysis. The studies examined a range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Most studies had mixed-gender and predominately African-American research samples (70% and 51%, respectively). Randomized controlled trials accounted for the large majority (87%) of included studies. Most studies (76%) included multiple follow-ups, with sample sizes ranging from 62 to 5,244. Analysis of the study impact findings identified 31 programs with evidence of effectiveness. Research conducted since the late 1980s has identified more than two dozen teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs with evidence of effectiveness. Key strengths of this research are the large number of randomized controlled trials, the common use of multiple follow-up periods, and attention to a broad range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Two main gaps are a lack of replication studies and the need for more research on Latino youth and other high-risk populations. In addressing these gaps, researchers must overcome common limitations in study design, analysis, and reporting that have negatively affected prior research. Copyright

  1. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  2. Cancer risk communication with low health literacy patients: a continuing medical education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Roth, Katherine G; Shelby, Kit; Cooper, Lisa A

    2010-05-01

    Low health literacy (HL) is an important risk factor for cancer health disparities. Describe a continuing medical education (CME) program to teach primary care physicians (PCP) cancer risk communication and shared decision-making (SDM) with low HL patients and baseline skills assessment. Cluster randomized controlled trial in five primary care clinics in New Orleans, LA. Eighteen PCPs and 73 low HL patients overdue for cancer screening. Primary care physicians completed unannounced standardized patient (SP) encounters at baseline. Intervention physicians received SP verbal feedback; academic detailing to review cancer screening guidelines, red flags for identifying low HL, and strategies for effective counseling; and web-based tutorial of SP comments and checklist items hyperlinked to reference articles/websites. Baseline PCP self-rated proficiency, SP ratings of physician general cancer risk communication and SDM skills, patient perceived involvement in care. Baseline assessments show physicians rated their proficiency in discussing cancer risks and eliciting patient preference for treatment/decision-making as "very good". SPs rated physician exploration of perceived cancer susceptibility, screening barriers/motivators, checking understanding, explaining screening options and associated risks/benefits, and eliciting preferences for screening as "satisfactory". Clinic patients rated their doctor's facilitation of involvement in care and information exchange as "good". However, they rated their participation in decision-making as "poor". The baseline skills assessment suggests a need for physician training in cancer risk communication and shared decision making for patients with low HL. We are determining the effectiveness of teaching methods, required resources and long-term feasibility for a CME program.

  3. Caries risk and prevention: Evaluation of a preventive program in a clinic for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Correia Sampaio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the Nexø caries risk assessment system together with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, in a preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Federal University of Paraíba. Methods: A sample of 107 children (2- to 14-year-old was attended on two occasions. The patients’ clinical data (DMF-T, dmf-t, Bleeding index, OHI-S and those from the preventive procedures performed (professional cleaning, fluoride application, Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, Nexø caries risk were collected twice: first from the clinical record cards and on the second occasion by exams. Parents and guardians evaluated the clinical attendance in an interview and the children, by means of a VAS scale. According to the Nexø caries risk assessment system, 53 children (49.5% were classified at low risk (6. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (11.0. Results: A positive correlation was observed between the two risk systems: Nexø and Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden of chances of avoiding new caries lesions. The possibility of avoiding new caries lesions increased 5% in both groups and a discrete increase was observed in the other parameters. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Nexø system associated with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, contributed to the assessment of the patients’ caries risk profile and to the success of the preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Universidade Federal da Paraíba.

  4. Putting the Diabetes Prevention Program into practice: a program for weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction for patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, P E; Einerson, J A; Grant, H; Sargent, C; Underbakke, G; Vitcenda, M; Zeller, L; Stein, J H

    2008-12-01

    The increasing incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have significant implications on health world-wide. Large clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle program with a goal of moderate weight loss (5-7%) and regular exercise (150 minutes/week), resulting in a significant decrease in the incidence of type 2 DM and cardiovascular risk. This study reports on the translation of the multi-center Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) into a cardiac rehabilitation program, utilizing the expertise and experience of a cardiac rehabilitation program staff. The study adapted materials from the DPP to develop a program that fit local needs for diabetes prevention. Most participants completed the program (11 months) and their moderate weight loss was maintained for 11-12 months. At 11-12 months, waist circumference was reduced by approximately 2 inches, percent body fat was reduced by 5% (11% relative decrease, pExercise, nutrition, glucose, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were all were significantly improved at 11-12 months (pdiabetes. This program demonstrates that an intensive effort can significantly improve lifestyle and reduce body weight in patients with DM or at risk for DM. A program that simulates cardiac rehabilitation, translated from a successful clinical trial into practice, resulted in significant reduction and improvement in metabolic outcomes and cardiovascular risk. Support for cardiac rehabilitation from insurers to develop similar programs is encouraged and deserves further study.

