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Sample records for residual property bias

  1. Properties of residuals for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Møller, Jesper; Pakes, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    For any point process in Rd that has a Papangelou conditional intensity λ, we define a random measure of ‘innovations' which has mean zero. When the point process model parameters are estimated from data, there is an analogous random measure of ‘residuals'. We analyse properties of the innovation...... and residuals, including first and second moments, conditional independence, a martingale property, and lack of correlation. Some large sample asymptotics are studied. We derive the marginal distribution of smoothed residuals by solving a distributional equivalence....

  2. Properties of residuals for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Møller, Jesper; Pakes, A.G.

    For any point process in $R^d$ that has a Papangelou conditional intensity $lambda$, we define a random measure of ‘innovations’ which has mean zero. When the point process model parameters are estimated from data, there is an analogous random measure of ‘residuals’. We analyse properties of the ...... of the innovations and residuals, including first and second moments, conditional independence, a martingale property, lack of correlation, and marginal distributions....

  3. The Finite Embeddability Property for Residuated Groupoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haniková, Zuzana; Horčík, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-13 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1632 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : residuated groupoid * distributive lattice * finite embeddability property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  4. Effect of bias voltage on microstructure and mechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reduction of crystallite size and the increase of compressive residual stress with increasing bias voltage both contributed to an increase in hardness of the coatings. Keywords. Hard coatings; cathodic arc evaporation; GAXRD; hardness; (Ti, Al)N. 1. Introduction. The cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) method is a versatile,.

  5. Effect of bias voltage on microstructure and mechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microstructure of the coatings was investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction in glancing angle mode, which revealed information on phase composition, crystallite size, stress-free lattice parameter and residual stress. Mechanical properties were deduced from nano-indentation measurements. The residual stress in all the ...

  6. Length-Biased Weighted Lomax Distribution: Statistical Properties and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of length-biased distribution can be employed in development of proper models for lifetime data. Length-biased distribution is a special case of the more general form known as weighted distribution. In this paper we introduce a new class of length-biased weighted Lomax distribution, (LBWLD. The statistical properties of this distribution are derived and the model parameters are estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and the observed information matrix is determined. An application to real data set is finally presented for illustration.

  7. On Self-calibration of Gnss Occultation - An Unbiased Look At Residual Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, G.

    The inversion of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation data to atmospheric profiles of bending angle, refractivity, pressure, geopotential height, temperature, and humidity has seen fair progress over the last years. That recent work dealt with advancing different components of the processing chain without investing dedicated efforts on minimizing potential residual biases in retrieved profiles. Work focusing on bias minimization is vital in the climatological context, however, since the nominal absence of bias errors due to the self-calibrating nature of the GNSS oc- cultation technique is one of its unique features and a key success factor for its climate monitoring promise. After summarizing main algorithmic advances achieved over the recent years, the current state-of-the-art in terms of retrieval performance is discussed based on examples from a variety of different performance studies. Emphasis is placed on examining residual biases both in the troposphere and stratosphere and on identi- fying critical algorithmic parts and aspects related to them. The latter include iono- spheric correction and statistical optimization (most relevant for upper stratosphere quality), consistency of the time-, impact parameter-, and height-related spaces in- volved and subtleties under high-latitude winter conditions (limiting also lower strato- sphere quality), and wave-optics based inversion and optimal estimation (relevant for lower-to-mid troposphere quality). Aspects of care required in the pre-processing from raw data to phase delay and amplitude time series are also noted. Finally, future work needed to mitigate the identified biases is outlined, which is important to fully exploit the unique climatological potential of GNSS occultations.

  8. Characteristics and engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Y. S.; Sugiarti, K.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Residual soil knowledge of volcanic-sedimentary rock products provides important information on the soil bearing capacity and its engineering properties. The residual soil is the result of weathering commonly found in unsaturated conditions, having varied geotechnical characteristics at each level of weathering. This paper summarizes the results of the research from the basic engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic-sedimentary rocks from several different locations. The main engineering properties of residual soil such as specific gravity, porosity, grain size, clay content (X-Ray test) and soil shear strength are performed on volcanic rock deposits. The results show that the variation of the index and engineering properties and the microstructure properties of residual soil have the correlation between the depths of weathering levels. Pore volume and pore size distribution on weathered rock profiles can be used as an indication of weathering levels in the tropics.

  9. Correlation between substrate bias, growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aiping; Zhu Jiaqi; Han Jiecai; Wu Huaping; Jia Zechun

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:P) films which are deposited at different substrate biases by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique with PH 3 as the dopant source. The films are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, residual stress measurement, UV/VIS/NIR absorption spectroscopy and temperature-dependent conductivity measurement. The atomic fraction of phosphorus in the films as a function of substrate bias is obtained by XPS analysis. The optimum bias for phosphorus incorporation is about -80 V. Raman spectra show that the amorphous structures of all samples with atomic-scaled smooth surface are not remarkably changed when PH 3 is implanted, but some small graphitic crystallites are formed. Moreover, phosphorus impurities and higher-energetic impinging ions are favorable for the clustering of sp 2 sites dispersed in sp 3 skeleton and increase the level of structural ordering for ta-C:P films, which further releases the compressive stress and enhances the conductivity of the films. Our analysis establishes an interrelationship between microstructure, stress state, electrical properties, and substrate bias, which helps to understand the deposition mechanism of ta-C:P films

  10. On the residual properties of damaged FRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbino, R.; Torrijos, M. C.; Giaccio, G.

    2017-09-01

    A discussion on the residual behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is performed based on two selected cases of concrete degradation: the exposure at High Temperatures and the development of Alkali Silica Reactions. In addition, and taking in mind that the failure mechanism in FRC is strongly related with the fibre pull-out strength, the bond strength in damaged matrices was shown concluding that the residual bond strength is less affected than the matrix strength. As the damage increases, the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity decrease, being the modulus of elasticity the most affected. There were no significant changes produced by the incorporation of fibres on the residual behaviour when compared with previous experience on plain damage concrete. Regarding the tensile behaviour although the first peak decreases as the damage increases, even for a severely damage FRC the residual stresses remain almost unaffected.

  11. Mutational properties of amino acid residues: implications for evolvability of phosphorylatable residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M.; Tan, Chris Soon Heng

    2012-01-01

    in terms of their mutational activity. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the genetic code and physico-chemical properties of the amino acid residues as likely causes of these inequalities and uncover serine as a mutational hot spot. Finally, we explore the consequences that these different......; it is typically assumed that all amino acid residues are equally likely to mutate or to result from a mutation. Here, by reconstructing ancestral sequences and computing mutational probabilities for all the amino acid residues, we refute this assumption and show extensive inequalities between different residues...... mutational properties have on phosphorylation site evolution, showing that a higher degree of evolvability exists for phosphorylated threonine and, to a lesser extent, serine in comparison with tyrosine residues. As exemplified by the suppression of serine's mutational activity in phosphorylation sites, our...

  12. Residual Stresses and Other Properties of Teardrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rios, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duque, Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-26

    The Department of Energy’s 3013 Standard for packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage up to fifty years specifies a minimum of two individually welded, nested containers herein referred to as the 3013 outer and the 3013 inner.1 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a potential failure mechanism for 3013 inner containers.2,3 The bagless transfer container (BTC), a 3013 inner container used by Hanford and Savanna River Site (SRS) made from 304L stainless steel (SS), poses the greatest concern for SCC.4,5 The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) use stressed metal samples known as teardrops as screening tools in SCC studies to evaluate factors that could result in cracks in the 3013 containers.6,7 This report provides background information on the teardrops used in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) SMP studies including method of construction, composition and variability. In addition, the report discusses measurements of residual stresses in teardrops and compares the results with residual stresses in BTCs reported previously.4 Factors affecting residual stresses, including teardrop dimensions and surface finish, are also discussed.

  13. Anisotropic bias dependent transport property of defective phosphorene layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Farooq, M.; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, no systematic studies on the transport properties modified due to defects have been performed. Here, we present the electronic band structure, defect formation energy and bias dependent transport property of various defective systems. We found that the defect formation energy is much less than that in graphene. The defect configuration strongly affects the electronic structure. The band gap vanishes in single vacancy layers, but the band gap reappears in divacancy layers. Interestingly, a single vacancy defect behaves like a p-type impurity for transport property. Unlike the common belief, we observe that the vacancy defect can contribute to greatly increasing the current. Along the zigzag direction, the current in the most stable single vacancy structure was significantly increased as compared with that found in the pristine layer. In addition, the current along the armchair direction was always greater than along the zigzag direction and we observed a strong anisotropic current ratio of armchair to zigzag direction. PMID:26198318

  14. Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Xu, Haiyang; Yang, Shengke; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Yanhua

    2017-12-22

    To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC), the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R), stems (WS-R), leaves (WL-R), and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D), stems (WS-D), and leaves (WL-D) were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants.

  15. In-orbit offline estimation of the residual magnetic dipole biases of the POPSAT-HIP1 nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriani, S.; Brama, Y. L.; Gallina, P.; Manzoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The nanosatellite POPSAT-HIP1 is a Cubesat-class spacecraft launched on the 19th of June 2014 to test cold-gas based micro-thrusters; it is, as of April 2015, in a low Earth orbit at around 600 km of altitude and is equipped, notably, with a magnetometer. In order to increment the performance of the attitude control of nanosatellites like POPSAT, it is extremely useful to determine the main biases that act on the magnetometer while in orbit, for example those generated by the residual magnetic moment of the satellite itself and those originating from the transmitter. Thus, we present a methodology to perform an in-orbit offline estimation of the magnetometer bias caused by the residual magnetic moment of the satellite (we refer to this as the residual magnetic dipole bias, or RMDB). The method is based on a genetic algorithm coupled with a simplex algorithm, and provides the bias RMDB vector as output, requiring solely the magnetometer readings. This is exploited to compute the transmitter magnetic dipole bias (TMDB), by comparing the computed RMDB with the transmitter operating and idling. An experimental investigation is carried out by acquiring the magnetometer outputs in different phases of the spacecraft life (stabilized, maneuvering, free tumble). Results show remarkable accuracy with an RMDB orientation error between 3.6 ° and 6.2 ° , and a module error around 7 % . TMDB values show similar coherence values. Finally, we note some drawbacks of the methodologies, as well as some possible improvements, e.g. precise transmitter operations logging. In general, however, the methodology proves to be quite effective even with sparse and noisy data, and promises to be incisive in the improvement of attitude control systems.

  16. Significance of residual stress on fatigue properties of welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, A.; Maeda, Y.; Kanao, M.

