WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual radioactive materials

  1. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  2. Residual radioactive material guidelines: Methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This methodology is coded in a menu-driven computer program, RESRAD, which can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputers. Seven pathways of exposure are considered: external radiation, inhalation, and ingestion of plant foods, meat, milk, aquatic foods, and water. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to calculate soil cleanup guidelines. This experience has shown that the computer code is easy to use and very user-friendly. 3 refs., 8 figs

  3. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  4. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III; Argonne National Lab., IL; Dames and Moore, West Valley, NY; Argonne National Lab., IL; USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs

  5. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation

  6. Conceptual framework and technical basis for clearance of materials with residual radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The primary impediment to the release of materials containing residual radioactivity from a controlled environment is the lack of a suitable framework within which release standards can be developed. Recently, the 'risk-based' approach has been proposed as an appropriate means of setting standards. The term 'clearance' has been introduced by the International Atomic Energy Commission as a regulatory process for releasing radioactive materials posing trivial risks. A 'trivial' risk level has been determined to be on the order of 10[sup -6] to 10[sup -7] annual risk to an exposed individual, and a population risk of no more than 0.1 annually. Under these strict constraints, exposure scenarios may account for processing, disposal, and product end-use of materials. This paper discusses these scenarios and also describes the technical basis for deriving release levels under the suggested risk (or dose) constraints

  7. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-11-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined

  8. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for custody and long-term care of residual... LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.27 General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long...

  9. Standard Guide for Unrestricted Disposition of Bulk Materials Containing Residual Amounts of Radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the techniques for obtaining approval for release of materials encountered in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) from restricted use. This would be addressed in the decommissioning plan (E 1281). It applies to materials that do not meet any of the requirements for regulatory control because of radioactivity content. Fig. 1 shows the logic diagram for determining the materials that could be considered for release. Materials that negotiate this logic tree are referred to as “candidate for release based on dose.” 1.2 The objective of this guide is to provide a methodology for distinguishing between material that must be carefully isolated to prevent human contact from that that can be recycled or otherwise disposed of. It applies to material in which the radioactivity is dispersed more or less uniformly throughout the volume of the material (termed residual in bulk form) as opposed to surface contaminated objects. 1.3 Surface contaminated objects are materials externally co...

  10. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J. [and others

    1993-09-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

  11. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus

  12. Report on residual radioactive materials on public or acquired lands of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    This report identifies sites located on public or acquired lands of the United States containing residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste (excluding waste resulting from the production of electric energy) and was developed in accordance with the provisions of Section 114(b) of Public Law 95-604, "Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978," enacted on November 8, 1978. Additionally, the report specifies which Federal agency has jurisdiction over such sites and, where appropriate data were available, provides a description of the radiological status of each of the sites reported. For purpose of providing a timely report t o t h e Congress, a termination date of May 31, 1979 was established for the receipt, correlation, and analysis of the input data. As of this date, residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste have been identified by six Federal agencies at 48 sites throughout the United States. Table 1 on page vi provides a summary listing of the number of sites under the jurisdiction of each of these reporting agencies. A cross listing in tabular form by affected state is presented in Table 2 on page viii. Of the 48 sites reported, 36 are located i n three western states - Colorado (27 sites), Wyoming (5 sites), and Utah (4 sites). Based upon t h e data submitted, the sites were categorized into three broad radiological status categories -- controlled, unstabilized, and risk to the public. At controlled sites, the residue is stabilized, access t o t h e site is controlled, the s i t e is well monitored, and does not currently constitute a risk to the public. At sites in the unstabilized category, a probability exists for the spread of contamination. Sites in the risk category contain residue which represents a long-term risk to the public under present conditions. Of the 48 reported sites,. 9 (approximately 19%) could be classified in the controlled category; 38 (approximately 79%) were in the unstabilized category and

  13. Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario)

  14. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.

    1996-05-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines

  15. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  16. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  17. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products

  18. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  19. Radioactive materials in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank; Kaltz, Andrea Christine

    2014-01-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  20. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  1. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  2. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  3. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Proceedings of a specialist meeting on regulatory approaches for the control of environmental residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in most material. The most common naturally occurring radionuclides in material are those of the uranium and thorium series and potassium-40. This material is commonly referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In some material the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides are significantly higher, to the extent that regulatory control may be required for radiation protection purposes. Regulation of NORM presents a range of new challenges for both regulators and operators. Unlike more traditional industries dealing with radionuclides, NORM industries have generally not had any radiological oversight and, for example, are not equipped for radiological monitoring. Some consumer goods containing NORM, which have not traditionally been considered as a radiological problem (such as some fertilizers), may require regulation and this may have social and economic consequences. The transport and disposal of NORM are also a concern, particularly due to the large volumes, which may need to be considered. For the majority of NORM, disposal has been by conventional means in the same way as for non-hazardous waste with no specific attention to radiological aspects. In some cases, there may be a need for intervention into existing NORM disposal sites. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published ICRP No. 82, Protection of the Public in Situations of Prolonged Radiation Exposure in 2000. This document provides guidance on managing residues, such as those arising from NORM industries, with potential impact on the public. However, with NORM residual waste there may be three different situations: residual waste created as the result of a past practice, residual waste created by an ongoing practice and waste which will arise from future activities. Regulation of NORM may therefore be consistent with consideration of a practice, an intervention or a combination of both. Different regulatory

  5. Derivation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1993-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for strontium-90 and cesium-137 were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; this code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site will be utilized without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded within 1,000 years for either strontium-90 or cesium-137, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the following levels: 71,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 91 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario A (researcher: the expected scenario); 160,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 220 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); and 37 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 32 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the contaminated area: a plausible scenario). The derived guidelines are single-radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual strontium-90 and cesium-137 guidelines for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate

  6. Disposal of radioactive residuals requires careful planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontius, F.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radionuclides removed from source waters during water treatment become concentrated in residual liquids and sludges. Treatment technologies used to remove these contaminants from source waters may generate wastes that contain substantial radioactivity. Water systems that install one or more of these technologies in order to comply with the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) eventually adopted must dispose of the residuals. Disposal of radionuclide-containing wastes can be especially difficult, depending on the nature and amount of radioactivity present

  7. Material for radioactive protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  8. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  9. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  10. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    In Canada, large numbers of packages containing radioactive materials are shipped for industrial, medical and commercial purposes. The nature of the hazards and the associated risks are examined; the protection measures and regulatory requirements are indicated. The result of a survey on the number of packages being shipped is presented; a number of incidents are analyzed as a function of their consequences. Measures to be applied in the event of an emergency and the responsibility for the preparation of contingency plans are considered. (author) [fr

  12. Radioactive waste solidifying material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Keiichi; Sakai, Etsuro.

    1989-01-01

    The solidifying material according to this invention comprises cement material, superfine powder, highly water reducing agent, Al-containing rapid curing material and coagulation controller. As the cement material, various kinds of quickly hardening, super quickly hardening and white portland cement, etc. are usually used. As the superfine powder, those having average grain size smaller by one order than that of the cement material are desirable and silica dusts, etc. by-produced upon preparing silicon, etc. are used. As the highly water reducing agent, surface active agents of high decomposing performance and comprising naphthalene sulfonate, etc. as the main ingredient are used. As the Al-containing rapidly curing material, calcium aluminate, etc. is used in an amount of less than 10 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the powdery body. As the coagulation controller, boric acid etc. usually employed as a retarder is used. This can prevent dissolution or collaption of pellets and reduce the leaching of radioactive material. (T.M.)

  13. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  14. Radioactive raw material deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.; Lapinskaya, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the data on radioactive elements of the Earth, migration conditions and concentrations of uranium, radium and thorium. Briefly considered are the problems of radiogenic heat of the Earth, as well as the main methods of determining the absolute age of minerals and rocks. The main minerals of uranium and thorium are characterized, classification of their deposits is given. Primary attention is paid to the description of uranium deposits as the main sources of raw material for nuclear industry and nuclear power engineering. Among them in detail characterized are the exogenic deposits, confined mainly to sedimentary and sedimentary - metamorphized rocks as well as endogenic deposits, mainly hydrothermal ones, giving an essential part of commercial uranium. Special sections of the book deal with the problems of uranium bonds with coaly and bitumen materials, as well as the processes of ore-forming processes with the stages of ore-bearing rock formation

  15. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  16. Naturally occuring radioactivity in residues of drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornehm, C.; Mallick, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the course of a research project about 500 residues of drinking water treatment from approx. 400 water supply companies in Bavaria were investigated on naturally occurring radioactivity. For each residue the effective dose for workers was evaluated for each residue. The results show that increased activities, particularly of Radium-226, can be found in the material. The dose due to the exposure to the residues, which mostly result from the backwashing of filters, is below the reference value of 1 mSv/a, which can be used according to paragraph 97 of the German radiation protection standard. During the project the quantity of residues in Bavaria and the ways of their disposal were evaluated. In addition the relation between the amount of natural radioisotopes in the residues and the geological and hydrochemical conditions of the water catchment area was pointed out. (orig.)

  17. Opening Address [International Conference on Remediation of Land Contaminated by Radioactive Material Residues, Astana (Kazakhstan), 18-22 May 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    2014-01-01

    This conference creates a good opportunity to discuss the relevant issues relating to the environmental remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. It follows on from the environmental remediation conference that took place 10 years ago in Arlington, USA, and will allow discussion of the achievements, the successes, the failures and the lessons learned, as well as the new challenges that have emerged since that time. The conference will also provide a forum for discussions on: financing mechanisms and support for the international or multilateral organization of environmental remediation programmes; regulatory and safety issues; mature and innovative technologies; life cycle planning; and non-technical issues in environmental remediation. As a result, it is expected that the conference will encourage and assist the establishment of different partnerships, reveal synergies that can help in the full implementation of environmental remediation projects and provide a forum for improved coordination among the international organizations that support environmental remediation programmes, especially in this region. Finally, the conference will allow the IAEA to collect ideas for its programme and for the assistance it gives to its Member States

  18. Customs control of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causse, B.

    1998-01-01

    Customs officers take part in the combat against illicit traffic od radioactive materials by means of different regulations dealing with nuclear materials, artificial radiation sources or radioactive wastes. The capability of customs officers is frequently incomplete and difficult to apply due to incompatibility of the intervention basis. In case of contaminated materials, it seems that the customs is not authorised directly and can only perform incidental control. In order to fulfil better its mission of fighting against illicit traffic of radioactive materials customs established partnership with CEA which actually includes practical and theoretical training meant to augment the capabilities of customs officers

  19. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignon, H.; Brachet, Y.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G.; Robine, F.; Plantet, F.; Pestel Lefevre, O.; Hennenhofer, G.; Bonnemains, J.

    1997-01-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  20. Applied exposure modeling for residual radioactivity and release criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The protection of public health and the environment from the release of materials with residual radioactivity for recycle or disposal as wastes without radioactive contents of concern presents a formidable challenge. Existing regulatory criteria are based on technical judgment concerning detectability and simple modeling. Recently, exposure modeling methodologies have been developed to provide a more consistent level of health protection. Release criteria derived from the application of exposure modeling methodologies share the same basic elements of analysis but are developed to serve a variety of purposes. Models for the support of regulations for all applications rely on conservative interpretations of generalized conditions while models developed to show compliance incorporate specific conditions not likely to be duplicated at other sites. Research models represent yet another type of modeling which strives to simulate the actual behavior of released material. In spite of these differing purposes, exposure modeling permits the application of sound and reasoned principles of radiation protection to the release of materials with residual levels of radioactivity. Examples of the similarities and differences of these models are presented and an application to the disposal of materials with residual levels of uranium contamination is discussed. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Storage depot for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulinski, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson

  2. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  3. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  4. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  5. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  6. Package for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rossem, H.

    1983-01-01

    A holder for use with a labelled vial containing a radiopharmaceutical or other dangerous material is claimed. It comprises a hollow body with a closed bottom and an open top. There is at least one transparent portion through which the labelled vial may be inspected, and a holding means to secure the vial in the holder

  7. Device for encapsulating radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1994-01-01

    A capsule for encapsulating radioactive material for radiation treatment comprising two or more interfitting sleeves, wherein each sleeve comprises a closed bottom portion having a circumferential wall extending therefrom, and an open end located opposite the bottom portion. The sleeves are constructed to fit over one another to thereby establish an effectively sealed capsule container. 3 figs

  8. Container for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    The improvement of the construction of containers for the transport of nuclear fuels is proposed where above all, the insulating mass suggested is important as it acts as a safeguard in case of an accident. The container consists of a metal casing in which there is a pressure boiler and a gamma-shielding device, spacers between the metal casing and the shielding device as well as an insulation filling the space between them. The insulating material is a water-in-resin emulsion which is hardened or cross-linked by peroxide and which can furthermore contain up to 50 wt.% solid silicious material such as vermuculite or chopped glass fibre. The construction and variations of the insulating mass composition are described in great detail. (HR) [de

  9. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    The object of this brief report is to make the pollution inspectorate aware of the radiation hazards involved in new building materials, such as gypsum boards and alum slate based concrete blocks whose radium content is high. Experience in Swedish housebuilding has shown that a significant increase in the radiation dose to the occupants can occur. Improved insulation and elimination of draughts in fuel conservation accentuate the problem. Norwegian investigations are referred to and OECD and Scandinavian discussions aiming at recommendations and standards are mentioned. Suggested measures by the Norwegian authorities are given. (JIW)

  10. Residual radioactive contamination at Maralinga and Emu, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokan, K.H.

    1985-04-01

    An account is provided of residual contamination at Maralinga and Emu, in South Australia, where the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Research Establishment conducted nuclear weapons development trials between 1953 and 1963. Detailed information is presented about contamination levels at sites on the range where radioactive materials were dispersed. Some of these were associated with trials involving natural uranium or short-lived isotopes which are no longer present. There are four sites where plutonium-239 was dispersed in substantial quantities from minor trials and information is presented about its distribution. Much of this material has been diluted by mixing with local soil, but there is a significant quantity of material present in the form of contaminated fragments, particularly at Taranaki. A considerable quantity of uranium-235 is also present at Taranaki. An assessment is made of the radiological significance of the dispersed plutonium and it is concluded that the material represents a potential long term hazard while it remains in its present form. Residual radioactivity associated with all but one of the seven major trial sites involving nuclear explosions continues to decay in a predictable way and will in the worst case, fall below levels considered safe for continuous occupancy within about fifty years. One site, Tadje, contains significant concentrations of plutonium over a small area and onsidered to be an additional plutonium-contaminated locality. Measurements of beryllium concentrations in soil are presented

  11. Inventory of sites used to develop residual radioactivity criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronca-Battista, M.; Hardeman, J.C. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in conjunction with the National Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), has compiled an inventory of never licensed or otherwise poorly documented sites that may be contaminated with radioactive materials. This effort is in support of the EPA's development of radiation protection criteria for residual radioactivity at decommissioned sites. The inventory will help to establish the range of circumstances for which criteria are needed, as well as the suitability of candidate criteria for actual situations. The information will also be used to develop model sites and facilities for analyzing technical and economic feasibility of residual radioactivity criteria and to assess costs and benefits of alternate criteria. Relevant information about each site, such as radionuclides, waste forms, and quantities present will be included in the inventory when such information is available. The CRCPD has requested that each State radiation control agency furnish the information for the inventory. The inventory supplements the relatively extensive documentation of sites regulated by Federal or State agencies with information on old or unlicensed sites, such as old waste storage sites or radium ore processing facilities

  12. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Wilmot, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  13. Method of processing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Susumu; Moriya, Tetsuo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Kariya, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve contamination proofness, water proofness, close bondability and stretching performance of strippable paints coated to substrates liable to be contaminated with radioactive materials. Method: Strippable paints are previously coated on substrates which may possibly be contaminated with radioactive materials. After the contamination, the coated membranes are stripped and removed. Alternatively, the strippable paints may be coated on the already contaminated substrates and, after drying, the paints are stripped and removed. The strippable paints used herein have a composition comprising a styrene-butadiene block copolymer containing from 60 to 80 wt% of styrene as a main ingredient and from 0.3 to 5 % by weight of a higher alkyl amine compound having 12 to 18 carbon atoms blended with the copolymer. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. Regulatory and management approaches for the control of environmental residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides of natural origin are present throughout the environment in which we live. Some of these, such as those contained in the ores of uranium and thorium, have been exploited commercially for a long time and the management of the waste arising from such exploitation and the associated radiological safety issues have been well documented and are readily understood. However, whilst the existence of many other natural sources of radiation has been known for many years, it is only in relatively recent times that the community has come to consider if the presence of such naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in products and waste associated with everyday life is an issue that should be examined in more detail, especially from a safety viewpoint. In particular, as technology changes there are many new materials being developed by different methods and the processing of natural materials such as ores and soils is increasing. Also as technology develops so the waste streams from established industries may be causing new problems as they may be concentrating NORM in their waste to levels that are now exceeding the point at which regulatory concerns may be raised. The management of such waste containing NORM has been a growing focus of activity for the radiological protection community in recent years. There are a number of issues to be considered, not least of which is that many of the industries involved in producing waste containing NORM are, for the most part, not normally associated with radioactive material and the associated radiological protection requirements. Another point is that much of the waste containing NORM is produced in large volumes although the activity concentration may be low. These characteristics present their own particular management problems, especially if the waste contains sufficient radioactive material such that it cannot be released for reuse, recycling or free discharge as a disposal option. The IAEA has been implementing

  15. Radioactive material transportation information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taynton, L.F.; Blalock, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    We are working closely with DOE's field traffic managers to help develop useful public information materials because these managers are familiar with ongoing problems in their areas of operation. In addition, proposals are being prepared to make use of existing traveling exhibitry and to have personnel available to respond immediately to incidents. A close working relationship between traffic managers and state legislators is being cultivated to ensure that new legislation is based on fact. It is our intent to help inform the American public that an excellent track record has been established for transporting radioactive materials and that the transportation industry can be trusted to maintain this record of safety

  16. Radioactive wastes and residues: government participation in a control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelli, Guido

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the politic aspects of the State participation in inspection and control of the radioactive wastes residues with the supervise of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), by a national program

  17. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. The radioactivity of house-building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sos, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper compares the natural radioactivity and radon emission properties of different building materials like bricks, concretes, cements, sands, limes, marmors of different origin. A description of the radioactive model of apartments is also given. (TRA)

  19. Decree of the 23-rd of June 2015 related to installations implementing radioactive materials, radioactive wastes or solid residues of uranium, thorium or radium ore submitted to authorization according to entry 1716, to entry 1735 and to entry 2797 of the nomenclature of classified installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.

    2015-01-01

    This decree defines general prescriptions applicable to installations implementing radioactive materials, to installations used as depository, warehousing or storage of radioactive materials under the form of solid residues of radium, thorium or uranium ore, as well as some processing products, and to installations used for the management of radioactive wastes in an industrial or commercial facility. The decree contains general arrangements about authorisation request, financial guarantees and conditions of exploitation. It addresses measures and arrangements for the management of installations, for the management of radioactive materials and wastes, for the prevention of atmospheric pollution, for the protection of water resources and aquatic media. It also contains general rules for waste management, specific rules for radioactive waste management. It addresses measures and arrangements regarding the prevention of technological risks, the monitoring of installations and of their impact. An appendix addresses the various aspects of the quality management system: organisation and personnel, risk identification and assessment, process management and exploitation monitoring, management of modifications, planning of emergency situation, return on experience, performance monitoring. A last appendix addresses the monitoring of underground waters

  20. Investigations passed on within the frame of the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes: assessment of the issue on the impact of uranium mining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses several documents addressing different aspects related to the impact of long-term storage of uranium mining residues in France: the long-term toughness of retention barriers or dams for residue storages, techniques of water processing, the assessment of the dosimetric impact of residue storages, and the assessment of the dosimetric impact associated with sterile residues

  1. Dry containment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A cask for the dry containment of radioactive material, e.g. irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a cover which contains purge and drain passageways having valve connections. These passageways are sealed by after-purge cover seals which are clamped over them and to the outer surface of the cover. The cover seals are tested by providing them with a pair of concentric ring seal elements squeezed between the cover seal and the outer surface of the cover and by forcing a gas under pressure into the annular region between the seal elements via a T-connection and monitoring the pressure between the seal elements by means of a pressure gauge. (author)

  2. Radioactive materials transport; Le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-10-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig.

  3. A radiological legacy. Radioactive residues of the Cold War period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    A dominating feature of the historical period known as the Cold War was the large-scale production and testing, of nuclear weapons. These military activities brought with them an unprecedented generation of radioactive substances. A fraction of these 'Cold War residues' ended up in the atmosphere and were dispersed throughout the world. Some remained in relatively isolated states in underground geological environments at the production or test site. Others have contaminated areas at times accessible to humans. Augmenting this picture are other scenes of a Cold War legacy. Large amounts of radioactive waste and byproducts are in storage from the production of weapons material. At some point, they are expected to be converted to peaceful applications or sent for final disposal. Over the past decade, the IAEA has been asked to play a greater role in helping countries address this Cold War legacy. A number of scientific assessments of radiological situations created by the Cold War have been carried out by experts convened by the IAEA - at nuclear test sites, nuclear production facilities, and waste dumping sites. This edition of the IAEA Bulletin highlights these cooperative activities in the context of international developments and concerns

  4. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Leak detector for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Masataka; Yamaga, Satoru.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the detection sensitivity for radioactive substances leaking from pipeways or the likes in nuclear reactors. Constitution: A monitoring center s disposed apart from a chamber for which the leakage of radioactive substances is to be detected and the chamber to be detected and the monitoring center are connected by way of pipeways through which airs from the chamber to be detected are introduced into the monitoring center by way of a suction pump. The airs thus introduced are passed through air filters to remove dusts and the radioactivity of which is measured in a first radioactivity monitoring instrument. Then, the radioactivity of the airs removed with the dusts is measured by a second instrument. Since the detection is carried out by measuring the radioactive substances released into airs not by direct detection for the leaked fluid, the detection sensitivity can be improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  7. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items

  8. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-shinawy, R.M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  9. Management of radioactive wastes produced by users of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report is intended as a document to provide guidance for regulatory, administrative and technical authorities who are responsible for, or are involved in, planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste management programmes related to the safe use of radioactive materials in hospitals, research laboratories, industrial and agricultural premises and the subsequent disposal of the radioactive wastes produced. It provides information and guidance for waste management including treatment techniques that may be available to establishments and individual users

  10. Package for transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The standard contains the definitions of 47 terms relevant to safety aspects in the transport of radioactive materials and a classification scheme of transport packagings for such materials. Alphabetical indexes are added in Bulgarian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Russian and Czech

  11. International symposium on restoration of environments with radioactive residues. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    After the use of radioactive materials or the utilization of nuclear energy, some radioactive residues may remain in the environment and give rise to the exposure of persons living or working in that environment. Most commonly, these residues are the result of human activities that have been carried out in the past without proper regard to the internationally accepted radiation protection requirements for practices, or at that time when those requirements were less stringent than today. Of course unforeseen events such as accidents of concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material can also lead to higher levels of radioactive residues in the environment. The purpose of this Symposium is to foster an information exchange on the restoration of environments with radioactive residues. This includes the principles and criteria for guiding decision making and the methodologies for assessing the radiological situation and developing remediation plans for the human habitats affected. The overall aim is to promote an international consensus on the relevant issues in these areas. This document contains 51 presentations delivered during oral and poster sessions. Each of the presentations was separately indexed and provided with an abstract

  12. Measurement of liquid radioactive materials for monitoring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    This draft regulation applies to measuring equipment for liquid radioactive materials for the monitoring of the radioactive discharges from stationary nuclear power plants with LWR and HTR reactors. Demands made on the measuring procedure, methods of concentration determination, balancing, indication of limiting values, and inspections are layed down. The draft regulation deals with: 1) Monitoring liquid radioactive discharges: Water and similar systems; radionuclides and their detection limits, radioactively contaminated water (waste water); secondary cooling water; power house cooling water; primary cooling water; flooding water; 2) Layout of the measuring and sampling equipment and demands made on continuous and discontinuous measuring equipment; demands made on discontinuous α and β measuring equipment; 3) Maintenance and repair work; inspections; repair of defects; 4) Demands made on documentation; reports to authorities; 5) Supplement: List of general and reference regulations. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Radioactive materials in construction projects; Radioaktive Stoffe bei Baumassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank [Baugrund Dresden IGmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kaltz, Andrea Christine [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Ref. 53 (Strahlenschutz)

    2014-07-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  14. Response to Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Two response paths are discussed in the presentation. Reactive response follows when an alarm of a border monitor goes off or a notification is received about an incident involving or suspected to involve radioactive materials. The response can also be the result of the finding of a discrepancy between a customs declaration form and the corresponding actual shipment. Proactive response is undertaken upon receipt of intelligence information suggesting the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, notification about the discovery of non-compliance with transport regulations or if discrepancies are found in an inventory of radioactive materials.

  15. 78 FR 33008 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Radioactivity During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of public Webinar and... potential rulemaking to address prompt remediation of residual radioactivity during the operational phase of... radioactivity during the operational phase with the objective of avoiding complex decommissioning challenges...

  16. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  17. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, W. de L.M.

    1979-02-01

    The hazards of radioactive materials in transport are surveyed. The system whereby they are safely transported between nuclear establishments in the United Kingdom and overseas is outlined. Several popular misconceptions are dealt with. (author)

  18. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  19. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  20. Instructions for safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This entrance includes 5 chapters and tables and supplement. Chapter I contains the definitions and general provisions contained 5 materials. Chapter II contains radioactive materials packaging and permissible limits and it contains 8 materials. The provisions of Chapter III contains descriptions Missionaries. Chapter IV describes shipping instructions. As for the separation of V It contains Final provisions. The entrance contains number of tables speaks of the basic values of radioactive isotopes and radiation also limits activity and the requirements of industrial parcels and limits transactions to transport freight containers, as well as the International Classification of hazardous materials. This also includes entrance to the Supplement to some forms and Alohat

  1. Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2000 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2000, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2000, some 2446 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 2720 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union and Russia, South Korea, and Brazil. (orig.) [de

  2. Regulations and decisions in environmental impact assessment of residues radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance of natural radionuclides in the environment did not have high priority over many years compared to that of man-made radioactivity. There is, however, an increasing interest in such measurements since enhanced exposure to natural radioactivity is receiving the same legal weight as any other radiation exposure. In this context the surveillance of technologically enhanced naturally occurring materials, called TENORM becomes important. In Brazil, the industries of processing and chemical compounds production were developed based on mining, milling, transformation and manufacture of ores from sedimentary origin, ignea or metamorphic, which must determine the radioactive composition of the generated solid wastes and residues. Many solids residues stored in the environment has been of environmental concern facing the industries and environmentalists in Brazil as it presents a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to individuals occupationally exposed. Radiation protection regulations have not been applied yet to these industries, as the Brazilian regulatory agency (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN) has only recently published a regulatory guide concerning mining and milling of naturally occurring radioactive materials, which may generate enhanced concentrations of radionuclides. With respect to external and internal exposure to natural radionuclides from the solid residues storage, the nuclides of 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U decay chains are relevant, due to the exposure of workers as well as of members of the public. Radionuclides released from a source can be present as ions, molecules, complexes, mononuclear or polynuclear species, colloids, pseudocolloids, particles or fragments varying in size (nominal molecular mass), structure, morphology, density, valence and charge properties. One of the main points in environmental impact assessment is to identify whether the chemical availability is under influence of these speciation

  3. Medical applications of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hospitals, clinics and other medical complexes are probably the most extensive users of radioactive solutions of Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Xe-133 and radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic tools to evaluate the dynamic function of various organs in the body, detect cancerous tumors, sites of infection or other bodily dysfunctions. Examples of monitoring blood flow to a stressed heart and to the brain of a cocaine addict are shown. Short-lived positron emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15 and F-18) are produced right in a hospital. Other radionuclides are used as therapeutics to reduce tumor size or kill diseased cells. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is another medical diagnostic tool that is useful in the early detection of the AIDS virus and cancer as well as many other illnesses. Biological researchers, using radioactive biological compounds, have developed many of todays medical diagnostic procedures. Most of the recent Nobel Laureates in the life sciences have used radiolabeled compounds in their research. A brief review of these applications with several examples is presented

  4. Development of radioactive materials inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lu; Wang Guobao; Chen Yuhua; Li Latu; Zhang Sujing

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive materials inspection system which is applied to inspect the horror activities of radioactive materials and its illegal transfer. The detector sections are made of highly stable and credible material. It has high sensitivity to radioactive materials. The inspect lowest limit of inspection is the 2-3 times to the background, the energy range is 30 keV-2.5 MeV and the response time is 0.5 s. Inspection message can be transmitted through wired or wireless web to implement remote control. The structure of the system is small, light and convenient. It is ideal for protecting society and public from the harm of the radiation. (authors)

  5. Illicit trafficking of radioactive material in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hungary, due to its geographical location is a convenient region for illegal transit of nuclear material between source and target countries. In recent years nine cases have became known and altogether 21.7 kg depleted, 4.6 kg natural, and 2.5 kg low enriched uranium have been confiscated. A brief summary is given of possible origin of the illicitly transported radioactive material. The most important elements of the security of sources including the national and accounting system of radioactive material and the intervention plans are discussed. (author)

  6. Transport of radioactive materials by post

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The objective of the Seminar was to encourage safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material by post. Adequate, up-to-date regulations for international and domestic shipment of radioactive material by all modes of transport, including by mail, have been published by the IAEA. UPU, ICAO, IATA and other international organizations as well as a majority of the countries of the world have adopted most sections of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Although there is an apparent need for shipping radioactive material by mail, some countries allow only domestic shipments and the postal regulations applied in these countries often differs from the international regulations. Only about 25 countries are known to allow international (as well as domestic) shipments. From the discussions and comments at the Seminar, it appears that the option of shipment by post would be advantageous to enhance both the safety and economy of transporting, as well as to increase availability of, radioactive materials. The Agency's Regulations for transport by post as adopted by the UPU and ICAO are considered to provide a high level of safety and ensure a negligible element of risk. A more uniform application of these regulations within UPU Member States should be encouraged. The competent authority for implementation of the other parts of the Agency's Regulations in each of the Member States should be invited to advise the Postal Administrators and assist in applying the requirements to national as well as international postal shipments

  7. The safety of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, J.Ch.

    1997-01-01

    Five accidents in radioactive materials transport have been studied; One transport accident by road, one by ship, one by rail, and the two last in handling materials from ships in Cherbourg port and Le Havre port. All these accidents were without any important consequences in term of radiation protection, but they were sources of lessons to improve the safety. (N.C.)