  5. Results of a lymphoblastic leukemia-like chemotherapy program with risk-adapted mediastinal irradiation and stem cell transplantation for adult patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelazzo, Sergio; Intermesoli, Tamara; Oldani, Elena; Ciceri, Fabio; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pogliani, Enrico M; Mattei, Daniele; Romani, Claudio; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Borlenghi, Erika; Corti, Consuelo; Peruta, Barbara; Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Bassan, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic role of mediastinal radiotherapy and stem cell transplantation (SCT) in lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL) remains controversial. In a risk-oriented design, we adopted a flexible treatment program in which (1) patients with persistent mediastinal abnormality, evaluated by post-induction computed chest tomography, received mediastinal irradiation; and (2) those with persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD), evaluated by MRD analysis of the bone marrow, underwent SCT. Twenty-eight out of 30 patients (T-lineage, n = 24; B-lineage, n = 6) achieved a complete response. Of 21 patients with mediastinal mass, 13 (62%) achieved a complete response after chemotherapy alone, while 6 (28.5%) required additional irradiation. Eleven patients were evaluated for MRD: 6 were negative and 5 positive. On the basis of MRD findings and clinical risk characteristics, 14 patients underwent SCT, 13 received maintenance chemotherapy, and 1 had local radiotherapy. Five patients relapsed. Among the 14 non-irradiated patients with T-LL, the mediastinal recurrence rate was only 7%. After a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 21 patients who responded were alive without recurrence (75%). The projected 5-year survival, disease-free survival, and relapse rate were 72%, 77%, and 18%, respectively. This program induced high remission and survival rates, indicating the feasibility and the benefits potentially associated with a selective, response-oriented policy of mediastinal irradiation and a concurrent MRD-based strategy to assign adult LL patients to SCT.

  6. The social construction of risk and the controversial Brazilian Nuclear Program: among scientific, political and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelo, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) stating as reference the Fukushima nuclear accident. Its main purpose is to analyze how the Japanese accident impacted the PNB. Therefore, the program will be analyzed within 10-years (2004-2014) in order to answer this question. The discussion launched in this thesis is based on the framework of the Social Studies of Science and Technology, which enables the understanding of socio-technical controversies beyond the social or technological determinism. Through the discussion of the concepts of framing, socio-technical imaginary, risk and governance of science and technology, the research shows how the controversy in focus has resulted in the opportunity to consider not only economic, technological, environmental issues about nuclear energy, but also its political dimensions and challenges. Among these challenges, and from very different perspectives, arise questions about the role nuclear energy plays in the Brazilian context, the future of the program and the decision making process on these issues. Despite the central purpose of this study is essentially on risks, PNB and on the Brazilian context, it should be pointed that it is impossible to consider it in isolation of what is happening internationally (considering interests, tensions, relations between actors, etc.) The research thereby identifies key implications of Fukushima in the international context, but focuses on the disputes regarding possible review of the PNB. It also highlights how the socio-technical controversies, such as the nuclear energy, demand or impose a discussion on the governance of science and technology, risk and on the engagement of different sectors and actors in decision-making on issues, that are at the same time about energy, technology and nationality relevance. All this reflection is made from multi-sited analysis, which allowed following the controversy surrounding nuclear energy, reheated by the Fukushima

  7. Effectiveness of Different Preventive Programs in Cariogram Parameters of Young Adults at High Caries Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Karabekiroğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of different preventive programs in young adults at high caries risk using Cariogram software. Methods. Sixty-six young adults with high caries risk were evaluated. Dental caries risk for all subjects was determined according to WHO criteria. Subjects were divided into three different preventive groups (control: OH, fluoride varnish: FV, and chlorhexidine varnish: CV. They were followed for 12 weeks (baseline: T0, 1 week: T1, 4 weeks: T2, and 12 weeks: T3. Plaque index, diet frequency, and salivary chairside tests (to record the flow rate, buffer capacity, and mutans streptococci and lactobacillus counts were performed at each visit. Based on these data, ten caries-related variables were collected and inserted into the Cariogram software to calculate the predicted chance of avoiding caries for each subject. Results. Significant changes were obtained about the Cariogram parameters (diet, bacteria, susceptibility, circumstances, and Cariogram risk group. No significant differences were found between the three methods regarding mean Cariogram scores after 3 months (p>0.05. Conclusions. The regular and effective short-term (three months use of 1450 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, one visit application of fluoride, and chlorhexidine varnishes were effective for reducing caries risk in young adults, which can be clearly demonstrated using Cariogram software.