    1984-01-01

    The mean stress effect on the fatigue properties of two kinds of welded pipes was investigated in cantilever bending. The fatigue strength changed with the mean stress on fillet welded pipes, but did not change on butt welded pipes. The fatigue crack initiated from the toe of weld on the outer surface of fillet welded pipes and from the undercut on the inner surface of butt welded pipes. The measurement of the fatigue crack propagation rate and the residual stress distribution through the thickness of pipe revealed that the difference in the fatigue properties between fillet and butt welded pipes arose from the weld-induced residual stress, tension on the inner surface and compression on the outer surface. It is suggested that the production of compressive residual stress along the inner surface would be an effective means for improving the fatigue strength of butt welded pipes. (author)

  17. Preservation properties for the discrete mean residual life ordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Al-Babtain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove several preservation properties of stochastic comparisons based on the discrete mean residual life ordering d-MRL under the reliability operations of convolutions, mixtures. Fi…nally we introduce a discrete renewal process application

  18. Effects of bias voltage on the properties of ITO films prepared on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Song, Woochang; Yi, Junsin

    2005-01-01

    The ITO (indium tin oxide) thin films were deposited on acryl, glass, PET, and poly-carbonate substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was changed from -20 to -80 V. As the bias voltage increased, the deposition rate of ITO films decreased regardless of substrate types. The roughness of the films on PET increased with the bias voltage. The study demonstrated that the bias improved the electrical and optical properties of ITO films regardless of substrate types. The lowest electrical resistivity of 5.5x10 -4 no. OMEGAno. -cm and visible transmittance of about 80% were achieved by applying a negative bias of -60 V

  19. Preparation and Properties of Agricultural Residuals-Iron Concentrate Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhulin; Bi, Xuegong; Gao, Zeping; Wang, Yayu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, carbon-containing pellets were prepared by using crop-derived charcoal made from agricultural residuals and iron ore concentrates, and their pelletizing performance and properties were studied. Experimental results showed that the strengths of pellets were related to the particle size of concentrates and the content of moisture, bentonite, and crop-derived charcoal fines in the pelletizing mixture and the temperature of roasting and reduction. That the granularity of raw materi...

  20. A measurement system for two-dimensional DC-biased properties of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, M.; Matsuo, H.

    2003-01-01

    So far, the DC-biased magnetic properties have been measured in one dimension (scalar). However, these scalar magnetic properties are not enough to clarify the DC-biased magnetic properties because the scalar magnetic properties cannot exactly take into account the phase difference between the magnetic flux density B vector and the magnetic filed strength H vector. Thus, the magnetic field strength H and magnetic flux density B in magnetic materials must be measured as vector quantities (two-dimensional), directly. We showed the measurement system using a single-sheet tester (SST) to clarify the two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties. This system excited AC in Y-direction and DC in X-direction. This paper shows the measurement system using an SST and presents the measurement results of two-dimensional DC-biased magnetic properties when changing the DC exciting voltage and the iron loss

  1. Measurement research on magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel under different temperature, harmonic and dc bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The iron core of large power transformer is mainly composed of electrical sheet steel, which is easily affected by temperature, harmonic, and DC bias. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel under different temperature, harmonic and DC Bias. This paper presents the experiment measurement system for the 30ZH120 electrical steel sheet. The B-H magnetization curve, permeability, and loss curve under different temperature, different harmonic, and different DC bias are given, respectively. The simulation of transformer is carried out by using measuring result under DC bias. The presented research provides a reference for optimizing the design of power transformer.

  2. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearby Supernova Factory; Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gangler, E.; Greskovic, P.; Guy, J.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.

    2014-01-17

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spec- trophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ? 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at ? 1?, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.045 ? 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch param- eters: Steps at> 2? significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light- curve width and color around peak (similar to the∆m15 and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20 to 30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  3. Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals and host-galaxy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Fleury, M.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Feindt, U.; Greskovic, P.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Childress, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-03-20

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at <<1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host mass is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm {sub 15} and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  4. Selection bias in dynamically measured supermassive black hole samples: scaling relations and correlations between residuals in semi-analytic galaxy formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, Mariangela; Dubois, Yohan; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2017-07-01

    Recent work has confirmed that the scaling relations between the masses of supermassive black holes and host-galaxy properties such as stellar masses and velocity dispersions may be biased high. Much of this may be caused by the requirement that the black hole sphere of influence must be resolved for the black hole mass to be reliably estimated. We revisit this issue with a comprehensive galaxy evolution semi-analytic model. Once tuned to reproduce the (mean) correlation of black hole mass with velocity dispersion, the model cannot account for the correlation with stellar mass. This is independent of the model's parameters, thus suggesting an internal inconsistency in the data. The predicted distributions, especially at the low-mass end, are also much broader than observed. However, if selection effects are included, the model's predictions tend to align with the observations. We also demonstrate that the correlations between the residuals of the scaling relations are more effective than the relations themselves at constraining models for the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In fact, we find that our model, while in apparent broad agreement with the scaling relations when accounting for selection biases, yields very weak correlations between their residuals at fixed stellar mass, in stark contrast with observations. This problem persists when changing the AGN feedback strength, and is also present in the hydrodynamic cosmological simulation Horizon-AGN, which includes state-of-the-art treatments of AGN feedback. This suggests that current AGN feedback models are too weak or simply not capturing the effect of the black hole on the stellar velocity dispersion.

  5. Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.

  6. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic properties. Th...

  7. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic propertie...

  8. Identification of Catalytic Residues Using a Novel Feature that Integrates the Microenvironment and Geometrical Location Properties of Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Song, Jiangning; Liu, Ming S.; Zhang, Ziding

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes play a fundamental role in almost all biological processes and identification of catalytic residues is a crucial step for deciphering the biological functions and understanding the underlying catalytic mechanisms. In this work, we developed a novel structural feature called MEDscore to identify catalytic residues, which integrated the microenvironment (ME) and geometrical properties of amino acid residues. Firstly, we converted a residue's ME into a series of spatially neighboring residue pairs, whose likelihood of being located in a catalytic ME was deduced from a benchmark enzyme dataset. We then calculated an ME-based score, termed as MEscore, by summing up the likelihood of all residue pairs. Secondly, we defined a parameter called Dscore to measure the relative distance of a residue to the center of the protein, provided that catalytic residues are typically located in the center of the protein structure. Finally, we defined the MEDscore feature based on an effective nonlinear integration of MEscore and Dscore. When evaluated on a well-prepared benchmark dataset using five-fold cross-validation tests, MEDscore achieved a robust performance in identifying catalytic residues with an AUC1.0 of 0.889. At a ≤10% false positive rate control, MEDscore correctly identified approximately 70% of the catalytic residues. Remarkably, MEDscore achieved a competitive performance compared with the residue conservation score (e.g. CONscore), the most informative singular feature predominantly employed to identify catalytic residues. To the best of our knowledge, MEDscore is the first singular structural feature exhibiting such an advantage. More importantly, we found that MEDscore is complementary with CONscore and a significantly improved performance can be achieved by combining CONscore with MEDscore in a linear manner. As an implementation of this work, MEDscore has been made freely accessible at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/mepi/. PMID:22829945

  9. Non-stationary Bias Correction of Monthly CMIP5 Temperature Projections over China using a Residual-based Bagging Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    The biases in the Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are crucial for understanding future climate changes. Currently, most bias correction methodologies suffer from the assumption that model bias is stationary. This paper provides a non-stationary bias correction model, termed Residual-based Bagging Tree (RBT) model, to reduce simulation biases and to quantify the contributions of single models. Specifically, the proposed model estimates the residuals between individual models and observations, and takes the differences between observations and the ensemble mean into consideration during the model training process. A case study is conducted for 10 major river basins in Mainland China during different seasons. Results show that the proposed model is capable of providing accurate and stable predictions while including the non-stationarities into the modeling framework. Significant reductions in both bias and root mean squared error are achieved with the proposed RBT model, especially for the central and western parts of China. The proposed RBT model has consistently better performance in reducing biases when compared to the raw ensemble mean, the ensemble mean with simple additive bias correction, and the single best model for different seasons. Furthermore, the contribution of each single GCM in reducing the overall bias is quantified. The single model importance varies between 3.1% and 7.2%. For different future scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5), the results from RBT model suggest temperature increases of 1.44 ºC, 2.59 ºC, and 4.71 ºC by the end of the century, respectively, when compared to the average temperature during 1970 - 1999.

  10. Interplay between the Lorentz Angle drift and residual mean biases in the IBL of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuuren, Pim Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Dedicated studies on the performance of the Inner Detector are conducted to ensure an optimal track reconstruction of the particles created by the proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS detector at the LHC. In 2015 the insertable B-Layer was added to the Inner Detector as the new layer closest to the beam pipe. This extra addition was placed in 2014 during Long Shutdown 1 and was necessary because of the expected decrease in B-tagging efficiency and vertexing precision associated with the revision of the luminosity profile evolution at the LHC. The initial Pixel detector, the 3 most inner layers of the ID excluding the IBL, were build for a luminosity of 10^{34}cm^{−2}s^{−1} while the expected luminosity for Run-2 was higher[1]. The new IBL would help to preserve the tracking performance needed in the new high luminosity regions that we are approaching. This paper describes a study of the IBL Lorentz Angle, residual mean biases and possible correlation between these two to improve the tracking performance...

  11. Preparation and Properties of Agricultural Residuals-Iron Concentrate Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, carbon-containing pellets were prepared by using crop-derived charcoal made from agricultural residuals and iron ore concentrates, and their pelletizing performance and properties were studied. Experimental results showed that the strengths of pellets were related to the particle size of concentrates and the content of moisture, bentonite, and crop-derived charcoal fines in the pelletizing mixture and the temperature of roasting and reduction. That the granularity of raw materials was fine and the bentonite content increased was beneficial to the improvement of pellet strengths. The suitable molar ratio of carbon to oxygen was 1.0 and the proper proportioning ratios of moisture and binder were 8.0% and 6.5%, respectively. The pellet strengths increased accordingly with increasing the reduction temperature, and when the temperature reached 1200°C, accompanied by the fast reduction of iron and the formation of crystal stock, the dropping strength of product pellets was 15 times and the compressive strength was 1650 N; this may be improved by grinding of the concentrate, leading to acceptable strength for the blast furnace.