  8. Natural Radioactivity of Some Mongolian Building Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbish, S; Ganchimeg, G

    2000-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials used in cities of Darkhan, Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet in Mongolia was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with HP-Ge-detector. The radium equivalent concentration and the gamma absorbed dose rate in air, were estimated as the external and internal hazard indices. The results indicate that these materials are not a major source of exposure.

  9. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  10. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  11. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  12. Radiological survey of the radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Burden, J.E.; Ellis, B.S.; Loy, E.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-08-01

    No uranium ore milling was performed at the Lowman site, which is located approximately 0.8 km northeast of the town of Lowman, Idaho. Nevertheless, approximately 80,000 metric tons of radioactive sands and residues from upgrading of heavy minerals by physical processing methods remain on the site grounds. Measurements of external gamma radiation 1 m above the surface showed exposure rates up to 2.4 mR/hr on site, but the exposure rate off site quickly dropped to the background level in all directions. Analysis of surface soil and sediment samples for 226 Ra and 232 Th indicated a limited spread of radioactive material

  13. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1998-02-01

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials

  15. Alternate Materials In Design Of Radioactive Material Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  16. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  17. Denials and Delays of Radioactive Material Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2011-01-01

    delays of shipments of radioactive materials forms an important issue today. Radioactive materials need to be transported using all modes of transport for use in different applications such as public health, industry, research and production of nuclear power. The transport of radioactive materials is governed by national and international regulations, which are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (TS-R-1). These regulations ensure high standards of safety. Recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive materials even when complying with the regulations. The denials and delays can result in difficulties to patients and others who rely on products sterilized by radiation. Therefore there is an urgent need for a universally accepted approach to solve this problem. In response, the IAEA has formed an International Steering Committee (ISC) on denials and delays of radioactive materials. Also, it designate the National Focal Points (NFP) representative to help the ISC members and the IAEA by informing about denial operations and how they can help. The Steering Committee developed and adopted an action plan which includes the action to be taken. This plan is based on: Awareness, Training, Communication, Lobbying for marketing, Economic and Harmonization among member states. It is important to work within the mandate of the ISC and in the line of action plan on denials and delays. It identified the following network members such as: National Focal Points, Regional Coordinators, National Committee, National Representative for different modes of transport and similar bodies, Carriers, Producers and Suppliers, Different civil societies, NGO's, Ministry of transport and others.

  18. Transportation of radioactive materials. Safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This engineering-oriented publication first presents fluxes and risks related to the transportation of radioactive materials: fluxes, risks, in-depth defence, and parcel typology. The author then describes the elaboration process for transportation regulations: IAEA recommendations for the transportation of radioactive materials and their review process, IAEA recommendations for modal regulations. He presents the French transportation regulation framework: evolutions of IAEA recommendations, case of aerial transport, and case of maritime transport. The next part addresses the specific case of the transportation of uranium hexafluoride. The last part addresses incidents and accidents occurring during transportation: declarations to be made, brief presentations of several examples of incidents and accidents

  19. Radioactive Material (Road Transport) Act 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act came into force on 27 August 1991. It replaces earlier legislation dating from 1948 and enables the United Kingdom to give effect to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) latest recommended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The new Act clarifies and extends the power of the Secretary of State to make regulations regarding, among other things, the design, labelling, handling, transport and delivery of packages containing radioactive material and the placarding of vehicles transporting such packages. The Act gives the Secretary of State the power to appoint inspectors to assist him in enforcing the regulations. (NEA)

  20. Microwave processing of radioactive materials-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Berry, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers that reviews the major past and present applications of microwave energy for processing radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on processing radioactive wastes. Microwave heating occurs through the internal friction produced inside a dielectric material when its molecules vibrate in response to an oscillating microwave field. For this presentation, we shall focus on the two FCC-approved microwave frequencies for industrial, scientific, and medical use, 915 and 2450 MHz. Also, because of space limitations, we shall postpone addressing plasma processing of hazardous wastes using microwave energy until a later date. 13 refs., 4 figs

  1. Measurements of residual radioactivity in neutron transmutation doped thermistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Camin, D.V.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1994-01-01

    Germanium wafers exposed to intense neutron beams from a nuclear reactor to produce neutron transmutation doped thermistors have been analysed for residual radioactivity in view of their application in experiments on rare decays. Measurements have been routinely carried out for more than three years with germanium spectrometers of low intrinsic radioactivity operating in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in order to suppress the background due to cosmic rays. Four long lived nuclei produced during the irradiation by the fast neutron component of the flux have been identified. It is shown that two of them will contribute considerably to the background in experiments on rare events carried out with thermal detectors, especially in the direct search of dark matter. These measurements also enable investigation of the presence of contaminants in the germanium wafer before irradiation. The sensitivity can be as low as 10 -14 g/g for some elements. ((orig.))

  2. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    In the course of transport by road, rail, sea and air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to ordinary members of the public and in most cases they are loaded and unloaded by transport workers who have no special training or experience in the handling of radioactive substances. The materials being transported cover a wide variety - ranging from small batches of short-lived radionuclides used in medical practice which can be transported in small sealed lead pots in cardboard boxes, to large, extremely radioactive consignments of irradiated nuclear fuel in flasks weighing many tons. With the growing development of nuclear power programmes the transport of irradiated fuel is likely to increase markedly. It is clear that unless adequate regulations concerning the design and assembly of the packages containing these materials are precisely set down and strictly carried out, there would be a high probability that some of the radioactive contents would be released, leading to contamination of other transported goods and the general environment, and to the delivery of a radiation dose to the transport workers and the public. An additional requirement is that the transport should proceed smoothly and without delay. This is particularly important for radioactive materials of short half-life, which would lose significant amounts of their total activity in unnecessary delays at international boundaries. Therefore, it is essential that the regulations are also enforced, to ensure that the radioactive material is contained and the surrounding radiation level reduced to a value which poses no threat to other sensitive goods such as photographic film, or to transport workers and other passengers. These regulations should be as uniform as possible on an international basis, so that consignments can move freely from one country to another with as little delay as possible at the frontiers. (author)

  3. Natural radioactivity for some Egyptian building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, M. F.; Mostafa, R. M.; Shahin, F.; Hassan, K. F.; Saleh, Z. A.; Yahia, A.

    2007-01-01

    Study of the radiation hazards for the building materials is interested in most international countries. Measurements of natural radioactivity was verified for some egyptian building materials to assess any possible radiological hazard to man by the use of such materials. The measurements for the level of natural radioactivity in the materials was determined by γ-ray spectrum using HP Ge detector. A track detector Cr-39 was used to measure the radon exhalation rate from these materials. The radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 2.83±0.86 to 41.57 ± 8.38 mBqm -2 h -1 for egyptian alabaster. The absorbed dose rate in air is lower than the international recommended value (55 n Gy h -1 ) for all test samples

  4. Environment - sustainable management of radioactive materials and radioactive - report evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The economic affairs commission evaluated the report of M. Henri Revol on the law project n 315 of the program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes. It precises and discusses the choices concerning the researches of the three axis, separation and transmutation, deep underground disposal and retrieval conditioning and storage of wastes. The commission evaluated then the report on the law project n 286 relative to the transparency and the security in the nuclear domain. It precises and discusses this text objectives and the main contributions of the Senate discussion. (A.L.B.)

  5. Radioactivity of combustion residues from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vom Berg, W.; Puch, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Each year in Germany, about 18 mill. t of combustion residues are produced from the combustion of bituminous coal and lignite. They are utilized to a great extent in the construction industry and in mining. During the combustion of coal, the radio-nuclides remain predominantly in the ash. The radionuclide concentration in lignite ash is within the range of that in natural soil. The combustion residues of bituminous coal contain radio-nuclides of a similar order of magnitude as also can occur in natural rock. The utilization of combustion residues in construction materials makes a negligible contribution to radiation exposure through retention in buildings. (orig.) [de

  6. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  7. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  8. Radioactive waste - a select list of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A chronological bibliography is presented of literature relating to radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom concentrating on material published since 1978. The main sections include Dept. of Environ. and Official publications, administrative and environmental concerns, technological and scientific considerations, including publications on geological aspects, deep-sea bed and ocean-dumping and salt domes, with general background material and further sources of information listed at the end. (U.K.)

  9. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-sources@cern.ch

  10. Completion of the radioactive materials packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1998-01-01

    'The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance', which will serve as a replacement for the 'Cask Designers Guide'(1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US DOE and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials. Even though the Handbook is concerned with both small and large packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting fissile, radioactive sources (e.g. spent fuels). The safety analysis reports for packagings (SARPs) must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet United States and/or international regulations, all of which are covered in the Handbook. One of the primary goals of the Handbook is to provide information which would guide designers of radioactive materials packages to make decisions that would most likely be acceptable to regulatory agencies during the approval process of the packaging. It was therefore important to find those authors who not only were experts in one or more of the areas that are addressed in a SARP, but who also had been exposed to the regulatory process or had operational experience dealing with a wide variety of package types. Twenty-five such people have contributed their time and talents to the development of this document, mostly on a volunteer basis

  11. Safe transport of radioactive material. 4. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material since 1961. Meeting its statutory obligation to foster the exchange and training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training. This training manual is an anchor of the standardized approach to training. It is a compendium of training modules for courses related to the different aspects of safety of transport of radioactive material. Keeping in view the specific needs of the potential users, the manual includes material that can be used for a variety of training programmes of duration ranging from half-a-day to ten days, for specific audiences such as competent authority personnel, public authorities, emergency response personnel and cargo handlers

  12. Radioactive Materials Packaging (RAMPAC) Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR). RAMTEMP users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyron-Hopko, A.K.; Driscoll, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the potential user with RadioActive Materials PACkaging (RAMPAC), Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR), and RAMTEMP databases. RAMTEMP is a minor image of RAMPAC. This reference document will enable the user to access and obtain reports from databases while in an interactive mode. This manual will be revised as necessary to reflect enhancements made to the system

  13. Physical protection of radioactive material in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Safety in the transport of radioactive material is ensured by enclosing the material, when necessary, in packaging which prevents its dispersal and which absorbs to any adequate extent any radiation emitted by the material. Transport workers, the general public and the environment are thus protected against the harmful effects of the radioactive material. The packaging also serves the purpose of protecting its contents against the effects of rough handling and mishaps under normal transport conditions, and against the severe stresses and high temperatures that could be encountered in accidents accompanied by fires. If the radioactive material is also fissile, special design features are incorporated to prevent any possibility of criticality under normal transport conditions and in accidents. The safe transport requirements are designed to afford protection against unintentional opening of packages in normal handling and transport conditions and against damage in severe accident conditions; whereas the physical protection requirements are designed to prevent intentional opening of packages and deliberate damage. This clearly illustrates the difference in philosophical approach underlying the requirements for safe transport and for physical protection during transport. This difference in approach is, perhaps, most easily seen in the differing requirements for marking of consignments. While safety considerations dictate that packages be clearly labelled, physical protection considerations urge restraint in the use of special labels. Careful consideration must be given to such differences in approach in any attempt to harmonize the safety and physical protection aspects of transport. (author)

  14. The experimental study of residual radioactivity induced in electrostatic deflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the key components of Sector Focusing Cyclotron at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the electrostatic deflector can be activated by primary and secondary particles, because of a mismatch between the actual value and the design value of the emittance and emergence angle. In addition, it will be struck by more particles, since there is a stray magnetic field and outgas from the surface of the electrostatic deflector. The residual radioactivity in the electrostatic deflector has been studied in two aspects: specific activity and residual dose rate, based on the gamma-ray spectrometry and Fluke 451p ionization chamber, respectively. The specific activity of radionuclides in the main components and the dust on the enclosure have been investigated by using gamma-ray spectrometry. The residual dose rate around the electrostatic deflector has been obtained by Fluke 451p ionization chamber. The results of the study show that there is a non-negligible radiological risk to the staff. This result can be provided as guidance for making a maintenance schedule, so that the dose received by staff can be kept as low as reasonably achievable. Based on the results, advice for "hands-on" maintenance and decommissioning of the SFC have been provided.

  15. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G. M.; Simpson, J.; Ghobril, C. N.; Perez, C. F.

    2014-08-01

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  16. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G. M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Simpson, J. [Class 7 Limited, 9 Irk Vale Drive, Chadderton, Oldham OL1 2TW (United Kingdom); Ghobril, C. N. [Governo de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Economia Agricola, 04301-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perez, C. F., E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2468, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sau Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  17. Manufacturing of concrete with residues from iron ore exploitation using the technology of radioactive waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versieux, Juniara L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from various segments of economy are immobilized by cementation, because of availability and widespread use in civil construction of cement. New cementitious materials are developed in CDTN using mining residues based on cementing techniques of radioactive wastes. Special procedures were developed to obtain concrete with the use of super plasticizers in which natural sand was totally replaced by mining residues. The motivation for this research is the exploration of banded iron formations (BIF) as iron ore in 'Quadrilatero Ferrifero' of Minas Gerais, where huge amounts of residues are generated with great concern about the environmental sustainability and safety of dams for residue storage. The exploitation of river sand causes many negative impacts, which leads to interest in its replacement by another raw material in mortar and concrete manufacturing. The use of BIF mining residues were studied for manufacturing of concrete pavers to contribute to reducing the impact caused by extraction of natural sand and use of mining residues. Previously developed procedures with total replacement of natural sand for mining residues were modified, including use of gravel to obtain pavers with improved properties. Four different mixtures were tested, in which the proportion of gravel and super plasticizer was varied. Monitored properties of pavers, among others, were compression resistance, water absorption, and void volume. With addition of gravel, the pavers had higher void index than those made only with mortar, and higher resistance to compression after 28 days of curing (an average of 18MPa of those made with mortar to 24MPa of those made with concrete). (author)

  18. Manufacturing of concrete with residues from iron ore exploitation using the technology of radioactive waste cementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versieux, Juniara L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: juniarani@gmail.com, E-mail: fsl@cdtn.br, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive wastes from various segments of economy are immobilized by cementation, because of availability and widespread use in civil construction of cement. New cementitious materials are developed in CDTN using mining residues based on cementing techniques of radioactive wastes. Special procedures were developed to obtain concrete with the use of super plasticizers in which natural sand was totally replaced by mining residues. The motivation for this research is the exploration of banded iron formations (BIF) as iron ore in 'Quadrilatero Ferrifero' of Minas Gerais, where huge amounts of residues are generated with great concern about the environmental sustainability and safety of dams for residue storage. The exploitation of river sand causes many negative impacts, which leads to interest in its replacement by another raw material in mortar and concrete manufacturing. The use of BIF mining residues were studied for manufacturing of concrete pavers to contribute to reducing the impact caused by extraction of natural sand and use of mining residues. Previously developed procedures with total replacement of natural sand for mining residues were modified, including use of gravel to obtain pavers with improved properties. Four different mixtures were tested, in which the proportion of gravel and super plasticizer was varied. Monitored properties of pavers, among others, were compression resistance, water absorption, and void volume. With addition of gravel, the pavers had higher void index than those made only with mortar, and higher resistance to compression after 28 days of curing (an average of 18MPa of those made with mortar to 24MPa of those made with concrete). (author)

  19. Domestic smoke detectors using radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-02-01

    Increasing numbers of technical and consumer products incorporating radioactive material are becoming available to the Australian public. One consumer device of this type coming into common use is the domestic smoke detector that uses Americium 241 in detecting smoke. This device has obvious life-saving and property-saving advantages and is attractive in that it is attractive in that it is self-contained, battery powered and needs little maintenance. The National Health and Medical Research Council in October 1978 recommended conditions, which are listed, are intended to ensure that radiation safety is preserved. They provide for the testing and approval of all models of domestic smoke detectors using radioactive material. The National Health and Medical Research Council stated that provided these conditions are applied it had no objection to the sale of these detectors by retailers

  20. Procedure for permanently storing radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevall, J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method of storing radioactive material in a hollow construction having an access opening. The construction is located below the surface of the ground within a rock chamber. The chamber has walls, a floor, and a ceiling. The construction is completely spaced from the walls, floor, and ceiling of the rock chamber to form an outer spacing, and the construction is made of material impervious to water. The construction comprises a capsule storage area and a capsule handling passageway adjacent thereto having a track and being connected to a lift-shaft running to the surface. The method includes the steps of: completely filling the outer spacing between the walls, ceiling, and floor of the rock chamber and the construction with material not impervious to water; placing capsules containing the radioactive waste in encapsulated form into the capsule storage area; filling the storage area around the loaded capsule with a sealing material to enclose the capsules; repeating the placing and filling steps until the storage area has been completely filled in with the capsules and sealing material; loading the passageway adjacent the storage area with a removable material different than the sealing material; closing the construction and sealing the lift-shaft at least at the construction level and at ground level; and providing means for collecting any water penetrating into the outer spacing

  1. Provision of transport packaging for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The safe transport of radioactive materials is governed by various regulations based on International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations. This code of practice is a supplement to the regulations, its objects being (a) to advise designers of packaging on the technical features necessary to conform to the regulations, and (b) to outline the requirements for obtaining approval of package designs from the competent authority. (U.K.)

  2. Transportaton of radioactive materials by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, J.M.

    1977-04-01

    Canadian regulations for air transportation of radioactive materials are based on the IAEA regulations. The Atomic Energy Control Board is responsible for enforcement. The IAEA regulations are summarized in this report. A review of 402 210 shipments by air, road, rail, and sea in Canada between 1957 and 1975 reveals 61 incidents. Of the 36 incidents involving air transportation, one resulted in package failure and an increase in radiation and two resulted in package contents being spilled. (LL)

  3. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided

  4. Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, David; Curtis, John A; Greenberg, Michael I

    2009-05-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous throughout the earth's crust. Human manipulation of NORM for economic ends, such as mining, ore processing, fossil fuel extraction, and commercial aviation, may lead to what is known as "technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials," often called TENORM. The existence of TENORM results in an increased risk for human exposure to radioactivity. Workers in TENORM-producing industries may be occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. TENORM industries may release significant amounts of radioactive material into the environment resulting in the potential for widespread exposure to ionizing radiation. These industries include mining, phosphate processing, metal ore processing, heavy mineral sand processing, titanium pigment production, fossil fuel extraction and combustion, manufacture of building materials, thorium compounds, aviation, and scrap metal processing. A search of the PubMed database ( www.pubmed.com ) and Ovid Medline database ( ovidsp.tx.ovid.com ) was performed using a variety of search terms including NORM, TENORM, and occupational radiation exposure. A total of 133 articles were identified, retrieved, and reviewed. Seventy-three peer-reviewed articles were chosen to be cited in this review. A number of studies have evaluated the extent of ionizing radiation exposure both among workers and the general public due to TENORM. Quantification of radiation exposure is limited because of modeling constraints. In some occupational settings, an increased risk of cancer has been reported and postulated to be secondary to exposure to TENORM, though these reports have not been validated using toxicological principles. NORM and TENORM have the potential to cause important human health effects. It is important that these adverse health effects are evaluated using the basic principles of toxicology, including the magnitude and type of exposure, as well as threshold and dose response.

  5. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material

  6. The transport of radioactive materials - Future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, set the standards for the packages used in the transport of radioactive materials under both normal and accident conditions. Transport organisations are also required to implement Radiation Protection Programmes to control radiation dose exposure to both workers and the public. The industry has now operated under this regulatory regime safely and efficiently for nearly 50 years. It is vital that this record be maintained in the future when the demands on the transport industry are increasing. Nuclear power is being called upon more and more to satisfy the world's growing need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity and there will be a corresponding demand for nuclear fuel cycle services. There will also be a growing need for other radioactive materials, notably large sources such as Cobalt 60 sources for a range of important medical and industrial uses, as well as radio-pharmaceuticals. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support all these industry sectors and the challenge will be to ensure that this can be maintained safely and securely in a changing world where public and political concerns are increasing. This paper will discuss the main issues which need to be addressed. The demand for uranium has led to increased exploration and the development of mines in new locations far removed from the demand centres. This inevitably leads to more transport, sometimes from areas potentially lacking in transport infrastructure, service providers, and experience. The demand for sources for medical applications will also increase, particularly from the rapidly developing regions and this will also involve new transport routes and increased traffic. This raises a variety of issues concerning the ability of the transport infrastructure to meet the future challenge, particularly in an environment where there already exists reluctance on

  7. INES- French application to radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, S.; Strawa, S.; Aguilar, J.

    2004-01-01

    After gaining control of radioactive material transport in June 1997, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) decided to apply the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES scale) to transport events. The Directorate General for Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection (DGSNR) requests that radioactive material package consignors declare any event occurring during transport, and has introduced the use of the INES scale adapted to classify transport events in order to inform the public and to have feedback. The INES scale is applicable to events arising in nuclear installations associated with the civil nuclear industry and events occurring during the transport of radioactive materials to and from them. The INES scale consists of seven levels. It is based on the successive application of three types of criterion (off-site impact, on-site impact and degradation of defence in depth) and uses the maximum level to determine the rating of an accident. As the transport in question takes place on public thoroughfares, only the off-site impact criteria and degradation of defence in-depth criteria apply. This paper deals with DGSNR's feedback during the past 7 years concerning the French application of the INES scale. Significant events that occurred during transport are presented. The French experience was used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to develop a draft guide in 2002 and the IAEA asked countries to use a new draft for a trial period in July 2004. (author)

  8. Radioactive materials and emergencies at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent events have heightened awareness of the problems raised by accidents at sea involving radioactive materials. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) noted that, while the transport of radioactive materials at sea is governed by extensive international regulations, deficiencies remained, particularly concerning mechanisms for early accident reporting and the development of generic safety assessments and accident analysises for various kinds of sea transport. As a contribution towards improving international guidance in this field, the NEA appointed a consultant to review the current status of activities carried out by the principal international organizations concerned with the transport of radioactive materials (the IAEA, IMO and the CEC), to identify the various areas where additional work is required and to suggest appropriate improvements. Only the radiation protection aspects of sea transport have been considered here. After having examined the consultant report, the CRPPH felt that its wide distribution to national regulatory authorities in OECD countries would serve a useful purpose. The report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD and does not commit Member Governments or the Organization

  9. Decommissioning Strategies Selection for Facilities Using Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husen Zamroni; Jaka Rachmadetin

    2008-01-01

    The facilities using radioactive material that have been stopped operation will require some form of the decommissioning for public and environment safety. The approaches are identified by three decommissioning strategies: immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. If a facility undergoes immediate dismantling, most radio nuclides will have no such sufficient time to decay and therefore this strategy may not provide reduction in the worker exposure. A facility that undergoes deferred dismantling may advantage from the radioactive decay of residual radio nuclides during the long term storage period and entombment could be a viable option for other nuclear facilities containing only short lived or limited concentrations of long lived radionuclides. Mostly, only two types of the decommissioning used to be done in the world, immediate and deferred dismantling. (author)

  10. The safe transport of radioactive material in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutle, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in South Africa. In particular, the applicable legislation, the scope of authority and regulatory functions of the Competent Authority are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. (Author)

  11. The safe transport of radioactive material in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutle, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in South Africa. In particular, the applicable legislation, the scope of authority and the regulatory functions of the Competent Authority are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. (author)

  12. Disposal of radioactive waste material to sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive waste liquid of a low or intermediate activity level is mixed with a suitable particulate material and discharged under the sea from a pipeline. The particulate material is chosen so that it sorbs radio-nuclides from this waste, has a good retention for these nuclides when immersed in sea water, and has a particle size or density such that transfer of the particles back to the shore by naturally occurring phenomena is reduced. Radio nuclide concentration in the sea water at the end of the pipeline may also be reduced. The particulate material used may be preformed or co-precipitated in the waste. Suitable materials are oxides or hydroxides of iron or manganese or material obtained from the sea-bed. (author)

  13. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  14. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  15. Perception of risks in transporting radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, E.W.; Reese, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation is presented in which perceived risk was described in six basic terms: technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, benefit assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time. Scientists, the media and public officials contribute to the discussion of risks but ultimately people will decide for themselves how they feel and what they think. It is not sufficient to consider the public of not being enlightened enough to participate in the formulation of radioactive material transport policy. The framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better inform the public and to understand public perception

  16. Liquid filter for liquids containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohleder, N.; Schwarz, F.

    1986-01-01

    A device for filtering radioactive liquids loaded with solids is described, which has a pressure-resistant housing with a lid and an incomer for the turbid liquid and a collecting space and drain for the filtrate at the bottom of the housing. A filter cartridge is present in this housing. Such a filtering device must be suitable for use in nuclear plants, must be easy to replace by remote control and must minimise the carrying over of radioactive particles. This problem should be solved by the filter cartridge consisting of a large number of horizontal filter plates stacked above one another, which carry a deep layer filter material acting in the sub-micron range. The turbid liquid runs into the centre of the stack of filter plates via a vertical central duct. The intermediate spaces between the filter places are connected to this central duct via the layer of filter material. The filter plates are sealed against one another on the outer circumference and have radial drain openings for the filtrate on the outside. The central duct is sealed at the lower end by a plate. When the filter cartridge is replaced, the radioactive waste in the filter cartridge remains safely enclosed and can be conditioned in suitable containers. (orig.) [de

  17. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, E.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Valdivia R, D.

    2007-01-01

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  18. RESRAD analysis of the validity of generic limits on residual 238U radioactivity in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.; Eckart, R.

    1991-01-01

    Unrestricted use of sites contaminated by radioactive material requires that an acceptable level of residual radioactive contamination (in picocuries per gram of soil) be determined. Acceptable levels often are stated by regulatory bodies as residual isotope concentrations generic across all sites. For example, the past US Nuclear Regulatory Commission position on residual depleted uranium in soil was 35 pCi/g for unrestricted site release. The goal of this study is to show, using calculational methods typically employed in cleanup studies, that generic residual contamination limits may not provide consistent levels of protection to future site residents. Site-specific analysis containing conservative site use assumptions should be performed to ensure minimal future health risks. This study investigated three different sites contaminated with equal 238 U concentrations (35 pCi/g of soil). Results were calculated using the US Department of Energy code RESRAD, which employs pathway analysis methods to determine radionuclide uptake, performs dose calculations using ICRP-30 methods, and provides output at user-selected time intervals. The dose calculations used dose conversion factors that would, for each pathway, maximize the dose received from that pathway. The output selected for this study was the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) to the maximum individual

  19. International conventions for measuring radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    In buildings, whether civil or industrial, natural radioactivity always occurs at different degrees in the materials (main building materials, decorative materials). Concerns on radioactivity from building materials is unavoidable for human living and developing. As a member of WTO, China's measuring method of radioactivity for building materials, including radionuclides limitation for building materials, hazard evaluation system etc, should keep accordance with the international rules and conventions. (author)

  20. Hungarian situation of the technologically enhanced naturally occuring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.; Szerbin, P.; Czoch, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Hungary, the main goal is that the Hungarian regulations should meet with the EU Directive No. 96/29. For this aim, a surveying project has been launched in order to collect all relevant information about the Hungarian TENORM situation. This surveying programme covers a lot of data collection (work activities, disposal places, residue quantities) and radiological measurements on the TENORM site. The Hungarian situation of TENORM definitely differs from other countries in the aspect of occurrence forms of natural sources (or in the imported raw materials), in the quantities of exploitation, in the level of the radioactivity and in the applied technological processes. Firstly, those work activities have been choosen where the huge amount of residues have been produced. The other criteria is that the activity concentration in a great portion of the given residues is much higher than the average activity concentration of the typical Hungarian soil. After filtering and ranking, the following main activities enhanced the radioactivity level are left: uranium mining and milling, coal mining, coal firing in power plants, bauxite mining and aluminous earth production. At the uranium mining and milling area the uranium content of residues ranges from 20 to 70 g t -1 , and above those the dose rate is 0.4-10 μSv h -1 . The waste rock piles and heaps for leaching were restored and the remediation of tailings ponds is still under way. In the mountain Mecsek and on the territory from the highland Balaton to the mountain Vertes, the radioactivity level of the coals is 10-50 times higher than the worldwide average. The coal fired plants have piled up in the order of magnitude of 10 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash and slag in ponds around the plants. The radioactivity of U-238 series of ash and slag is in the range from 200 to 2000 Bq·kg -1 . The radionuclide concentrations of bauxite ores range from 200 to 300 Bq·kg -1 . At the refining factories, a lot of red

  1. Device for sampling liquid radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasak, L.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sampling of radioactive materials in the process of radioactive waste treatment is claimed by the Czechoslovak Patent Document 238599. The existing difficulties are eliminated consisting in a complex remote control of sampling featuring the control of sliding and rotary movements of the sampling device. The new device consists of a vertical pipe with an opening provided with a cover. A bend is provided above the opening level housing flow distributors. A sampling tray is pivoted in the cover. In sampling, the tray is tilted in the vertical pipe space while it tilts back when filled. The sample flows into a vessel below the tray. Only rotary movement is thus sufficient for controlling the tray. (Z.M.)

  2. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency published Training Course Series No. 1 (TCS-1), a training manual that provides in 20 chapters a detailed discussion of the background, philosophy, technical bases and requirements and implementation aspects of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The Transport Regulations are widely implemented by the IAEA's Member States and are also used as the bases for radioactive material transport requirements of modal organisations such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization. This document is a supplement of TCS-1 to provide additional material in the form of learning aids and new exercises, that have been developed with the use of TCS-1 at succeeding IAEA training courses. The learning aids in the first part of the supplement are hitherto unpublished material that provide detailed guidance useful in solving the exercises presented in the second part. Solutions to the exercises are on field at the IAEA Secretariat and are available by arrangement to lectures presenting IAEA training courses. 4 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  3. Handling of disused radioactive materials in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes the handling of disused radioactive sources. It also shows graphic information of medical and industrial equipment containing radioactive sources. This information was prepared as part of a training course on radioactive wastes. (The author)

  4. Licenses for possessing and applying radioactive sources, materials, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial and governmental institutions have been licensed by Dutch authorities to possess and apply radioactive sources, materials, etc. A summary is given and the list is subdivided into a number of sections such as radioactive sources, radioactive materials, X-ray equipment and technetium-generators

  5. Radioactivity of buildings materials available in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singovszka, E.; Estokova, A.; Mitterpach, J.