  8. Report of the panel monitoring Ontario Hydro's electromagnetic field risk assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Ontario Hydro has undertaken several studies to assess any possible risk of cancer resulting from electromagnetic fields. Study results appear to support the conclusion that there is a risk of cancer to humans from electromagnetic fields. The risk is small. The conclusions of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences are supported by the Royal Society of Canada, monitoring the Electromagnetic Fields Risk Assessment Program of Ontario Hydro. The following three studies sponsored by Ontario Hydro showed evidence for concern regarding possible cancer risk associated with electromagnetic fields: (1) a study by Stuchly on the effect of 60 Hertz (Hz) electric and magnetic fields on the induced electric fields in the body; (2) a study on malignancies among employees of Ontario Hydro; and (3) a study of pediatric leukemia in Ontario. It was recommended that long term maximum exposure to high electromagnetic fields be limited by following the guidelines published by the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation. 55 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  9. Moderators and Predictors of Response to Eating Disorder Risk Factor Reduction Programs in Collegiate Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T M; Plasencia, M; Han, H; Jackson, H; Becker, C B

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to investigate moderators and predictors of response to two programs designed to reduce eating disorder risk factors in collegiate female athletes. This study served as an ancillary study to a parent trial that investigated the feasibility of an athlete modified cognitive dissonance-based program (AM-DBP) and an athlete modified healthy weight intervention program (AM-HWI). 157 female collegiate athletes were randomized to either the AM-DBP or the AM-HWI program. Participants completed surveys at baseline, post-intervention, 6 weeks, and 1 year. After classifying sports as either lean or non-lean, we investigated if sport type acted as a moderator of program response to AM-DBP and AM-HWI using ANOVAs. Next, we examined whether baseline thin-ideal internalization, weight concern, shape concern, bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, and negative affect acted as predictors of changes in bulimic pathology using linear regression models. Athletes in non-lean sports who received AM-DBP showed more improvement in negative affect versus non-lean sport athletes in AM-HWI. Higher baseline scores of bulimic pathology predicted greater response in bulimic pathology to both programs at 6-weeks. In contrast, athletes with higher dietary restraint and negative affect baseline scores showed decreased response to both interventions at 6-weeks. Finally, athletes with higher baseline shape concern showed a decreased response to the AM-HWI intervention at the post intervention time point. Results from the present study indicate that lean/non-lean sport may not play a strong role in determining response to efficacious programs. Further, factors such as pre-existing bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, negative affect, and shape concern may affect general response to intervention versus specific responses to specific interventions.

  10. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute

  11. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs for families at high and moderate risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Olsen, Kim; Bojesen, Stig E; Gerdes, Anne-Marie M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Surveillance programs are recommended to both families at high risk (Amsterdam-positive families with known- and unknown mutation) and moderate risk (families not fulfilling all Amsterdam criteria) of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cost-effectiveness has so far only been estimated...... to any surgical treatment. The risk of metachronous CRC is also modeled. RESULTS: Incremental costs per life year gained are estimated to be euro 980 when families at both high and moderate risk of HNPCC undergo surveillance (euro 508 for high risk and euro 1600 for moderate risk) and euro 1947 when...

  12. Physiological predictors of ovulation and pregnancy risk in a fixed-time artificial insemination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance and contribution of several physiological factors as predictors of pregnancy risk in an Ovsynch (GnRH-1 - 7d - PGF 2α - 56h - GnRH-2 - 16h - artificial insemination) timed artificial insemination program: (1) age of the corpus luteum (CL; original CL, new CL, or both in response to GnRH-1) and resulting progesterone concentrations as they affected luteolysis, ovulation after GnRH-2, and pregnancy risk; (2) progesterone concentration before GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 on subsequent ovulatory response to GnRH-1 and GnRH-2 as well as pregnancy risk; and (3) a combination of these factors in a multivariable logistic regression model to predict pregnancy risk. Original data from 7 published studies were combined including ovulatory responses to both GnRH injections, blood progesterone concentrations before GnRH-1, before PGF 2α , and at 48h after PGF 2α , pregnancy per artificial insemination at d 32 and 60 after artificial insemination, and intervening pregnancy loss. Ovulation outcomes were greater at lesser progesterone concentrations after both GnRH injections despite the fact that pregnancy outcomes were greatest when progesterone exceeded 3ng/mL before GnRH-1 and PGF 2α , suggesting that greater progesterone concentration before GnRH-1 and incidence of ovulation act via different mechanisms to improve subsequent fertility. Ovulation after GnRH-2 and subsequent pregnancy outcome were positively related to lesser concentrations of progesterone at 48h after PGF 2α ; however, for maximal pregnancy outcome, progesterone should be artificial insemination program. Receiver operator curves produced cut points of progesterone concentration that predicted ovulation and pregnancy risk. Selected cut points of progesterone concentration 48h after PGF 2α produced true positive risks greater than 90% and false positive risks less than 25%, thus demonstrating the high predictability of ovulation after GnRH-2 and