  12. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  13. Residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevkat, Ercan; Tumer, Hikmet

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact loading reduces the torsional strength of composite shaft. • Impact energy level determines the severity of torsional strength reduction. • Hybrid composite shafts can be manufactured by mixing two types of filament. • Maximum torque capacity of shafts can be estimated using finite element method. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact loadings. E-glass/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and E-glass–carbon/epoxy hybrid composite shafts were manufactured by filament winding method. Composite shafts were impacted at 5, 10, 20 and 40 J energy levels. Force–time and energy–time histories of impact tests were recorded. One composite shaft with no impact, and four composite shafts with impact damage, five in total, were tested under torsion. Torque-twisting angle relations for each test were obtained. Reduction at maximum torque and maximum twisting angle induced by impact loadings were calculated. While 5 J impact did not cause significant reduction at maximum torque and maximum twisting angle, remaining impact loadings caused 34–67% reduction at maximum torque, and 30–61% reduction at maximum twisting angle. Reductions increased with increasing energy levels and varied depending on the material of composite shafts. The 3-D finite element (FE) software, Abaqus, incorporated with an elastic orthotropic model, was then used to simulate the torsion tests. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was achieved

  14. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  15. Spectroscopic Properties of Star-Forming Host Galaxies and Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals in a Nearly Unbiased Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Andrea, Chris B. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); et al.

    2011-12-20

    We examine the correlation between supernova host galaxy properties and their residuals on the Hubble diagram. We use supernovae discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II - Supernova Survey, and focus on objects at a redshift of z < 0.15, where the selection effects of the survey are known to yield a complete Type Ia supernova sample. To minimize the bias in our analysis with respect to measured host-galaxy properties, spectra were obtained for nearly all hosts, spanning a range in magnitude of -23 < M_r < -17. In contrast to previous works that use photometric estimates of host mass as a proxy for global metallicity, we analyze host-galaxy spectra to obtain gas-phase metallicities and star-formation rates from host galaxies with active star formation. From a final sample of ~ 40 emission-line galaxies, we find that light-curve corrected Type Ia supernovae are ~ 0.1 magnitudes brighter in high-metallicity hosts than in low-metallicity hosts. We also find a significant (> 3{\\sigma}) correlation between the Hubble residuals of Type Ia supernovae and the specific star-formation rate of the host galaxy. We comment on the importance of supernova/host-galaxy correlations as a source of systematic bias in future deep supernova surveys.

  16. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  17. Thermophysical Property Estimation by Transient Experiments: The Effect of a Biased Initial Temperature Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Scarpa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of thermophysical properties of materials in dynamic experiments can be conveniently performed by the inverse solution of the associated heat conduction problem (IHCP. The inverse technique demands the knowledge of the initial temperature distribution within the material. As only a limited number of temperature sensors (or no sensor at all are arranged inside the test specimen, the knowledge of the initial temperature distribution is affected by some uncertainty. This uncertainty, together with other possible sources of bias in the experimental procedure, will propagate in the estimation process and the accuracy of the reconstructed thermophysical property values could deteriorate. In this work the effect on the estimated thermophysical properties due to errors in the initial temperature distribution is investigated along with a practical method to quantify this effect. Furthermore, a technique for compensating this kind of bias is proposed. The method consists in including the initial temperature distribution among the unknown functions to be estimated. In this way the effect of the initial bias is removed and the accuracy of the identified thermophysical property values is highly improved.

  18. Fluorescence properties of porcine odorant binding protein Trp 16 residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Jihad Rene, E-mail: Jihad-Rene.Albani@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moleculaire, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    Summary: The present work deals with fluorescence studies of adult porcine odorant binding protein at pH=7.5. At this pH, the protein is a dimer, each monomer contains one tryptophan residue. Our results show that tryptophan residue displays significant motions and emits with three fluorescence lifetimes. Decay associated spectra showed that the three lifetime's components emanate from sub-structures surrounded by the same microenvironment.

  19. How Do Aerosol Properties Affect the Temporal Variation of MODIS AOD Bias in Eastern China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Tao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid changes of aerosol sources in eastern China during recent decades could bring considerable uncertainties for satellite retrieval algorithms that assume little spatiotemporal variation in aerosol single scattering properties (such as single scattering albedo (SSA and the size distribution for fine-mode and coarse mode aerosols in East Asia. Here, using ground-based observations in six AERONET sites, we characterize typical aerosol optical properties (including their spatiotemporal variation in eastern China, and evaluate their impacts on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 6 aerosol retrieval bias. Both the SSA and fine-mode particle sizes increase from northern to southern China in winter, reflecting the effect of relative humidity on particle size. The SSA is ~0.95 in summer regardless of the AEROENT stations in eastern China, but decreases to 0.85 in polluted winter in northern China. The dominance of larger and highly scattering fine-mode particles in summer also leads to the weakest phase function in the backscattering direction. By focusing on the analysis of high aerosol optical depth (AOD (>0.4 conditions, we find that the overestimation of the AOD in Dark Target (DT retrieval is prevalent throughout the whole year, with the bias decreasing from northern China, characterized by a mixture of fine and coarse (dust particles, to southern China, which is dominated by fine particles. In contrast, Deep Blue (DB retrieval tends to overestimate the AOD only in fall and winter, and underestimates it in spring and summer. While the retrievals from both the DT and DB algorithms show a reasonable estimation of the fine-mode fraction of AOD, the retrieval bias cannot be attributed to the bias in the prescribed SSA alone, and is more due to the bias in the prescribed scattering phase function (or aerosol size distribution in both algorithms. In addition, a large yearly change in aerosol single scattering properties

  20. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  1. Relationship between bias voltage and microstructure as well as properties of CrAlYN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Ying-Ying; Li Hong-Xuan; Ji Li; Liu Xiao-Hong; Zhou Hui-Di; Chen Jian-Min; Liu Liu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a series of CrAlYN films doped with 1 at.% yttrium were deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering under different bias voltages. The effects of bias voltage on microstructure and properties of the CrAlYN films were subsequently investigated. It is found that all the as-deposited films have similar chemical composition and crystalline structure. However, the bias voltage has significant impact on the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the resulting films. Namely, the film deposited at 100 V has the highest hardness and best oxidation resistance, which are mainly attributed to its denser structure and higher Al content than others. In addition, the film obtained at 100 V exhibits superior oxidation resistance even at 1000 °C, and good friction and wear properties at 600 and 800 °C, and the latter two are mainly ascribed to the formation of compact transfer layer on the worn surfaces. However, this film experienced obvious wear loss at low testing temperatures (i.e., 200 and 400 °C) due to the serious abrasive wear. (paper)

  2. Influence of organic waste and residue mud additions on chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite residue sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin E H; Haynes, Richard J; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    In an alumina refinery, bauxite ore is treated with sodium hydroxide at high temperatures and pressures and for every tone of alumina produced, about 2 tones of alkaline, saline bauxite processing waste is also produced. At Alcoa, a dry stacking system of disposal is used, and it is the sand fraction of the processing waste that is rehabilitated. There is little information available regarding the most appropriate amendments to add to the processing sand to aid in revegetation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the addition of organic wastes (biosolids and poultry manure), in the presence or absence of added residue mud, would affect the properties of the residue sand and its suitability for revegetation. Samples of freshly deposited residue sand were collected from Alcoa's Kwinana refinery. Samples were treated with phosphogypsum (2% v/v), incubated, and leached. A laboratory experiment was then set up in which the two organic wastes were applied at 0 or the equivalent to 60 tones ha(-1) in combination with residue mud added at rates of 0%, 10% and 20% v/v. Samples were incubated for 8 weeks, after which, key chemical, physical and microbial properties of the residue sand were measured along with seed germination. Additions of residue mud increased exchangeable Na(+), ESP and the pH, and HCO (3) (-) and Na(+) concentrations in saturation paste extracts. Additions of biosolids and poultry manure increased concentrations of extractable P, NH (4) (+) , K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. Addition of residue mud, in combination with organic wastes, caused a marked decrease in macroporosity and a concomitant increase in mesoporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. With increasing residue mud additions, the percentage of sample present as sand particles (2 mm diameter) increased; greatest aggregation occurred where a combination of residue mud and poultry manure were added. Stability of aggregates, as measured by

  3. Effects of hyacinth residues on chemical properties and productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed that has blocked many navigable water-ways in the tropics. ... amendments more than S2 and showed that maize performance during the first cropping was better on S1 than S2, whereas during the residual cropping the crop performed equally well on both soils.

  4. Exchange bias properties in Sr2LnRuO6 (Ln  =  Dy, Ho and Er)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Prachi; Marik, Sourav; Singh, Deepak; Singh, Ravi P.

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we report the exchange bias effect in Sr2 LnRuO6 (Ln  =  Dy, Ho and Er) compounds. These ruthenium-based double perovskite compounds exhibited the exchange bias effect below their AFM ordering temperatures when they cooled in the presence of a magnetic field. Detailed magnetization measurements indicate that the exchange bias properties may associate with the Dzyaloshinskii–Moria (D–M) interactions originated due to the low crystallographic symmetry in these system types.

  5. Magnetic properties of patterned arrays of exchange-biased IrMn/Co square dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinai, G; Moritz, J; Gaudin, G; Prejbeanu, I L; Dieny, B; Vogel, J; Bonfim, M; Lançon, F; Mackay, K

    2013-01-01

    Finite size effects on the exchange-bias properties of patterned antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (IrMn/Co) nanodots were investigated experimentally and by numerical simulations. Both the dot lateral dimension (200 × 200 nm 2 –50 × 50 nm 2 ) and ferromagnetic layer thickness (2–25 nm) were varied. Two different behaviours were observed: single-shifted loops with coherent reversal for thin Co layers and double-shifted loops via a multidomain state during magnetization reversal for thicker Co. Atomistic simulations including magnetostatic interactions confirmed the existence of these two different regimes. MOKE measurements, focused on few dots, allowed a quantitative evaluation of dot-to-dot exchange-bias variability, which becomes particularly large in the regime of switching via multidomain state formation. This variability issue is of particular importance in the context of MRAM development and of magnetoresistive heads for hard-disk drives. (paper)

  6. Psychometric properties of reaction time based experimental paradigms measuring anxiety-related information-processing biases in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.M.; Eley, T.C.; Broeren, S.; MacLeod, C.; Rinck, M.; Hadwin, J.A.; Lester, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical frameworks highlight the importance of threat-related information-processing biases for understanding the emergence of anxiety in childhood. The psychometric properties of several tasks measuring these biases and their associations with anxiety were examined in an unselected sample of

  7. Masking Property Based Residual Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Hands-Free Communication in Automobile Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjae; Jeong, Seokyeong; Ko, Hanseok

    A residual acoustic echo cancellation method that employs the masking property is proposed to enhance the speech quality of hands-free communication devices in an automobile environment. The conventional masking property is employed for speech enhancement using the masking threshold of the desired clean speech signal. In this Letter, either the near-end speech or residual noise is selected as the desired signal according to the double-talk detector. Then, the residual echo signal is masked by the desired signal (masker). Experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method by deriving the echo return loss enhancement and by examining speech waveforms and spectrograms.