    2017-10-01

    In the last decades building materials, both of natural origin and containing industrial by-products, have been shown to significantly contribute to the exposure of the population to natural radioactivity. As a matter of fact, neither the absorbed dose rate in air due to gamma radiation nor the radon activity concentration are negligible in closed environments. The soil and rocks of the earth contains substances which are naturally radioactive and provide natural radiation exposures. The most important radioactive elements which occur in the soil and in rocks are the long lived primordial isotopes of potassium (40K), uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th). Therefore, additional exposures have to be measured and compared with respect to the natural radiation exposure. Further, it is important to estimate the potential risk from radiation from the environment. The paper presents the results of mass activities of 226Ra, 232Th a 40K radionuclides in cement mortars with addition of silica fume. The gamma index was calculated as well.

  6. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  7. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao

    1998-01-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol's iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs

  8. Radioactive materials transportation emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmali, N.

    1987-05-01

    Ontario Hydro transports radioactive material between its nuclear facilities, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories and Radiochemical Company in Kanata, on a regular basis. Ontario Hydro also occasionally transports to Whiteshell Laboratories, Hydro-Quebec and New Brunswick Electric Power Commission. Although there are stringent packaging and procedural requirements for these shipments, Ontario Hydro has developed a Radioactive Materials Transportation Emergency Response Plan in the event that there is an accident. The Transportation Emergency Response plan is based on six concepts: 1) the Province id divided into three response areas with each station (Pickering, Darlington, Bruce) having identified response areas; 2) response is activated via a toll-free number. A shift supervisor at Pickering will answer the call, determine the hazards involved from the central shipment log and provide on-line advice to the emergency worker. At the same time he will notify the nearest Ontario Hydro area office to provide initial corporate response, and will request the nearest nuclear station to provide response assistance; 3) all stations have capability in terms of trained personnel and equipment to respond to an accident; 4) all Ontario Hydro shipments are logged with Pickering NGS. Present capability is based on computerized logging with the computer located in the shift office at Pickering to allow quick access to information on the shipment; 5) there is a three tier structure for emergency public information. The local Area Manager is the first Ontario Hydro person at the scene of the accident. The responding facility technical spokesperson is the second line of Corporate presence and the Ontario Hydro Corporate spokesperson is notified in case the accident is a media event; and 6) Ontario Hydro will respond to non-Hydro shipments of radioactive materials in terms of providing assistance, guidance and capability. However, the shipper is responsible

  9. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Third edition of the ANDRA's national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). After a brief historical review of the national inventory and the way it is constructed, the report gives the basics on radioactive wastes, their classification, origins and management processes, followed by a general presentation and discussion of the inventory results (radioactive wastes and materials). Results are then detailed for the different activity sectors using radioactive materials (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). Information is also given concerning radioactive polluted areas (characterization and site management) and radioactive waste inventories in various foreign countries

  10. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgogo, Obonye

    2016-04-01

    The report provides insight and investigates whether Transport Regulations in Botswana follow international standards for transport of radioactive material. Radioactive materials are very useful in most of our activities and are manufactured in different countries, therefore end up traversing from one country to another and being transported in national roads .The IAEA regulation for the Transport of radioactive material is used as the reference guideline in this study. The current Regulations for Transport of radioactive material in Botswana do not cover all factors which need to be considered when transporting radioactive although they refer to IAEA regulations. Basing on an inadequacy of the regulations and category of radioactive materials in the country recommendations were made concerning security, packaging and worker training's. The regulations for the Transport of radioactive material in Botswana need to be reviewed and updated so that they can relate to international standard. (au)

  11. Decommissioning strategies for facilities using radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The planning for the decommissioning of facilities that have used radioactive material is similar in many respects to other typical engineering projects. However, decommissioning differs because it involves equipment and materials that are radioactive and therefore have to be handled and controlled appropriately. The project management principles are the same. As with all engineering projects, the desired end state of the project must be known before the work begins and there are a number of strategies that can be used to reach this end state. The selection of the appropriate strategy to be used to decommission a facility can vary depending on a number of factors. No two facilities are exactly the same and their locations and conditions can result in different strategies being considered acceptable. The factors that are considered cover a wide range of topics from purely technical issues to social and economic issues. Each factor alone may not have a substantial impact on which strategy to select, but their combination could lead to the selection of the preferred or best strategy for a particular facility. This Safety Report identifies the factors that are normally considered when deciding on the most appropriate strategy to select for a particular facility. It describes the impact that each factor can have on the strategy selection and also how the factors in combination can be used to select an optimum strategy

  12. Radioactive material (road transport) bill. [Third reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishburn, D.; Walley, J.; Currie, E.

    1991-01-01

    This is a private members Bill which will enable new rules to be set out that will govern the way in the which nearly 500,000 shipments of radioactive and nuclear material go by road in the United Kingdom every year. It would give the Department of Transport, which would become the enforcing authority, the powers of entry and inspection and allows penalties to be exacted from those breaking the rules. The present regulations for transport by road are those set out in 1947 and these need to be updated to comply with International Atomic Energy Authority Standards. The debate which lasted over one and a half hours is reported verbatim. The main points raised were about which emergency services if any should be notified on the transport of nuclear materials, with particular reference to Derbyshire. Nuclear power in general was also discussed. (UK)

  13. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  14. Review of the incineration of 500 tonnes of radio-active residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Seyfried, P.; Charbonneaux, M.

    1969-01-01

    During its first five years operation, the incinerator at the Marcoule Centre has burnt almost 500 tonnes of radio-active residues. Improvements in some of the details of the process have been made during this period; they concern the nature of the materials involved. The technical and radiological results for the installation are very favorable, and have made it possible to maintain a high charge factor.Although the overall economic results are not advantageous in the case of ungraded solid residues this method represents nevertheless the best available for eliminating oils, solvents, wood and dead animals. It can also be of use furthermore each time that a dilution in the atmosphere can advantageously be used as a method of disposing of certain radio elements such as tritium or carbon 14 in the form of gases or vapours. (author) [fr

  15. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium sand residues at the Lowman, Idaho, site. Services normally include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 90,000 tons of sand residues at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation is also a factor. The two alternative actions presented are dike construction, fencing, and maintenance (Option I); and consolidation of the piles, addition of a 2-ft-thick stabilization cover, and on-site cleanup (Option II). Both options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the two options are $393,000 and $590,000.

  16. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium sand residues at the Lowman, Idaho, site. Services normally include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 90,000 tons of sand residues at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation is also a factor. The two alternative actions presented are dike construction, fencing, and maintenance (Option I); and consolidation of the piles, addition of a 2-ft-thick stabilization cover, and on-site cleanup (Option II). Both options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the two options are $393,000 and $590,000

  17. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  18. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  19. Radioactive materials' transportation main routes in Brazil. Radiation protection aspects about radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Solange dos Reis e; Andrade, Fernando de Menezes; Aleixo, Luiz Claudio Martins

    2007-01-01

    The heavy transportation in Brazil is generally done by highways. The radioactive material transportation follow this same rule. Whenever a radioactive material is carried by the road, by the sea or by the air, in some cases, a kind of combination of those transportation ways, the transport manager has to create a Transportation Plan and submit it to CNEN. Only after CNEN's approval, the transportation can be done. The plan must have the main action on Radiation Protection, giving responsibilities and showing all the directing that will be take. Although, the Brazilian's highways are not in good conditions, one could say that some of them are not good enough for any kind of transportation. But we are facing radioactive material use increase but the hospitals and industries, that the reason it's much more common that kind of transportation nowadays. So, because of that, a special attention by the governments must be provide to those activities. This paper goal is to show the real conditions of some important highways in Brazil in a radioactive protection's perspective and give some suggestions to adjust some of those roads to this new reality. (author)

  20. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy... Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling...), then the accountability criterion has been exceeded. [72 FR 31940, June 8, 2007] ...

  1. Radioactive waste material testing capabilities in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive material including wastes, generated by Romanian nuclear facilities are packaged in accordance with national and IAEA's Regulation for a safe transport to the disposal center. The evaluation and certification of packages is accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal and simulated test conditions in order to prove the package to technical performances. The standards provide to package designers the possibility to use analysis, testing or a combination of these. The paper describes the experimental and simulating qualification tests for type A packages used for transport and storage of radioactive wastes (low level). Testing are used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural response. There are also presented testing capabilities which are used to perform and simulate the required qualification tests. By direct comparison of analysis and experimental results, the degree of reliability of analytical methods and admissibility of assumptions taken in package designing and in demonstrating its safety under conditions of INR - Pitesti, within the contract between the INR - Pitesti and IAEA - Vienna, were determined. (author)

  2. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  3. Procedures for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y

    2007-11-15

    This technical report describes the procedure and work responsibility along with the regulation and standard necessary for the safe transport of radioactive or contaminated materials. This report, therefore, can be effectively used to secure the public safety as well as to prevent the disastrous event which might be resulted from the transport process of radioactive materials by establishing a procedure and method on the safe packing, handling and transport of radioactive materials.

  4. TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the beginning of time, naturally occurring. radionuclides or radioactive elements as they occur in nature, such as radium , uranium , thorium , potassium, and their radioactive decay products decay products The atoms formed and ...

  5. Transport container for radio-active material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstanley, R.

    1976-01-01

    Energy absorbing means are described for minimising the risk of damage to radioactive material transport containers in the event of violent impact. It is envisaged that the worst condition for damage would arise in the event of end-on impact, and the energy absorbing means described is designed for attachment to the ends of the containers. It comprises a circular array of L-shaped plates or fins the foot portion of which extend axially about the end of the container and are secured between inner and outer stiffening rings, and the leg portions extending radially inwards over a portion of the end face of the container and being secured to an annular plate abutting the end face of the container and cooperating with means for attaching the fins to the container. (U.K.)

  6. Accountability of Radioactive Materials in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Fadilla Ismail; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Azimawati Ahmad; Suzilawati Muhd Sarowi; Mohd Fazlie Abdul Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive materials possessed in Malaysian Nuclear Agency have many beneficial applications for research and development, calibration, tracer and irradiation. There are two types of radioactive materials which consist of sealed sourced and unsealed sourced shall be accounted for and secured at all the times by following the security aspect. The Health Physics Group in the Department of Radiation Safety and Health Division is responsible to manage the issues related to any accountability for all radioactive material purchased or received under the radioactive material protocol. The accountability of radioactive materials in Malaysian Nuclear Agency is very important to ensure the security and control the radioactive materials to not to be lost or fall into the hands of people who do not have permission to possess or use it. The accountability of radioactive materials considered as a mandatory to maintaining accountability by complying the requirements of the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304) and regulations made thereunder and the conditions of license LPTA / A / 724. In this report describes the important element of accountability of radioactive materials in order to enhances security standard by allowing tracking of the locations of sources and to reduce the risk of radioactive materials falling into the wrong hands. (author)

  7. Transportation of radioactive materials in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.

    1979-06-01

    This report is designed to calculate the total risk due to shipping radioactive materials in Sweden. The base case developed is the shipment model that is used now or the best estimate for expected shipments. The model for the calculations and the computer program used has been developed at the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA and is the same that was used for the NUREG-0170 study. The results from the calculations show an annual expected population dose of 30 person-rem due to normal transport conditions. The annual expected dose from accidents were calculated to be between 2.3-20.8 person rem. The higher figure represents the case where plutonium is shipped back to Sweden from reprocessing plants abroad in the form of PuO2 and the lower figure represent the case when plutonium is shipped back in the form of mixed oxide fuel. The total additional population dose in Sweden due to both normal and accident conditions in the transportation of radioactive materials will be 30 - 50 person rem/year. Compared to the natural background radiation that is 8x10 5 person rem per year in Sweden, this figure is very low. If converted to latent cancer fatalities this population dose will add approximately 3.5x10 3 cancers each year. The consequences due to accidents have been calculated and are discussed separately from their probabilities. The most severe accident that was found was an accident involving PuO 2 . This accident would give 82 400 rem as a maximum individual dose and 8.1x10 5 person rem as a population dose. (Auth.)

  8. The measurement of the radioactive materials in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Kitauchi, Nobuhiro; Taniguchi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Since food contained radioactive materials released from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident initiated by Great East Japan earthquake disaster, new reference values of radioactive materials corresponding to 1 mSv/year was set up in April 2012 based on food hygiene law so as to ensure food safety and security for the people. As the request of development of continuous measurement of radioactive materials in food as it is with satisfying this criteria, continuous radioactive cesium measuring device had been developed for screening radioactive materials in food with measurement lower limit of 25 Bq/kg corresponding one fourth of new reference values. The device used CsI detector with CsI scintillator and Si photodiode (multi-pixel photo counter) combined. This article described outlines of the device, measurement examples (powdered food, powdered milk and tea leaves) and future perspective of device development (position sensitive detection of radioactive materials in complex shape food). (T. Tanaka)

  9. 76 FR 42074 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 20 [NRC-2011-0162] Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... remediation during operations, and has begun gathering information pertinent to its considerations. II...

  10. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data

  11. Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.; Roberts, R.; Phillips, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department's remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials

  12. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  13. The 2016-2018 National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    A first document contains the final version of the French National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes (PNGMDR) for the period 2016-2018: principles and objectives (presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define pathways of management of radioactive wastes, legal and institutional framework, information transparency), the management of radioactive materials (context and challenges, management pathways, works on fast breeder reactors of fourth generation), assessment and perspectives of existing pathways of management of radioactive wastes (management of historical situations, management of residues of mining and sterile processing, management of waste with a high natural radioactivity, management of very short life waste, of very low activity wastes, and low and medium activity wastes), needs and perspectives regarding management processes to be implemented for the different types of radioactive wastes. Appendices to this document contain: a recall of the content of previous PNGMDR since 2007, a synthesis of realisations and researches performed abroad, research orientations for the concerned period, and international agreement on spent fuel and radioactive waste management. A second document, released by the ASN, proposes an environmental and strategic assessment of the plan. A third one and a fourth one contain the opinion of the Environmental Authority on the plan preliminary focus and the answer to the Environmental Authority by the ASN. Finally, a synthesis of the remarks made by the public about the PNGMDR and the answers to these remarks conclude the document

  14. The 2016-2018 National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes - Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzo, Alexis; Robert, Jean-Gabriel; Abraham, Christophe; Benaze, Manon de

    2015-01-01

    A first document contains the project of the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes (PNGMDR) for the period 2016-2018: principles and objectives (presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define pathways of management of radioactive wastes, legal and institutional framework, information transparency), the management of radioactive materials (context and challenges, management pathways, works on fast breeder reactors of fourth generation), assessment and perspectives of existing pathways of management of radioactive wastes (management of historical situations, management of residues of mining and sterile processing, management of waste with a high natural radioactivity, management of very short life waste, of very low activity wastes, and low and medium activity wastes), needs and perspectives regarding management processes to be implemented for the different types of radioactive wastes. Appendices to this document contain a recall of the content of previous PNGMDR since 2007, a synthesis of realisations and researches performed abroad, research orientations for the concerned period, and international agreement on spent fuel and radioactive waste management. A second document, released by the ASN, proposes an environmental and strategic assessment of the plan. A third one and a fourth one contain the opinion of the Environmental Authority, respectively on the plan preliminary focus, and on the plan itself. An answer to this last one is then proposed, followed by a synthesis of the plan project and the text of the corresponding decree

  15. Framework for assessing the effects of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive materials transport may result in environmental effects during both incident-free and accident conditions. These effects may be caused by radiation exposure, pollutants, or physical trauma. Recent environmental impact analyses involving the transportation of radioactive materials are cited to provide examples of the types of activities which may be involved as well as the environmental effects which can be estimated

  16. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, A.M.

    1991-07-01

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  17. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  18. Regulations relevant to the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1996-01-01

    As is the case in many countries, the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland is primarily regulated by the national regulations for the transport of dangerous goods. Currently these regulations, in the case of radioactive material, incorporate the 1985 IAEA Safety Series 6 Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (As amended 1990). However, as is also the case in some other countries, consignors, shippers and carriers of radioactive materials must also comply with additional laws when shipping radioactive materials. The most important of these other laws and their accompanying regulations are those concerned with radiation protection (import, export and carriers licences) and nuclear power (import, export, inland transport and transit licences). This paper sets out to describe the collective requirements resulting from all three of these sets of regulations. (Author)

  19. Symposium: Treatment of radioactive residues at Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.

    1994-05-01

    The twelve seminar papers compiled in the KfK report deal with the current state of the art and the technology available in Germany for the management of radioactive liquid and solid wastes, and radioactive scrap. Some papers discuss particular technical aspects of techniques such as solidification, volume reduction, and compaction. The function of the Waste Collecting Centres of the Laender is explained. (HP) [de

  20. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  1. Transport of radioactive material in Sudan practice and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, M. K. E.

    2010-12-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an impressive increase in applications of radioactive material. Such an extensive and widely spread usage of radioactive materials demands safe transportation of radioactive material from the production site to the application location, as well as quick and effective response in a case of an unexpected transportation event according to Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) regulation. The thesis described the local practice for transport of radioactive material as compared to the international standards for radiation protection, and also discussed the emergency procedures that must be follow in case of accident during transport of radioactive material. Furthermore, the objective of this study was also to set proposals for how to cope in the event of a radiological accident. The study methods included survey of current literature on safe transport of radioactive material, survey of national regulations on the subjects in additional to case studies aimed at investigating the practical issues pertinent to transport of radioactive materials in Sudan. A comprehensive review was presented on how to classification of radioactive packages and general requirement for all packaging and packages according to international standard. transport of number of radioactive sources from Khartoum airport to the field was evaluated with regard transport index, category of source, type of package, dose rate around the source, time to destination and means of transport of doses to public, worker are be made. All results were within the limit specified in the national as well as international regulation. The study has addressed for the first time the practice of transport of radioactive material in Sudan. It is anticipated that the results will encourage national organizational and professional bodies to enhance radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. (Author)

  2. Summary of the engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors

  3. Trasmar: automated vehicle for transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia R, J.A.; Martinez J, L.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally robots have been used for industrial applications, even though area in which these devices had a deep impact is in the nuclear industry. The ININ is an Institute that must to manage and to work with radioactive substances. The ININ is also responsible of the storage and supervision of radioactive wastes in the country, therefore the applications of the automated systems in the Institute have as the main objective to reduce the exposure and the contact of personnel with the radioactive material. Here to, it has been proposed the project called Assisted Transportation of Radioactive Material (TRASMAR). (Author)

  4. Report on current research into organic materials in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    A preliminary review of relevant recent papers on organic materials in radioactive waste is presented. In particular, the effects of chelating or complexing agents, the influence of bacteria and the role of colloids are assessed. The requirement for further radioactive waste inventory detail is indicated. Potential problem areas associated with the presence of organic materials in radioactive waste are identified and appropriate experimental work to assess their significance is proposed. Recommendations for specific further work are made. A list and diagrams of some of the more important polymer structures likely to be present in radioactive waste and their possible degradation products are appended. (author)

  5. Containers for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The container for heat evolving radioactive materials has a metallic outer casing formed with outwardly projecting heat dissipating or cooling members, such as pins or fins, while each of its ends is formed with a flat flange which extends radially beyond the outer ends of the cooling members. A perforated wall extends between the flanges to define with same and with the periphery of the outer casing an annular space within which the cooling members are enclosed. This perforated wall is adapted to support a flexible covering sleeve the ends of which are clamped by inflatable seals between the periphery of the flanges and outer rings removably secured to the latter. Spraying means are provided within the aforesaid space to permit of projecting an uncontaminated liquid on the cooling members to cool the container before and/or while the latter is immersed in a loading and unloading pond with the sleeve mounted in position. The lower flange is provided with liquid collecting and evacuating means and compressed air may be injected into the said space to force the collected liquid outwardly. (auth)

  6. Leachability of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. Leachability of 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for 210 Pb and 1.7% for 210 Po). The 210 Pb and 210 Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for 210 Pb and 10.0% for 210 Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for 210 Pb and 8.5% for 210 Po. For all samples the results obtained show that 210 Pb is slightly more soluble than 210 Po. (author)

  7. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerulis, Eduardo; Zapparoli, Carlos Leonel; Barboza, Marycel Figols de

    2009-01-01

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  8. Transporting radioactive materials: Q ampersand A to your questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Over 2 million packages of radioactive materials are shipped each year in the United States. These shipments are carried by trucks, trains, ships, and airplanes every day just like other commodities. Compliance with Federal regulations ensures that radioactive materials are transported safely. Proper packaging is the key to safe shipment. Package designs for radioactive materials must protect the public and the environment even in case of an accident. As the level of radioactivity increases, packaging design requirements become more stringent. Radioactive materials have been shipped in this country for more than 40 years. As with other commodities, vehicles carrying these materials have been involved in accidents. However, no deaths or serious injuries have resulted from exposure to the radioactive contents of these shipments. People are concerned about how radioactive shipments might affect them and the environment. This booklet briefly answers some of the commonly asked questions about the transport of radioactive materials. More detailed information is available from the sources listed at the end of this booklet

  9. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1981-11-01

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  10. Radioactive material inventory control at a waste characterization facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, L.K.; Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to the recent introduction of more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and requirements pertaining to nuclear and criticality safety, the control of radioactive material inventory has emerged as an important facet of operations at DOE nuclear facilities. In order to comply with nuclear safety regulations and nuclear criticality requirements, radioactive material inventories at each nuclear facility have to be maintained below limits specified for the facility in its safety authorization basis documentation. Exceeding these radioactive material limits constitutes a breach of the facility's nuclear and criticality safety envelope and could potentially result in an accident, cause a shut-down of the facility, and bring about imminent regulatory repercussions. The practice of maintaining control of radioactive material, especially sealed and unsealed sources, is commonplace and widely implemented; however, the requirement to track the entire radioactivity inventory at each nuclear facility for the purpose of ensuring nuclear safety is a new development. To meet the new requirements, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an information system, called the open-quotes Radioactive Material Inventory Systemclose quotes (RMIS), to track the radioactive material inventory at an ORNL facility, the Waste Examination and Assay Facility (WEAF). The operations at WEAF, which revolve around the nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of waste and related research and development activities, results in an ever-changing radioactive material inventory. Waste packages and radioactive sources are constantly being brought in or taken out of the facility; hence, use of the RMIS is necessary to ensure that the radioactive material inventory limits are not exceeded

  11. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction integrating radiation protection in Reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction (COST Action NORM4Building) discusses the depletion of energy resources and raw materials and its huge impact not only on the building market, but also in the development of new synthetic building materials, whereby the reuse of various (waste) residue streams becomes a necessity. It is based on the outcome of COST Action TU 1301, where scientists, regulators, and representatives from industry have come together to present new findings, sharing knowledge, experiences, and technologies to stimulate research on the reuse of residues containing enhanced concentrates of natural radionuclides (NORM) in tailor-made building materials. Chapters address legislative issues, measurement, and assessment of building materials, physical and chemical aspects, from raw materials, to residues with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides (NORM), processes, building products containing NORM, and end-of-life and reuse requirements. Presents a holistic app...

  12. Measurements of the radioactivity of power plant by-products processed into construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, S.A.; Dudelewski, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of the recycling of residual products comprising, inter alia, fly ash and slags accuring from the combustion of black and brown coal in modern coal dust boilers in the power industry has been topical for a number of years. Numerous discussions and articles in technical periodicals and the daily press have revolved around the problem of the radioactivity of construction materials or construction elements obtained from fly ash or slags of power plant. In Poland, this was a forbidden subject until the publication in 1980 by the Warsaw institute of construction technology of standard no. 234 entitled: 'Recommendations for establishing the natural radioactivity of products processed into construction materials'. (orig.) [de

  13. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  15. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  16. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E.; Loureiro, C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications

  17. Licensing of radioactive materials and facilities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    The importation, acquisition, possession, use, sale and/ or transfer of radioactive materials need to be regulated and controlled in order to safeguard the importer, possessor, user or seller and the general public as well. The Philippine Atomic Energy Commission pursuant to Republic Act No. 2067, as amended and Republic Act No. 5207, has been charged by the government to control, regulate and license all the radioactive materials and facilities in the Philippines. Licensing and control is accomplished through a system of rules and regulations applicable to all importers, possessors, users or sellers of radioactive materials

  18. Inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The present report describes the content of the inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. It covers accidents and losses resulting in the actual release of radioactive materials into the marine environment and also those which have the potential for release. For completeness, records of radioactive materials involved in accidents but which were recovered intact from the sea are also reported. Information on losses of sealed sources resulting in actual or potential release of activity to the marine environment nad of sealed sources that were recovered intact is also presented

  19. Ionising radiations, radioactive materials and the fire services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.C.E.

    1981-05-01

    Extensive experience has shown that ionizing radiations and radioactive materials can be used safely in a wide variety of applications, provided a number of precautions are implemented. Transport of radioactive materials is common and regulations designed to ensure safety in such transport have resulted in an excellent safety record. Pre-planning for fire situations in buildings where radioactive materials are known to be present is very desirable. An Australian Standard, AS2243, recommends that Station Officers of the local fire brigade be appraised of the hazards and the need to take particular care in areas marked with ionizing radiation warning signs

  20. Field guide for Ontario Hydro shipments involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, W.

    1987-09-01

    This field guide consists of two parts. Part I deals with the packages used by Ontario Hydro for shipment of its radioactive materials. Highly radioactive material must be transported in rugged containers which will survive a severe transportation accident. These containers are known at Type B Packages. Each container used by Ontario Hydro for shipments of highly radioactive material has been allotted a single page in this field guide with specific information for quick reference. Each package identification card includes a description of the package and contents and the required safety marking. Photographs of both the container and the vehicle as well as a cross-sectional diagram will assist Ontario Hydro personnel as well as emergency response personnel in quick identification of containers and contents. Containers used for transportation of material will low levels of radioactivity are also briefly discussed. These containers could fail in the event of an accident but the radioactivity is limited to low levels. Part I of this field guide also summarizes general emergency response instructions which are applicable to any transportation accident involving a package with radioactive material. Part II of this field guide provides information about the requirements which must be met by Ontario Hydro prior to any shipment of radioactive material in Ontario

  1. Lifetime and residual strength of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    The DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material) previously developed by the author to predict lifetime of wood subjected to static loads is further developed in this paper such that harmonic load variations can also be considered. Lifetime (real time or number of cycles) is predicted as a function...... of load amplitude, load average, fractional time under maximum load, and load frequency.The analysis includes prediction of residual strength (re-cycle strength) during the process of load cycling. It is concluded that number of cycles to failure is a very poor design criterion. It is demonstrated how...... the theory developed can be generalized also to consider non-harmonic load variations.Algorithms are presented for design purposes which may be suggested as qualified alternatives to the Palmgren-Miner's methods normally used in fatigue analysis of materials under arbitrary load variations. Prediction...

  2. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities

  3. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Yew

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities. (author)

  4. U.S. port commerce in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Much attention has focused on the movement of radioactive materials over land transport systems. On the other hand, maritime flow and associated throughput studies of such substances have been neglected. Although several peaks and troughs are evident between 1972 and 1981, radioactive tonnage moving through U.S. port facilities steadily increasing. In the ten-year period assessed, total radioactive materials handled at U.S. ports expanded by over 19,000 tons, which amounts to almost a 173 percent growth rate. The purpose of this exploratory research is threefold. First, it identifies all U.S. ports which were involved in loading or discharging radioactive materials. The major goal of the identification process is to broaden public awareness of these types of movement. Second, it classifies U.S. seaports based on the magnitude of radioactive tonnage handled. The function of the classification is to impose some order on the varied data, while at the same time categorizing large, medium, and small facilities. Finally, it seeks to verify whether or not a long term trend exists. The objective of the verification process is to ascertain if the distribution of radioactive materials handled at individual ports has remained constant. Port safety and contingency planning are clearly within the purview of coastal zone management. The results of this preliminary research should form a foundation for future studies which compare and evaluate local, state, and federal regulatory policy pertaining to port operations involving radioactive materials, including waste

  5. Method of encapsulating waste radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.A.; Rootham, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    When encapsulating radioactive waste including radioactive liquid having a retardant therein which retards the setting of cements by preventing hydration at cement particles in the mix, the liquid is mixed with ordinary Portland cement and subjected, in a high shear mixer, to long term shear far in excess of that needed to form ordinary grout. The controlled utilization of the retardants plus shear produces a thixotropic paste with extreme moldability which will not bleed, and finally sets more rapidly than can be expected with normal cement mixtures forming a very strong product. (author)

  6. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  7. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A.; Sanches, Matias P.

    2001-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  8. Estimation of global inventories of radioactive waste and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    A variety of nuclear activities have been carried out in the second part of the twentieth century for different purposes. Initially the emphasis was on military applications, but with the passage of time the main focus of nuclear activities has shifted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research. Regardless of the objectives, the nuclear activities generate radioactive waste. It was considered worthwhile to produce a set of worldwide data that could be assessed to evaluate the legacy of the nuclear activities performed up to the transition between the twentieth and the twenty first century. The assessment tries to cover the inventory of all the human produced radioactive material that can be considered to result from both military and civilian applications. This has caused remarkable difficulties since much of the data, particularly relating to military programmes, are not readily available. Consequently the data on the inventory of radioactive material should be considered as order-of-magnitude approximations. This report as a whole should be considered as a first iteration in a continuing process of updating and upgrading. The accumulations of radioactive materials can be considered a burden for human society, both at present and in the future, since they require continuing monitoring and control. Knowing the amounts and types of such radioactive inventories can help in the assessment of the relative burdens. Knowledge of the national or regional radioactive waste inventory is necessary for planning management operations, including the sizing and design of conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. A global inventory, either of radioactive waste or of other environmental accumulations of radioactive material, could be used to provide a perspective on the requirements and burdens associated with their management, by means of comparisons with the burdens caused by other types of waste or other

  9. Quality management in the regulation of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, Leonardo; Capadona, Nancy M.; Lopez Vietri, Jorge R.; Panzino, Marina; Ceballos, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the quality management procedure used by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority to establish the regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials. The quality management system is based on the family of the ISO 9000 norms [es

  10. Handbook for structural analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi

    1991-04-01

    This paper described structural analysis method of radioactive material transport casks for use of a handbook of safety analysis and evaluation. Safety analysis conditions, computer codes for analyses and stress evaluation method are also involved in the handbook. (author)

  11. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  12. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference

  13. Transport of radioactive materials and equipment. Requirements. (Provisional)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard is aimed at establishing the procedures that must be followed when transporting radioactive materials and equipment in Venezuelan Territory. The ''Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear'' is responsible for their fulfillment and control

  14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Regulations and rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials by all kinds of conveyance are offered. Different types of packages and the conditions associated with the methods of safe packaging are given

  15. Development of a state radioactive materials storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper outlines the site selection and facility development processes of the state of Wisconsin for a radioactive materials facility. The facility was developed for the temporary storage of wastes from abandoned sites. Due to negative public reaction, the military site selected for the facility was removed from consideration. The primary lesson learned during the 3-year campaign was that any project involving radioactive materials is a potential political issue

  16. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials (PATRAM '86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In this volume the following aspects of packaging and transport of radioactive materials are represented as topics: Regulations, codes, standards, research, development, radiation protection, risk assessment, transport experience, transport planning, administrative issues, and emergency response. Road, rail, and maritime transport are considered. Spent fuels and radioactive waste are mentioned often as the materials being transported. Issues of particular interest to the field of safeguards are brought up

  17. The safety of radioactive materials transport; La surete des transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The rule of the radioactive materials transport contains two different objectives: the safety, or physical protection, consists in preventing the losses, the disappearances, the thefts and the diversions of the nuclear materials (useful materials for weapons); the high civil servant of defence near the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry is the responsible authority; the safety consists in mastering the risks of irradiation, contamination and criticality presented by the radioactive and fissile materials transport, in order that man and environment do not undergo the nuisances. The control of the safety is within the competence of the Asn. (N.C.)