  13. An obesity/cardiometabolic risk reduction disease management program: a population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Victor G

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a critical health concern that has captured the attention of public and private healthcare payers who are interested in controlling costs and mitigating the long-term economic consequences of the obesity epidemic. Population-based approaches to obesity management have been proposed that take advantage of a chronic care model (CCM), including patient self-care, the use of community-based resources, and the realization of care continuity through ongoing communications with patients, information technology, and public policy changes. Payer-sponsored disease management programs represent an important conduit to delivering population-based care founded on similar CCM concepts. Disease management is founded on population-based disease identification, evidence-based care protocols, and collaborative practices between clinicians. While substantial clinician training, technology infrastructure commitments, and financial support at the payer level will be needed for the success of disease management programs in obesity and cardiometabolic risk reduction, these barriers can be overcome with the proper commitment. Disease management programs represent an important tool to combat the growing societal risks of overweight and obesity.

  14. A 5-year exercise program in children improves muscle strength without affecting fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jesper; Cöster, Marcus E; Stenevi-Lundgren, Susanna; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Dencker, Magnus; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2016-04-01

    High level of physical activity (PA) is associated with great muscle strength and high fracture risk. This prospective controlled population-based study evaluated how a pediatric PA intervention program influenced muscle strength and fracture risk. We carried out a school-based exercise intervention program with 200 min of PA per week for 5 years in 335 girls and 408 boys aged 6-9 years at study start. An age-matched control cohort including 756 girls and 782 boys continued with 60 min of PA per week. We registered fractures during the study period and calculated rate ratio. In a sub-sample, including 74 girls and 107 boys in the intervention and 51 girls and 54 boys in the control group, we measured knee flexion and extension strength by a computerized dynamometer and leg composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Group comparisons were adjusted for differences in age, baseline value for the measured parameter and changes in height. Children in the intervention group had a rate ratio to sustain a fracture of 1.03 (0.78, 1.36) (mean and 95 % confidence interval) (p = 0.79). The annual gain in flexion peak torque muscle strength was greater in both girls (at 60°/s) [1.1 Nm (0.5, 1.8), p strength without affecting the fracture risk.

  15. Participatory three dimensional mapping for the preparation of landslide disaster risk reduction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusratmoko, Eko; Wibowo, Adi; Cholid, Sofyan; Pin, Tjiong Giok

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of applications of participatory three dimensional mapping (P3DM) method for fqcilitating the people of Cibanteng' village to compile a landslide disaster risk reduction program. Physical factors, as high rainfall, topography, geology and land use, and coupled with the condition of demographic and social-economic factors, make up the Cibanteng region highly susceptible to landslides. During the years 2013-2014 has happened 2 times landslides which caused economic losses, as a result of damage to homes and farmland. Participatory mapping is one part of the activities of community-based disaster risk reduction (CBDRR)), because of the involvement of local communities is a prerequisite for sustainable disaster risk reduction. In this activity, participatory mapping method are done in two ways, namely participatory two-dimensional mapping (P2DM) with a focus on mapping of disaster areas and participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) with a focus on the entire territory of the village. Based on the results P3DM, the ability of the communities in understanding the village environment spatially well-tested and honed, so as to facilitate the preparation of the CBDRR programs. Furthermore, the P3DM method can be applied to another disaster areas, due to it becomes a medium of effective dialogue between all levels of involved communities.