  8. Heavy residue properties in intermediate energy nuclear collisions with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1990-10-01

    We have measured the target fragment production cross sections and angular distributions for the interaction of 32, 44 and 93 MeV/nucleon argon, 35 and 43 MeV/nucleon krypton with gold. The fragment isobaric yield distributions, moving frame angular distributions and velocities have been deduced from these data. This fission cross section decreases with increasing projectile energy and the heavy residue cross section increases. The ratio v parallel /v cn increases approximately linearly with mass removed from the target. 21 refs., 8 figs

  9. Elaboration of construction materials from mineral residues, properties and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.

    2003-01-01

    The introduction in 1887 of the leaching process of metals, using the sodium cyanides revolutionized the techniques for the obtaining of gold and silver. Starting from then it is a method used in the entire world for the recovery of these and other metals. The mining activity generates the accustomed to residuals known popularly like 'jales' (voice derived nahuatl of the xalli that means sand). An important case, is it related with those 'jales' whose pyre content (FeS 2 ) it is high and wherefore they are subject to chemical reactions, caused by the intemperateness in 'jales'. Before this panorama, it is important to process the 'jales' to use them for the construction. (Author)

  10. Determination of properties of clean coal technology post-process residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities of using modern measuring devices to determine the properties of process residues (Polish acronym: UPP. UPP was taken from the combustion process from a power plant in Silesia. Determining the properties of UPP is the basis for making decisions about its practical application, for example, as a raw material to obtain useful products such as: pozzolan, cenosphere or zeolite, for which there is demand. The development of advanced technology and science has given rise to modern and precise research tools that contribute to the development of appropriate methods to assess the properties of post-process residue. For this study the following were used: scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis and an analyzer for particle size-, shape- and number- analysis. The study conducted confirms the effectiveness of SEM analysis to determine the properties of post-process residue from Clean Coal Technologies (CCT. The results obtained are an introduction to further research on the determination of properties of CCT post-process residue. Research to determine the properties of CCT post-process residue only began relatively recently.

  11. Psychometric properties of reaction time based experimental paradigms measuring anxiety-related information-processing biases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H M; Eley, T C; Broeren, S; Macleod, C; Rinck, M; Hadwin, J A; Lester, K J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical frameworks highlight the importance of threat-related information-processing biases for understanding the emergence of anxiety in childhood. The psychometric properties of several tasks measuring these biases and their associations with anxiety were examined in an unselected sample of 9-year-old children (N=155). In each task, threat bias was assessed using bias scores reflecting task performance on threat versus non-threat conditions. Reliability was assessed using split-half and test-retest correlations of mean reaction times (RTs), accuracy and bias indices. Convergence between measures was also examined. Mean RTs showed substantial split-half and test-retest correlations. Bias score reliability coefficients were near zero and non-significant, suggesting poor reliability in children of this age. Additionally, associations between bias scores and anxiety were weak and inconsistent and performance between tasks showed little convergence. Bias scores from RT based paradigms in the current study lacked adequate psychometric properties for measuring individual differences in anxiety-related information-processing in children. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    of macroalgae showed a promising result with on yield of 54 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 78% energy recovery in the bio-oil. The physiochemical properties of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value, molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density and elemental compositions...

  13. Direct and residual effects of manure on soil chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastri, A.; Triberti, L.; Giordani, G.; Comellini, F.; Baldoni, G.

    2009-04-01

    The beneficial effects of manure recycling in cropland on soil fertility are well documented. Nowadays it can help sequestrate C in the soil organic matter, advocated to mitigate the atmospheric CO2 increase. Because of the gradual disappearance of conventional livestock farming in Western Europe, the study of the persistence of the positive effects of manuring after its interruption can be interesting. Any research on soil fertility dynamic, however, requires long-term experiments because it is quite slow and greatly influenced by weather. A field trial, started in 1966 and still in progress in the Experimental Farm of Bologna University, compares 5 crop rotations (a 9-year course: corn-wheat-corn-wheat-corn-wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa, corn-wheat and sugarbeet-wheat, continuous corn and continuous wheat), at 3 levels of cattle manure supply combined with 3 inorganic NP fertilizers rates in a split-split plot replicated twice. The soil is an alluvial silty loam, fertile but low in organic matter (13.3 g kg-1). Manure is spread before corn, sugarbeet and alfalfa, at a mean yearly rate of 0 (M0), 20 (M1) and 40 (M2) t ha-1 of fresh material. Since 1984 M2 has been interrupted to evaluate residual effects. Regarding mineral fertilizer rates, for this study we considered only the unfertilized control (N0P0) and N1P1 level, corresponding to a mean yearly application of 220 kg N ha-1 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Each year, since 1972 till now, we have sampled soil in the ploughed layer (0-0.4 m) to assess its pH (in water) and its content of organic carbon (SOC, Lotti method), total nitrogen (TN, Kjeldahl) and available phosphorus (P2O5, Olsen). To reduce the influence of crops and weather, statistical analyses were conducted on the averages of data obtained in the 4-year periods at the end of four 9-year cycles (1972-75, 81-84, 90-93 and 99-02). In 30 years, the continuous M1 supply without any inorganic integration increased SOC, TN and P2O5 by +3.6 t ha-1 (+11%), +1.09 t

  14. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbide residue (CCR is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH2, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP. The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope. Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  15. Magnetic and exchange bias properties of YCo thin films and IrMn/YCo bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat Narayana, M.; Manivel Raja, M.; Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana

    2018-02-01

    We report on the structural and magnetic properties of YCo thin films and IrMn/YCo bilayers. X-ray diffraction infer that all the films are amorphous in nature. Magnetization versus magnetic field measurements reveal room temperature soft ferromagnetism in all the YCo films. Thin films which were grown at 100 W sputter power with growth rates of 0.677, 0.694 and 0.711 Å/sec show better morphology and composition than 50 W (0.333, 0.444 and 0.277 Å/sec) grown films. Perpendicular exchange bias in as deposited bilayers is evident for IrMn/YCo bilayers. Exchange bias (EB) decreases in case of in plane measurements and enhances for out of plane measurements after perpendicular field annealing. EB is more in case of out of plane direction due to large perpendicular anisotropy in comparison with in plane direction. Above the critical thickness, EB variation is explained on the basis of random field model in the Heisenberg regime, which has been proposed by Malozemoff. Indeed there exists an inverse relationship between EB and IrMn layer thickness. Evidenced vertical shift apart from the horizontal shift for magnetization loops is attributed to frozen magnetic moments in one of the layers at the interface. Present results would prove to be helpful in spintronic device applications.

  16. Influence of reverse bias on the LEDs properties used as photo-detectors in VLC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Continuous increasing share of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a lighting market, which we observe during the last couple years, opens new possibilities. Especially, when we talk about practical realization the concept of visible light communications (VLC), which gains on popularity recently. The VLC concept presupposes utilization of illumination systems for a purpose of data transmission. It means, the emitters, in this case the LEDs, will not of a light source only, but also the data transmitters. Currently, most of the conducted researches in this area is concentrated on achievement of effective transmission methods. It means a transmission only in one direction. This is not enough, when we talk about the fully functional transmission system. Ensuring of feedback transmission channel is a necessary also. One of the ideas, which was postulated by authors of this article, is using for this purpose the LEDs in a double role. A utilization of LEDs as photo-detectors requires a reverse polarization, in contrast to a forward bias, which has a place when they work as light emitters. Ensuring of proper polarization get significant meaning. The article presents the investigations results on the influence of reverse bias on photo-receiving properties of LEDs used as light detectors. The conducted research proved that an improvement of sensitivity and bandwidth parameters are possible by application of appropriate value of the reverse voltage in a receiver.

  17. Influence of Surface Properties and Impact Conditions on Adhesion of Insect Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Smith, Joseph G.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Penner, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Insect residues can cause premature transition to turbulent flow on laminar flow airfoils. Engineered surfaces that mitigate the adhesion of insect residues provide, therefore, a route to more efficient aerodynamics and reduced fuel burn rates. Areal coverage and heights of residues depend not only on surface properties, but also on impact conditions. We report high speed photography of fruit fly impacts at different angles of inclination on a rigid aluminum surface, optical microscopy and profilometry, and contact angle goniometry to support the design of engineered surfaces. For the polyurethane and epoxy coatings studied, some of which exhibited superhydrophobicity, it was determined that impact angle and surface compositions play critical roles in the efficacy of these surfaces to reduce insect residue adhesion.

  18. Alternative Gas Mixtures in Arc Spraying: A Chance to Improve Coating Properties and Residual Stress States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michél; Henkel, Knuth Michael; Krebs, Sebastian; Kroemmer, Werner

    2018-01-01

    The highly cavitation erosion-resistant propeller alloys CuAl9Ni5Fe4Mn (Ni-Al-Bronze) and CuMn13Al8Fe3Ni2 (Mn-Al-Bronze) were arc-sprayed using a mixture of nitrogen and 2% of hydrogen as atomizing gas and different traverse speeds. The objective was to identify the influences of the different spraying conditions, such as temperature regime and melting loss, on the resulting residual stress states and coating properties. Residual stresses were measured by the incremental hole-drilling method using ESPI. Temperature measurements were carried out by thermographic imaging. Microstructural, chemical and mechanical analyses were realized to examine adhesive and cohesive properties. Additionally, the cavitation erosion behavior was investigated to analyze cohesive coating properties. The spraying process itself was improved, which was apparent by mainly enhanced deposition efficiency and reduced surface temperatures. The amount of oxides and pores as well as the melting loss of alloying elements were reduced. Moreover, an increased cavitation erosion resistance and thus coating cohesion as well as less residual stresses were identified. The change in atomizing gas diminished the impact of the quenching stresses on the coating properties. In contrast, the adhesive strength, Young's moduli and partially the hardness were slightly reduced. With regard to materials, Ni-Al-Bronze revealed superior coating properties in comparison with Mn-Al-Bronze.