  18. Information from the Import/Export of radioactive material Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    The radiation protection group reminds you that the import/export of all radioactive material must be declared in advance. In the case of exports, an EDH shipping request form must be completed, ticking the box “radioactive material”. In the case of imports, an electronic form must be completed before the material arrives on the CERN site. Any requests which do not comply with the above procedure will be refused. The import of any radioactive material that has not been declared in advance will be systematically refused. For further information, please consult the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Tél: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00

  19. Data about shipping of radioactive material for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials implies a risk for the personnel of the team, those members of the public and the environment. While the safety in the transports is based on the designs of the bulks, the programs of radiological protection are important to assure the radiological control to the workers, the public and the environment during the transport of these materials. Although the biggest interest in the transport of radioactive materials it spreads to be centered in the nuclear industry, the transport in great measure it happens for the materials of medical use. These are mainly transported in bulks of the A Type and excepted bulks. The transport ones are forced, by national regulations, to send to the competent authority, in our case the National Comissao of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), all the data of the transported materials. This work has by objective to aim the efforts made to settle down and to manage the data regarding the transported radioactive materials. The existent data in the Radiopharmaceuticals Center, of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations 'IPEN/CNEN' it contains the information on all the radioactive materials consigned for the transport during every year. A statistic of the number of deliveries of the radioactive material for the period from 2001 to 2005 is provided. Based on this statistic its are presented the number of bulks, the quantity of activity and the ways of the transport for the period in study. (Author)

  20. Miscellaneous radioactive materials detected during uranium mill tailings surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management directed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in the conduct of radiological surveys on properties in Monticello, Utah, associated with the Mendaciously millsite National Priority List site. During these surveys, various radioactive materials were detected that were unrelated to the Monticello millsite. The existence and descriptions of these materials were recorded in survey reports and are condensed in this report. The radioactive materials detected are either naturally occurring radioactive material, such as rock and mineral collections, uranium ore, and radioactive coal or manmade radioactive material consisting of tailings from other millsites, mining equipment, radium dials, mill building scraps, building materials, such as brick and cinderblock, and other miscellaneous sources. Awareness of the miscellaneous and naturally occurring material is essential to allow DOE to forecast the additional costs and schedule changes associated with remediation activities. Also, material that may pose a health hazard to the public should be revealed to other regulatory agencies for consideration

  1. A method for prevention of radioactive material release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Sato, Chikara; Kitamura, Masao.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a method for preventing an underwater radioactive material from being released in a simple and highly reliable manner, which can decrease an amount of radioactive materials discharged into open air from reactor water containing a large amount of radioactive materials such as a reactor core pool. Structure: Pure warm water higher in temperature than that of reactor water is poured from the top of a water surface of a water tank which stores reactor water containing radioactive materials such as radioactive iodine, and water is drawn through an outlet located downwardly of the pure warm water inlet to form a layer of pure warm water at the upper part of the water tank while preventing diffusion of the reactor water into the pure warm water by the difference in density between the reactor water and the pure warm water and downward movement of the pure warm water, thereby preventing contact of the reactor water with the atmosphere and diffusion of the radioactive material into the atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Limiting values for radioactive materials in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiation protection: LNT (linear, no threshold) hypotheses, ALARA (a slow as reasonably achievable), limiting values. Using the example the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the differences in contamination development in different foodstuffs in Germany is demonstrated including recommended limiting values and the radiation exposures after 30 years due to consumption of contaminated food. The natural radioactivity is about 0.3 mSv/year.

  3. Automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, I.; Vasko, M.; Daniska, V.; Schultz, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process is discussed. It is concluded that: computer simulation of the decommissioning process is one of the important attributes of computer code Omega; one of the basic tools of computer optimisation of decommissioning waste processing are the tools of integral material and radioactivity flow; all the calculated parameters of materials are stored in each point of calculation process and they can be viewed; computer code Omega represents opened modular system, which can be improved; improvement of the module of optimisation of decommissioning waste processing will be performed in the frame of improvement of material procedures and scenarios.

  4. Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1986 to 2004 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2004, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2004, some 2,558 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 1,971 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union, Canada, Russia and the USA. (orig.)

  5. Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2002 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2002, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2002, some 3 070 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 3 052 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union, Russia, and the USA. (orig.)

  6. Methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels at decommissioned nuclear facilities/sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.C.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hoenes, G.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The ultimate disposition of decommissioned nuclear facilities and their surrrounding sites depends upon the degree and type of residual contamination. Examination of existing guidelines and regulations has led to the conclusion that there is a need for a general method to derive residual radioactive contamination levels that are acceptable for public use of any decommissioned nuclear facility or site. This paper describes a methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels based on the concept of limiting the annual dose to members of the public. It is not the purpose of this paper to recommend or even propose dose limits for the exposure of the public to residual radioactive contamination left at decommissioned nuclear facilities or sites. Unrestricted release of facilities and/or land is based on the premise that the potential annual dose to any member of the public using this property from all possible exposure pathways will not exceed appropriate limits as may be defined by Federal regulatory agencies. For decommissioned land areas, consideration should be given to people living directly on previously contaminated areas, growing crops, grazing food animals and using well water. Mixtures of radionuclides in the residual contamination representative of fuel reprocessing plants, light water reactors and their respective sites are presented. These mixtures are then used to demonstrate the methodology. Example acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels, based on an assumed maximum annual dose of one millirem, are calculated for several selected times following shutdown of a facility. It is concluded that the methodology presented in this paper results in defensible acceptable residual contamination levels that are directly relatable to risk assessment with the proviso that an acceptable limit to the maximum annual dose will be established. (author)

  7. Control of radioactive material transport in sodium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, W.F.

    1980-03-01

    The Radioactivity Control Technology (RCT) program was established by the Department of Energy to develop and demonstrate methods to control radionuclide transport to ex-core regions of sodium-cooled reactors. This radioactive material is contained within the reactor heat transport system with any release to the environment well below limits established by regulations. However, maintenance, repair, decontamination, and disposal operations potentially expose plant workers to radiation fields arising from radionuclides transported to primary system components. This paper deals with radioactive material generated and transported during steady-state operation, which remains after 24 Na decay. Potential release of radioactivity during postulated accident conditions is not discussed. The control methods for radionuclide transport, with emphasis on new information obtained since the last Environmental Control Symposium, are described. Development of control methods is an achievable goal

  8. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, April 1993--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-09-01

    This is the seventh report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the April 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period April 1, 1993--August 31, 1993. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. A copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  9. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, November 1992--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-04-01

    This is the sixth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the November 1992 Legislative and Legal Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation report and describes activities for the period November 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. NCSL is working to bring on-line a data base that contains abstracts of state laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of July 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. Hard copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains summaries of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness and general nuclear waste issues are described. Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation. A recent court decision is also summarized

  10. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  11. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, September 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthley, J.A.; Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1994-07-01

    This is the eighth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the September 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period September 1, 1993--June 30, 1994. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of August 1994. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 and 1994 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices and changes in federal regulations pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  12. Using computer technology to identify the appropriate radioactive materials packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, K.L.; Conan, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging (RAMPAC) database is designed to store and retrieve information on all non-classified packages certified for the transport of radioactive materials within the boundaries of the US. The information in RAMPAC is publicly available, and the database has been designed so that individuals without programming experience can search for and retrieve information using a menu-driven system. RAMPAC currently contains information on over 650 radioactive material shipping packages. Information is gathered from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of transportation (DOT), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RAMPAC is the only tool available to radioactive material shippers that contains and reports packaging information from all three Federal Agencies. The DOT information includes package listings from Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Japan, which have DOT revalidations for their certificates of competent authority and are authorized for use within the US for import and export shipments only. RAMPAC was originally developed in 1981 by DOE as a research and development tool. In recent years, however, RAMPAC has proven to be highly useful to operational personnel. As packages become obsolete or materials to be transported change, shippers of radioactive materials must be able to determine if alternative packages exist before designing new packages. RAMPAC is designed to minimize the time required to make this determination, thus assisting the operational community in meeting their goals

  13. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  14. Development and implementation of automated radioactive materials handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    Material handling of radioactive and hazardous materials has forced the need to pursue remotely operated and robotic systems in light of operational safety concerns. Manual maneuvering, repackaging, overpacking and inspecting of containers which store radioactive and hazardous materials is the present mode of operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald Ohio. The manual methods are unacceptable in the eyes of concerned site workers and influential community oversight committees. As an example to respond to the FEMP material handling needs, design efforts have been initiated to provide a remotely operated system to repackage thousands of degradated drums containing radioactive Thorium: Later, the repackaged Thorium will be shipped offsite to a predesignated repository again requiring remote operation

  15. Quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has required for many years that quality assurance programs be established and implemented for the packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. This paper identifies various requirement principles and related actions involved in establishing effective quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. A primary purpose of these quality assurance program activities is to provide assurance that the packaging and transportation of hazardous materials, which includes radioactive and fissile materials, are in conformance with appropriate governmental regulations. Applicable regulations include those issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Transportation (DOT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). DOE Order 5700.6A establishes that quality assurance requirements are to be applied in accordance with national consensus standards where suitable ones are available. In the nuclear area, ANSI/ASME NQA-1 is the preferred standard

  16. French National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste (PNGMDR) - 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Faced with the high diversity of radioactive materials and waste, it may be difficult to grasp the relevance and consistency of the installed management framework. The purpose of the National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste (PNGMDR) is to clarify this management framework and improve it. To this end, it draws up an assessment of the management policy, evaluates the needs and determines the objectives to be attained in the future. The PNGMDR's usefulness was confirmed by Parliament. The evaluation report of the PNGMDR 2007-2009 by the Parliamentary Office for Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Options thus indicates that 'the interest of a summary document exposing all the problems and the solutions related to the management of radioactive waste was underlined a number of times by the Office. Since such a plan can allow achieving exhaustiveness and introducing a consistency in the management of radioactive waste, the Office deemed it necessary that it be linked to the law in one way or another. Conforming to the Office's recommendations, the Act of 28 June 2006 related to the sustainable management of radioactive waste stipulated that such a plan must be elaborated, updated every three years and published, extending its scope to reusable radioactive materials'. Thus, the PNGMDR provides the public with a global vision of the management of radioactive materials and waste, concerning both topics 'in the news' and those less publicised. Some waste, in fact, attracts momentarily particular attention, for example, on the occasion of a search for a disposal site, such as in 2008-2009, for so-called low level and long lived ('LL-LL') waste. The media also broadcast in 2008 and 2009 special enquiries on the management of mining residues and on reprocessed uranium; all these topics are discussed in detail in the PNGMDR. Other waste topics attract less attention, such as sealed radioactive sources, which are more dispersed throughout France

  17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    As a result of a comprehensive review carried out by panels of experts convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency starting in 1979, a revised version of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (Safety Series No. 6) was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1984. This edition supersedes all the previous editions of the Regulations issued under Safety Series No. 6. The regulations contain the following sections: introduction, general principles and provisions, activity and fissile material limits, preparation, requirements and controls for shipment and for storage in transit, requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages, test procedures and approval and administrative requirements.

  18. A development of radioactive material tracking and location control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Gwang Tae; Jung Seung Yong; Song, Jung Ho

    2005-01-01

    As the whole industry fields such as construction, chemistry, machine, medicine including nuclear-related field have extended the range of radioactive material uses, it is tendency that domestic uses of radioactive material have been increased in quantity and number. In addition, as the transportation, transfer and use of radioactive material have been frequent, its loss, robbery, and carelessness of handling may cause not only employees in charge but the public to worry about damage of explosion and put an obstacle to increase trust in nuclear-related industry. At present, though the transportation, use and storage of radioactive material conform to the institution and standard of the atomic energy law, if we tracking radioactive material in real time, we can take immediate actions to prevent its loss, robbery. As our research institute developed a terminal that control location and tracking real time location for gamma-ray projector used in transporting, transferring, and using nondestructive test, we take a good look at utilities by using GPS-Cell ID bases location control

  19. Transport of bundles and equipment which contain radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This norm settles down: 1) The requirements that should be completed in relation to safety precautions and protection against ionizing radiations during the transport radioactive material and/or equipment containing it, in order to avoid risks to the collective and the environment. 2) The basic information on procedures that will be completed in the event of happening accidents during the transport or the transit storage of radioactive material and/or equipment that contain it. 3) The measures of security and physical protection during the transport of radioactive material and/or equipment containing it. This norm is applied: 1) To all the ways of transport (by air, by ground and by ship, fluvial and marine) of radioactive material and/or equipment that contain it. 2) To all natural or legal, public or private person, devoted to install, produce, trade, market, import or export radioactive materials and/or equipment containing it, and that needs to transport them as main or secondary activity [es

  20. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  1. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  2. US perspective of transporting radioactive materials by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitwood, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    The reason for the US interest in transportation of radioactive materials by sea is discussed. The national and international institutional considerations related to this subject are covered. Some economic aspects in transporting these materials, particularly spent fuels, by sea are also presented

  3. Method of preventing contaminations in radioactive material handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shunji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the contamination on the floor surface of working places by laying polyvinyl butyral sheets over the floor surface, replacing when the sheets are contaminated, followed by burning. Method: Polyvinyl butyral sheets comprising 50 - 70 mol% of butyral component are laid in a radioactive material handling facility, radioactive materials are handled on the polyvinyl butyral sheets and the sheets are replaced when contaminated. The polyvinyl butyral sheets used contain 62 - 68 mol% of butyral component and has 0.03 - 0.2 mm thickness. The contaminated sheets are subjected to burning processing. This can surely collect radioactive materials and the sheets have favorable burnability, releasing no corrosive or deleterious gases. In addition, they are inexpensive and give no hindrance to the workers walking. (Takahashi, M.)

  4. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  5. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Yanagi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured

  6. Quality assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    All activities related to the safe transport of radioactive material should be covered by a quality assurance programme. This publication recognizes that a single transport operation often involves several different organizations, each having specific responsibilities. Hence, it is unlikely that the operation will be covered by a single quality assurance programme. Each quality assurance programme should be tailored to the specific organizational structure for which the programme is prepared, with account taken of the particular transport activities of that organization and the interfaces with other organizations. The aim of this publication is to give a detailed interpretation of what must be done by whom to produce a quality assurance programme for radioactive material transport. This publication provides guidance on methods and practical examples to develop QA programmes for the safe transport of radioactive material. It provides information on how to develop the programme, the standards and the common features of a QA programme

  7. Natural radioactivity of granites used as building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidou, S.; Koroneos, A.; Papastefanou, C.; Christofides, G.; Stoulos, S.; Vavelides, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen kinds of different granites, used as building materials, imported to Greece mainly from Spain and Brazil, were sampled and their natural radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4 K of granites are presented and compared to those of other building materials as well as other granite types used all over the world. In order to assess the radiological impact from the granites investigated, the absorbed and the effective doses were determined. Although the annual effective dose is higher than the limit of 1 mSv y -1 for some studied granites, they could be used safely as building materials, considering that their contribution in most of the house constructions is very low. An attempt to correlate the relatively high level of natural radioactivity, shown by some of the granites, with their constituent radioactive minerals and their chemical composition, was also made

  8. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbri, T.; Aasmann, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  9. Radioactive material dry-storage facility and radioactive material containing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Hidetoshi; Kumagaya, Naomi; Ganda, Takao.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a radioactive material dry storage facility which can unify the cooling efficiency of a containing tube and lower the pressure loss in a storage chamber. Namely, a cylindrical body surrounds a first containing tube situated on the side of an air discharge portion among a plurality of containing tubes and forms an annular channel extending axially between the cylindrical body and the first containing tube. An air flow channel partitioning member is disposed below a second containing tube situated closer to an air charging portion than the first containing tube. A first air flow channel is formed below the air channel partitioning member extending from the air charging portion to the annular channel. The second air channel is formed above the air channel partitioning member and extends from the air charging portion to the air discharge portion by way of a portion between the second containing tubes and the portion between the cylindrical body and the first containing tube. Then, low temperature air can be led from the air charging portion to the periphery of the first containing tube. The effect of cooling the first containing tube can be enhanced. The difference between the cooling efficiency between the second containing tube and the first containing tube is decreased. (I.S.)

  10. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.; Sandoz, C.; Dickenson, J.; Lee, J.C.; Smith, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  11. Management system for regulating transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics and fundamentals of the Nuclear regulatory Authority's (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN) management system applied to the regulation of transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TRM process from now on. ARN's quality management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TRM process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of quality system. Such sub processes were defined taking account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials and are listed below: 1) Development and updating of standards and regulatory guides; 2) Licensing of packages, special radioactive materials and consignments of radioactive materials; 3) Compliance assurance during the transport of radioactive materials, and 4) Training, advising and communications. For each of these sub processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, the clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. It was decided to develop a quality plan to organize and manage activities to meet quality requirements, to optimize the use of limited resources of the organization and to be used as a basis for monitoring and assessing compliance with the requirements, both internal and external. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to implement continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measure the sub processes as a way to show

  12. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Philosophy and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international and national regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1(ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series Nos 7and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series Nos 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS no.113), compliance assurance (SS no. 112), the training manual and others

  13. Aspects of safety in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials behaves to the equal that other chemical products, certain risks that its are necessary to know how to evaluate and to minimize, adopting all kinds of measures technician-administrative, with object of being able to guarantee that this risks stay in an acceptable level for the population potentially affected for the workers of the one sector and for the environment. To be able to evaluate the risk acceptable it is a difficult task, for that, national and international organizations have established a commitment to develop standards of radiological protection, to make every day but sure the transport of radioactive materials

  14. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  15. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1981, Sandia National Laboratories developed the Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database to support its research and development activities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The RMIR database contains information on transportation accidents/incidents with radioactive materials that have occurred since 1971. The RMIR classifies a transportation accident/incident in one of six ways: as a transportation accident, a handling accident, a reported incident, missing or stolen, cask weeping, or other. This paper will define these terms and provide detailed examples of each. (J.P.N.)

  16. Safety in transport and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrahi, A.; Xavier, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The increasing utilization of radioisotopes in Industrial, Medical and Research Facilities as well as the processing of Nuclear Materials involve transport activities in a routine basis. The present work has the following main objectives: I) the identification of the safety aspects related to handling, transport and storage of radioactive materials; II) the orientation of the personnel responsible for the radiological safety of Radioactive Installations viewing the elaboration and implementation of procedures to minimize accidents; III) the report of case-examples of accidents that have occured in Brazil due to non-compliance with Transport Regulations. (author) [pt

  17. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  18. Non-radiological impacts of transporting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.K.; Wilmot, E.L.; Luna, R.E.

    1982-02-01

    Estimates of health effects that result from exposure to air pollutants generated during normal (accident-free) transport of radioactive materials and from accidents are provided for use in preparation of environmental impact statements. The results are presented for truck and rail modes and uncertainties associated with these results are discussed. Since these health effects have no relation to the radioactive material being hauled, their measure is applicable to shipments of all similar weight loads. The pollutant health effects are calculated for and applicable to urban areas only while the accident health effects are averages over all population zones in the US

  19. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  20. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection

  1. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection.

  2. Analysis on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-01-01

    JAEA has been developing a new prediction system of comprehensive movement, SPEEDI-MP (SPEEDI Multi-model Package), which can treat continuously and strictly with the migration behavior of radioactive materials at atmosphere, sea, and land region. JAEA has been further promoting the detail analysis of atmospheric migration of radioactive materials dispersed by an accident. Then, using a part of this system, the atmospheric-diversion prediction system, WSPEEDI-II, the atmospheric diversion mass and the atmospheric diffusion analysis were carried out. This issue reports the summary. (M.H.)

  3. Safety of radiation sources and other radioactive materials in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since joining the IAEA Model Project for upgrading radiation protection infrastructure in countries of West Asia, Jordan has amended its radiation safety legislation. The Regulatory Authority is improving its inventory system for radiation sources and other radioactive materials and also its notification, registration, licensing, inspection and enforcement systems. It has established national provisions for the management of orphan sources after they have been found. The system for the control of the radiation sources and other radioactive materials entering the country has been improved by the Regulatory Authority. (author)

  4. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.; Scheler, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  5. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  6. Natural radioactivity of building materials in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorantin, H.; Steger, F.

    1984-03-01

    About 120 samples of natural and manufactured building materials have been analyzed by gamma-spectrometry for their Thorium 232-, Radium 226- and Potassium 40 - content. Granites showed generally the greatest amounts of the above mentioned radionuclides, whereas other natural products like sand, gravels, marbles and gypsum contained only traces of radionuclides. As regards the manufactured building materials only some types of bricks and chemical gypsum showed relatively high concentrations of radionuclides, while the rest of the bricks, tiles, plaster and accessory materials fulfilled the criteria set up in the OECD-NEA report 1979. (Author)

  7. Shipment of radioactive materials by the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This brochure provides notification of, and information on, the general types of radioactive material shipments being transported for or on behalf of DOE in commerce across state and other jurisdictional boundaries. This brochure addresses: packaging and material types, shipment identification, modes of transport/materials shipped, DOE policy for routing and oversize/overweight shipments, DOE policy for notification and cargo security, training, emergency assistance, compensation for nuclear accidents, safety record, and principal DOE contact

  8. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7 (radioactive...

  9. Radioactive Materials in Medical Institutions as a Potential Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radalj, Z.

    2007-01-01

    In numerous health institutions ionizing sources are used in everyday practice. Most of these sources are Roentgen machines and accelerators which produce radiation only when in use. However, there are many institutions, e.g., Nuclear medicine units, where radioactive materials are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This institutions store a significant amount of radioactive materials in form of open and closed sources of radiation. Overall activity of open radiation sources can reach over a few hundred GBq. Open sources of radiation are usually so called short-living isotopes. Since they are used on daily basis, a need for a continuous supply of the radioactive materials exists (on weekly basis). Transportation phase is probably the most sensitive phase because of possible accidents or sabotage. Radiological terrorism is a new term. Legislation in the area of radiological safety is considered complete and well defined, and based on the present regulatory mechanism, work safety with radiation sources is considered relatively high. However, from time to time smaller accidents do happen due to mishandling, loose of material (possible stealing), etc. Lately, the safety issue of ionizing sources is becoming more important. In this matter we can expect activities in two directions, one which is going towards stealing and 'smuggling' of radioactive materials, and the other which would work or provoke accidents at the location where the radiation sources are.(author)

  10. Specialized equipment needs for the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrey, D.; Lambert, M.

    1998-01-01

    To ensure the safe and reliable transportation of radioactive materials and components, from both the front and back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, a transport management company needs three key elements: specialized knowledge, training and specialized equipment. These three elements result, in part, from national and international regulations which require specialized handling of all radioactive shipments. While the reasons behind the first two elements are readily apparent, the role of specialized equipment is often not considered until too late shipment process even though it plays an integral part of any radioactive material transport. This paper will describe the specialized equipment needed to transport three of the major commodities comprising the bulk of international nuclear transports: natural uranium (UF6), low enriched uranium (UF6) and fresh nuclear fuel. (authors)

  11. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turki, Faten

    2010-01-01

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  12. The new context for transport of radioactive and nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, C.; Galtier, J.

    2002-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials involves all modes of transportation with a predominance for road and for air. It is but a minute fraction dangerous good transportation. Around 10 millions of radioactive packages are shipped annually all over the world of which ninety percent total corresponds to shipments of radioisotopes. In spite of the small volume transported, experience, evolution of transport means and technologies, the trend to constantly improve security and safety and public acceptance have modified the transport environment. During the last few years, new evolutions have applied to the transport of radioactive and nuclear materials in various fields and especially: - Safety - Security - Logistics means - Public acceptance - Quality Assurance. We propose to examine the evolution of these different fields and their impact on transportation methods and means. (authors)

  13. Evaluation and analysis of the residual radioactivity for the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkawade, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    For the assessment of radiological impact of the accelerators, it will be better to have the documented information on activation of metal parts of the accelerator components. It is very much essential to get reliable data on these subjects. During acceleration of light ion, the residual radioactivity in the accelerator facility was found near the Analyzing Magnet, single slit, Beam Profile Monitors (BPM), Faraday Cups (FC), bellows, beginning of switching magnet bellows, at the target and the ladder. Study with HPGE detector gives an insight of the formation of the short or long lived radionuclides. The different targets used in the light ion experiment were also monitored and proper decommissioning and decontamination steps were followed. This paper presents the data of residual radioactivity in the 15UD Pelletron accelerator infrastructure. (author)

  14. Measurement of residual radioactivity in cooper exposed to high energy heavy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ito, Sachiko; Fukumura, Akifumi

    1999-03-01

    The residual radioactivities produced by high energy heavy ions have been measured using the heavy ion beams of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The spatial distribution of residual radioactivities in 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 10 cm thick copper targets of 10 cm x 10 cm size bombarded by 290 MeV/u, 400 MeV/u-{sup 12}C ion beams and 400 MeV/u-{sup 20}Ne ion beam, respectively, were obtained by measuring the gamma-ray activities of 0.5 mm thick copper foil inserted in the target with a high purity Ge detector after about 1 hour to 6 hours irradiation. (author)

  15. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  16. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  17. National inventory of radioactive wastes and valorizable materials. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. It contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - the radioactive wastes: definition, classification, origin and management; 3 - methodology of the inventory: organization, accounting, prospective, production forecasting, recording of valorizable materials, exhaustiveness, verification tools; 4 - general results: radioactive waste stocks recorded until December 31, 2002, forecasts for the 2003-2020 era, post-2020 prospects: dismantling operations, recording of valorizable materials; 5 - inventory per producer or owner: front-end fuel cycle facilities, power generation nuclear centers, back-end fuel cycle facilities, waste processing or maintenance facilities, civil CEA research centers, non-CEA research centers, medical activities (diagnostics, therapeutics, analyses), various industrial activities (sources fabrication, control, particular devices), military research and experiment centers, storage and disposal facilities; 6 - elements about radioactive polluted sites; 7 - examples of foreign inventories; 8 - conclusion and appendixes. (J.S.)

  18. The issue of safety in the transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallier, Lucien

    1961-01-01

    This report addresses and discusses the various hazards associated with transports of radioactive materials, their prevention, intervention measures, and precautions to be taken by rescuers, notably how these issues are addressed in regulations. For each of these issues, this report proposes guidelines, good practices, or procedures to handle the situation. The author first addresses hazards related to a transport of radioactive products: multiplicity of hazards, different hazards due to radioactivity, hazards due to transport modes, scale of dangerous doses. The second part addresses precautionary measures: for road transports, for air transports, for maritime transports, control procedures. The third part addresses the intervention in case of accident: case of a road accident with an unhurt or not vehicle crew, role of the first official rescuers, other kinds of accidents. The fourth part briefly addresses the case of transport of fissile materials. The fifth part discusses the implications of safety measures. Appendices indicate standards, and give guidelines for the construction of a storage building for radioactive products, for the control and storage of parcels containing radioactive products, and for the establishment of instructions for the first aid personnel

  19. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    A container for storage of radioactive material comprises a container body and a closure member. The closure member is coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open).

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory shipping containers for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The types of containers used at ORNL for the transport of radioactive materials are described. Both returnable and non-returnable types are included. Containers for solids, liquids and gases are discussed. Casks for the shipment of uranium, irradiated fuel elements, and non-irradiated fuel elements are also described. Specifications are provided

  1. Requirements applied in Cuba to the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to comment the supplementary requirements imposed by the Competent Authority to the operations of the main importing/delivering enterprise of unsealed sources for approvals and administration since the establishment, in 1987, of the legal framework on transport of radioactive materials. The paper summarizes the achieved results in this field in over 11 years operation. (author)

  2. Assessment of radioactivity in building material(granite) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z. A; Salih, I; Albadwai, K. A; Salih, A. M; Salih, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work radioactivity in building materials (granite) central Sudan was evaluated. In general the building materials used in Sudan are derived either from rocks or soil. These contain trace amounts of naturally occurring radioactive materials(NORMs), so it contains radionuclides from uranium and thorium series and natural potassium. The levels of these radionuclides vary according to the geology of their site of origin. High levels increase the risk of radiation exposure in homes(especially exposure due to radon). Investigation of radioactivity in granite used of the building materials in Sudan is carried out, a total of 18 major samples of granite have been collected and measured using X- ray fluorescence system (30 mci). The activity concentrations have been determined for uranium ( 238 U), thorium ('2 32 Th) and potassium( 40 K) in each sample. The concentrations of uranium have been found to range from 14.81 Bq/kg to 24.572 Bq/kg, thorium between 10.02 Bq/kg and 10.020-84.79 Bq/kg and the potassium concentration varies between 13.33 Bq/kg to 82.13 Bq/kg. Limits of radioactivity in the granite are based on dose criteria for controls. This study can be used as a reference for more extensive studies of the same subject in future. (Author)

  3. Radioactivity of raw materials, metallurgical and casting products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hons, J.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the radioactive contamination of metallurgical products and initial materials represent a potential obstacle in foreign and domestic trade. It is of course an undesirable threat o the living environment on the one side and, at the same time, a new incorrectly used means for suppressing competition and forming a protection 'umbrella' of the national market to desirable imports on the other hand

  4. Technical regulations for road transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul-Jensen, P.; Ulbak, K.

    1990-01-01

    The technical regulations for the transport of radioactive materials in Denmark are set down by the (Danish) National Board of Health in collaboration with the (Danish) National Institute for Radiation Hygiene in accordance with paragraph 3 of the Danish Ministry of Justice's Executive Order no. 2 of 2, January 1985 on the national road transport of dangerous goods by road, as amended by exutive order no. 251 of April 29th 1987 and no. 704 of November 1989. These regulations are presented here. They are almost identical, with only very few exceptions indicated in the publication, with the rules for Class 7 of the European convention on international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR). In addition to the aforementioned regulations for national road transport of radioactive materials the general rules for the transport of radioactive materials found in the National Board of Health's executive order no. 721 of November 27th 1989 on the transport of radioactive materials are valid. The abovementioned executive orders, with the exception of certain supplements which are not part of the technical regulations, are also contained in this publication. (AB)

  5. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  6. A proposal of materials for the storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a literature study concerning the chemical stability of ceramics as well as of different experiencies of persons working with ceramics in Sweden a proposal of candidate materials for the storage of radioactive wastes is presented. Advantages and disadvantages in connection with the use of different ceramics have been tabulated. (E.R.)