  16. Extreme conditioning programs and injury risk in a US Army Brigade Combat Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; McNulty, Vancil; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    Brigades and battalions throughout the US Army are currently implementing a variety of exercise and conditioning programs with greater focus on preparation for mission-specific tasks. An Army physical therapy clinic working with a light infantry brigade developed the Advanced Tactical Athlete Conditioning (ATAC) program. The ATAC program is a unique physical training program consisting of high-intensity aquatic exercises, tactical agility circuits, combat core conditioning, and interval speed training. Along with ATAC, battalions have also incorporated components of fitness programs such as the Ranger Athlete Warrior program and CrossFit (Crossfit, Inc, Santa Monica, CA) an extreme conditioning program (ECP). To determine if these new programs (ATAC, ECP) had an effect on injury rates and physical fitness. Surveys were administered to collect personal characteristics, tobacco use, personal physical fitness training, Army physical fitness test results, and self-reported injuries. Medical record injury data were obtained 6 months before and 6 months after the implementation of the new program. Predictors of injury risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Injury incidence among Soldiers increased 12% for overall injuries and 16% for overuse injuries after the implementation of the ATAC/ECPs. However, injury incidence among Soldiers not participating in ATAC/ECPs also increased 14% for overall injuries and 10% for overuse injuries. Risk factors associated with higher injury risk for Soldiers participating in ATAC/ECPs included: greater mileage run per week during unit physical training (OR (>16 miles per week÷≤7 miles per week)=2.24, 95% CI, 1.33-3.80); higher body mass index (BMI) (OR (BMI 25-29.9÷BMI<25)=1.77, 95% CI, 1.29-2.44), (OR (BMI =30÷BMI<25)=2.72, 95% CI, 1.67-4.43); cigarette use (OR (smoker÷nonsmoker)=1.80, 95% CI, 1.34-2.42); poor performance on the 2-mile run during

  17. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. FLIGHT EXPERT RISK ASSESSMENT OF AIRCRAFT GROUP AT THEIR PROXIMITY USING A PROGRAM-MANAGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Mikhaylin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to solving the problem of aircraft flight safety. External threats in the form of aircraft-offenders are considered. The algorithm of collision danger coefficients with aircraft-offenders is presented, оn the basis of which the side-program manager of flight safety monitoring is formed.Two danger coefficients in the horizontal and vertical planes are introduced. Based on various flight situations four possible decisions are offered: absence of any aircraft activity, flight level change, deviation in the horizontal plane and both in vertical and horizontal planes. For each case the formulas of double evaluation are received. They take into account different parameters of aircraft relative motion. Based on these estimates it is possible to build a final expert evaluation for the considered flight situations. It is implemented in the onboard program-manager. The structure of the program is presented. At the program-manager output the expected minimized risk evaluation and the selected alternative of the avoidance of aircraft from the meeting point are formed. The paper presents a detailed description of the procedures to test the performance of the program-manager algorithms. The initial conditions for different flight situations are provided. The simulation results of the algorithm are given. The danger coefficients comparison when performing maneuvers to prevent dangerous approach and in their absence is illustrated. It is shown that the maneuver implementation recommended by program-manager algorithms decreases the resulting danger coefficient. Particular attention was paid to aircraft landing, especially if the landing area had several conflicting aircraft.

  19. Impact of a drug utilization review program on high-risk use of prescription controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubresse, Matthew; Gleason, Patrick P; Peng, Yi; Shah, Nilay D; Ritter, Stephen T; Alexander, G Caleb

    2014-04-01

    Prescription drug abuse has prompted considerable concern. We evaluated a retrospective drug utilization review program to reduce controlled substance use among individuals with high-risk utilization. We analyzed pharmacy claims from a large pharmaceutical benefits manager. For each eligible member, we calculated a controlled substance score based on the number and type of claims, prescribers and pharmacies, and utilization patterns over three months. Two state health plans sent controlled substance letters to prescribers of members meeting or exceeding a plan- and pre-specified controlled substance score. Two different state health plans did not send such letters. We used a difference-in-difference design and generalized estimating equations to quantify the impact of the program on the mean difference in reduction of the controlled substance score over six months. Eligible members in the intervention and comparison states had similar baseline mean controlled substance scores (19.0 vs. 18.6, p = 0.36). Adjusting for individuals' age, sex and pharmacy risk group score, reductions in the mean controlled substance score were greater in the intervention than comparison cohort (5.67 vs. 4.31, p = 0.01), corresponding with a 34.0% reduction in the intervention cohort compared to a 25.5% reduction in the comparison cohort. Changes were driven primarily by reductions in the number of controlled substance claims filled (30.5% vs. 23.1%, p = 0.01), as well as by a non-statistically significant trend towards reductions in the number of prescribers and pharmacies used (26.9% vs. 20.1%, p = 0.07). Retrospective drug utilization review programs may reduce controlled substance scores and claims among individuals with patterns suggesting high-risk utilization. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Zaire program expands to cover high-risk groups in two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This article announces the expansion of Zaire's social marketing program for condoms to high-risk groups in the cities of Goma and Matadi. The program will use proven marketing techniques from Kinshasha, printed materials, and direct marketing to retail outlets, emphasizing hotels, bars, and other areas frequented by prostitutes, migrants, and other travelers. In addition to retail outlets such as pharmacies, 50 taxis will be tested as additional retail sources for Prudence condoms. Once under way, this effort could reach as many as 96,000 people/day. 5 new AIDS information spots are being televised, and an anti-AIDS song and jingle are on the air. Condom social marketing representatives report a 357% increase in condom sales through March, 1989, over 1988, and that products are now available in 85% of Kinshasha pharmacies. Medical center coverage has increased to 14 from 9 zones, while products reach 11 additional cities and 5 interior provinces.