  19. Feasibility of Residual Stress Nondestructive Estimation Using the Nonlinear Property of Critical Refraction Longitudinal Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress has significant influence on the performance of mechanical components, and the nondestructive estimation of residual stress is always a difficult problem. This study applies the relative nonlinear coefficient of critical refraction longitudinal (LCR wave to nondestructively characterize the stress state of materials; the feasibility of residual stress estimation using the nonlinear property of LCR wave is verified. The nonlinear ultrasonic measurements based on LCR wave are conducted on components with known stress state to calculate the relative nonlinear coefficient. Experimental results indicate that the relative nonlinear coefficient monotonically increases with prestress and the increment of relative nonlinear coefficient is about 80%, while the wave velocity only decreases about 0.2%. The sensitivity of the relative nonlinear coefficient for stress is much higher than wave velocity. Furthermore, the dependence between the relative nonlinear coefficient and deformation state of components is found. The stress detection resolution based on the nonlinear property of LCR wave is 10 MPa, which has higher resolution than wave velocity. These results demonstrate that the nonlinear property of LCR wave is more suitable for stress characterization than wave velocity, and this quantitative information could be used for residual stress estimation.

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sakhawy, M.M.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested

  1. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of residual sericin on the structural characteristics and properties of regenerated silk films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Song, Dae Woong; Park, Young Hwan; Um, In Chul

    2016-08-01

    Regenerated silk film has been increasingly attracting the research community's attention for biomedical applications due to its good biocompatibility and excellent cyto-compatibility. However, some limitations regarding its mechanical properties, such as brittleness, have restricted the use of silk films for industrial biomedical applications. In this study, regenerated silk films with different residual sericin content were prepared applying controlled degumming conditions to evaluate the effect of sericin content on the structure and properties of the films generated. When the residual sericin content increased to 0.6%, crystallinity index and breaking strength of silk films were increased. Above this value, these parameters then decreased. A 1.5 fold increase of silk film elongation properties was obtained when incorporating 16% sericin. Regardless of sericin content, all regenerated silk films showed excellent cyto-compatibility, comparable to the one obtained with tissue culture plates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Property of char from fast pyrolysis of direct coal liquefaction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jian-guang; Fang Yi-tian; Zhang Yong-qi; Li Chun-yu; Wang Yang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Coal liquefaction residue was fast pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed reactor and slow pyrolyzed in thermal blance under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The influence of final temperature, residence time and particle size on char property was examined. It is found that final temperature and reside time are the dominant factors on flash pyrolysis. With the final temperature increasing, the char yields decrease and the char becomes crisper and less reactive. Less char yields and more porous char are obtained as the residence time becomes longer. At the same time, char yield reduces as the residual particle size becomes smaller in a large size range. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. CO2 Separation and Capture Properties of Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Leather Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arenillas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous porous materials derived from leather skin residues have been found to have excellent CO2 adsorption properties, with interestingly high gas selectivities for CO2 (α > 200 at a gas composition of 15% CO2/85% N2, 273K, 1 bar and capacities (>2 mmol·g−1 at 273 K. Both CO2 isotherms and the high heat of adsorption pointed to the presence of strong binding sites for CO2 which may be correlated with both: N content in the leather residues and ultrasmall pore sizes.

  5. CO2 Separation and Capture Properties of Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Leather Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, José M.; Dominguez, Pablo Haro; Arenillas, Ana; Cot, Jaume; Weber, Jens; Luque, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous porous materials derived from leather skin residues have been found to have excellent CO2 adsorption properties, with interestingly high gas selectivities for CO2 (α > 200 at a gas composition of 15% CO2/85% N2, 273K, 1 bar) and capacities (>2 mmol·g−1 at 273 K). Both CO2 isotherms and the high heat of adsorption pointed to the presence of strong binding sites for CO2 which may be correlated with both: N content in the leather residues and ultrasmall pore sizes. PMID:28788352

  6. Structure and properties of TiSiCN coatings with different bias voltages by arc ion plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinming; Li, Jinlong; Dong, Minpeng; Zhang, Henghua; Wang, Liping

    2018-03-01

    TiSiCN coatings were deposited on 316 L steel using the multi-arc ion plating system. All the coatings had the same total thickness of approximately 1.6 µm. The TiSiCN coatings were deposited under the mixture constant flow of N2 and C2H2 but varying bias. Information about structures, composition and properties were characterized by scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nanoindentation and ball-on-plate wear tests. The results show that all of the coatings consist of a TiCN nano-crystal phase and an Si3N4 amorphous phase. With an increase in the bias, the film becomes denser and exhibits better tribological behavior and mechanical properties. Moreover, the bonding strength between the coatings and the substrate increased and the resistance to thermal shock intensified when the coatings were made at a higher bias voltage.

  7. RESIDUAL GAS MOTIONS IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM AND BIAS IN HYDROSTATIC MEASUREMENTS OF MASS PROFILES OF CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Erwin T.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    We present analysis of bulk and random gas motions in the intracluster medium using high-resolution Eulerian cosmological simulations of 16 simulated clusters, including both very relaxed and unrelaxed systems and spanning a virial mass range of 5 x 10 13 - 2 x 10 15 h -1 M-odot. We investigate effects of the residual subsonic gas motions on the hydrostatic estimates of mass profiles and concentrations of galaxy clusters. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the gas motions contribute up to ∼5%-15% of the total pressure support in relaxed clusters with contribution increasing with the cluster-centric radius. The fractional pressure support is higher in unrelaxed systems. This contribution would not be accounted for in hydrostatic estimates of the total mass profile and would lead to systematic underestimate of mass. We demonstrate that total mass can be recovered accurately if pressure due to gas motions measured in simulations is explicitly taken into account in the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Given that the underestimate of mass is increasing at larger radii, where gas is less relaxed and contribution of gas motions to pressure is larger, the total density profile derived from hydrostatic analysis is more concentrated than the true profile. This may at least partially explain some high values of concentrations of clusters estimated from hydrostatic analysis of X-ray data.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al co-doped DLC films: Dependence on sputtering current, source gas, and substrate bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ting [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kong, Cuicui [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Ningbo University, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li, Xiaowei, E-mail: lixw@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Guo, Peng; Wang, Zhenyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Ti/Al co-doped diamond-like carbon films were fabricated by a hybrid ion beam method. • Process parameters affected the structure and chemical state of co-doped Ti and Al. • The relation between microstructure and properties was investigated systematically. • The guidance to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance was provided. - Abstract: Co-doping two metal elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can reach the desirable combined properties, but the preparation and commercialized application of metal co-doped DLC films with well-defined structural properties are currently hindered by the non-comprehensive understanding of structural evolutions under different process parameters. Here, we fabricated the Ti/Al-DLC films using a unique hybrid ion beam system which enabled the independent control of metal content and carbon structure. The evolutions of microstructure, residual compressive stress and mechanical properties induced by the different process parameters including sputtering currents, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} source gases and bias voltages were investigated systematically in order to perform in-depth analysis on the relation between the structure and properties in Ti/Al-DLC films. Results revealed that the variations of process parameters seriously affected the concentration and chemical bond state of co-doped Ti/Al atoms in amorphous carbon matrix or incident energies of C ions, which brought the complicated effect on amorphous carbon structures, accounting for the change of residual compressive stress, hardness and toughness. The present results provide the guidance for suitable, effective parameters selection to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance for further applications.

  9. Effects of heating durations on normal concrete residual properties: compressive strength and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Shahidan, Shahiron; Khaida Baharuddin, Nur; Beddu, Salmia; Hisyam Abu Bakar, Badorul

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of high temperature with five different heating durations on residual properties of 30 MPa normal concrete. Concrete cubes were being heated up to 600°C for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The temperature will keep constant for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The standard temperature-time curve ISO 834 is referred to. After heating the specimen were left to cool in the furnace and removed. After cooling down to ambient temperature, the residual mass and residual compressive strength were observed. The obtained result shows that, the compressive strength of concrete decrease as the heating duration increases. This heating duration influence, might affects the loss of free water present and decomposition of hydration products in concrete. As the heating duration increases, the amount of water evaporated also increases led to loss in concrete mass. Conclusively, the percentage of mass and compressive strength loss increased as the heating duration increased.

  10. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by rf reactive magnetron sputtering on biased substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezar, Sawsen, E-mail: snezar@cdta.dz [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, Nadia [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Sali, Samira [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE Algiers) (Algeria); Faiz, Mohammed; Mekki, Mogtaba [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Laoufi, Nadia Aïcha [Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Tabet, Nouar [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha (Qatar)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on negatively biased substrates by rf magnetron sputtering technique. • The bias favors the formation of TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase. • The roughness of the films increases and the grain size decreases as the bias voltage is varied between (0 and −100 V). • XPS reveals the presence of adsorbed humidity of the surface and Ti{sup 4+} oxidation state in the as prepared samples. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} thin films are of paramount importance due to their pervasive applications. In contrast to previous published works where the substrate was heated at high temperatures to obtain TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase, we show in this study that it is possible to deposit crystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films on biased and unbiased substrate at room temperature using reactive rf magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was varied from 0 V to −100 V. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average crystallite size was estimated using x-ray diffraction. The results showed that the application of negative bias affects the surface roughness of the films and favors the formation of the rutile phase. The root mean square roughness (R{sub rms}), the average grain size and the optical band gap of the films decreased as the substrate bias voltage was varied from 0 to −100 V. The UV–visible transmittance spectra showed that the films were transparent in the visible range and absorb strongly in the UV range. This study shows that biasing the substrate could be a promising and effective alternative to deposit TiO{sub 2} crystallized thin films of engineered properties at room temperature.

  12. Radio-frequency properties of stacked long Josephson junctions with nonuniform bias current distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1999-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the behavior of stacks of long Josephson junctions considering a nonuniform bias profile. In the presence of a microwave field the nonuniform bias, which favors the formation of fluxons, can give rise to a change of the sequence of radio-frequency induced steps...

  13. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlare, M; Pell, M; Svensson, K

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes.

  14. Crop residue management and fertilization effects on soil organic matter and associated biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingzi; Zhang, Jiabao; Yu, Yueyue; Karlen, Douglas L; Hao, Xiying

    2016-09-01

    Returning crop residue may result in nutrient reduction in soil in the first few years. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether this negative effect is alleviated by improved crop residue management (CRM). Nine treatments (3 CRM and 3 N fertilizer rates) were used. The CRM treatments were (1) R0: 100 % of the N using mineral fertilizer with no crop residues return; (2) R: crop residue plus mineral fertilizer as for the R0; and (3) Rc: crop residue plus 83 % of the N using mineral and 17 % manure fertilizer. Each CRM received N fertilizer rates at 270, 360, and 450 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). At the end of the experiment, soil NO3-N was reduced by 33 % from the R relative to the R0 treatment, while the Rc treatment resulted in a 21 to 44 % increase in occluded particulate organic C and N, and 80 °C extracted dissolved organic N, 19 to 32 % increase in microbial biomass C and protease activity, and higher monounsaturated phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA):saturated PLFA ratio from stimulating growth of indigenous bacteria when compared with the R treatment. Principal component analysis showed that the Biolog and PLFA profiles in the three CRM treatments were different from each other. Overall, these properties were not influenced by the used N fertilizer rates. Our results indicated that application of 17 % of the total N using manure in a field with crop residues return was effective for improving potential plant N availability and labile soil organic matter, primarily due to a shift in the dominant microorganisms.