  7. Quality assurance program description for shipping packages of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This quality assurance plan describes the quality assurance program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), for shipping packages of radioactive material. The purpose of this report is to describe how PNL will comply with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 71, Appendix E. In compliance with the instructions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the 18 criteria from Appendix E are covered

  8. Procedures for picking up and receiving packages of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    This regulatory guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for licensees to comply with the provisions in 10 CFR Part 20, section 20.205, with respect to arrangements for receipt, pickup, and monitoring of packages containing radioactive material and with respect to reporting of packages which, on receipt, show evidence of leakage or excessive radiation levels. (U.S.)

  9. The new context for transport of radioactive nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Catherine; Galtier, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials, involves all modes of transportation (road, air, sea, rail) with predominance for road and for air (air for radioisotopes). In this paper we examine the impact of new evolutions in the fields of safety, security, logistics means, public acceptance and quality assurance

  10. Anticipated development in radioactive materials packaging and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Rhoads, R.E.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-07-01

    Closing the light water reactor fuel cycle and the use of mixed oxide fuels will produce materials such as solidified high level waste, cladding hulls and plutonium from Pu recycle fuel that have not been transported extensively in the past. Changes in allowable gaseous emissions from fuel cycle facilities may require the collection and transportation of radioactive noble gases and tritium. Although all of these materials could be transported in existing radioactive material packaging, economic considerations will make it desirable to develop new packaging specifically designed for each material. Conceptual package designs for these materials are reviewed. Special Nuclear Material transportation safeguards are expected to have a significant impact on future fuel cycle transportation. This subject is reviewed briefly. Other factors that could affect fuel cycle transportation are also discussed. Development of new packaging for radioactive materials is not believed to require the development of new technologies. New package designs will be primarily an adaptation of existing technology to fit the changing needs of a growing nuclear power industry. 23 references

  11. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE's cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials

  12. Guidelines for the assessment of land contaminated with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, R.I.; Wallace, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    There are many documented land sites throughout Queensland which are contaminated by technically enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material. Typically this material originates from mine tailings associated with mineral sand, tin and gold mining operations, however, industrial processes using zircon foundry sand, abrasive blast media, and mineral water and oil production are also known to contaminate land. While documents are available to provide a suitable framework for dealing with land contaminated with radioactive materials, these documents do not provide detailed assessment, remediation and validation methods, consistent guidance on dose limits for the release of material or for the remediation of sites, or on the derivation of suitable investigation levels to be used for the purpose of indicating land contamination. This paper briefly explores these issues

  13. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  14. Low-activity radioactive materials management at the U.S. Department of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Frank; Tonkay, Douglas W

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is making significant progress with the cleanup of its legacy radioactively-contaminated facilities and sites left from research and development and production of nuclear materials and weapons. Sites like Rocky Flats, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Fernald, Mound, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are faced daily with decisions related to disposition of waste and radioactive material. One key to this success is the disposition of waste arising from cleanup. Most of the generated waste volume has very low levels of radioactive contamination. The waste includes contaminated soil, debris from demolition, or scrap metal and equipment. The cost of disposing of large volumes of waste can be prohibitive, so there is incentive to find innovative ways to disposition wastes. This paper describes the current status of policy development in this area, such as development of a draft programmatic environmental impact statement and monitoring of related rulemaking at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper also provides an overview of draft U.S. DOE guidance on control and release of property with residual radioactive material, and site-specific applications of DOE guidance.

  15. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Packaging, carriage and dispatching fuel and radioactive materials, IAEA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need to bring fuel and other radioactive substances into a nuclear power plant and to send out irradiated or contaminated materials: spent fuel, activated equipment, used filters, resin and clothing, etc. gives rise to the question: How can these materials be transported safely and economically. The purpose of this paper is to answer that question by providing information on the regulatory requirements that have been developed for packaging, labelling and handling and on the containers which are being employed. (orig./RW)

  17. Evaluation of dose due to the liberation of the radioactive content present in systems of final disposal of radioactive residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Lopez, F.

    2006-01-01

    The disposal systems of radioactive residuals well-known as repositories near to the surface, are used to dispose residuals that can contain high concentrations of radionuclides of period of short semi disintegration, which they would decay at levels radiologically insignificant in some few decades or in some centuries: and acceptably low concentrations of radionuclides of period of long semi disintegration. The dose that would receive the critic group due to these systems it could be increased by cause of discreet events that affect the foreseen retard time, or by the gradual degradation of the barriers. To this last case it contributes the presence of water, because it implies leaching and dissolution that can give place to radionuclide concentrations in the underground water greater to the prospective ones. The dosimetric evaluation is important because it offers useful objective information to decide if a given repository is adjusted to the purposes of its design and it fulfills the regulatory requirements. In this work a simplified evaluation of the dose that would receive the critic group due to the liberation of contained radionuclides in a hypothetical system of final disposition of radioactive residuals is presented. For it, they are considered representative values of the usually contained activities in this type of systems and they are carried out some approaches of the source term. The study is developed in two stages. In the first one, by means of the Radionuclide pollutant scattering pattern in phreatic aquifers (DRAF) it is considered the scattering of the pollutants in the phreatic aquifer, until the discharge point in the course of the nearest surface water. This model, developed originally in the regulatory branch of the National Commission of Argentine Atomic Energy (CNEA); it solves the transport equation of solutes in porous means in three dimensions, by the finite differences method having in account the soil retention and the radioactive

  18. Transportation of radioactive materials routing analysis: The Nevada experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardila-Coulson, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, the Nevada State Legislature passed a Bill requiring the Nevada Dept. of Transportation to develop and enforce a plan for highway routing of highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials and high-level radioactive waste. A large network with all the major highways in Nevada was created and used in a computer model developed by Sandia National Labs. Twenty-eight highway parameters that included geometrics, traffic characteristics, environment and special facilities were collected. Alternative routes were identified by minimizing primary parameters (population density and accident rates). An analysis using the US DOT Guidelines were performed to identify a preferred route from the alternative routes

  19. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on radioactivity survey in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on February, 1996. This data relates to radioactive materials such as total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected at all over of Japan. In the survey report, followings are also contained; (1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, (2) Preparation of samples for analysis, (3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, (4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium and Potassium, (5) Counting, (6) Results, and (7) Contents of figure. (G.K.)

  20. Decontamination of radioactive materials using a household water purifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanaga, Makoto; Oishi, Ayumi; Wada, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    A home water purifier was used to remove radioactive iodine and cesium from rainwater contaminated with the radioactive materials released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident following the earthquake and tsunami in 2011. To prevent internal radiation exposure, the rainwater was satisfactorily decontaminated by a simple method using the pitcher type water purifier, which is widely available to the general public. However, the results indicate that the ability for purification by the home water purifier will be reduced significantly if the water is not filtered by some method before the water purifier is used, especially in the case of natural water containing suspension matter. (author)

  1. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantut, L.; Dougan, A.; Hemberger, P.; Kravenchenko, Gromov A..; Martin, D.; Pohl, B.; Richardson, J. H.; Williams, H.; York, R.; Zaitsev, E.

    1999-01-01

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program

  2. New Monitoring System to Detect a Radioactive Material in Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudergui, Karim; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Coulon, Romain; Corre, Gwenole; Normand, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    Illegal radioactive material transportation detection, by terrorist for example, is problematic in urban public transportation. Academics and industrials systems include Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) to detect radioactive matters transported in vehicles or carried by pedestrians. However, today's RPMs are not able to efficiently detect a radioactive material in movement. Due to count statistic and gamma background, false alarms may be triggered or at the contrary a radioactive material not detected. The statistical false alarm rate has to be as low as possible in order to limit useless intervention especially in urban mass transportation. The real-time approach depicted in this paper consists in using a time correlated detection technique in association with a sensor network. It is based on several low-cost and large area plastic scintillators and a digital signal processing designed for signal reconstruction from the sensor network. The number of sensors used in the network can be adapted to fit with applications requirements or cost. The reconstructed signal is improved by comparing other approaches. This allows us to increase the device speed that has to be scanned while decreasing the risk of false alarm. In the framework of a project called SECUR-ED Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration, this prototype system will be used during an experiment in the Milan urban mass transportation. (authors)

  3. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrus, Jason; Pope, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  4. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  5. Atmospheric dispersal and deposition of radioactive material from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of studies undertaken in the wake of the fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Published upper air charts and the findings of scientists engaged in monitoring the fallout are used to reconstruct the clouds' trajectories. The results reveal the role of the various features of weather systems in determining the dispersal, transportation and ultimate fallout of radioactive matter. Most importantly, the situation over Europe at the time of the fire was such as to disperse the radioactive clouds northwards to Scandinavia and later westwards to Britain; directions counter to the dominant westerlies of these latitudes. However, eastwards global dispersal took place rapidly in the weeks following the fire. The paper also emphasizes the importance of rainfall in explaining the geographical variation in the deposition of radioactive material. (author)

  6. Distribution of natural occurring radionuclide in some industral residues used in new type wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingmin; Li Fusheng; Xu Jiaang; Deng Daping; Yuan Ming; Ma Shi; Chen Yue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the natural radioactive nuclide distribution characteristic of fly ash, gangue and various kinds of slag used in the new-type wall material and offer scientific basis for reducing the radiation dosage that the public suffers. Methods: The activity concentrations of the contents of natural radioactive nuclides of different industral waste residues have been determined by HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry. Results: The mean Raeq is successively fly ash (279.13 Bq kg -1 ), slag (225.69 Bq kg -1 ), gangue (141.26 Bq kg -1 ) from high to low and all of the samples is lower than the limit set in the OECD. The arithmetic mean activities of 236 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K in fly-ash samples are 127.88, 93.83, 221.75 Bq kg -1 ; for coal slag samples are 73.89, 97.13, 283.44 Bq kg -1 and for coal gangue samples are 47.85, 45.21, 413.56 Bq kg -1 . For the same power plant, the radioactive nuclide activity of the fly ash gathered in different time may have very great differences, the maximum can reach more than 2 times of the minimum. Conclusion: the fly ash and slag should be controlled strictly on rational proportion, which should not exceed 70% of the total mass. The mixing of the average radioactive level of the gangue is nearly equal that of to clay, it can be unrestricted in the mixing proportion in process of production. The manufacturer of new-type wall materials should often measure the radioactive level of the industrial waste residue in production. Make the content of radioactive nuclide in the products reach the rational level as low as possible. (authors)

  7. Competent authority regulatory control of the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this guide is to assist competent authorities in regulating the transport of radioactive materials and to assist users of transport regulations in their interactions with competent authorities. The guide should assist specifically those countries which are establishing their regulatory framework and further assist countries with established procedures to harmonize their application and implementation of the IAEA Regulations. This guide specifically covers various aspects of the competent authority implementation of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. In addition, physical protection and safeguards control of the transport of nuclear materials as well as third party liability aspects are briefly discussed. This is because they have to be taken into account in overall transport regulatory activities, especially when establishing the regulatory framework

  8. Residual radioactivity guidelines for the heavy water components test reactor at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, M.B. Smith, R.; McNeil, J.

    1997-04-01

    Guidelines were developed for acceptable levels of residual radioactivity in the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility at the conclusion of its decommissioning. Using source terms developed from data generated in a detailed characterization study, the RESRAD and RASRAD-BUILD computer codes were used to calculate derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for the radionuclides that will remain in the facility. The calculated DCGLs, when compared to existing concentrations of radionuclides measured during a 1996 characterization program, indicate that no decontamination of concrete surfaces will be necessary. Also, based on the results of the calculations, activated concrete in the reactor biological shield does not have to be removed, and imbedded radioactive piping in the facility can remain in place. Viewed in another way, the results of the calculations showed that the present inventory of residual radioactivity in the facility (not including that associated with the reactor vessel and steam generators) would produce less than one millirem per year above background to a hypothetical individual on the property. The residual radioactivity is estimated to be approximately 0.04 percent of the total inventory in the facility as of March, 1997. According to the results, the only radionuclides that would produce greater than 0.0.1-millirem per year are Am-241 (0.013 mrem/yr at 300 years), C-14 (0.022 mrem/yr at 1000 years) and U-238 (0.034 mrem/yr at 6000 years). Human exposure would occur only through the groundwater pathways, that is, from water drawn from, a well on the property. The maximum exposure would be approximately one percent of the 4 millirem per year ground water exposure limit established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 11 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs

  9. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Devin, Patrick; Tanguy, Loic; Bernard, Herve; Minon, Jean-Paul; Leclaire, Arnaud; Gilli, Ludivine; Lheureux, Yves; Pescatore, Claudio; Barbey, Pierre; Schneider, Thierry; Gay, Didier; Forest, Isabelle; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Baglan, Nicolas; Desnoyers, Bruno; Pieraccini, Michel; Poncet, Philippe; Seguin, Bertille; Calvez, Marianne; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Bancelin, Estelle; Fillion, Eric; Segura, Yannick; Vernaz, Etienne; Granier, Guy; De Preter, Peter; Petitfrere, Michael; Laye, Frederic; Nakamura, Takashi; Gin, Stephane; Lebaron-Jacobs, Laurence; Dinant, Sophie; Vacquier, Blandine; Crochon, Philippe; Griffault, Lise; Smith, Graham

    2013-10-01

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  10. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic trademark programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them

  11. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  12. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  13. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency

  14. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and

  15. Infrastructure development for radioactive materials at the NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Weidner, R.; Ghose, S. K.; Dooryhee, E.; Novakowski, T. J.; Stan, T.; Wells, P.; Almirall, N.; Odette, G. R.; Ecker, L. E.

    2018-02-01

    The X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD) Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II is a multipurpose instrument designed for high-resolution, high-energy X-ray scattering techniques. In this article, the capabilities, opportunities and recent developments in the characterization of radioactive materials at XPD are described. The overarching goal of this work is to provide researchers access to advanced synchrotron techniques suited to the structural characterization of materials for advanced nuclear energy systems. XPD is a new beamline providing high photon flux for X-ray Diffraction, Pair Distribution Function analysis and Small Angle X-ray Scattering. The infrastructure and software described here extend the existing capabilities at XPD to accommodate radioactive materials. Such techniques will contribute crucial information to the characterization and quantification of advanced materials for nuclear energy applications. We describe the automated radioactive sample collection capabilities and recent X-ray Diffraction and Small Angle X-ray Scattering results from neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels and oxide dispersion strengthened steels.

  16. Physical protection of radioactive materials in a University Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1998-01-01

    Although nuclear research centers attached to universities usually do not keep large inventories of radioactive or special nuclear material, the mentioned material has still to be under strict surveillance and safeguards if applicable. One problem in such research centers is the large and frequent fluctuation of persons - mainly students, scientists or visiting guest scientists - using such materials for basic or applied research. In the present paper an overview of protective actions in such a research institute will be given and experience of more than 36 years will be presented. (author)

  17. Risk Prevention for Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper investigates the parameters which may have effects on the safety of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources used in peaceful applications of atomic energy. The emergency response planning in such situations are also indicated. In synergy with nuclear safety measures, an approach is developed in this study for risk prevention. It takes into consideration the collective implementation of measures of nuclear material accounting and control, physical protection and monitoring of such strategic and dangerous materials in an integrated and coordinated real-time mode at a nuclear or radiation facility and in any time

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of radioactive and fluorescent residualizing labels for identifying sites of plasma protein catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, J.L.; Baynes, J.W.; Thorpe, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Inulin and lactose were each coupled to tyramine by reductive amination with NaBH 3 CN and the tyramine then labeled with 125 I. Dilactitol- 125 I-tyramine (DLT) and inulin- 125 I-tyramine (InTn) were coupled by reductive amination and cyanuric chloride, respectively, to asialofetuin (ASF), fetuin and rat serum albumin (RSA). Attachment of either label had no effect on the circulating half-lives of the proteins. Radioactivity from labeled ASF was recovered in rat liver (> 90%) by 1 h post-injection and remained in liver with half-lives of 2 and 6 days, respectively, for the DLT and InTn labels. Whole body recoveries of radioactivity from DLT- and InTn labels. Whole body recoveries of radioactivity from DLT- and InTn-labeled RSA were 5 and 6.5 days, respectively, again indicating that the larger glycoconjugate label residualized more efficiently in cells following protein degradation. (Lactitol) 2 -N-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH-fluroescein (DLF) was also coupled to ASF by reductive amination and recovered quantitatively in liver at 1 h post-injection. Native ASF was an effective competitor for clearance of DLF-ASF from the circulation. Fluorescent degradation products were retained in liver with a half-life of 1.2 days. Residualizing fluorescent labels should be useful for identification and sorting of cells active in the degradation of plasma proteins

  19. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F. P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new 160 MeV H- linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities.

  20. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F.P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H − linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities

  1. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, J; Silari, M; Vollaire, J

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H−H− linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling w...

  2. Applications of inorganic ion-exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiaheng; Li Xingliang; Li Shoujian

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the application of abio-ion exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater, which would be useful for latter research of new inorganic materials that used in managing radioactivity wastewater. (authors)

  3. National inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials 2006. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Real comprehensive overview of radioactive wastes, the national inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials describes the situation in France of the wastes that can be conditioned (in their definitive form) or not. It presents also the waste production quantities foreseen for 2010, 2020 and beyond. This document is a complement to the synthesis report and to the geographic inventory of radioactive wastes in France and details the classification of wastes by families (wastes with similar characteristics). For each family of wastes, the description comprises a general presentation and some photos. It comprises also some data such as the position of the family in the French classification, the industrial activity at the origin of the waste, the production situation of the waste in concern (finished, in progress, not started). Some information about the raw waste are given and the conditioning process used is described. Some figures complete the description, like: the past and future production quantities, the evaluation of the radioactivity of the waste family in 2004 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when available. Finally, some information are given about the presence of compounds with a specific risk of toxicity. (J.S.)

  4. Residual long-lived radioactivity distribution in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Ishikawa, T; Kinno, M; Yamadera, A; Nakamura, T

    1994-12-01

    We measured the depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault by assaying concrete cores and we estimated the neutron flux distribution in the inner concrete wall by means of activation detectors. Nine long-lived radioactive nuclides (46Sc, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 22Na, and 54Mn) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, gamma) reaction are dominant, and that the induced activity by thermal neutrons is greatest at a depth of 5 to 10 cm rather than at the surface of the concrete and decreases exponentially beyond a depth of about 20 cm. By comparing the radioactivity and neutron flux distributions, we can estimate the induced long-lived radioactivity in concrete after a long period of operation from the short-term activation measurement.

  5. Data assimilation on atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin

    assimilation methods in a realistic setting. New experimental studies of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material was carried out in October 2001 at the SCK"CEN in Mol, Belgium. In the Mol experiment, the radiation field from routine releases of 41 Ar is recorded by an array of gamma detectors along......During a nuclear accident in which radionuclides are released to the atmosphere, off-site dose assessment using atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in facilitating optimized interventions, i.e. for mitigating the radiological consequences. By using data assimilation methods......, radiological observations, e.g. dose rate measurements, can be used to improve these model predictions and to obtain real-time estimates of the atmospheric dispersion parameters. This thesis examines data assimilation in the context of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. In particular, it presents...

  6. Manufacturing radioactive material for medical, research and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Hospitals, clinics and other medical complexes are among the most extensive users of radioactive material. Nuclear medicine uses radioactive solutions of Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Xe-133 and other radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic tools to evaluate dynamic functions of various organs in the body, detect cancerous tumors, sites of infection or other bodily dysfunctions. Examples of monitoring blood flow to the brain of a cocaine addict will be shown. Many different radionuclides are also produced for life science research and industrial applications. Some require long irradiations and are needed only periodically. Radiopharmaceutical manufactures look for reliable suppliers that can produce quality product at a reasonable cost. Worldwide production of the processed and unprocessed radionuclides and the enriched stable nuclides that are the target materials used in the accelerators and reactors around the world will be discussed. (author)

  7. Border Control of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medakovic, S.; Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the second half of year 2006, stationary detection systems for nuclear and other radioactive materials were installed on Border Crossing Bregana, Croatia. Yantar 2U, which is the commercial name of the system, is integrated automatic system capable of detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials prepared for fixed-site customs applications (Russian origin). Installed system contains portal monitors, camera, communication lines and communication boxes and server. Two fully functional separate systems has been installed on BC Bregana, one on truck entrance and another one on car entrance. In this article the operational experience of installed system is presented. This includes statistical analysis of recorded alarms, evaluation of procedures for operational stuff and maintenance and typical malfunction experience, as well as some of the recommendation for future use of detection systems.(author)

  8. A probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, N.; Kohno, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Kinehara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents results of a case study which was performed in a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for radioactive materials transport. In this study, we have confirmed that the PSA is effective to evaluate the latent risk'* of radioactive materials (RAM) transport and to reconfirm the sufficiency of the emergency response plan and prevention systems for disasters. *'latent risk' means that an initial incident results in loss of package integrity and leak of containments, also means the probability of their own occurrence here. We tried to adapt the PSA method to the evaluation of safety of RAM transport. In this report, two concepts, Macroscopic Safety Evaluation and Microscopic Evaluation, were introduced into the PSA for RAM transport. (author)

  9. INES scale: French application to radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, S.; Strawa, S.; Aguilar, J.

    2004-01-01

    After getting the control of radioactive material transport in June 1997, the French safety Authority (ASN) decided to apply the INES scale to transport events. DGSNR (Directorate General for Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection) requests that radioactive material package consignors declare any event occurring during transportation, and has introduced the use of the INES scale adapted to classify transport events in order to inform the public and to have feedback. This paper deals with DGSNR's feedback during the past seven years concerning the french application of the INES scale. Significant events that occurred during transportation are presented. The French experience was used by IAEA to develop a draft guide in 2002 and IAEA asked countries to use a new draft for a trial period in July 2004

  10. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  11. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12., it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  12. Natural occurring radioactivity materials (NORM) in Ecuadorian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, R.; Enriquez, F.; Reinoso, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Many natural elements contain radioactive isotopes, and most of them are present in the soil. In the gas and oil industries the most important radio nuclides are Ra-226 from the decay series of U-238, and in lower grade Ra-228 from the decay series of Th-232. Water exit from the perforation and perforation mud in the Oil towers drowns the NORM materials. Changes in temperature and pressure, allows the presence of sulphates and carbonates in pipes and internal areas of equipment. A Ra and Ba similarity leads to the selective co-precipitation in mud and incrustations of radioisotopes. A measure made in the pipe lines show that these industries generate important doses overcoming the levels of exemption and even the limits of established doses. The research was done by finding a pipe at Shushufindi 52 B well of production near by Coca city in the Ecuadorian jungle. The 'Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica' (CEEA), supervises the pipe line and accessories that are used in PETROPRODUCION fields accomplishing the radiological characterization, identifying the useless pipes and separate them in order of take care the good ones. Meanwhile the identification of the radioactive isotopes the CEEA proceed with the isolation of the radioactive disposals. From 57.830 pipes and accessories there were 1.607 useless ones, 56.223 didn't show radioactivity. Those pipes were monitored from the PETRODUCCION'S warehouses in Coca, Lago Agrio and Guarumo from September 12 th 2005 to September 12 th 2006. The CEEA is interested in NORMS because inadvertent workers may get high levels of radioactivity exposition. The Oil industries should have a manual about the complete handling of these materials. (author)

  13. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  14. RADTRAN: a computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.

    1977-04-01

    A computer code is presented which predicts the environmental impact of any specific scheme of radioactive material transportation. Results are presented in terms of annual latent cancer fatalities and annual early fatility probability resulting from exposure, during normal transportation or transport accidents. The code is developed in a generalized format to permit wide application including normal transportation analysis; consideration of alternatives; and detailed consideration of specific sectors of industry

  15. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  16. Design guides for radioactive-material-handling facilities and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, D.R.; Barker, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen key areas relating to facilities and equipment for handling radioactive materials involved in examination, reprocessing, fusion fuel handling and remote maintenance have been defined and writing groups established to prepare design guides for each areas. The guides will give guidance applicable to design, construction, operation, maintenance and safety, together with examples and checklists. Each guide will be reviewed by an independent review group. The guides are expected to be compiled and published as a single document

  17. Revised legislation affecting the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    The revised edition of the model Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials (1973, Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series no.6) has acted as the basis for the conditions of carriage and regulatory requirements in Great Britain. The changes introduced in this revised edition are discussed, and the current Regulations and Codes of Practice covering U.K. and international transport by road, sea, rail and air reviewed. (U.K.)

  18. Qualifications of and acceptance criteria for transporting special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1991-01-01

    A special form radioactive material is a radioactive material that is in an inert, insoluble, indispersible form such that even in the event of an accident, it will not be dispersed into the environment in a way that could have an adverse impact on public health and safety. Methods of qualifying a special form radioactive material are discussed. Interpretation of acceptance criteria are proposed for the transportation of Type B quantities of a special form radioactive material. 11 refs

  19. The role of the central registry in the safety and security of radioactive materials in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petoe, A.; Safar, J.; Turi, G.; Abonyi, T.

    2001-01-01

    After a brief overview of the Hungarian legislation and regulatory infrastructure the report provides information on the number of companies and licensees using radioactive materials and explains also the role of the established central registry of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Hungary for improving the safety and security of radioactive materials in the country. It concludes that a reliable nationwide central registry can be a very useful tool for increasing the safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials. (author)

  20. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0130 (Notice No.10-2)] Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1); Draft Revision Available for Comment AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  1. Safety and security of radioactive materials - The Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Agarwal, S.P.; Tripathi, U.B.; Murthy, B.K.S.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal increase in the use of radiation sources in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research and teaching in India and elsewhere. Though the radiation safety record in these applications has been good, there have been a few incidents/accidents during transport/use of radioactive materials. Current status and various aspects of regulatory control to ensure safety and security of radioactive material including incidents of missing/orphan sources in India are discussed in this paper. Regulatory Infrastructure: Government of India enacted the Atomic Energy Act in 1962 to provide a regulatory infrastructure for control and use of radioactive materials and radiation sources. Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, were promulgated under this Act and Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was appointed as the Competent Authority to enforce these rules. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RP and AD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre provides technical and executive support to AERB in implementation of the regulations in the non-nuclear applications of radiation. Under the Rules, the Competent Authority has notified the surveillance procedures for various applications. Various codes and guides on regulatory procedures relating to specific applications of radioactive material have also been issued by the Competent Authority. As per the regulatory procedures, each practice and source requires specific authorisation. The pre-requisites for the procurement of radioactive material for various applications are: (a) Approved source and equipment, (b) Approved installation, (c) Provision of an exclusive safe and secure storage facility for radioactive material when not in use or pending installation, (d) Trained manpower duly approved by the competent authority, (e) Radiation monitoring devices (area and personnel), (f) Emergency preparedness and (g) Commitment from the licensee for safe disposal of disused/decayed sources. In

  2. Radiation doses arising from the air transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, R.; Shaw, K.B.; Wilson, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    There is a compelling need for the transport of radioactive material by air because of the requirement by hospitals throughout the world for urgent delivery for medical purposes. Many countries have no radionuclide-producing capabilities and depend on imports: a range of such products is supplied from the United Kingdom. Many of these are short lived, which explains the need for urgent delivery. The only satisfactory method of delivery on a particular day to a particular destination is often by the use of scheduled passenger air service. The International Civil Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO 1987-1988), prescribe the detailed requirements applicable to the international transport of dangerous goods by air. Radioactive materials are required to be separated from persons and from undeveloped photographic films or plates: minimum distances as a function of the total sum of transport indexes are given in the Instructions. A study, which included the measurement and assessment of the radiation doses resulting from the transport of radioactive materials by air from the UK, has been performed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) on behalf of the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the Department of Transport (DTp)

  3. Management System for Regulating Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Capadona, N.M.; Barenghi, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN) management system applied to the transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TMR from now on. ARN's management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TMR process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of the system. Such sub processes were defined taking into account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials. For each of this processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to achieve continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measures sub processes as a way to show objective evidence of conformity with objectives. Finally, as conclusions of this paper, they will be showed the main obstacles and troubleshooting found in the design and implementation of management system as well as their solutions and state of advance. (authors)

  4. A multiple-detector Radioactive Material Detection Spectroscopic (RMDS) portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, Ilan; Peysakhov, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization process for a Radioactive Material Detection Spectroscopic (RMDS) portal, designed to detect and identify radioactive materials concealed inside cargo containers. The system is based on a combination of conventional 3 in. NaI(Tl) gamma detectors and 3 He neutron detection tubes. The basic concept and the advantages of the new segmented spectroscopic detector approach are presented with several algorithms that were developed to enhance the detection capability of the portal and improve the signal to noise ratio. The results of field tests performed in several locations in Israel are also presented. The RMDS portal fully meets the demands of new ANSI Standard 42.38 for spectroscopic portals. In addition, the portal has some unique features, such as the ability to find the exact location of a point source inside the cargo and the ability to differentiate between a point source and Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) radiation. During the tests, the RMDS portal was compared to other detection systems, such as a PVT-based portal and a handheld spectroscopic HPGe detector. In these tests, the RMDS system was found to have a unique technique for background subtraction, which results in a higher detection sensitivity

  5. A multiple-detector Radioactive Material Detection Spectroscopic (RMDS) portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaar, Ilan, E-mail: iyaar@nrcn.org.il [Nuclear Research Center Negev (NRCN), P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Peysakhov, Ilya [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes an optimization process for a Radioactive Material Detection Spectroscopic (RMDS) portal, designed to detect and identify radioactive materials concealed inside cargo containers. The system is based on a combination of conventional 3 in. NaI(Tl) gamma detectors and {sup 3}He neutron detection tubes. The basic concept and the advantages of the new segmented spectroscopic detector approach are presented with several algorithms that were developed to enhance the detection capability of the portal and improve the signal to noise ratio. The results of field tests performed in several locations in Israel are also presented. The RMDS portal fully meets the demands of new ANSI Standard 42.38 for spectroscopic portals. In addition, the portal has some unique features, such as the ability to find the exact location of a point source inside the cargo and the ability to differentiate between a point source and Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) radiation. During the tests, the RMDS portal was compared to other detection systems, such as a PVT-based portal and a handheld spectroscopic HPGe detector. In these tests, the RMDS system was found to have a unique technique for background subtraction, which results in a higher detection sensitivity.