  1. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  2. NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System's Proving Ground and Risk Reduction Program - Bringing New Capabilities to Operations!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, B.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will focus on the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program's Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) initiative and how it has prepared NOAA users to effectively utilize new polar-orbiting capabilities. The PGRR Program was established in 2012, following the launch of the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. Two sets of PGRR Projects have been established grouped together in thirteen different initiatives. Details about how these projects have been continually tailored through the years to meet user requirements, will be highlighted. The presenter will focus on how the success of the first set of PGRR projects have been used to evaluate a follow-on set of projects and focus on exactly what the JPSS user community needs to meet their mission requirements. Details on the Dec 2014 PGRR Call-for-Proposals and the projects selected for funding will be discussed.

  3. Class I Underground Injection Control Program: Study of the Risks Associated with Class I Underground Injection Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document provides describes the current Class I UIC program, the history of Class I injection, and studies of human health risks associated with Class I injection wells, which were conducted for past regulatory efforts and policy documentation.

  4. Risk assessment of DOE defense program packages in a beyond 10 CFR 71.73 transportation accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Bennion, J.S.; Moore, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive program is being conducted by the DOE to determine the risks related to the domestic transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials associated with nuclear weapons. The program is designed to identify, quantify and manage potential risks to public health and safety including potential radiological and toxicological health consequences which may exceed the 10 CFR 71.73 transportation accident environment A major objective of this program being performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of Utah is to provide the DOE with the methodology and bases for evaluating highway transportation activities by DOE contractors. This paper describes the approach and the HITRA model which is based upon probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology and route specific data associated with the proposed transportation activity. The model is capable of providing detailed, location and time specific data for assessing projected risks to public health and safety from DOE defense program materials shipments

  5. Fetal programming and early identification of newborns at high risk of free radical-mediated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Serafina; Santacroce, Antonino; Picardi, Anna; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-05-08

    Nowadays metabolic syndrome represents a real outbreak affecting society. Paradoxically, pediatricians must feel involved in fighting this condition because of the latest evidences of developmental origins of adult diseases. Fetal programming occurs when the normal fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal insult applied to a critical point in intrauterine life. Placenta assumes a pivotal role in programming the fetal experience in utero due to the adaptive changes in structure and function. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and hypoxia are associated with placental dysfunction and programming. Many experimental studies have been conducted to explain the phenotypic consequences of fetal-placental perturbations that predispose to the genesis of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In recent years, elucidating the mechanisms involved in such kind of process has become the challenge of scientific research. Oxidative stress may be the general underlying mechanism that links altered placental function to fetal programming. Maternal diabetes, prenatal hypoxic/ischaemic events, inflammatory/infective insults are specific triggers for an acute increase in free radicals generation. Early identification of fetuses and newborns at high risk of oxidative damage may be crucial to decrease infant and adult morbidity.

  6. Proposal to introduce Disaster Risk Management topics in Master programs in ESAN Graduate School of Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA DEJO ESTEVES

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain and present a proposal to introduce Disaster Risk Management (DRM topics into ESAN Graduate School of Business Master's programs. Although disasters have cost Peru more than USD 7,600 million in the past 2 decades the business sector, particularly Small and Medium Enterprises, have not developed preventive or continuity plans mainly because they are not familiar with DRM topics. Taking this into consideration, the paper presents a detailed academic/curricular proposal for DRM topics such as business continuity, business ethics, corporate social responsibility, and sustainable management. Additionally, it introduces the idea of promoting Disaster Risk Management (DRM topics to the Peruvian business community as a strategy to enhance the graduate education.

  7. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2014-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a self-managed group. The guided group attends intervention meetings that comprise education and experience with the following components: diet, exercise, AI culture, and attention to emotional wellbeing. The self-managed group receives printed CVD prevention materials that are generally available. The duration of the intervention is 24 months. Several outcome variables will be compared between the two groups to assess the effectiveness of the intervention program. PMID:22941041

  8. A Review of Yoga Programs for Four Leading Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongra Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga, a form of physical activity, is rapidly gaining in popularity and has many health benefits. Yet healthcare providers have been slow to recognize yoga for its ability to improve health conditions, and few interventions have been developed that take full advantage of its benefits. The purpose of this article is to review published studies using yoga programs and to determine the effect of yoga interventions on common risk factors of chronic diseases (overweight, hypertension, high glucose level and high cholesterol. A systematic search yielded 32 articles published between 1980 and April 2007. The studies found that yoga interventions are generally effective in reducing body weight, blood pressure, glucose level and high cholesterol, but only a few studies examined long-term adherence. Additionally, not enough studies included diverse populations at high risk for diabetes and its related common health problems.