  15. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  16. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  17. Characterization of Mechanical Properties and Residual Stress in API 5L X80 Steel Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Lins, Amilton; de Souza, Luís Felipe Guimarães; Fonseca, Maria Cindra

    2018-01-01

    The use of high-strength and low-alloy steels, high design factors and increasingly stringent safety requirements have increased the operating pressure levels and, consequently, the need for further studies to avoid and prevent premature pipe failure. To evaluate the possibility of improving productivity in manual arc welding of this type of steel, this work characterizes the mechanical properties and residual stresses in API 5L X80 steel welded joints using the SMAW and FCAW processes. The residual stresses were analyzed using x-ray diffraction with the sin2 ψ method at the top and root of the welded joints in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the weld bead. The mechanical properties of the welded joints by both processes were characterized in terms of tensile strength, impact toughness and Vickers microhardness in the welded and shot peening conditions. A predominantly compressive residual stress was found, and shot peening increased the tensile strength and impact toughness in both welded joints.

  18. RESIDUAL PROPERTIES OF FIBER-REINFORCED REFRACTORY COMPOSITES WITH A FIRECLAY FILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jogl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a composite material for industrial use that is resistant to the effect of high temperatures. The binder system based on aluminous cement was modified by adding finely-ground ceramic powder and metakaolin to reduce costs and also to reduce adverse effects on the environment due to high energy consumption for cement production. Additives were applied as a partial aluminous cement replacement in doses of 10, 20 and 30% by weight. The composites were evaluated on the basis of their mechanical properties and their bulk density after gradual temperature loading. The influence of basalt fibers and modifications to the binder system were studied at the same time. Basalt fibers were applied in doses of 0.5% and 2.0% by volume. The results confirmed the potential of the mineral additives studied here for practical applications, taking into account the residual mechanical parameters after thermal loading. The addition of ceramic powder reduced the bulk density by 5% for each 10% of cement substitution, but the residual values were very similar. The bulk density and the compressive strength were reduced when basalt fibers were applied, and the flexural strength was significantly increased in proportion to the fiber dosages. Metakaolin seems to be a more suitable additive than the ceramic powder that was applied here, because there was a significant increase in the mechanical parameters and also in the residual values of all properties that were studied.

  19. Properties of sintered glass-ceramics prepared from plasma vitrified air pollution control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roether, J A; Daniel, D J; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D E; Cheeseman, C R; Boccaccini, A R

    2010-01-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues, obtained from a major UK energy from waste (EfW) plant, processing municipal solid waste, have been blended with silica and alumina and melted using DC plasma arc technology. The glass produced was crushed, milled, uni-axially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 750 and 1150 degrees C, and the glass-ceramics formed were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties assessed included Vickers's hardness, flexural strength, Young's modulus and thermal shock resistance. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 950 degrees C. This produced a glass-ceramic with high density (approximately 2.58 g/cm(3)), minimum water absorption (approximately 2%) and relatively high mechanical strength (approximately 81+/-4 MPa). Thermal shock testing showed that 950 degrees C sintered samples could withstand a 700 degrees C quench in water without micro-cracking. The research demonstrates that glass-ceramics can be readily formed from DC plasma treated APC residues and that these have comparable properties to marble and porcelain. This novel approach represents a technically and commercially viable treatment option for APC residues that allow the beneficial reuse of this problematic waste.

  20. Application of backpropagation neural networks to evaluate residual properties of thermally damaged concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, W.L.; Shigaki, Y.; Tolentino, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this work it was analyzed the residual performance of Portland cement concretes, when cold after heat-treated up to 600 deg C. Granite-gneiss was used in the three concrete mix proportions as the coarse aggregate, and river sand with finesses modulus of 2.7 as the fine aggregate. Ultrasonic pulse tests were performed on all the specimens and ultrasonic dynamic modulus were obtained. An artificial neural network of the backpropagation type was trained to evaluate and apply models in predicting residual properties of Portland cement concretes. The input layer for both models consists of an external layer input vector of the temperature. The hidden layer has two processing units with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer functions (tansig for short), and the output layer contains one processing unit that represents the network's output (ultrasonic pulse velocity or modulus of elasticity) for each input vector. The training phase of the network converged for reasonable results after 5.000 epochs approximately, resulting in mean squared errors less than 0.02 for the normalized data. The neural network developed for modeling residual properties of Portland cement concretes was shown to be efficient in both the training phase and the test. From the results reasonable predictions could be made for the ultrasonic pulse velocity or dynamic modulus of elasticity by using temperature. (author)

  1. Residual Stress Induced Mechanical Property Enhancement in Steel Encapsulated Light Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudger, Sean James

    Macro hybridized systems consisting of steel encapsulated light metal matrix composites (MMCs) were produced with the goal of creating a low cost/light weight composite system with enhanced mechanical properties. MMCs are frequently incorporated into advanced material systems due to their tailorable material properties. However, they often have insufficient ductility for many structural applications. The macro hybridized systems take advantage of the high strength, modulus, and damage tolerance of steels and high specific stiffness and low density of MMCs while mitigating the high density of steels and the poor ductility of MMCs. Furthermore, a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch induced residual compressive stress method is utilized as a means of improving the ductility of the MMCs and overall efficiency of the macro hybridized systems. Systems consisting of an A36, 304 stainless steel, or NitronicRTM 50 stainless steel shell filled with an Al-SiC, Al-Al2O3, or Mg-B4C MMC are evaluated in this work. Upon cooling from processing temperatures, residual strains are generated due to a CTE mismatch between each of the phases. The resulting systems offer higher specific properties and a more structurally efficient system can be attained. Mechanical testing was performed and improvements in yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and ductility were observed. However, the combination of these dissimilar materials often results in the formation of intermetallic compounds. In certain loading situations, these typically brittle intermetallic layers can result in degraded performance. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) are utilized to characterize the intermetallic layer formation at the interface between the steel and MMC. As the residual stress condition in each phase has a large impact on the mechanical property improvement, accurate quantification of these strains/stresses is

  2. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  3. Genetic properties of residual feed intakes for maintenance and growth and the implications of error measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2015-03-01

    A procedure for estimating residual feed intake (RFI) based on information used in feeding studies is presented. Koch's classical model consists of using fixed regressions of feed intake on metabolic BW and growth, and RFI is obtained as the deviation between the observed feed intake and the expected intake for an individual with a given weight and growth rate. Estimated RFI following such a procedure intrinsically suffers from the inability to separate true RFI from the sampling error. As the latter is never equal to 0, estimated RFI is always biased, and the magnitude of such bias depends on the ratio between the true RFI variance and the residual variance. Additionally, the classical approach suffers from its inability to dissect RFI into its biological components, being the metabolic efficiency (maintaining BW) and growth efficiency. To remedy these problems we proposed a procedure that directly models the individual animal variation in feed efficiency used for body maintenance and growth. The proposed model is an extension of Koch's procedure by assuming animal-specific regression coefficients rather than population-level parameters. To evaluate the performance of both models, a data simulation was performed using the structure of an existing chicken data set consisting of 2,289 records. Data was simulated using 4 ratios between the true RFI and sampling error variances (1:1, 2:1, 4:1, and 10:1) and 5 correlation values between the 2 animal-specific random regression coefficients (-0.95, -0.5, 0, 0.5, and 0.95). The results clearly showed the superiority of the proposed model compared to Koch's procedure under all 20 simulation scenarios. In fact, when the ratio was 1:1 and the true genetic correlation was equal to -0.95, the correlation between the true and estimated RFI for animals in the top 20% was 0.60 and 0.51 for the proposed and Koch's models, respectively. This is an 18% superiority for the proposed model. For the bottom 20% of animals in the ranking

  4. Dielectric Properties of Zinc Oxide Leach Residues Relevant to Microwave Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Luo, Zhumei; Chen, Junruo; Zhang, Libo; Liu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first study on dielectric properties of zinc oxide leach residues (ZOLR) relating to microwave drying. Dielectric properties of ZOLR were measured by cylindrical cavity perturbation method. The three-dimensional response surface plots show that both the dielectric constant and the loss factor of ZOLR tend to decline while the penetration depth of the microwave energy in ZOLR increases in the process of microwave drying. The largest penetration depth of microwave energy in ZOLR is 50 mm. The results obtained from the experiments are useful not only in developing large-scale industrial microwave drying system but also in numerical simulating of the distribution of the temperature field of ZOLR.

  5. Role of mineral matrix composition and properties in the transformation of corn residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pinskiy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the composition and properties of the mineral matrix in soils on the humification of corn residues was studied. The substrate (silica sand, loam, silica sand + 10% bentonite, or silica sand + 30% kaolinite was mixed with 10% corn residues (milled to 3–5 mm and incubated under stationary conditions for 6–19 months. Sampling for the analysis was performed every month, and a few times in the first month. The dynamics of mineralization and humification of plant residues was studied by applying elemental and bulk analyses of neogenic organic matter (OM, densitometric fractionation of substrates, FTIR spectroscopy, solid-phase 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with an electron microprobe. It was shown that the humification processes had a wavelike character for loam and sand substrates, which could be explained by the transformation of the microorganism populations together with the change in the amount and quality of OM in the system. The main mechanism for the stabilization of neogenic OM was adsorption on a mineral matrix with formation of relatively resistant compounds. This adsorption can be selective, depending on the composition and properties of the mineral matrix. The FTIR and 13C-NMR analyses of OM distribution in different substrates and densitometric fractions showed that sand and heavy fractions (HF >2.2 g/cm3 were enriched with compounds of an aromatic nature and polypeptides. Light fractions (LF-2, 1.4–2.2 g/cm3 accumulated compounds that also contained alkyl and carboxyl groups. The sandy substrate and HF have higher aromaticity indices than LF-2. Higher aromaticity index values of humus substances in the sandy substrate and HF in the loamy substrate, compared to LF-2, evidenced the formation of steady aromatic compounds, in which there may be kernels of humic acids (HA. We do not exclude the possibility of the matrix synthesis of the HA-like substances.