  6. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs

  7. Nuclear reactor structural material forming less radioactive corrosion product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide nuclear reactor structural materials forming less radioactive corrosion products. Constitution: Ni-based alloys such as inconel alloy 718, 600 or inconel alloy 750 and 690 having excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical property even in coolants at high temperature and high pressure have generally been used as nuclear reactor structural materials. However, even such materials yield corrosion products being attacked by coolants circulating in the nuclear reactor, which produce by neutron irradiation radioactive corrosion products, that are deposited in primary circuit pipeways to constitute exposure sources. The present invention dissolves dissolves this problems by providing less activating nuclear reactor structural materials. That is, taking notice on the fact that Ni-58 contained generally by 68 % in Ni changes into Co-58 under irradiation of neutron thereby causing activation, the surface of nuclear reactor structural materials is applied with Ni plating by using Ni with a reduced content of Ni-58 isotopes. Accordingly, increase in the radiation level of the nuclear reactor structural materials can be inhibited. (K.M.)

  8. Response to a radioactive materials release having a transboundary impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Compared with an accidental release of radioactive material which is confined to the accident State, a transboundary release has added dimensions which were not fully anticipated in publications dealing with response to accidents at nuclear facilities. The new aspects to the problem may be summarized as follows: (1) A transboundary release of radioactive material, as distinct from a release which affects only the accident State, has international repercussions in the following ways: Potentially at least, the difficulties associated with a transboundary release may be magnified in those States that have no nuclear facilities of their own and may, therefore, have foreseen no need for resources to assess and deal with radioactive contamination of their food supplies, their water and their environment appropriately. International trade, in food commodities particularly, may be severely affected. Issues of compensation may arise for which the dispute settlement mechanisms are weak or non-existent. (2) Many Member States are in such geographic locations that they could be affected by a transboundary release occurring in any of their surrounding neighbour States. Planning for and responding to such an event is necessarily more difficult than planning for an accidental release from a single, identified nuclear facility. (3) Deposits of radioactive material from a distant source are apt to be highly unpredictable. Depending on weather conditions, they may be localized in a random fashion or widespread. Because of the international dimension of the problem and its essentially unpredictable character it is recommended here that planning for such events should be carried at the national or federal government level rather than at provincial government level. 14 refs

  9. Occupational radiation exposure in work with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation exposure to personnel dealing with radioactive materials is studied on a national scale. The survey covers any type of radiation work except for mining and milling of radioactive ore, fuel production, and nuclear reactor operation. Assessments are based on a decade's collection of personnel monitoring data obtained by film dosimetry techniques, as well as on data from systematic operational site monitoring. Statistical analysis indicated exposures based on personal records to follow a normal distribution pattern and, hence, arithmetic averages to be representative. Airborne concontrations of radioactive materials and aerosols in working areas are shown to follow a logarithmic normal distribution pattern, so that geometric means are representative. Radiation exposures are generally found to be well below annual maximum permissible doses for radiation workers. However, their distribution among employee groups is nonuniform. Group A, comprising about 700 subjects, received mean annual gonad doses of more than 1000 mrem; group B, about 670 subjects, had doses ranging from 100 to 500 mrem per year; and group C, 1610 subjects, received less than 100 mrem per year. Most of the radiation dose is accounted for by external radiation, which contributed 0.327 mrem to the genetically significant population dose (0.227 from exposure to males, and 0.025 mrem from exposure to females). Analysis of accidental exposures occurring over the period 1963-1973 indicated that the contribution of this source is substantial as compared to routine work (1.0:0.3). Based on the results obtained, a number of preventive measures are developed and introduced into practice to improve radiological safety in work with radioactive materials. (A.B.)

  10. Determination of the probability for radioactive materials on properties in Monticello, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1991-02-01

    In 1978, under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) to manage the maintenance and surveillance of numerous DOE-owned, radioactively contaminated facilities that have been declared surplus and to conduct a program leading to the ultimate disposition of those facilities. The primary responsibility of SFMP is to protect public health and the environment from potentially harmful radioactive contamination contained within or derived from DOE-owned facilities. Management of SFMP is directed by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC. Prior to mill site remediation, Monticello properties surrounding the site and designated privately owned are being assessed for inclusion in the SFMP. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was directed by DOE in July 1988 to assess the radiological condition of privately owned properties in Monticello that have been identified as possibly containing Monticello mill-related materials. Properties containing Monticello mill-related materials and with associated radiation levels that exceed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE standards are eligible for cleanup under SFMP. The objective of this study was to determine the probability that a property which contained Monticello mill-related residual radioactive material in excess of the guidelines would not be assessed under the current protocol. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  12. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  13. Denial of shipments of radioactive materials in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More Torres, Luis E.; Romero de Gonzalez, V.; Lopez Caceres, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Denials, Delays and Abandonment of the Radioactive Materials is a problem at world level that has been increased in the last times with more emphasis starting from the attack of September 11 the 2001 in the USA. From then radioactive materials have been denial or delayed and until abandoned. The materials of short periods used mainly in nuclear medicine as the 99m Tc or the 131 I, when they are rejected, delayed it usually causes the lost of the material because it has surpassed their useful life and in many cases they are abandoned. The rejections, delays and later abandonment of the materials in special of Medical use have originated serious damages for the nuclear medicine patients as much of diagnoses as of treatments, in Teleterapia for many patients of cancer who could not be treated. In the petroliferous prospecting and Industry has originated numerous economic damages due to the delays since most of the used sources they are of long period but the delay causes an important increase in the cost. (author)

  14. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.; Yavuz, U.

    2001-01-01

    As it is known, for the fact that the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials are being increased over the past few years because of the huge demand of third world states. Nuclear materials like uranium, plutonium, and thorium are used in nuclear explosives that have very attractive features for crime groups, terrorist groups and, the states that are willing to have this power. Crime groups that make illegal trade of nuclear material are also trying to market strategic radioactive sources like red mercury and Osmium. This kind of illegal trade threats public safety, human health, environment also it brings significant threat on world peace and world public health. For these reasons, both states and international organizations should take a role in dealing with illicit trafficking. An important precondition for preventing this kind of incidents is the existence of a strengthened national system for control of all nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. Further, Governments are responsible for law enforcement within their borders for prevention of illegal trading and trafficking of nuclear materials and radiation sources

  15. Contained scanning electron microscope facility for examining radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1986-03-01

    At the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) radioactive solids are characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) contained in a glove box. The system includes a research-grade Cambridge S-250 SEM, a Tracor Northern TN-5500 x-ray and image analyzer, and a Microspec wavelength-dispersive x-ray analyzer. The containment facility has a glove box train for mounting and coating samples, and for housing the SEM column, x-ray detectors, and vacuum pumps. The control consoles of the instruments are located outside the glove boxes. This facility has been actively used since October 1983 for high alpha-activity materials such as plutonium metal and plutonium oxide powders. Radioactive defense waste glasses and contaminated equipment have also been examined. During this period the facility had no safety-related incidents, and personnel radiation exposures were maintained at less than 100 mrems

  16. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts

  17. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  18. Workplace characterizations in case of rail transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donadille, L.; Itie, C.; Lahaye, T.; Muller, H.; Bottolier-Depois, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive fuel and wastes are frequently transported for storage and/or reprocessing purposes. The main part of this transport is generally done by train. Before, during and after the journey, operators and drivers, who work directly in contact with and in the vicinity of the wagons, are exposed to external irradiations due to the radioactive materials that are confined inside the containers. In order to evaluate the dose that its personnel is liable to receive during such transports, the French National Railway Company (SNCF) has requested to the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) a series of workplaces characterizations for convoys of different types, that are considered to be representative of all types of possible transports. Each one is associated to a given radioactive material (low and medium activity wastes, new and used fuel, MOX, uranium fluoride, etc... ), involving photon or mixed neutron-photon fields. This measurement campaign has started in May 2004 and by the end of 2004 at least four types of radioactive convoys will have been investigated (three have already been measured). By using survey meters and spectrometers, the study consists in measuring the external exposure for different stages of the work that is done beside the wagons (for example coupling / decoupling two wagons, or checking the brakes) and inside the locomotive (driving). For each one of these workplaces, the exposure is estimated in terms of the ambient dose equivalent H*(10) by summing the dose all along the different phases carried out by the operator. In addition, a dosimetric characterization of each convoy is made by performing measurements along the wagons and spectrometric information about the photon and/or neutron fields are collected. This study provides helpful data to predict the dose that the operators are liable to integrate over long periods, typically one year. (author)

  19. Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M.

    1995-11-01

    The report provides practical information needed for evaluating the radiation dose to the general public and workers caused by materials containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides. The report presents criteria, exposure scenarios and calculations used to assess dose with respect to the safety requirements set for construction materials in accordance with the Finnish Radiation Act. A method for calculating external gamma exposure from building materials is presented in detail. The results for most typical cases are given as specific dose rates in table form to enable doses to be assessed without computer calculation. A number of such dose assessments is presented, as is the corresponding computer code. Practical investigation levels for the radioactivity of materials are defined. (23 refs.).

  20. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  1. Calculation of radiation exposures from patients to whom radioactive materials have been administered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, J.; Shearer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Spreadsheet templates have been developed by the authors to calculate radiation exposures to others from patients to whom radioactive materials have been administered (or, indeed, from any source of radiation exposure) to be readily calculated. The time during which contact should be avoided, along with the residual activity at resumption of contact is also calculated using an iterative technique. These spreadsheets allow a great deal of flexibility in the specification of clearance rates and close contact patterns for individual patients. Estimates of doses, restriction times and residual activities for 131 l thyrotoxic therapy, for various contact patterns and group of patients, were calculated. The spreadsheets are implemented using Microsoft EXCEL for both PC and Macintosh computers, and are readily available from the authors

  2. Corrosion aspects of steel radioactive waste containers in cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Nick Smart from Serco, UK, gave an overview of the effects of cementitious materials on the corrosion of steel during storage and disposal of various low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Steel containers are often used as an overpack for the containment of radioactive wastes and are routinely stored in an open atmosphere. Since this is an aerobic and typically humid environment, the steel containers can start to corrode whilst in storage. Steel containers often come into contact with cementitious materials (e.g. grout encapsulants, backfill). An extensive account of different steel container designs and of steel corrosion mechanisms was provided. Steel corrosion rates under conditions buffered by cementitious materials have been evaluated experimentally. The main conclusion was that the cementitious environment generally facilitates the passivation of steel materials. Several general and localised corrosion mechanisms need to be considered when evaluating the performance of steel containers in cementitious environments, and environmental thresholds can be defined and used with this aim. In addition, the consequences of the generation of gaseous hydrogen by the corrosion of carbon steel under anoxic conditions must be taken into account. Discussion of the paper included: Is crevice corrosion really significant in cementitious systems? Crevice corrosion is unlikely in the cementitious backfill considered because it will tend to neutralise any acidic conditions in the crevice. What is the role of microbially-induced corrosion (MIC) in cementitious systems? Microbes are likely to be present in a disposal facility but their effect on corrosion is uncertain

  3. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  6. Device for transferring radioactive materials into a hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.J.; Koller, J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention should ease the process of enclosing containers which contain radio-active material. A sliding tensioning arrangement is proposed, which can be clamped, and there is a container insert between this tensioning arrangement and the lock bar. The threee above-mentioned parts can be coupled up or uncoupled. The tensioning arrangement is preferably made as a pair of pliers surrounding the container. It is advantageous if the shielding container does not have to remain connected by a flange during the locking process. (UWI) [de

  7. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), for NRC Approved Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, is applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  8. Compliance assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to assist competent authorities in the development and maintenance of compliance assurance programmes in connection with the transport of radioactive material, and to assist applicants, licensees and organizations in their interactions, with competent authorities. In order to increase co-operation between competent authorities and to promote uniform application of international regulations and recommendations it is desirable to adopt a common approach to regulatory activities. This book is intended to assist in accomplishing such uniform application by laying down most of the actions that competent authorities need to provide for in their programmes for ensuring regulatory compliance. 23 refs, figs and tabs

  9. Education and training in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Bruno Natanael; Pastura, Valeria da Fonseca e Silva; Mattar, Patricia; Dias, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport

  10. Application of radiation protection programmes to transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The principles for implementing radiation protection programmes (RPP) are detailed in the draft IAEA safety guide TS-G-1.5 'Radiation protection programmes for transport of radioactive material'. The document is described in this paper and analysis is made for typical applications to current operations carried out by consignors, carriers and consignees. Systematic establishment and application of RPPs is a way to control radiological protection during different steps of transport activity. The most widely transported packages in the world are radiopharmaceuticals by road. It is described an application of RPP for an organization involved in road transport of Type A packages containing radiopharmaceuticals. Considerations based on the radionuclides, quantities and activities transported are the basis to design and establish the scope of the RPP for the organizations involved in transport. Next stage is the determination of roles and responsibilities for each activity related to transport of radioactive materials. An approach to the dose received by workers is evaluated considering the type, category and quantity of packages, the radionuclides, the frequency of consignments and how long are the storages. The average of transports made in the last years must be taken into account and special measures intended to optimize the protection are evaluated. Tasks like monitoring, control of surface contamination and segregation measures, are designed based on the dose evaluation and optimization. The RPP also indicates main measures to follow in case of emergency during transport taking account of radionuclides, activities and category of packages for different accident scenarios. Basis for training personnel involved in handling of radioactive materials to insure they have appropriate knowledge about preparing packages, measuring dose rates, calculating transport index, labelling, marking and placarding, transport documents, etc, are considered. The RPP is a part

  11. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 2000. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1998 to March, 1999. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  12. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1997. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  13. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 2001. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1999. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  14. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 2000. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1998. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  15. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1997 to March, 1998. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  16. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 2001. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1999 to March, 2000. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  17. Developing procedures for the handling of highly radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Handling procedures for highly radioactive materials must be analyzed for the reduction of radiation dose. In keeping with ALARA principles, time, distance, and shielding must be used to maximum benefit during the job. After an initial risk assessment is accomplished, job pre-planning meetings and cold open-quotes walk-throughsclose quotes are held in order to engineer the best workable procedure given allocated resources, and to reduce personnel exposure. This paper shows the relationship between each step in the job development, over a number of actual jobs, drawing out how subtle changes in practice can affect the individual and team radiation dose

  18. Behaviour of bound residues of carbon-14 labelled organic environmental chemicals in vegetable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallnoefer, P.; Koeniger, M.; Ziegler, W.

    1991-01-01

    Growing cultures of cell suspensions of tomato and maize were capable of partly integrating (radioactively labelled) chemicals like 4-nitrophenol or 2-nitroaniline into the cell wall structure. The rates of integration found range from 1.1 per cent (4-NP in tomato) to 7.7 per cent (2-NA in maize). Maize is more prone to form bound residues than tomato; moreover, the results point to a dependence on the chemical structure of the xenobiotic substance. Enzymatic-chemical disaggregation of the cell wall material revealed an uneven distribution of radioactivity in the individual fractions: Tomato cells stored 4-NP above all in the starch fraction and to a smaller extent in the protein fraction, while storage of 2-NA in starch, protein and hemicellulose was about equal. Maize cells integrated both substances preferably into lignin and to a distinctly smaller extent also into starch and protein. (orig.) [de

  19. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-01-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass

  20. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices

  1. Updated database on natural radioactivity in building materials in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, R; Leonardi, F; Risica, S; Nuccetelli, C

    2018-07-01

    The paper presents the latest collection of activity concentration data of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4  K) in building materials. This database contains about 24200 samples of both bulk materials and their constituents (bricks, concrete, cement, aggregates) and superficial materials used in most European Union Member States and some European countries. This collection also includes radiological information about some NORM residues and by-products (by-product gypsum, metallurgical slags, fly and bottom ashes and red mud) which can be of radiological concern if recycled in building materials as secondary raw materials. Moreover, radon emanation and radon exhalation rate data are reported for bricks and concrete. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Doses to road transport workers from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, B.E.; van der Vooren, A.

    1988-12-01

    Each year approximately 750,000 packages of radioactive materials are shipped throughout Canada. Regulatory controls on these shipments are designed to keep radiation doses received by transport workers well within acceptable limits. Since many of these workers are not monitored for radiation exposure, however, little factual information has been available in Canada to support theoretical estimates. A study to document actual radiation doses received by a select group of transport workers that is actively involved in the shipment of radioactive materials, was carried out in 1987 and 1988. This study involved the monitoring of 31 candidates from nine transport companies from across the country that handle medical isotopes, industrial isotopes, uranium fuel cycle materials and associated radioactive wastes. Each of the candidates (consisting of driver, dock workers, sorters, and supervisors) was issued personal thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges that were worn each day during the six month monitoring period. Some of the candidates were also issued cab or area dosimeters that were left in the cabs of the vehicles or in work areas so that the dose received in these areas could be differentiated from total personal exposure. During the monitoring program, the candidates filled out reporting sheets at the end of each working day to document information such as the quantity of materials handled, handling times and vehicle size. This information and the dosimetry data were used in the development of correlations between materials handled and doses reported so that doses for other handling similar materials could be estimated. Based on the results of the study, it was learned that while most of the transport workers receive doses that are at or near background levels, other (particularly those handling medical isotopes) are exposed to levels of radiation that may result in their receiving doses above the 5 mSv per annum limit set for members of the general public. On

  3. Control levels for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support joint efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232); by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop radiological control criteria for the recycle and reuse of scrap materials and equipment that contain residual radioactive contamination. The initial radiological control levels are the concentrations in or on materials considered for recycle or reuse that meet the individual (human) or industrial (electronics/film) dose criteria. The analysis identifies relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and methods to determine possible non-health-related impacts from residual radioactive contamination in materials considered for recycle or reuse. The generic methodology and scenarios described here provide a basic framework for numerically deriving radiological control criteria for recycle or reuse. These will be adequately conservative for most situations

  4. National infrastructure for detecting, controlling and monitoring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) has the direct responsibility to assure proper safety for handling, accounting for and controlling of nuclear materials and radioactive sources which based on a solid regulatory infrastructure , its elements contains the following items: preventing, responding, training, exchanging of information. Based on the National Law for AECS's Establishment no. 12/1976, a Ministerial Decree for Radiation Safety no. 6514 dated 8.12.1997, issued by the Prime Minister. This Decree authorizes the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission to regulate all kinds of radiation sources. It fulfills the basic requirements of radiation protection and enforce the rules and regulations. The Radiation and Nuclear Regulatory Office (RNRO) is responsible for preparing all the draft regulations. In 1999 the General Regulations for Radiation Protection was issued by the Director General of the AECS, under Decision no. 112/99 dated 3.2.1999. It is based on an IAEA publication, Safety Series no. 115 (1996), and adopted to meet the national requirements. Syria has nine Boarding Centers seeking to prevent unauthorized movement of nuclear material and radioactive sources in and out side the country. They are related to the Atomic Energy Commission (AECS), and are located at the main entrances of the country. Each is provided with the practical tools and equipment in order to assist Radiation Protection Officers (RPO) in fulfilling their commitments, by promoting greater transparency in legal transfers of radioactive materials and devices. They apply complete procedures for the safe import, export and transit of radioactive sources. The RPOs provide authorizations by issuing an entry approval document, after making sure that each concerned shipments has an authorized license from the Syrian Regulatory Body (RNRO) before permitting shipments to leave, arrive or transit across their territory, enabling law enforcement to track the legal movement of

  5. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the level of residual stresses induced by the surfacing in the weld deposit zone and in the base metal, where considerable thermal gradients are present. Surfacing high-nickel filler on an austenitic base metal is one of techniques in repair of primary collector the primary circuit of nuclear power plant type VVER. The repair technology was developed at Welding Research Institute Bratislava. Measurements of residual stresses in the weld overlay and the base metal are necessary for approving the mechanical analysis and verifying of residual stresses determination on welded material by numerical weld g computer simulation. Investigations of residual stresses are important for developing optimal welding techniques. (authors)

  6. Organization of customs control of fissionable and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukhlinov, L.; Bojko, V.

    2001-01-01

    Among the routine inspection tasks of the Sheremetyevo customs office are tasks stemming from international commitments of Russia to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons and material that can be used for making these weapons. These tasks are: radiation monitoring of all vehicles, passengers, their luggage and goods crossing the state border; inspection of fissionable and radioactive materials (FRM) legally transported by participants in the foreign trade activities with a view to checking that the declared data fully correspond to the actual radioactive cargo. Organizational measures and technical measures at the Sheremetyevo customs office are described in detail. The efficiency of the scheme is illustrated by the following figures. In 1997, when appropriate technical means and trained personnel were lacking, there were only 2 events of detecting items with a rather high radioactivity level in the luggage. In 1999, after the entire radiation monitoring system was fully deployed (i.e. the flight checkpoint was equipped with technical means of radiation monitoring, personnel was trained, special technologies and algorithms were developed), there were 61 events of radiation detection, and in 2000 there have been 90 events, including breaches of legal FRM traffic regulations through disagreement of declared and actual parameters. We believe that the above-considered organization of radiation monitoring allows effective and quite reliable control of and adequate response to possible illicit transport of FRM through the airport Sheremetyevo to other countries, including CIS. In the near future we plan to increase the efficiency of the radiation monitoring by integrating the currently operational customs-used stationary FRM detection systems into a single information network capable of providing simultaneous video-aided continuous nuclear monitoring at three terminals (Sheremetyevo-1, Sheremetyevo-2, Sheremetyevo-Cargo) with display of information at the workstation

  7. State surveillance of radioactive material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, S.N.

    1984-02-01

    The main objective of this final report on the state surveillance of the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) is to suggest the most cost-effective inspection areas where enforcement actions might be taken by the states during their participation in the State Hazardous Materials Enforcement Development (SHMED) Program. On the basis of the lessons learned from the surveillance program, these actions are enforcement at low-level radioactive burial sites by means of civil penalties and site use suspension; enforcement at airports and at terminals that forward freight; and enforcement of courier companies. More effective and efficient enforcement can be achieved through instrumented police patrol cars and remote surveillance because they require the least amount of time of enforcement personnel. In addition, there is a strong relationship between effective emergency response and enforcement because the appropriate shipping papers, placarding and knowledge of appropriate emergency response procedures lead to improved emergency response. These lessons originate from a ten-state surveillance program from 1977 through 1981 jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and DOT. The states give recommendations in the categories of education, training, expanded surveillance, coordination and enforcement. The topics of special interest covered include low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, airports, cargo terminals, highways, ports, and accidents and incidents. The three most common problems in compliance with RAM transportation regulations reported by the states are incorrect package labeling; improper shipping papers; and incorrect or missing placards. Other common problems reported by the states are summarized. The relationship to other studies, the status of the SHMED Program, a synopsis of state RAM surveillance reports, and NRC/DOT expenditures are given

  8. Measurement of residual stresses in welded sample of dissimilar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Martins, Geraldo Antonio Scoralick; Atanazio Filho, Nelson do Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    The welding of dissimilar metals has several applications in the industry. Especially in the nuclear industry, this joint type, common between carbon steel and stainless steel, it is always reason of analysis and special cares tends in view the need to maintain the integrity of the equipment. Residual stresses are introduced in the material as a result of processes as welding, machining, sanding and polishing that can to produce deformation in the proximities of the surface of the material. Residual compressive stresses can be introduced in the material through the jetting process (bombardment of the surface for small glass spheres, dry sand or steel). That procedure allows a fine subsurface layer to suffer yielding, compressing the superficial layer and reducing the formation of areas of concentration of traction stresses, increasing the resistance of the material to the fatigue. The welding process introduces residual stresses due to the geometry resulting from the fusion of the material welded and of the heterogeneous cooling. Besides the microstructural alteration and chemical composition of the material in the affected area for the heat, introduced by the welding, it is also had the effect of the discontinuity of the passes and the formation of bubbles and emptiness that can contribute to the cracks nucleation, reducing the resistance to the fatigue. In the great majority of the times residual stresses are harmful and there are many documented cases which US these stresses went predominant factors for the failure for fatigue. A particularly dangerous aspect of the residual stresses is that their presence is not usually observed, what usually happens with an applied load to the structure. The knowledge of the surface residual stresses is important to predict the emergence of failure when the component or structure is requested. In nuclear power plants it is common to welding of piping of stainless steels with mouthpieces of carbon steel of pressure vases of

  9. Long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The statement assesses and compares several alternatives for long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York. The alternatives include: (1) no action (continued interim storage at NFSS within a diked and capped containment area), (2) long-term management at NFSS (improved containment, with or without modified form of the residues), (3) long-term management at other DOE sites (Hanford, Washington, or Oak Ridge, Tennessee), and (4) offsite management of the residues at Hanford or Oak Ridge and either leaving the wastes at NFSS or removing them for disposal in the ocean. In addition to alternatives analyzed in depth, several options are also considered, including: other modifications of residue form, modification of the basic conceptual designs, other containment design options, transportation routes, and transportation modes. The radiological health effects (primarily increased risk of cancer) associated with long-term management of the wastes and residues are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. During the action period, the risk is highest for workers if all wastes and residues are moved to Hanford. The risk is highest for the general public if the residues are moved to Hanford and the wastes are moved to the ocean. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant impacts on the ocean environment or pose any significant radiological risk to humans. For all alternatives, if controls ceased, there would be eventual dispersion of the radioactive materials to the environment. If it is assumed that all controls cease, predicted time for loss of covers over the buried materials ranges from several hundred years to more than two million years, depending on the use of the land surface

  10. Operational procedure standard for occurrences involving radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardopbm@yahoo.com.br [Academia de Bombeiros Militar de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rezende, Talita C.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G., E-mail: talitacolombi@yahoo.com, E-mail: christrieste@yahoo.it [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCA/UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química

    2017-07-01

    This study has as objective to analyze more deeply the actions of response to emergencies involving radioactive materials, in the intent to establish a pattern to the actions performed by the military fire fighters of the Military Fire Brigade of Minas Gerais. To met these goals, it has been attempted to analyze the procedures utilized and recommended, nowadays, for the military fire fighters of CBMMG, and through directed studies, to suggest new actions possible to be executed in the local of the emergency in a way that will not expose the garrison to doses of ionizing radiation that may prejudice them. It is a study of bibliographic, exploratory, and also descriptive nature, realized through a qualitative approach. The techniques used for the research were the analysis of institutional documents, norms and other literature produced by renamed entities in the radiologic and biosafety areas. It was then concluded that CBMMG, through simple actions of response, can provide higher quality and safety in the operations involving radiologic accidents, standing out that the implemented actions nowadays are very beneath the capacity of the corporation, due to the lack of knowledge of the matter by the fire fighters. It was proposed, then, that new actions be implemented and instituted as operational procedures to be used on those emergencies, with the objective of provide a higher safety and professionalism in the attendance to emergencies involving radioactive materials. (author)

  11. Dose control in road transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerulis, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The radiation doses to workers in the transport of radioactive material should be as low as reasonably achievable. The average doses of drivers and loaders, sampled in this thesis should be decreased. The demonstration of doses control in a road vehicle with radioactive material required by the current Brazilian regulation, CNEN NE 5.01 should be written in its own printed form with exposure values obtained in normally occupied positions from workers and members of the public, even when the consignment does not need 'exclusive use' (⅀IT ≤50). Through bibliographic research, modeling and field research, this research work shows that this demonstration of the control should be done by writing the registration accumulation of load, limited (⅀IT ≤50), also in the own printed form. It is for a better control method, in order to avoid the use of measuring equipment, to build standardization with foreign regulations, to the current occupational doses of radioprotection technicians, the costs and time, (important for consignment with radiopharmaceuticals short half-life) would be all smaller. Exposure values of the parameters used with this method are smaller than regulatory limits. The segregation distances between loads and the cabins of vehicles shall be showed by Brazilian regulation updated to contribute to these aims. (author)

  12. Quality assurance requirements for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.F.; MacDonald, C.E.; Doda, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the new quality assurance regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. These regulations became effective on October 18, 1977. Background information concerning these regulations and packaging and transportation history is included. The quality assurance program is described with indications of how it is composed of general (administrative) provisions which must meet the 18 quality assurance criteria and be approved by the NRC; specific provisions which appear in the DOT and NRC regulations and in the individual package design approval; and other specific procedures which are not required by regulations but which are necessary for the proper control of quality. The quality assurance program is to be developed using a graded approach for the application of pertinent criteria and optimizing the required degree of safety and control efforts involved in achieving this level of safety. The licensee-user is responsible for all phases of quality assurance for packaging activities including: design, manufacture, test, use, maintenance and repair. The package design phase is considered to be particularly important in producing adequate safety in operational activities concerning packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

  13. Operational procedure standard for occurrences involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarz, Leonardo; Rezende, Talita C.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study has as objective to analyze more deeply the actions of response to emergencies involving radioactive materials, in the intent to establish a pattern to the actions performed by the military fire fighters of the Military Fire Brigade of Minas Gerais. To met these goals, it has been attempted to analyze the procedures utilized and recommended, nowadays, for the military fire fighters of CBMMG, and through directed studies, to suggest new actions possible to be executed in the local of the emergency in a way that will not expose the garrison to doses of ionizing radiation that may prejudice them. It is a study of bibliographic, exploratory, and also descriptive nature, realized through a qualitative approach. The techniques used for the research were the analysis of institutional documents, norms and other literature produced by renamed entities in the radiologic and biosafety areas. It was then concluded that CBMMG, through simple actions of response, can provide higher quality and safety in the operations involving radiologic accidents, standing out that the implemented actions nowadays are very beneath the capacity of the corporation, due to the lack of knowledge of the matter by the fire fighters. It was proposed, then, that new actions be implemented and instituted as operational procedures to be used on those emergencies, with the objective of provide a higher safety and professionalism in the attendance to emergencies involving radioactive materials. (author)

  14. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia's facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns

  15. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site's suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling

  16. Denials of Shipments for Radioactive Material - Indian Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Khaidem Ranjankumar; Hussain, S.A; Panda, G.K.; Singh, T. Dewan; Dinakaran, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive material (RAM) needs to be transported for use in public health and industry and for production of nuclear power. In India, transport of RAM is governed by national and international regulations which are based on the IAEA Regulations for the safe transport of RAM. However, recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipment of RAM, reported by many countries worldwide including India, despite compliance with regulations. In Indian experience, the reasons for denials of shipment of RAM by the carriers are varied in nature. From the feedback received from the participants (airport operators, airlines, courier and cargo service providers, cargo forwarding agents, port authorities and sea carriers) of awareness programmes on safe transport of RAM conducted from year 2008 onwards by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) it became clear that the denials of shipments in India are mainly due to (1) perception of unnecessary fear for transport of RAM (2) lack of confidence and awareness on the procedures for acceptance of shipment of RAM (3) fear of risk during accidents with packages containing RAM (4) policy of the carriers not to accept consignment of dangerous goods (5) poor infrastructure at the major/transit ports (6) problems of transshipments and (7) shippers not having undergone dangerous goods training. In this paper, the Indian experience in dealing with the problems of denial/delay of shipments containing radioactive material and identified possible consequences of such denials including economical impact are discussed in detail. (author)

  17. Loopholes of laws and regulations related to redevelopment of former sites of radioactive material control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We found loopholes of laws and regulations for supervising radioactive materials. It is not obliged to measure the soil radioactivity of the sites that were formerly used as scientific or engineering institutes, or hospitals with a radioactive material control area. If the former institutes or hospitals made studies with radioactive materials before the enforcement of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to isotopes and its detailed regulations, it is concluded that there was the period when the radioactive materials were not under management. If it is found that the radioactive materials were applied at the former site before the enforcement of the related laws and regulations, the radioactivity in the soil of the redeveloped area should be examined, which should be obliged by some laws or regulations. (author)

  18. In transit storage of radioactive material under national customs administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, C.E.; Cesario, R.H.; Milsztain, C.; Pollach, L.; Liossa, R.