  9. Measuring attitudes towards nuclear and technological risks (computer programs in SPSS language)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonin, T.V. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    A number of methodologies have been developed for measuring public attitudes towards nuclear and other technological risks. The Fishbein model, as modified by the IAEA Risk Assessment group, and which was found to be applicable for Philippine public attitude measurements, is briefly explained together with two other models which are utilized for comparative correlations. A step by step guide on the procedures involved and the calculations required in measuring and analyzing attitude using these models is likewise described, with special emphasis on the computer processing aspect. The use of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) in the analysis is also described and a number of computer programs in SPSS for the various statistical calculations required in the analysis is presented. (author)

  10. Financial "risk-sharing" or refund programs in assisted reproduction: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Financial "risk-sharing" fee structures in assisted reproduction programs charge patients a higher initial fee but provide reduced fees for subsequent cycles and often a partial or complete refund if treatment fails. This opinion of the ASRM Ethics Committee analyzes the ethical issues raised by these fee structures, including patient selection criteria, conflicts of interest, success rate transparency, and patient informed consent. This document replaces the document of the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:334-6). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SPORTS SPECIFIC BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM IN REDUCING RISK OF ANKLE SPRAIN IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Choo LEE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effectiveness of four weeks sports specific balance training program to improve balance, thus reducing the risk of ankle sprain among Sultan Idris Education University basketball players. Method: There were 20 males basketball players (aged 19-24 years volunteered in this study. After screening process, there were14 male players met the inclusion criteria. They were randomized into two groups i.e experimental group (EG: n=7 and control group (CG: n=7. The EG undergone the four weeks sports specific balance training program three times per week while the CG followed their normal standard basketball training program. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS was used to assess static balance while Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is utilized to examine the dynamic balance. Pretest and posttest of balance measures were recorded using BESS and SEBT for both EG and CG. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-test (p=0.05. Results: The study findings indicated that there were significant differences between EG and CG for the static balance on firm surface (t=-4.642, p=0.001 and on foam surface (t=-8.590, P=0.000 as well as dynamic balance on left leg stance (t=2.350, P=0.037 and on right leg stance (t=3.145, P=0.008. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the four weeks sports specific balance training program could improve balance ability in male basketball players, thus may reducing the risk of ankle sprain.

  12. Meta-analysis of programmed cell death 1 polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Gai, Nan; Wang, Li; Liu, Kang; Liu, Xing-Han; Wei, Lin-Ting; Tian, Tian; Li, Shan-Li; Zheng, Yi; Deng, Yu-Jiao; Dai, Zhi-Jun; Fu, Rong-Guo

    2017-05-30

    The association of polymorphisms in programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk is inconsistent across different studies. This meta-analysis is aimed to provide reliable evidence to the association of five common PDCD1 polymorphisms (PD1.1, PD1.2, PD1.3, PD1.5 and PD1.6) with SLE risk. A total of 28 studies with 4,344 SLE cases and 5,474 healthy controls were included in this meta-analysis. PD1.3 polymorphism was significantly associated with SLE in the overall population (A vs. G: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.12-1.63; GA vs.GG: OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12-1.76; AA+GA vs. GG: OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.13-1.7). In the stratified analyses based on ethnicity, we found a significant association in Caucasians and in Mexicans. In the subgroup analyses by gender, a significant association was found between PD1.3 polymorphism and SLE risk in males. The results also suggested an association between the PD1.6 polymorphism and decreased SLE risk (A vs. G: OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73-0.96). Our meta-analysis revealed that PD1.3 polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to SLE, particularly in Caucasians, while PD1.6 may be a protective factor to SLE.

  13. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  14. An illustration of and programs estimating attributable fractions in large scale surveys considering multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toschke André

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attributable fractions (AF assess the proportion of cases in a population attributable to certain risk factors but are infrequently reported and mostly calculated without considering potential confounders. While logistic regression for adjusted individual estimates of odds ratios (OR is widely used, similar approaches for AFs are rarely applied. Methods Different methods for calculating adjusted AFs to risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD were applied using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. We compared AFs from the unadjusted approach using Levin's formula, from Levin's formula using adjusted OR estimates, from logistic regression according to Bruzzi's approach, from logistic regression with sequential removal of risk factors ('sequential AF' and from logistic regression with all possible removal sequences and subsequent averaging ('average AF'. Results AFs following the unadjusted and adjusted (using adjusted ORs Levin's approach yielded clearly higher estimates with a total sum of more than 100% compared to adjusted approaches with sums Conclusion Average AFs provide plausible estimates of population attributable risks and should therefore be reported at least to supplement unadjusted estimates. We provide functions/macros for commonly used statistical programs to encourage other researchers to calculate and report average AFs.