  6. Physical and sensory properties of corn flakes with added dry residue of wild oregano distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košutić Milenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern nutritionist opinions, cereal products such as flakes and snacks are the most common foods in the daily diet. Extrusion technology makes it possible to apply different sources of ingredients for the enrichment of cereal-based flakes or snack products. Substances with strong antioxidant properties such as wild oregano have a positive impact on human health. Therefore, they attract the attention of scientists, consumers and food industry experts. This paper investigates the effects of the simultaneous addition of dry residue from wild oregano distillation (0.5 g / 100g of sample and 1 g / 100g of sample, on the physical-textural and color properties of corn flakes in order to create a new product with improved nutritional properties. The addition of dry residue of wild oregano positively influenced physical characteristics (decreased bulk density 30.2 %, increased expansion rate 44.9 %, as well as texture hardness and the work of compression, 38.1 % and 40.3 %, respectively. Also, oregano significantly changed the color of flakes. Tukey’s HSD test showed statistically significant differences between most of the mean values of physical-textural, color and sensory attributes in the oregano-added corn flakes compared to the control sample. Principal component analysis has been applied to classify the samples according to differences in the studied parameters. The data pointed out that investigated corn flakes with the addition of wild oregano are new food products with good physical-textural and sensory properties due to a higher level of antioxidant activity. Moreover, it may contribute to the valorization of edible industrial waste in food production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46005 i br. TR 31027

  7. Contribution of cysteine residue to the properties of Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Radosław; Wiśniewski, Jarosław; Osińska, Olga; Bielecki, Jacek

    2009-10-01

    Listeriolysin (LLO) is the key virulence factor critical for Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis. Listerial cytolysin belongs to the family of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), a group of pore-forming toxins produced by related gram-positive bacteria. Most CDCs contain a cysteine residue in the conserved undecapeptide - a sequence that is highly preserved among this group of proteins. Substitutions of cysteine do not always lead to loss of hemolytic activity, questioning the purpose of such strong conservation of this amino acid in the sequence of CDC. The properties of 3 L. monocytogenes strains, a wild type and 2 mutants expressing modified LLO within the cysteine residue, were analyzed in this work. The first of these mutants producing a toxin with cysteine to alanine substitution showed similar features to the wild type except that a thiol-reducing agent was not necessary for hemolytic activity. Another strain secreting LLO containing serine instead of cysteine exhibited strikingly different properties than the wild type. Modified toxin is independent of the reducing reagents, less stable, and shows accelerated kinetics of cytolysis in comparison with the unchanged protein. However, both mutant strains are less invasive in the cell culture model showing the important role of cysteine in L. monocytogenes virulence.

  8. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring and management of soil quality is crucial for sustaining soil function in ecosystem. Tillage is one of the management operations that drastically affect soil physical quality. Conservation tillage methods are one of the efficient solutions in agriculture to reduce the soil erosion, air pollution, energy consumption, and the costs, if there is a proper management on the crop residues. One of the serious problems in agriculture is soil erosion which is rapidly increased in the recent decades as the intensity of tillage increases. This phenomenon occurs more in sloping lands or in the fields which are lacking from crop residues and organic materials. The conservation tillage has an important role in minimizing soil erosion and developing the quality of soil. Hence, it has attracted the attention of more researchers and farmers in the recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different tillage methods has been investigated on the crop residues, mechanical resistance of soil, and the stability of aggregates. This research was performed on the agricultural fields of Urmia University, located in Nazloo zone in 2012. Wheat and barley were planted in these fields, consecutively. The soil texture of these fields was loamy clay and the factorial experiments were done in a completely randomized block design. In this study, effect of three tillage systems including tillage with moldboard (conventional tillage, tillage with disk plow (reduced tillage, chisel plow (minimum tillage and control treatment on some soil physical properties was investigated. Depth is second factor that was investigated in three levels including 0-60, 60-140, and 140-200 mm. Moreover, the effect of different percentages of crop residues on the rolling resistance of non-driving wheels was studied in a soil bin. The contents of crop residues have been measured by using the linear transects and image processing methods. In the linear

  9. Creep and residual mechanical properties of cast superalloys and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile, stress-rupture, creep, and residual tensile properties after creep testing were determined for two typical cast superalloys and four advanced oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. The superalloys examined included the nickel-base alloy B-1900 and the cobalt-base alloy MAR-M509. The nickel-base ODS MA-757 (Ni-16CR-4Al-0.6Y2O3 and the iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 (Fe-20Cr-5Al-0.8Y2O3) were extensively studied, while limited testing was conducted on the ODS nickel-base alloys STCA (Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-2Y2O3) with a without Ta and YD-NiCrAl (Ni-16Cr-5Al-2Y2O3). Elevated temperature testing was conducted from 114 to 1477 K except for STCA and YD-NiCrAl alloys, which were only tested at 1366 K. The residual tensile properties of B-1900 and MAR-M509 are not reduced by prior creep testing (strains at least up to 1 percent), while the room temperature tensile properties of ODS nickel-base alloys can be reduced by small amounts of prior creep strain (less than 0.5 percent). The iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 does not appear to be susceptible to creep degradation at least up to strains of about 0.25 percent. However, MA-956 exhibits unusual creep behavior which apparently involves crack nucleation and growth.

  10. Thermal and physiochemical properties of pellets with power aims made of sawmill residual product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova Treto, Pedro; Solis, Kattia; Carrillo, Tonny

    2017-01-01

    Sawmill residual product of Pylon (Hyeronima alchorneoides) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp) species was used to produce pellets under different conditions of densification. Experimental equipment was used to determine the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat. Physicochemical properties of the pellets obtained under different conditions of densification, such as ash content and calorific value were determined. The content of nitrogen, chlorine and sulfur present in the material used to produce the pellets was estimated. Thermal conductivity values were determined between 0,253 W/m·K and 0,279 W/m·K; 1,748 m2 /s and 2,314 m2 /s for the thermal diffusivity, and in the case of specific heat were determined values between 3,019 kJ/kg·K and 2,183 kJ/kg·K. The high heat values was between 18 907 kJ/kg and 18 960 kJ/kg. An ash content of 1,31% was determined on a dry basis. Finally, the content of nitrogen, chlorine and sulfur determined in the residual biomass used, corresponds to 0,1129%, 0,0592 % and 0,0317%, respectively. A direct relationship between increasing the bulk density of the pellets and the thermal properties was determined. The calorific value and the ash content had a negligible effect due to the treatments applied. The estimated content of N, Cl and S corresponds to that expected in the selected biomass. Comparison of the properties of the pellets produced under the conditions studied -densification, against regulations-, showed acceptable results, entering these in terms of different categories of quality. (author) [es

  11. Influence of the microstructural changes and induced residual stresses on tensile properties of wrought magnesium alloy friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commin, Loreleï; Dumont, Myriam; Rotinat, René; Pierron, Fabrice; Masse, Jean-Eric; Barrallier, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of AZ31 FSW mechanical behaviour. ► Early yielding occurs in the TMAZ, the nugget and base metal zones undergo almost no plastic strains. ► Texture gradient in the TMAZ localises the deformations in this area. ► Residual stresses have a major influence in FSW mechanical behaviour. - Abstract: Friction stir welding induces a microstructural evolution and residual stresses that will influence the resulting mechanical properties. Friction stir welds produced from magnesium alloy hot rolled plates were studied. Electron back scattered diffraction was used to determine the texture evolution, residual stresses were analysed using X ray diffraction and tensile tests coupled with speckle interferometry were performed. The residual stresses induced during friction stir welding present a major influence on the final mechanical properties.

  12. Effect of negative substrate bias voltage on the structure and properties of CrN films deposited by modulated pulsed power (MPP) magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J; Sproul, W D; Moore, J J; Wu, Z L; Lee, S L

    2011-01-01

    As a variation of high power pulsed magnetron sputtering technique, modulated pulsed power (MPP) magnetron sputtering has shown the capability of maintaining a good deposition rate while achieving a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material with low ion energies. It is critical to usefully utilize the negative substrate bias voltage (V b ) to attract these ions towards the substrate to enhance the ion bombardment on growing films by controlling the kinetic energy and the behaviours of ions and electrons arriving on growing films. In this study, CrN thin films have been deposited by MPP in a closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system at different V b varied from 0 to -150 V. The peak and mean substrate ion current densities were measured during the depositions as a function of V b . The films were annealed at 450 deg. C in Ar for 1 hr in an effort to release the defects and residual stress in the as-deposited films. The structure and properties of as-deposited and annealed films were characterized by electron probe micro-analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and ball-on-disc wear test. An increase in the Cr/N ratio of the film was observed as the V b was increased negatively to above -70 V, which resulted in the formation of the hexagonal Cr 2 N film at V b = -150 V. A preferred (3 1 1) texture was observed in the CrN films deposited as V b increased from -50 V to -100 V. The residual stress of the films increased as the V b was increased from 0 to -100 V and then decreased with further increasing the V b . The increase in the V b led to grain refinement and an increase in the hardness of the films, but the wear resistance of the films decreased rapidly as the V b was increased to -150 V.

  13. Biochar from different residues on soil properties and common bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isley Cristiellem Bicalho da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The production of biochar from organic residues promises to be an interesting strategy for the management of organic waste. To assess the effect of biochar on soil properties and the production and nutrition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., three simultaneous experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with different biochar from organic residues (rice husk, sawdust, and sorghum silage used as filtration material for swine biofertilizer. In each experiment the treatments consisted of five different biochar concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 L m−3, arranged in a completely randomized design, with four repetitions. In the experiments, the use of biochar increased soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability in the soil, and nutrient accumulation in grains. The biochar concentrations corresponding to the maximum production of grain dry matter of bean plants were 100, 68, and 71 L m−3 for biochar from rice husk filter (BRHF, biochar from sawdust filter (BSF, and biochar from sorghum silage filter (BSSF, respectively.

  14. Winery solid residue revalorization into oil and antioxidant with nutraceutical properties by an enzyme assisted process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, P; Moure, A; Soto, C; Chamy, R; Zúñiga, M E

    2005-01-01

    Revalorization of the winery industry residue, grape seed is studied for the production of an oil and defatted meal with nutraceutical properties. Conventional grape seed oil extraction process is carried out by pressing at high temperature affecting the product quality. Oil extraction by cold pressing improves product quality, but it gives a low oil yield. Oil extracted is increased at the pressing stage, when an enzymatic pre-treatment is incorporated in to the conventional process. The yield is determined by determining the residual oil in the pressed cake. Using an enzymatic treatment during 9 hours at 45 degrees C and 50% of moisture, with a mixture of two commercial enzymes grape seed oil extraction yield by cold pressing is raised up to 72%, being a 59.4% increment in comparison to the yield obtained by the control, without enzymes. The defatted meal by enzimatic assisted process improves its phenolic compounds between 2 and 4 times, depending on the conditions of phenolics extraction in comparison to the control samples.