    1998-01-01

    A model of an 'in transit storage of radioactive materials' under National Customs Administration control is described account the relevant Custom House Legislation and the Nuclear Regulatory Standards in force in Argentina. Evaluation of the physical protection systems applied to the above mentioned storage by means of a software named 'IntruBuster' is also described. This software is routinely updated and is also used by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority to evaluate the adequacy of physical protection systems implemented at nuclear installations in the Country. The interaction with National and International related Organisations to minimise the probability of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is another important aspect to be considered. This is particularly true in those cases in which the administration of these stores is privately operated. Finally, the paper described the experience obtained in the implementation of the above mentioned software as well as prosecution and control activities by the Custom House and the Nuclear Authority of Argentina. (authors)

  19. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  20. Underground radioactive materials in 100-H and F plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, G. Jr.

    1965-10-29

    At 100-H Area there are 13 locations and at 100-F Area 16 locations where radioactive material was deposited underground. Five of these locations, 2 at 100-H and 3 at 100-F, have been permanently terminated as burial sites in compliance with Radiation Control Standards. They contain solid waste with significant quantities of long-life radionuclides. Burial locations within the 105 Building exclusion fences were not marked with permanent posts as the exclusion fences are sufficient marking for such sites. Other locations not permanently marked were the components of the effluent systems, including the 107 retention basins, 1904 outfall structures and associated piping. Control objectives for these locations were to prevent contamination spreads and limit personnel access for several years. Similar objectives applied to locations where small quantities of liquid waste were released to ground, or small amounts of surface-contaminated materials were buried. At these locations, existing fences and radiation zone signs were left in place. The permanently posted burial grounds contain two general types of radioactive waste: neutron-activated reactor components, and surface-contaminated material and equipment. The activated components consist almost entirely of steel and aluminum. The most significant radionuclide contained in these materials is 5-year /sup 60/Co. The surface contaminants are primarily corrosion and activation products of the reactor cooling water effluent, of which the long-life emitter is the 245-day /sup 65/Zn. The activity at the radiation zoned sites should be measured at the end of 5 years, or before all control is relinquished, to ascertain if the locations are releasable.

  1. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fenton, D.; O'Flaherty, T.

    2001-01-01

    The primary legislation governing safety in uses of ionizing radiation in Ireland is the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. This Act provided for the establishment in 1992 of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, and gives the Institute the functions and powers which enable it to be the regulatory body for all matters relating to ionizing radiation. A Ministerial Order made under the Act in 2000 consolidates previous regulations and, in particular, provides for the implementation in Irish law of the 1996 European Union Directive which lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. Under the legislation, the custody, use and a number of other activities involving radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus require a licence issued by the Institute. Currently some 1260 licences are in force. Of these, some 850 are in respect of irradiating apparatus only and are issued principally to dentists and veterinary surgeons. The remaining licences involve sealed radiation sources and/or unsealed radioactive substances used in medicine, industry or education. A schedule attached to each licence fully lists the sealed sources to which the licence applies, and also the quantities of radioactive substances which may be acquired or held under the licence. It is an offence to dispose of, or otherwise relinquish possession of, any licensable material other than in accordance with terms and conditions of the licence. Disused sources are returned to the original supplier or, where this is not possible, stored under licence by the licensee who used them. Enforcement of the licensing provisions relies primarily on the programme of inspection of licensees, carried out by the Institute's inspectors. The Institute's Regulatory Service has a complement of four inspectors, one of whom is the Manager of the Service. The Manager reports to one of the Institute's Principal

  2. Alternatives for the disposal of NORM [naturally occurring radioactive materials] wastes in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.; Pollard, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the Texas wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have been disposed of in a uranium mill tailings impoundment. There is currently no operating disposal facility in Texas to accept these wastes. As a result, some wastes containing extremely small amounts of radioactivity are sent to elaborate disposal sites at extremely high costs. The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has sponsored a study to investigate lower cost, alternative disposal methods for certain wastes containing small quantities of NORM. This paper presents the results of a multipathway safety analysis of various scenarios for disposing of wastes containing limited quantities of NORM in Texas. The wastes include pipe scales and sludges from oil and gas production, residues from rare-earth mineral processing, and water treatment resins, but exclude large-volume, diffuse wastes (coal fly ash, phosphogypsum). The purpose of the safety analysis is to define concentration and quantity limits for the key nuclides of NORM that will avoid dangerous radiation exposures under different waste disposal scenarios

  3. Polyethylene encapsulation of molten salt oxidation mixed low-level radioactive salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Grimmett, D.L.; Gay, R.L.; Newman, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A limited scope treatability study was conducted for polyethylene encapsulation of salt residues generated by a Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) technology demonstration at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), operated by Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). During 1992 and 1993, ETEC performed a demonstration with a prototype MSO unit and treated approximately 50 gallons of mixed waste comprised of radioactively contaminated oils produced by hot cell operations. A sample of the mixed waste contaminated spent salt was used during the BNL polyethylene encapsulation treatability study. A nominal waste loading of 50 wt % was successfully processed and waste form test specimens were made for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The encapsulated product was compared with base-line TCLP results for total chromium and was found to be well within allowable EPA guidelines

  4. Incident involving radioactive material at IAEA Safeguards Laboratory - No radioactivity released to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Pressure build-up in a small sealed sample bottle in a storage safe resulted in plutonium contamination of a storage room at about 02:30 today at the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf. All indications are that there was no release of radioactivity to the environment. Further monitoring around the laboratory will be undertaken. No one was working in the laboratory at the time. The Laboratory's safety system detected plutonium contamination in the storage room where the safe was located and in two other rooms - subsequently confirmed by a team of IAEA radiation protection experts. The Laboratory is equipped with multiple safety systems, including an air-filtering system to prevent the release of radioactivity to the environment. There will be restricted access to the affected rooms until they are decontaminated. A full investigation of the incident will be conducted. The IAEA has informed the Austrian regulatory authority. The IAEA's Laboratory in Seibersdorf is located within the complex of the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARC), about 35 km southeast of Vienna. The laboratory routinely analyses small samples of nuclear material (uranium or plutonium) as part of the IAEA's safeguards verification work. (IAEA)

  5. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  6. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  7. Radioactivity in polluted cement and its raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.; Aslam, M.; Orfi, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of portland cement manufactured in the North West frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan and its different raw materials have been investigated applying gamma-spectrometric techniques for natural gamma-emitting radionuclides. A high purity germanium detector (HPGE) was used for data acquisition. Average values of the total specific activity (in Bq.kg/sup -1/ ) due to all the three radionuclides (/sub 40/K, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th) were found to be 327.7+ - 168.2 for portland cement; 104.4 + - 21.1 for limestone; 193.2+ - 50.4 for gypsum; 890.4 + - 86.5 for state and 545.6+ - 56.6 for latrite. The average specific activities due to /sup 40/K in Portland cement and all the raw materials were found to be higher as compared to /sub 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th in the respective materials. It is concluded that such materials do not pose any health problem and are not a major source of radiation hazards. However, The data can be utilized in determining radioactivity associated with other building materials. (author)

  8. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  9. Determination of radioactive scales in oil industry using naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, naturally occurring radioactive materials (Radium isotopes) present in produced water and radiation measurements have been used to study the formation of scales, evaluate their age, determination of geological formations and between wells interactions. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed monthly for 5 months from 11 oil wells in three Syrian oil fields. Analysis includes radium isotopes and anions and cations concentrations in addition to radiation measurements at the well heads. The highest mean values of radium 226, Radium 228 and Radium 224 concentration in produced were 41 Bq/1, 57.1 Bq/1 and 1.1 Bq/1, respectively. The values obtained for Radium 226, Radium 228 and the activity ratio were statistically evaluated and the results were presented using the box plot method. The mean value of the activity ration of Radium 226 and Radium 228 was used to determine the age of scales accumulated inside tubulars. (author)

  10. Security of material: Preventing criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    The report emphasizes the need for national regulatory authorities to include in the regulatory systems, measures to control and protect nuclear materials from being used in illegal activities, as well as aspects of relevance for detecting and responding to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The report will give an overview of the international treaties and agreements that underpin the establishment of a regulatory structure necessary for States to meet their non-proliferation policy and undertakings. Ongoing work to strengthen the protection of nuclear material and to detect and respond to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive material will be included. The focus of the paper is on the need for standards and national regulation in the nuclear security area. (author)

  11. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is one of the most powerful methods for condensed matter studies. This method is used for non-destructive determination of residual stresses in material. The fundamental aspects of neutron diffraction are discussed, together with a brief description of the experimental facility. The principal advantage of using neutrons rather than the more conventional X-rays is the fact that neutron can penetrate deeply (2-4 cm for steel and more than 10 cm for aluminium) into metals to determine internal parameters within the bulk of materials. We present results of measurements residual stresses in NPP construction material - austenitic stainless steel (Cr-18%, Ni-10%, Ti-1%) coated with high-nickel alloy. (authors)

  12. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. This report discusses issues associated with air transport regulations

  13. SOR/89-426, Transport Packaging of Radioactive Materials Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These Regulations of 24 August 1989 amend the Transport Packaging of Radioactive Materials Regulations by clarifying the text and specifying certain requirements. In particular certain definitions have been replaced, namely those of ''Fissile Class III package'' and ''Special form radioactive material''. Also, this latter material may not be carried without a certificate attesting that it meets the requirements of the Regulations. (NEA)

  14. A guide to the suitability of elastomeric seal materials for use in radioactive material transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vince, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Elastomeric seals are a frequently favoured method of sealing Radioactive Material Transport (RMT) packages. The sealing technology has been proven for many years in a wide range of industrial applications. The requirements of the RMT package applications, however, are significantly different from those commonly found in other industries. This guide outlines the Regulatory performance requirements placed on an RMT package sealing system by TS-R-1, and then summarises the material, environment and geometry characteristics of elastomeric seals relevant to RMT applications. Tables in the guide list typical material properties for a range of elastomeric materials commonly used in RMT packages

  15. Natural Radioactivity in Clay and Building Materials Used in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of natural radionuclide concentration and activity index study in materials used for construction in Latvia. Special attention is given to clay and clay ceramics. Concentrations of K-40 and Th- 232, U-238 radioactivity were determined using gamma-spectrometry method. In some building ware, maximal concentration of K-40 was 1440 Bq/kg, and of U-238 - 175 Bq/kg. In granite, the determined maximum concentration of Th-232 was 210 Bq/kg. It was found that radionuclide content in different period clay deposits can differ by more than two times, and up to five times in different clay ceramics. The results obtained are compared with analogous data from the other Baltic and North European countries.

  16. Spoken commands control robot that handles radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, P.F.; Keddy, C.; Beugelsdojk, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Several robotic systems have been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to handle radioactive material. Because of safety considerations, the robotic system must be under direct human supervision and interactive control continuously. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that permits this control, yet allows the robot to perform complex preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. To provide better interactive control, we connected to the robot's control computer, a speech synthesis unit, which provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus upon completion of a task or if an emergency arises, an appropriate spoken message can be reported by the control computer. The training programming and operation of this commercially available system are discussed, as are the practical problems encountered during operations

  17. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, F.; Igarashi, M.; Nomura, T.; Nakagome, Y.

    2004-01-01

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on

  18. Radioactive contaminants in raw materials and foodstuffs of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovicj, S.; Krainchanicj, M.; Stankovicj, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the results of activity level of radioactive caesium 134 and 137 in the samples of raw materials (barley, oats, soybean, sunflower, pumpkin seed, hops, shreded sugar beet, maize), animal feedstuffs (alfalfa, alfalfa meal, rape, concentrates fed to chickens, pigs or bpvines, dry turnip shreds) and foodstuff of plant origin (lettuce, spinach, cabbage, carrot, celery, cucumber, tomato, olives, sesame). All samples - produced locally on the major part but also including some imported stuff -have been subjected to continuous gamma spectrometry starting with the Chernobyl accident in 1986 through 1989. The highest activity of caesium was recorded in the samples of animal feedstuffs (alfalfa, alfalfa meal, rape) in the years 1986 and 1987. In time, however, the activity tends to drop considerably. (author) 4 refs.; 3 tabs

  19. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  20. Logistics of radioactive materials: optimization of laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akakiev, B.V.; Makarevich, I.M.; Nesterov, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the problems of the Russian authorization system in the field of radioactive materials (RM) logistics which does not meet the needs of their application in medicine, science and industry. To correct the situation, first of all, it is necessary to revise the licensing system. For optimization of licensing in the field of RM transportation, a radical revision is needed for the Regulations of transportation of dangerous cargoes by automobiles, sanitary regulations, the GOST Dangerous Cargoes, numerous federal codes and norms issued by Rostekhnadzor in recent years. It is also necessary to review and coordinate various sanitary regulations for radiation safety, develop the Agreement on transit transportation of RM between the countries of the CIS [ru

  1. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  2. Solid radioactive waste: evaluation of residual activity in nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabarse, Frederico G.; Xavier, Ana M.; Magalhaes, Maisa H.; Guerrero, Jesus S.P.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental programme to estimate, with a better degree of accuracy, the activity that remains adsorbed in flasks and syringes used in Nuclear Medicine Services for the administration of radionuclides to patients submitted to diagnostic or therapy is been conducted under the coordination of the Radioactive Waste Division of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN. The adopted recommendation in Brazil to allow an expedite solid waste management in nuclear medicine facilities, up to the present, is to consider that 2% of the initial activity remains adsorbed in the solid waste, which easily allows the calculation of the storage time to achieve regulatory clearance levels by decay. This research evaluates 17 different kinds of radiopharmaceuticals and three radioisotopes: 99m Tc, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Results obtained by means of a weighting method to estimate the residual mass in flasks show that the ratio of the mass of the liquid that remains in the solid waste to the mass of the empty flask is constant. This suggests that the residual activity depends on the initial activity concentration of radiopharmaceutical contained in each flask, as assumed by the regulatory body. Additionally, results obtained by determining the remaining activity in flasks, shortly after the injection of its radionuclide contents in patients, indicate that an average value for the residual activity of the order of 10% of the initial activity contained in the flasks or syringes should be adopted to determine the decay storage time before the release of solid waste in the urban conventional land fill disposal system. The 'rule of thumb' of 10 half-lives for storage before clearance is also discussed in the present work. (author)

  3. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material provide standards for ensuring a high level of safety of people, property and the environment against radiation and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive material. The basic requirements to be met are: Effective containment of radioactive material; Effective control of radiation emitted from the package; A subcritical condition for any fissile material; and Adequate dissipation of any heat generated within the package. Effective quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes are required, for example: (a) Appropriate and sound packages are used; (b) The activity of radioactive material in each package does not exceed the regulatory activity limit for that material and that package type; (c) The radiation levels external to, and the contamination levels on, surfaces of packages do not exceed the appropriate limits; (d) Packages are properly marked and labelled and transport documents are completed; (e) the number of packages containing radioactive material in a conveyance is within the regulatory limits; (f) Packages of radioactive material are stowed in conveyances and are stored at a safe distance from persons and photosensitive materials; (g) Only those transport and lifting devices which have been tested are used in loading, conveying and unloading packages of radioactive material; and (h) Packages of radioactive material are properly secured for transport. The control of the transport of radioactive materials may be necessary also for other reasons, e.g. safeguards control and physical protection of nuclear materials and control of a property. For radioactive materials having other dangerous properties, the regulations of Member States, modal conventions and agreements, and other relevant documents of international organizations need to be applied. A Member State may require in its national regulations that an additional approval be

  4. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatter, J.G. [Pharmacia Corp., Peapack, NJ (United States); Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A. [Pharmacia Corp., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [{sup 14}C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [{sup 14}C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. After 7 daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C{sub max} and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  5. Study of the emanation levels of 222Rn present in Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials - NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Marcia Valeria de Fatima da Encarnacao Sa

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), contaminating oil and gas facilities, is a common fact in the petroleum industry, and can be severe enough to expose the workers to elevated levels of radiation. Thus, contaminated residues need to be segregated but, this is still a problem without a satisfactory solution. Currently, the most practical and economic option for discarding this material is to stock it in areas of the facility whose access is controlled. Certain equipment used in the petroleum industry has scale and sludge that could be associated to important levels of radioactivity. Typically, the scale is a mixture of carbonate and sulphate minerals, such as barite (BaSO 4 ), that easily incorporates 226 Ra and 228 Ra in its structures. The objective of this work was to measure the emanations of the radon present in these NORM samples, via diffusion chambers containing a nuclear track detector (CR-39). The images of particle alpha tracks emanated by 222 Rn registered on CR-39 were observed with a Nikon E400 optic microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix digital camera and then stored in a database, to later count the tracks using the computational program, Image Pro plus. Being that the emanation rate of 222 Rn was proportional to the number of these tracks the methodology permitted the comparison of contamination levels of the analyzed samples. (author)

  6. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Cheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  7. Prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - near the where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers, which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high b) Presently

  8. Calculation of radiation exposures from patients to whom radioactive materials have been administered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormack, John; Shearer, Jane

    1998-03-01

    Spreadsheet templates which calculate cumulative exposures to other persons from patients to whom radioactive materials have been administered have been developed by the authors. Calculations can be based on any specified single-, bi- or tri-exponential whole-body clearance rate and a diurnal (or any other periodic) contact pattern. The time (post-administration) during which close contact should be avoided in order to constrain the radiation exposure and exposure rates to selected limits is also calculated using an iterative technique (Newton's method), and the residual activity at the time when contact can resume is also calculated. These templates find particular application in the calculation of exposures to persons who are in contact with patients who have received for therapeutic purposes. The effect of changing dose limits, contact patterns and using individually derived clearance rates may be readily modelled.

  9. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1988. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  10. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  11. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A., E-mail: A.Shakhashiro@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTP, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhoefer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Former collaborator) (Korea, Republic of); Kis-Benedek, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary); Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-01-15

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  12. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria for radioactive material transportation containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The design criteria currently used in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transportation containers are taken from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME, 1992). These load-based criteria are ideally suited for pressure vessels where the loading is quasistatic and all stresses are in equilibrium with externally applied loads. For impact events, the use of load-based criteria is less supportable. Impact events tend to be energy controlled, and thus, energy-based acceptance criteria would appear to be more appropriate. Determination of an ideal design criteria depends on what behavior is desired. Currently there is not a design criteria for inelastic analysis for RAM nation packages that is accepted by the regulatory agencies. This lack of acceptance criteria is one of the major factors in limiting the use of inelastic analysis. In this paper inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on stress and strain-energy density will be compared for two stainless steel test units subjected to impacts onto an unyielding target. Two different material models are considered for the inelastic analysis, a bilinear fit of the stress-strain curve and a power law hardening model that very closely follows the stress-strain curve. It is the purpose of this paper to stimulate discussion and research into the area of strain-energy density based inelastic analysis acceptance criteria

  13. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, C.; Akber, R.; Johnston, A.; Cassels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia. (authors)

  14. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  15. Storage and transport containers for radioactive medical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a storage and transport container for small-diameter ribbon-like lengths of material including radioactive substances for use in medical treatments, comprising: an exterior shell for radiation shielding metal having top and bottom members of radiation shielding metal integral therewith; radiation shielding metal extending downward from the top of the container and forming a central cavity, the central cavity being separate from the exterior shell material of the container and extending downwardly a distance less than the height of the container; a plurality of small diameter carrier tubes located within the interior of the container and having one end of each tube opening through one side of the container and the other end of such tube opening through the opposite lateral side of the container with the central portion of each tube passing under the central cavity; and a plug of radiation shielding metal removably located in the top the central cavity for shielding the radiation from radiation sources located within the container

  16. Monitoring of persons with injuries with incorporated radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, A.G.; Tauhata, L.

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of victims with injuries with incorporated radioactive material can be performed with portable detectors in initial evaluations, with unshielded measurements, collimation, often with the ignorance of the radionuclide, and also, in the posterior medical follow-up with whole-body detectors and HPGe, in measurements of body or urine activity in periodic measurements. Dosimetry in these situations is done using appropriate models, which surpass those of orthodox internal dosimetry, the biokinetic model described in the 2006 NCRP, such as the AIDE models, and the one developed by Deepesh for the 241 Am. Using tissue-equivalent material, measurements were made with portable detectors to obtain the values of the total attenuation coefficient for the 241 Am radiation and compared to the NIST tables. Measurements were also made with the fixed detectors for certification of the measurement procedure. The percentage deviations obtained in relation to the theoretical ones were: PRD (55%) and IdentiFINDER2 (72%). First-aid monitoring measurements may present great uncertainties and differences of accuracy, but are important data to guide the medical treatment of the victims of accidents

  17. Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: 1987 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    From time to time, the issue as to whether the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM) is raised. Because NARM exists in the environment, in homes, in workplaces, in medical institutions, and in consumer products, the issue of Federal controls over NARM is very old and very complex. This report presents a review of NARM sources and uses as well as incidents and problems associated with those materials. A review of previous congressional and Federal agency actions on radiation protection matters, in general, and on NARM, in particular, is provided to develop an understanding of existing Federal regulatory activity in ionizing radiation and in control of NARM. In addition, State controls over NARM are reviewed. Eight questions are examined in terms of whether the NRC should seek legislative authority to regulate NARM. The assessment of these questions serves as the basis for developing and evaluating five options. The evaluation of those options leads to two recommendations

  18. Low activation material design methodology for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.; Satou, M.; Nogami, S.; Kakinuma, N.; Kinno, M.; Hayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the concrete shielding walls and pipes around a reactor pressure vessel of a light water reactor become low level radioactive waste at decommission phase because they contain radioactive nuclides by thermal-neutron irradiation during its operation. The radioactivity of some low level radioactive wastes is close to the clearance level. It is very desirable in terms of life cycle cost reduction that the radioactivity of those low level radioactive wastes is decreased below clearance level. In case of light water reactors, however, methodology of low activation design of a nuclear plant has not been established yet because the reactor is a large-scale facility and has various structural materials. The Objectives of this work are to develop low activation material design methodology and material fabrication for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant such as reinforced concrete. To realize fabrication of reduced radioactive concrete, it is necessary to develop (1) the database of the chemical composition of raw materials to select low activation materials, (2) the tool for calculation of the neutron flux and the spectrum distribution of nuclear plants to evaluate radioactivity of reactor components, (3) optimization of material process conditions to produce the low activation cement and the low activation steels. Results of the data base development, calculation tools and trial production of low activation cements will be presented. (authors)

  19. Methods and apparatus for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The spatial distribution of a radioactive material is determined by locating the positions of and energy losses resulting from Compton interactions which occur in a detector as a result of gamma photons emitted by the radioactive material, which may, for example, have been administered to a patient for medical diagnostic investigation. (auth)

  20. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials. 176.710 Section 176.710 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... sifting of radioactive materials. (a) In case of fire, collision, or breakage involving any shipment of...

  1. Users manual. Pursuit program of use licenses of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril M, V.M.; Villarreal, J.E.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the program 'Databases for the pursuit of licenses of use of radioactive material', it consists on the application of a computer system carried out in dbase IV that it allows the control of the all the information related with those licenses for use, possession and storage of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations. (Author)

  2. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific activity... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 174.700 Section 174.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  3. Approved requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document specifies the detailed provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to rail transport for packages and packaging, test procedures for radioactive materials, information concerning the preparation of radioactive materials and the operation of tanks and container wagons. The Approved Requirements came into force on 1 September 1996 and are legally binding. (UK)

  4. Manual of use and accounting of radioactive material and procedures of radiological protection for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Miguel

    1997-03-01

    This manual of use and accounting of material radioactive and procedures of radiological safety tries to facilitate workings of protection of material radioactive in services of medicine nuclear, during diagnosis (examinations with x-rays, or those that are made in nuclear medicine), or during the processing of diseases, mainly of the carcinomas (x-ray)

  5. Experience of work with radioactive materials and nuclear fuel at the reactor WWR-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, R.M.; Petukhov, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    In the report there are considered questions concerning the handling with fresh and spent fuel, experimental devices, containing high enriched uranium, being fissile materials of the bulk form, radioisotopes, obtained in the reactor, and radioactive waste, formed during the operation of the reactor, and organization of storage, account and control of radioactive and fissile materials is described. (author)

  6. Law project on the radioactive materials and wastes management 2006 recommendations presented by Anne Duthilleul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides recommendations on the law project concerning the radioactive material and wastes management. It precises the law objectives, the french particularities concerning the radioactive wastes and materials management, the public debate in France, the evaluation of the researches, the recommendations of the economic and social council. (A.L.B.)

  7. Radiation and Radioactivity Levels Survey of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) at PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Jusuf; Siregar, Roland

    2003-01-01

    PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is the largest oil company sharing contractor with Pertamina, located in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, employs about 6,800 employees and works together with 28,000 business partner employees. Currently CPI produces about 510,000 bbls crude oil. The production process mobilizes the naturally occurring radionuclides from deep reservoir rock that are deposited as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in well tubes, surface pipes, vessels and other processing equipment. NORM has a potential to be externally exposed during production process due to the accumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides and internal exposure to employees/business partners particularly during maintenance, sludge processing and decontamination of equipment. Understanding of the possible NORM hazards to human life, CPI initiated a NORM survey in order to obtain a clear picture of the magnitude of NORM in CPI operations. The survey has been conducted in 2001 and 2002 involved experts from Chevron Texaco USA, BATAN and BAPETEN Jakarta. The survey covered the determination of gamma exposure rates and the concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K in several samples taken from scale, sludge, tank bottom and sand. To safely management of NORM, the Industrial Health Team of Corporate Health, Environment and Safety in coordination with Training Center Team and BATAN have conducted a NORM training for Industrial Hygienist and employees exposed to NORM, developed Standard Operating Procedure for NORM Handling and Disposal and continuously performed NORM survey and mapping of all suspected areas. (author)

  8. Transport worker radiation exposures handling air shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, F.J.; Jones, A.; Kelly, R.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the continuing increase in the use of radioactive materials in nuclear medicine and industry there has been a corresponding rise in radioactive material (ram) package shipments via air carriers. Utilizing sensitive thermoluminescent dosimeters which were worn for 6-8 week periods annual transport worker dose estimates were made at several locations within New York State. The estimated doses as a function of transport index on the package label were as follows: freight forwarder servicing New York City Airports handled 31,000 TI units/y and 15 persons wore badges with whole body badge readings: 0.24, 0.60, 0.76, 0.78, 0.83, 0.99 and 1.69 rem/y; for a population dose of 0.36 man-rem/y, ring badges with positive results, 0.71, 1.03 and 1.11 rem/y; 5 air carriers at Buffalo Airport handled 5800 TJ units/y and 41 persons were monitored with 13 positive results: 2 at 0.24, 3 at 0.30, 0.25, 0.31, 2 at 0.37, 0.42, 0.48, 0.60, and 1.55 rem/y for a population dose of 0.14 man-rem/y, ring badge positive results: 0.24 and 6.01 rem/y; 4 freight forwarders at Buffalo Airport handled 3800 TI units/y and 52 persons were monitored with 3 positive results: 0.30, 0.36 and 0.67 rem/y for a population dose fo 0.201 man-rem/y, ring badge positive results: 0.31 and 0.42 rem/y; 4 air carriers and 3 freight forwarders at Rochester Airport handled 170 TI units/y and 19 persons wore badges and none gave an exposure above minimum detectable during monitored period. The annual population dose per TI were as follows: for New York City freight forwarder, 0.000012 man-rem/TI-y; for Buffalo Airport air carriers, 0.000024 man-rem/TI-y; for Buffalo Airport freight forwarder, 0.0000055 man-rem/TI-y

  9. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1995-08-01

    Each year, the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation. The 1995 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. Forty-six bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency responsiveness. Also included are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  10. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1996--June 6, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Reed, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1997 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1996 and June 6, 1997. Fifty bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste, storage and emergency response. Also summarized are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  11. Monitoring for Radioactive Material in International Mail Transported by Public Postal Operators. Reference Manual (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The illegal transport of conventional explosives and biological material has been observed in public mail and could lead to serious health hazards. In response to Member States' requests to establish guidance for detecting the movement of radioactive material in international mail, the IAEA and the Universal Postal Union (UPU) undertook a joint effort to prepare this publication. It considers how radioactive materials in international mail might be detected, how best to monitor for these materials in mail facilities and how to respond appropriately. This publication brings together a concise but comprehensive description of the various techniques and equipment used to detect and control radioactive material during mail processing.