  15. Chemotherapy appointment scheduling under uncertainty using mean-risk stochastic integer programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Michelle; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2018-03-01

    Oncology clinics are often burdened with scheduling large volumes of cancer patients for chemotherapy treatments under limited resources such as the number of nurses and chairs. These cancer patients require a series of appointments over several weeks or months and the timing of these appointments is critical to the treatment's effectiveness. Additionally, the appointment duration, the acuity levels of each appointment, and the availability of clinic nurses are uncertain. The timing constraints, stochastic parameters, rising treatment costs, and increased demand of outpatient oncology clinic services motivate the need for efficient appointment schedules and clinic operations. In this paper, we develop three mean-risk stochastic integer programming (SIP) models, referred to as SIP-CHEMO, for the problem of scheduling individual chemotherapy patient appointments and resources. These mean-risk models are presented and an algorithm is devised to improve computational speed. Computational results were conducted using a simulation model and results indicate that the risk-averse SIP-CHEMO model with the expected excess mean-risk measure can decrease patient waiting times and nurse overtime when compared to deterministic scheduling algorithms by 42 % and 27 %, respectively.

  16. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  17. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  18. Technical methods for a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a technical review and examination of technical methods that are available for developing a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at a nuclear plant. The technical methods include ''engineering tools'' for examining the fire dynamics of fire protection problems, reliability techniques for establishing an optimal fire protection surveillance program, fire computer codes for analyzing important fire protection safety parameters, and risk-informed approaches that can range from drawing qualitative insights from risk information to quantifying the risk impact of alternative fire protection approaches. Based on this technical review and examination, it is concluded that methods for modeling fires, and reliability and fire PRA analyses are currently available to support the initial implementation of simple risk-informed, performance-based approaches in fire protection programs. (author)

  19. Linking High Risk Postpartum Women with a Technology Enabled Health Coaching Program to Reduce Diabetes Risk and Improve Wellbeing: Program Description, Case Studies, and Recommendations for Community Health Coaching Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, Priyanka; Thomas, Melanie; Delgadillo-Duenas, Adriana T; Leong, Karen; Najmabadi, Adriana; Harleman, Elizabeth; Rios, Christina; Quan, Judy; Soria, Catalina; Handley, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Background . Low-income minority women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) or high BMIs have increased risk for chronic illnesses postpartum. Although the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) provides an evidence-based model for reducing diabetes risk, few community-based interventions have adapted this program for pGDM women. Methods . STAR MAMA is an ongoing randomized control trial (RCT) evaluating a hybrid HIT/Health Coaching DPP-based 20-week postpartum program for diabetes prevention compared with education from written materials at baseline. Eligibility includes women 18-39 years old, ≥32 weeks pregnant, and GDM or BMI > 25. Clinic- and community-based recruitment in San Francisco and Sonoma Counties targets 180 women. Sociodemographic and health coaching data from a preliminary sample are presented. Results . Most of the 86 women included to date (88%) have GDM, 80% were identified as Hispanic/Latina, 78% have migrant status, and most are Spanish-speaking. Women receiving the intervention indicate high engagement, with 86% answering 1+ calls. Health coaching callbacks last an average of 9 minutes with range of topics discussed. Case studies presented convey a range of emotional, instrumental, and health literacy-related supports offered by health coaches. Discussion . The DPP-adapted HIT/health coaching model highlights the possibility and challenge of delivering DPP content to postpartum women in community settings. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02240420.

  20. Academic Support Programs Utilized for Nursing Students at Risk of Academic Failure: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Julie C; All, Anita

    The purpose of the literature review is to evaluate and discuss the various types of academic support programs used for at-risk nursing students to identify those that are most effective. Nurse educators are concerned about students admitted to nursing programs who are unable to successfully complete the program. To determine the format and efficacy of academic support programs, the literature review addressed the identification of at-risk students and academic support programs applicable to all student groups. Nurse educators need to develop and implement plans to support and retain students in order to address the impending nursing shortage. Replacing a student lost to academic failure is difficult. Although utilized in different manners, academic support programs are an effective retention strategy.