  12. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the problems of 'small users' of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is the independent body that advises the UK Government, including the devolved administrations for Scotland and Wales, on issues relating to the management of civil radioactive waste. Radioactive wastes are produced by the civil nuclear industry, by the Ministry of Defence, and by a varied group of organisations known as 'Small Users'. Small Users include hospitals, universities and some non-nuclear industries, which use radioactive materials and, in turn, produce radioactive waste. In 1991, and again in 1996, RWMAC provided the Government with advice on the problems encountered by Small Users. These difficulties were associated both with specific aspects of the radioactive waste management required and with the controls exercised by the regulators. As part of its work programme for 1999-2000, Ministers asked the Committee to return to these issues. In volume, Small User radioactive wastes make up only a small part of the total UK inventory. However, like those produced by the nuclear and defence sectors, it is vital that they are managed properly, as some carry the potential for considerable harm. Equally, it is important that the financial costs imposed on Small Users as a result of regulation are commensurate with the actual health risk involved. Otherwise, for example, the benefits accruing from use of radioactive materials in medicine might be prejudiced. We have tried to strike an appropriate balance in arriving at the views set out in our report. The report draws attention to a number of areas that Government could usefully consider in respect of Small User waste management, possibly as part of its forthcoming radioactive waste management policy review. A key issue is the need to get to grips with the problem of historic redundant radioactive sources held under registration by Small Users. Many such sources are in the public sector and, under current funding arrangements, Small Users encounter

  13. Mapping residual and internal stress in materials by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, Ph.J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron diffraction provides one of the few means of mapping residual stresses deep within the bulk of materials and components. This article reviews the basic scientific methodology by which internal strains and stresses are inferred from recorded diffraction peaks. Both conventional angular scans and time-of-flight measurements are reviewed and compared. Their complementarity with analogous synchrotron X-ray methods is also highlighted. For measurements to be exploited in structural integrity calculations underpinning the safe operation of engineering components, measurement standards have been defined and the major findings are summarised. Examples are used to highlight the unique capabilities of the method showing how it can provide insights ranging from the basic physics of slip mechanisms in hexagonal polycrystalline materials, through the materials optimisation of stress induced transformations in smart nano-materials, to the industrial introduction of novel friction welding processes exploiting stress residual measurements transferred from prototype sub-scale tests to the joining of full-scale aero-engine assemblies. (author)

  14. Review of the bases for regulations governing the transport of fissile and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Thomas, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The outstanding record of transport of radioactive materials prompted this brief review of the history of the regulations. IAEA as well as DOT regulations are discussed, as are all classes of shipments and materials (Class I, II, III)

  15. Status of the regulation for safe and secure transport of radioactive materials in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law n° 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree n° 2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis. (author)

  16. Status of the Regulation for safe and secure transport of radioactive materials in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law No. 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree No.2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis.

  17. Proposal for radioactive waste materials management organization scheme in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive waste materials management in FR Yugoslavia is subject of the relevant interest, both institutional and public. There is no defined program on the State level in such waste materials management, nor specified institutional approach when dealing with waste materials collecting, treatment, immobilisation and disposal. Proposal on establishing the national organisation scheme in the radioactive waste materials management and responsibilities in decision making is discussed in the paper. (author)

  18. Route-specific analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report addresses a methodology for route-specific analysis, of which route-selection is one aspect. Identification and mitigation of specific hazards along a chosen route is another important facet of route-specific analysis. Route-selection and route-specific mitigation are two tools to be used in minimizing the risk of radioactive materials transportation and promoting public confidence. Other tools exist to improve the safety of transportation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Selection of a transportation mode and other, non-route-specific measures, such as improved driver training and improved cask designs, are additional tools to minimize transportation risk and promote public confidence. This report addresses the route-specific analysis tool and does not attempt to evaluate its relative usefulness as compared to other available tools. This report represents a preliminary attempt to develop a route-specific analysis methodlogy. The Western Interstate Energy Board High-Level Waste Committee has formed a Route-Specific Analysis Task Force which will build upon the methodology proposed in this Staff Report. As western states continue to investigate route-specific analysis issues, it is expected that the methodology will evolve into a more refined product representing the views of a larger group of interested parties in the West

  19. Guide to sampling airborne radioactive materials in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The ANSI N13.1-1969 Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities is currently being revised. The revision is being drafted by a working group under the auspices of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. The main differences between the original standard and the proposed revision are a narrowed scope, a greater emphasis on the design process, and the verification of meeting performance criteria. Compliance with the revised standard will present new challenges, especially in the area of performance validation. The progress made in the revision and key portions of the standard are discussed. The DOE has recently petitioned EPA for alternate approaches to complying with air-sampling regulations. Dealing with compliance issues until the revised standard is adopted will be a challenge for both designers and regulators. The objective of this paper is to briefly describe the content of the proposed revision in order to point out significant differences from the old standard and to describe the new challenges that the proposed revision will present.

  20. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program

  1. Urban risks of truck transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Truck transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), normally maximizes use of Interstate highways, which are safer and more efficient for truck transport in general. In the estimation of transportation risks, population bordering a route is a direct factor in determining consequences and an indirect factor in determining exposure times, accident probabilities and severities, and other parameters. Proposals to transport RAM may draw intense resistance from stakeholders based on concern for population concentrations along urban segments but the length of a route segment is also a determinative factor in estimating the transport risks. To quantify the relative importance of these two factors, a potential route for transport of SNF (strict use of Interstate highways) was selected and compared with a modified version that bypassed urban areas. The RADTRAN 4 code for transportation risk assessment, which was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used in the present study to assess the relative risks of SNF transportation for alternative routes. The results suggest that emphasis on Interstate highways minimizes total route and urban segment risks

  2. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program

  3. Doses to railroad workers from shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Cottrell, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fissile and high-level radioactive wastes are currently transported over long distances by truck and by rail transportation systems. The primary form of fissile material is spent reactor fuel. Transportation operations within DOE are controlled through the Transportation Operations and Management System. DOE projected increases in the rate of shipments have generated concern by railroad companies that railroad workers may be exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high that a radiation protection program may need to be implemented. To address railroad company concerns, the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has estimated doses to railroad workers for two exposure scenarios that were constructed using worker activity data obtained from CSX Transportation for crew and maintenance workers. This characterization of railroad worker activity patterns includes a quantitative evaluation of the duration and rate of exposure. These duration and exposure rate values were evaluated using each of three exposure rate vs. distance models to generate exposure estimates. 14 refs., 1 tab

  4. Technique of stowing packages containing radioactive materials during maritime transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringot, G.; Chevalier, G.; Tomachevsky, E.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Mont Louis accident (August 25, 1984 - North Sea), in which uraniumhexafluoride packages were involved, alarmed a large number of European competent authorities, including the Commission of European Communities. The latter sponsored in 1986-1987 a bibliographic data collection to obtain a first view on the problem. (C.E.C contracts n degree 86-B-7015-11-004-17 and 86-B-7015-11-005-17). The collected data supply the necessary basis for further work, aiming to increase the safety of transporting radioactive material by ship. The study collected the different deceleration values, used by the transport companies and defined the accident conditions to be considered. This work can serve as a basis for later research to end with the proposal of a code of good practice for stowing. The research-work has been carried out jointly by C.E.A.-France, I.P.S.N. at Fontenay-aux-Roses and by Transnubel S.A. Brussels Belgium. The preliminary research included two main tasks: a statistical analysis, a bibliographic study of ship accidents

  5. International measures needed to protect metal recycling facilities from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattia, M.; Wiener, R.

    1999-01-01

    In almost every major city and region of every country, there is a recycling facility that is designed to process or consume scrap metal. These same countries will probably have widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. This material and equipment will have metal as a primary component of its housing or instrumentation. It is this metal that will cause these sources of radioactivity, when lost, stolen or mishandled, to be taken to a metal recycling facility to be sold for the value of the metal. This is the problem that has faced scrap recycling facilities for many years. The recycling industry has spent millions of dollars for installation of radiation monitors and training in identification of radioactive material. It has expended millions more for the disposal of radioactive material that has mistakenly entered these facilities. Action must be taken to prevent this material from entering the conventional recycling process. There are more than 2,300 known incidents of radioactive material found in recycled metal scrap. Worldwide, more than 50 smeltings of radioactive sources have been confirmed. Seven fatal accidents involving uncontrolled radioactive material have also been documented. Hazardous exposures to radioactive material have plagued not just the workers at metal recycling facilities. The families of these workers, including their children, have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of radioactivity. The threat from this material does not stop there. Radioactive material that is not caught at recycling facilities can be melted and the radioactivity has been found in construction materials used to build homes, as well as shovels, fencing material, and furniture offered for sale to the general public. The time has come for the international community to address the issue of the uncontrolled sources of radioactive material. The following are the key points that must be addressed. (i) Identification of sources

  6. Mapping residual and internal stress in materials by neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Philip J.

    2007-09-01

    Neutron diffraction provides one of the few means of mapping residual stresses deep within the bulk of materials and components. This article reviews the basic scientific methodology by which internal strains and stresses are inferred from recorded diffraction peaks. Both conventional angular scans and time-of-flight measurements are reviewed and compared. Their complementarity with analogous synchrotron X-ray methods is also highlighted. For measurements to be exploited in structural integrity calculations underpinning the safe operation of engineering components, measurement standards have been defined and the major findings are summarised. Examples are used to highlight the unique capabilities of the method showing how it can provide insights ranging from the basic physics of slip mechanisms in hexagonal polycrystalline materials, through the materials optimisation of stress induced transformations in smart nanomaterials, to the industrial introduction of novel friction welding processes exploiting stress residual measurements transferred from prototype sub-scale tests to the joining of full-scale aeroengine assemblies. To cite this article: P.J. Withers, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  7. Radiation safety management of residual long-lived radioactivity distributed in an inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, I.; Kimura, K.; Fujibuchi, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Saito, K.; Otake, H.

    2011-01-01

    The depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room was measured by assaying concrete cores. Seven long-lived radioactive nuclides ( 46 Sc, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 22 Na and 5 4 M n) were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, γ) reaction are dominant, and that the activity induced by thermal neutrons is greater at a depth of 10-30 cm, rather than at the surface of the concrete, and decreased exponentially beyond a depth of ∼40 cm. Although the specific activity at the surface was greater than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean specific activities in the walls and floor were less than the clearance level. (authors)

  8. Radiation safety management of residual long-lived radioactivity distributed in an inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kimura, Ken-ichi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Saito, Kyoko; Otake, Hidenori

    2011-07-01

    The depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room was measured by assaying concrete cores. Seven long-lived radioactive nuclides ((46)Sc, (60)Co, (65)Zn, (134)Cs, (152)Eu, (22)Na and (54)Mn) were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, γ) reaction are dominant, and that the activity induced by thermal neutrons is greater at a depth of 10-30 cm, rather than at the surface of the concrete, and decreased exponentially beyond a depth of ~40 cm. Although the specific activity at the surface was greater than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean specific activities in the walls and floor were less than the clearance level.

  9. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  10. ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals; ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum zur Entsorgung hochradioaktiver Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Walther, Clemens; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Niedersaechsische Technische Hochschule, Braunschweig, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Hannover (Germany); and others

    2014-04-30

    The memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals covers the following issues: description of the problem: a ''wicked problem'', risks and NIMBY, the site selection law, international boundary conditions; disposal strategy and types of facilities: safety and reversibility, long-term surface storage, deep storage; risk and safety; procedural justice and the site selection process; social innovations and the requirement of long-term institutions; conclusion - central stress fields.

  11. Measures Against-Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials and Other Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.B.; Nassef, M.H.; El Mongy, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early nineties, illicit trafficking (IT) of nuclear materials and radioactive sources appeared as a new trend which raised the concern of the international community due to the grave consequences that would merge if these materials or radioactive sources fell into the hands of terrorist groups. However, by the end of the last century illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources lost its considerable salience, in spite of seizure of considerable amounts of 2 '3'5U (76% enrichment) in Bulgaria (May 1999) and also 235 U (30% enrichment) in Georgia (April 2000). Nevertheless, IT should be always considered as a continued and viable threat to the international community. Awareness of the problem should be developed and maintained among concerned circles as the first step towards combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials needs serious consideration and proper attention by the governmental law enforcement authorities. Measures to combat with IT of nuclear material or radioactive sources should be effective in recovery, of stolen, removed or lost nuclear materials or radioactive sources due to the failure of the physical protection system or the State System Accounting and Control (SSAC) system which are normally applied for protecting these materials against illegal actions. Measures such as use of modern and efficient radiation monitoring equipment at the borders inspection points, is an important step in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials across the borders. Also providing radiological training to specific personnel and workers in this field will minimize the consequences of a radiological attack in case of its occurrence. There is a real need to start to enter into cooperative agreements to strengthen borders security under the umbrella of IAEA to faster as an international cooperation in the illicit trafficking

  12. Forum on impact of radioactive materials on the atmospheric pollutant inventory and on the radioactivity uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains 6 separately documented lectures about the following topics of the meeting: 1) Radiation exposure of plants caused by the reactor accident of Chernobyl; 2) Tritium and radiocarbon concentrations in trees; 3) Energetics of the atmospheric trace materials cycle; 4) Phenomenology of formation and decomposition of ozone in the lower atmosphere, and 5) Comparison of radioactivity levels and trace materials in the air. (PW)

  13. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Tables are presented of trends in annual emissions of radioactive gaseous effluents at sites of civil establishments in the U.K. Trends in the discharge to surface and coastal water sites in the U.K. and trends in the radioactivity of solid wastes dumped in the N.E. Atlantic and in the volume and activity level of wastes disposed at sites in the U.K. are presented. Tables of radioactivity in samples of fish and shellfish at selected sites are presented. Radioactivity from global fallout and the annual mean ratio of 90 Sr to calcium, and concentrations of 137 Cs in milk are given. Trends in estimated collective doses from the consumption of fish and shellfish in the U.K. and Europe are presented. (U.K.)

  14. Discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Curti, A R

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is creating a database of information on radioactive discharges to atmospheric and aquatic environments from nuclear and radioactive installations, and from facilities using radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. The database is expected to facilitate the analysis of worldwide trends in discharge levels and provide a basis for assessing the impact of the discharges on humans and on the environment. In November 2002 took place the first meeting of national contact points and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN in Spanish) was present as the counterpart for the provision of discharge data from Argentina. This paper, presented in the above mentioned meeting, is a general overview of the radioactive discharges control in Argentina including the legal infrastructure, the population dose assessment methodology and the main characteristics of the facilities in the country with radioactive discharges to the environment. It is mentioned their location, release...

  15. EBER - development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Voelzke, H.

    1995-01-01

    Containers which are manufactured using recycled metallic residual materials from decommissioned nuclear facilities must be designed in accordance with the requirements of transport, interim and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. When metallic residual materials are added to the melt in the manufacture of containers made of cast iron with nodular graphite (GGG 40), how the effect on and characteristics of materials are to be observed as well as the permissible limits. The influence on charcteristics of relevance to safety, such as fracture toughness and the types and magnitudes of defects in construction components are the most important factors. In BAM's 'EBER' project presented here, the studies concentrate on design-based safety against the mechanical effects of accidents. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Planning and Preparing for Emergency Response to Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on various aspects of emergency planning and preparedness for dealing effectively and safely with transport accidents involving radioactive material, including the assignment of responsibilities. It reflects the requirements specified in Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and those of Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Framework for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 3. Responsibilities for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 4. Planning for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 5. Preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; Appendix I: Features of the transport regulations influencing emergency response to transport accidents; Appendix II: Preliminary emergency response reference matrix; Appendix III: Guide to suitable instrumentation; Appendix IV: Overview of emergency management for a transport accident involving radioactive material; Appendix V: Examples of response to transport accidents; Appendix VI: Example equipment kit for a radiation protection team; Annex I: Example of guidance on emergency response to carriers; Annex II: Emergency response guide.

  17. Guidance on radioactive waste management legislation for application to users of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This document, addressed primarily to developing countries, is restricted to management of radioactive wastes arising from uses of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. It does not deal with wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. Safeguards and physical protection are also outside the scope even though in some special cases it may be relevant; for instance, when fissile material is handled at research establishments. Information on nuclear fuel cycle waste management and waste transport can be found in a number of IAEA publications. The main aim of this document is to give guidance on legislation required for safe handling, treatment, conditioning and release or disposal of radioactive waste. It covers all steps from the production or import of radioactive material, through use, treatment, storage and transport, to the release or disposal of the waste either as exempted material or in special repositories. Management of radioactive wastes as a whole is optimized and kept at acceptable levels in accordance with the basic ICRP recommendations and the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. As a result of the new ICRP recommendations of 1991, the Agency is revising its Basic Safety Standards, the results of which may have some impact on the national regulations and necessitate updating of this document. 16 refs, 1 fig

  18. An assessment of the potential radiation exposure from residual radioactivity in scrap metal for recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Kun Jai

    1997-01-01

    With current waste monitoring technology it is reasonable to assume that much of the material designated as low level waste (LLW), generated within nuclear facilities, is in fact uncontaminated. This may include operational wastes, metal and rubble, office waste and discrete items from decommissioning or decontamination operations. Materials that contain only trivial quantities of radionuclides could realistically be exempted or released from regulatory control for recycle or reuse. A criterion for uncontrolled disposal of low-level radioactive contaminated waste is that the radiation exposure of the public and of each individual caused by this disposal is so low that radiation protection measures need not be taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggests an annual effective doses of 10 μ Sv as a limit for the individual radiation dose. In 1990, new recommendation on radiation protection standards was developed by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to take into account new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposure. Adoption of these recommendations necessitated a revision of the Commission's secondary limits contained in Publication 30, Parts 1 ∼ 4. This study summarized the potential radiation exposure from valuable scrap metal considered to uncontrolled recycle by new ICRP recommendations. Potential exposure pathways to people following were analyzed and relevant models developed. Finally, concentrations leading to an individual dose of 10 μ Sv/yr were calculated for 14 key radionuclides. These potential radiation exposures are compared with the results of an IAEA study. 12 refs., 6 tabs., figs

  19. Radiological assessment of an area with uranium residual material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl; Cancio, David; Alvarez, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    As a result of a pilot project developed at the old Spanish 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' to extract uranium from ores, tailings materials were generated. Most of these residual materials were sent back to different uranium mines, but a small amount of it was mixed with conventional building materials and deposited near the old plant until the surrounding ground was flattened. The affected land is included in an area under institutional control and used as recreational area. At the time of processing, uranium isotopes were separated but other radionuclides of the uranium decays series as 230 Th, 226 Ra and daughters remain in the residue. Recently, the analyses of samples taken at different ground's depths confirm their presence. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate the derived concentration level to ensure the reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 used as radiological criteria. In this study, a radiological impact assessment was performed modelling the area as recreational scenario. The modelization study was carried out with the code RESRAD considering as exposure pathways, external irradiation, inadvertent ingestion of soil, inhalation of resuspended particles, and inhalation of outdoor radon ( 222 Rn). As result was concluded that, if the concentration of 226 Ra in the first 15 cm of soil is lower than, 0.34 Bq g-1 , the dose would not exceed the reference dose. Applying this value as a derived concentration level and comparing with the results of measurements on the ground, some areas with a concentration of activity slightly higher than latter were found. In these zones the remediation proposal has been to cover with a layer of 15 cm of clean material. This action represents a reduction of 85% of the dose and ensures compliance with the reference dose. (author)

  20. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  1. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Lisa; Bennett, Brion

    2011-01-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  2. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  3. The projected relative index of consequence equivalence of transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandakumar, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The need exists for defining a unit risk factor to enable analysis to make a proper decision when faced with many options relating to the transport of radioactive materials between sites. A method is discussed for deriving such a factor with reference to the collective dose receivable due to the transport of radioactive material incidental to the production of one GWe.a of nuclear power. This quantity would enable the analyst to determine the projected relative index of consequence equivalence (PRICE) for the transport of various types of radioactive materials. (author)

  4. National Plan for radioactive material and waste management, 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents radioactive materials and wastes (definition, origins, and classification), principles to take into account when defining management pathways, and the legal and institutional framework of waste management in France. It gives an assessment of the existing and developing management practices: warehousing, long term management of valuable materials, long term waste management for different kinds of radioactive materials (low, intermediate or high level of activity). It describes how to improve these different practices. Two annexes give information on realizations and researches in foreign countries, and on the adequacy between storage capacities and prospective radioactive waste volumes

  5. 46 CFR 148.04-1 - Radioactive material, Low Specific Activity (LSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) Uranium or thorium ores and physical or chemical concentrates of such ores; (2) Uranium metal... the estimated radioactivity concentration dose not exceed 0.001 millicurie per gram and the... the total radioactivity. (b) Each hold used for the transportation of any of these materials must be...

  6. Report on the evaluation of the national plan on radioactive wastes and materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document constitutes the evaluation of the first edition of the National Plan on radioactive wastes and materials management. It presents the definitive or temporary solutions for the radioactive wastes management, the national plan juridical framework defined by the laws of 1991 and 2006 and the first evaluation and perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  7. Special from encapsulation for radioactive material shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Special Form encapsulation has been used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to ship radioactive solids for the past fifteen years. A family of inexpensive stainless steel containers has been developed and tested to meet the USA Department of Transportation (DOT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations concerning radioactive material shipments as Special Form

  8. Analysis of generic exemption levels for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, Maria C.; Muniz, Carolina C.

    2007-01-01

    In essence, exemption may be considered a generic authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the practice or source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. After presenting the basic exemption criteria for limited quantities of radioactive materials this paper describes and analyses the exposure scenarios utilized, namely: 1- Normal use (workplace) scenario; 2- Accidental ( workplace) scenario; 3- Disposal (public) scenario. Each one has different exposure pathways, summing up a total of 24, covering external exposure, ingestion and inhalation. These scenarios were used to calculate both, exempted activity concentrations (Bq/g) and total activity (Bq), though in the first case exemption applies to limited masses of low concentration activity materials. For each radionuclide, the generic exemption level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity (Bq) or activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose per unit (Bq or Bq/g, as applicable) was calculated by a formula that was adjusted, for each scenario and pathway, through different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors and geometric factors. In general, the critical pathways for α emitters were inhalation of dust and aerosols in workplace for activity concentration scenario and inhalation of dust and volatiles from an accidental fire in the workplace for total activity scenario. For β emitters the critical pathways were ingestion of an object from a landfill site by a member of the public for activity concentration

  9. Outline of facility for studying high level radioactive materials (CPF) and study programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Motoi

    1983-01-01

    The Chemical Processing Facility for studying high level radioactive materials in Tokai Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. is a facility for fundamental studies centering around hot cells, necessary for the development of fuel recycle techniques for fast breeder reactors, an important point of nuclear fuel cycle, and of the techniques for processing and disposing high level radioactive liquid wastes. The operation of the facility was started in 1982, for both the system A (the test of fuel recycle for fast breeder reactors) and the system B (the test of vitrification of high level liquid wastes). In this report, the outline of the facility, the contents of testings and the reflection of the results are described. For the fuel recycle test, the hot test of the spent fuel pins of JOYO MK-1 core was started, and now the uranium and plutonium extraction test is underway. The scheduled tests are fuel solubility, the confirmation of residual properties in fuel melting, the confirmation of extracting conditions, the electrolytic reduction of plutonium, off-gas behaviour and the test of material reliability. For the test of vitrification of high level liquid wastes, the fundamental test on the solidifying techniques for the actual high level wastes eluted from the Tokai reprocessing plant has been started, and the following tests are programmed: Assessment of the properties of actual liquid wastes, denitration and concentration test, vitrification test, off-gas treatment test, the test of evaluating solidified wastes, and the test of storing solidified wastes. These test results are programmed to be reflected to the safety deliberation and the demonstration operation of a vitrification pilot plant. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Decommissioning of facilities for mining and milling or radioactive ores and closeout of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to Member States in order to assist in planning and implementing the decommissioning/closeout of uranium mine/mill facilities, mines, tailings impoundments, mining debris piles, leach residues and unprocessed ore stockpiles. The report presents an overview of the factors involved in planning and implementing the decommissioning/closeout of uranium mine/mill facilities. The information applies to mines, mills, tailings piles, mining debris piles and leach residues that are present as operational, mothballed or abandoned projects, as well as to future mining and milling projects. The report identifies the major factors that need to be considered in the decommissioning/closeout activities, including regulatory considerations; decommissioning of the mine/mill buildings, structures and facilities; decommissioning/closeout of open pit and underground mines; decommissioning/closeout of tailings impoundments; decommissioning/closeout of mining debris piles, unprocessed ore and other contaminated material such as heap leach piles, in situe leach facilities and contaminated soils; restoration of the site, vicinity properties and groundwater; radiation protection and health and safety considerations; and an assessment of costs and post-decommissioning or post-closeout maintenance and monitoring needs. 55 refs, figs and tabs

  11. Radioactive wastes and valorizable materials in France: summary of the 2004 national inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The French national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. This summary document contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - classification of radioactive wastes: the 5 main categories; 3 - origin of the wastes; 4 - processing and conditioning; 5 - inventory of existing wastes: geographical inventory, inventory per category; 6 - prospective inventory: prospective scenarios, forecasting of waste production; 7 - valorizable radioactive materials; 8 - synthesis and perspective; 9 - glossary. (J.S.)

  12. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  13. Forecasting of the radioactive material transport demand for the Brazilian Nuclear Program and the security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldonian, Nelson Leon

    1979-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, a lot of radioactive materials are produced. These radioactive materials must be transported in order to promote the integration of the fuel cycle units. Considerations about the transport characteristics of radioactive material were made for each section of the fuel cycle. These considerations were based on the experience of several countries and in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations. A prediction of transport demands for the Brazilian Nuclear Program until year 2.010 was made. The prediction refers mainly to the quantity of radioactive material produced in each section of the cycle the quantity of vehicles needed for the transport of these materials. Several safety aspects were considered specially, the accidents predictions for years 2.000 and 2.010. The accident probability in Brazilian railroads and highways was compared with that of the USA. (author)

  14. Illegal handling of radioactive and nuclear materials. Threats and suggestions for measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Melin, Lena; Prawitz, Jan; Ringbom, Anders; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Wigg, Lars; Wirstam, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This project deals with threats from smuggling or other illegal transportation of radioactive or nuclear materials across the borders to Sweden, and with the security of handling such materials in Sweden. The project has included studies of relevant documentation; visits and interviews at industries, hospitals, research institutes and military institutions in Sweden that handle radioactive materials; a pilot study at the Stockholm freeport, where equipment for detection of radioactive materials has been tested for six months; an analysis of incidents reported to the IAEA database; and an analysis of Swedish incidents. The following conclusions are drawn: Stricter rules regarding the physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive materials should be implemented in Sweden. The recommendations recently issued by IAEA should serve as a point of departure for working out such rules

  15. Radiation protection of staff during treatment, transport and storage of radioactive materials and dismantling of nuclear facilities. Release of radioactive materials and radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the proceedings volume of the 4th meeting of radiation protection experts, held at Bad Kohlgrub in Bavaria on March 23 - 26, 2004. Subjects were: Protection of staff during dismantling of nuclear plants and facilities; Protection of staff during treatment,transport and storage of radioactive materials; Release of radioactive materials and radiation measuring technology, and three parallel workshops on the above subjects for discussion of the three years of experience in the implementation of the new StrlSchV. (orig.)

  16. Method of processing liquid wastes containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Shirai, Takamori; Nemoto, Kuniyoshi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsuda, Takeshi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the number of solidification products by removing, particularly, Co-60 that is difficult to remove in a radioactive liquid wastes containing a water-soluble chelating agent, by adsorbing Co-60 to a specific chelating agent. Method: Liquid wastes containing radioactive cobalt and water-soluble chelating agent are passed through the layer of less water-soluble chelating agent that forms a complex compound with cobalt in an acidic pH region. Thus, the chelating compound of radioactive cobalt (particularly Co-60) is eliminated by adsorbing the same on a specific chelating agent layer. The chelating agent having Co-60 adsorbed thereon is discarded as it is through the cement- or asphalt-solidification process, whereby the number of solidification products to be generated can significantly be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. The IAEA inventory databases related to radioactive material entering the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.C.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter (LC 1972) have requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for developing and maintaining the inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides entering the marine environment from different sources can be assessed and compared. Five anthropogenic sources of radionuclides entering the marine environment can be identified. These sources are: radioactive waste disposal at sea; accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material; discharge of low level liquid effluents from land-based nuclear facilities; the fallout from nuclear weapons testing; and accidental releases from land-based nuclear facilities. The first two of these sources are most closely related to the objective of the LC 1972 and its request to the IAEA. This paper deals with the Agency's work on developing a database on radioactive material entering the marine environment from these two sources. The database has the acronym RAMEM (RAdioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment). It includes two modules: inventory of radioactive waste disposal at sea and inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

  18. Safe and Secure Transportation of Radioactive Materials in Pakistan and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Muhammad; Ejaz, Asad

    2016-01-01

    PNRA is the sole organization in the country responsible to regulate all matters pertaining to ionizing radiations. For the safety of transport of radioactive material in the country, PNRA has adopted IAEA TS-R-1 as a national regulation. To cover the security aspects and emergency situations, if any, during the transportation of radioactive material, PNRA has issued the regulatory guide on ‘Transportation of Radioactive Material by Road in Pakistan’. In Pakistan, low to medium activity radioactive sources are transported from one place to another by road for the purpose of industrial radiography, well logging, medical application, etc. According to national policy, sealed radioactive sources of half life greater than 1 year and with initial activity of 100 GBq or more imported in the country are required to be returned to country of origin (exported) after its use. Although the activities related to transport of radioactive material remained safe and secure and no major accident/incident has been reported so far, however, the improvement/enhancement in the regulatory infrastructure is a continuous process. In future, more challenges are expected to be faced in the safety of transport packages. This paper will describe the steps taken by PNRA for the safety and security of transport of radioactive material in the country and future challenges. (author)

  19. The measurement of radioactivity in tomatoes cultivated on mining residues from the Oka niobium mining community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, M.; Boudreau, A.; Roy, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity contained in the tailings of a niobium mine in the Oka region, Quebec, was the object of concern for the population of the area in 1979. To find the impact of these tailings on fruit and vegetables grown in this environment, an investigation of the radioactivity found on tomatoes grown in green houses in niobium tailings and in vermiculites was undertaken. The tailings contained a high level of natural radioactivity and a small amount of 137 Cs while the vermiculites has a very low level of natural radioactivity and an appreciable amount of 137 Cs. Cesium-137 was the only nuclide detected in tomato ashes in measurable quantity. Absence of natural radioactivity is explained by its presence as insoluble minerals. (author) [fr

  20. Methodology in the handling of the waste radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emeterio H, M.

    2013-10-01

    The methodology in the management of radioactive waste is constituted by an administrative part and seven technical stages: transport, classification, segregation, conditioning, treatment, packages qualification and final disposition (storage). In their diverse stages the management deserves a special attention, due to the increment of the use and application of the nuclear energy and radioactive substances, for such a reason should be managed in such a way that the exposed personnel safety and the public in general is guaranteed, protecting the integrity of the environment. (Author)