  15. Enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties of nitrogen deficient titanium aluminum nitride (Ti0.54Al0.46Ny) thin films by tuning the applied negative bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamba, K. M.; Schramm, I. C.; Johansson Jõesaar, M. P.; Ghanbaja, J.; Pierson, J. F.; Mücklich, F.; Odén, M.

    2017-08-01

    Aspects on the phase stability and mechanical properties of nitrogen deficient (Ti0.54Al0.46)Ny alloys were investigated. Solid solution alloys of (Ti,Al)N were grown by cathodic arc deposition. The kinetic energy of the impinging ions was altered by varying the substrate bias voltage from -30 V to -80 V. Films deposited with a high bias value of -80 V showed larger lattice parameter, finer columnar structure, and higher compressive residual stress resulting in higher hardness than films biased at -30 V when comparing their as-deposited states. At elevated temperatures, the presence of nitrogen vacancies and point defects (anti-sites and self-interstitials generated by the ion-bombardment during coating deposition) in (Ti0.54Al0.46)N0.87 influence the driving force for phase separation. Highly biased nitrogen deficient films have point defects with higher stability during annealing, which cause a delay of the release of the stored lattice strain energy and then accelerates the decomposition tendencies to thermodynamically stable c-TiN and w-AlN. Low biased nitrogen deficient films have retarded phase transformation to w-AlN, which results in the prolongment of age hardening effect up to 1100 °C, i.e., the highest reported temperature for Ti-Al-N material system. Our study points out the role of vacancies and point defects in engineering thin films with enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties for high temperature hard coating applications.

  16. On the evolution of local material properties and residual stress in a three-pass SA508 steel weld

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, A. F.; Francis, J. A.; Dai, H.; Turski, M.; Hurrell, P. R.; Bate, S. K.; Kornmeier, J. R.; Withers, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    In multi-pass welds, the development of residual stress generally depends on the response of the weld metal, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and nearby parent material to complex thermo-mechanical cycles. Here, the evolution of local material properties and residual stress was investigated for each of these zones during the manufacture of a three-pass groove weld in SA508 steel. Residual stress distributions were measured by neutron diffraction for a sample in which only one weld bead had been depos...

  17. Involvement of alanine 103 residue in kinetic and physicochemical properties of glucose isomerases from Streptomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Rhimi, Moez; Bejar, Samir

    2007-02-01

    The Ala103 to Gly mutation, introduced within the glucose isomerase from Streptomyces sp. SK (SKGI) decreased its catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) toward D-glucose from 7.1 to 3 mM(-1) min(-1). The reverse counterpart replacement Gly103Ala introduced into the glucose isomerase of Streptomyces olivochromogenes (SOGI) considerably improved its catalytic efficiency to be 6.7 instead of 3.2 mM(-1) min(-1). This later mutation also increased the half-life time of the enzyme from 70 to 95 min at 80 degrees C and mainly modified its pH profile. These results provide evidence that the residue Ala103 plays an essential role in the kinetic and physicochemical properties of glucose isomerases from Streptomyces species.

  18. Study of Chromium Multilayers Properties Obtained by Pulsed Current Density: Residual Stress and Microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta TORRES-GONZÁLEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium multilayers deposits were obtained from three different bath solutions, they were prepared by switching current density between 10 and 70 Adm-2. Two temperatures were studied, 35°C and 55°C. At 35°C two different microstructures are alternated: columnar obtained at 10 Adm-2 and equiaxial obtained at 70 Adm-2. At 55°C only the columnar type microstructure is present, at 10 and 70 Adm-2, the only difference among the layers is a slight disorientation of grains. The properties of these chromium multilayers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. In general the deposits are microcracked with a high microhardness, high residual stress and a small grain size.

  19. Prediction and measurement of relieved residual stress by the cryogenic heat treatment for Al6061 alloy: mechanical properties and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Hoon; Ko, Dae Cheol; Kim, Byung Min; Lim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jung Min

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to predict the residual stress resulting from the cryogenic heat treatment (CHT) which affects the mechanical properties and microstructure for Al6061 alloy. The CHT is very effective method to reduce the residual stress by quenching media such as liquid nitrogen, boiling water and steam. In this study, experimental T6 and CHT are carried out to measure the temperature of Al parts and to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient. This coefficient is used to predict the residual stress during FE-simulation. In order to consider the relaxation of residual stress during artificial ageing, the Zener-Wert-Avrami function with elasto-plastic nonlinear analysis is used in this study. The predicted residual stress is compared with the measured one by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and is found to be in good agreement with results of the FE-simulation. Further, after T6 and CHT, the electrical conductivity and hardness of the Al6061 alloy are measured to estimate the mechanical properties and its microstructure such as precipitates is observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, the creation of precipitates during T6 and CHT are verified by XRD with component analysis. It is found that CHT affects the residual stress, mechanical properties, and precipitation of the Al 6061 alloy.

  20. Bias-enhanced post-treatment process for enhancing the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H.; Dong, C. L.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-01-01

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films were markedly improved via the bias-enhanced plasma post-treatment (bep) process. The bep-process induced the formation of hybrid-granular structure of the diamond (bep-HiD) films with abundant nano-graphitic phase along the grain boundaries that increased the conductivity of the films. Moreover, the utilization of Au-interlayer can effectively suppress the formation of resistive amorphous-carbon (a-C) layer, thereby enhancing the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Therefore, bep-HiD/Au/Si films exhibit superior EFE properties with low turn-on field of E 0  = 2.6 V/μm and large EFE current density of J e  = 3.2 mA/cm 2 (at 5.3 V/μm)

  1. Forward-Backward Correlations and Event Shapes as probes of Minimum-Bias Event Properties

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074329

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive observables, such as particle multiplicities and momentum spectra, have already delivered important information on soft-inclusive ("minimum-bias") physics at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to gain a more complete understanding, however, it is necessary to include also observables that probe the structure of the studied events. We argue that forward-backward (FB) correlations and event-shape observables may be particulary useful first steps in this respect. We study the sensitivity of several different types of FB correlations and two event shape variables - transverse thrust and transverse thrust minor - to various sources of theoretical uncertainty: multiple parton interactions, parton showers, colour (re)connections, and hadronization. The power of each observable to furnish constraints on Monte Carlo models is illustrated by including comparisons between several recent, and qualitatively different, PYTHIA 6 tunes, for pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV.

  2. Unusual chemical properties of N-terminal histidine residues of glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefford, M.A.; Evans, R.M.; Oda, G.; Kaplan, H.

    1985-01-01

    An N-terminal histidine residue of a protein or peptide has two functional groups, viz., an alpha-amino group and an imidazole group. A new procedure, based on the competitive labeling approach described by Duggleby and Kaplan has been developed by which the chemical reactivity of each functional group in such a residue can be determined as a function of pH. Only very small amounts of material are required, which makes it possible to determine the chemical properties in dilute solution or in proteins and polypeptides that can be obtained in only minute quantities. With this approach, the reactivity of the alpha-amino group of histidylglycine toward 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene gave an apparent pK /sub a/ value of 7.64 +/- 0.07 at 37 degrees C, in good agreement with a value of 7.69 +/- 0.02 obtained by acid-base titration. However, the reactivity of the imidazole function gave an apparent pK /sub a/ value of 7.16 +/- 0.07 as compared to the pK /sub a/ value of 5.85 +/- 0.01 obtained by acid-base titration. Similarly, in glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), apparent pKa values of 7.60 +/- 0.04 and 7.88 +/- 0.18, respectively, were obtained for the alpha-amino of their N-terminal histidine, and pKa values of 7.43 +/- 0.09 and 7.59 +/- 0.18 were obtained for the imidazole function

  3. Nano- and Macrotribological Properties of Nanoperiod Multilayer Films Deposited by Bias Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon and boron nitride nanoperiod (C/BNn, boron nitride and carbon (BN/Cn, carbon nitride and boron nitride nanoperiod (CN/BNn, and boron nitride and carbon nitride (BN/CNn ]multilayer films with a 4-nm-period multilayer structure were deposited by bias radio frequency (RF sputtering. The substrate used for deposition was repeatedly positioned opposite graphite and boron nitride targets. Both the nanoindentation hardness and microwear resistance of the multilayer (CN/BNn and (BN/CNn films changed with the layer period. The multilayer films with a 4 nm period had the highest hardness and microwear resistance. The processing characteristics of the (C/BNn and (BN/Cn films with a 4-nm-period multilayer structure were investigated using a conductive atomic force microscope (AFM with force modulation, which permits the quantitative recording of current and frictional force as functions of applied force. The results of processing indicated that friction and surface-current measurements are effective methods of investigating multilayer nanostructural surfaces and that the method proposed in this study for micro-electro-mechanical processing systems has high precision.

  4. Structural properties of transition-metal clusters via force-biased Monte Carlo and ab initio calculations: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Dil K.; Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Drabold, David A.; Elliott, Stephen R.; Biswas, Parthapratim

    2017-11-01

    We present a force-biased Monte Carlo (FMC) method for structural modeling of the transition-metal clusters of Fe, Ni, and Cu with sizes of 13, 30, and 55 atoms. By employing the Finnis-Sinclair potential for Fe and the Sutton-Chen potential for Ni and Cu, the total energy of the clusters is minimized using the local gradient of the potentials in Monte Carlo simulations. The structural configurations of the clusters, obtained from the biased Monte Carlo approach, are analyzed and compared with the same configurations from the Cambridge Cluster Database (CCD) upon relaxation of the clusters using the first-principles density-functional code nwchem. The results show that the total-energy value and the structure of the FMC clusters are essentially identical to the corresponding value and the structure of the CCD clusters. A comparison of the nwchem-relax FMC and CCD structures is presented by computing the pair-correlation function, the bond-angle distribution, the coordination number of the first-coordination shell, and the Steinhardt bond-orientational order parameter, which provide information about the two- and three-body correlation functions, the local bonding environment of the atoms, and the geometry of the clusters. An atom-by-atom comparison of the FMC and CCD clusters is also provided by superposing one set of clusters onto another, and the electronic properties of the clusters are addressed by computing the density of electronic states.

  5. Effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack-growth properties of D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1974-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5 mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. This report presents the analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions.

  6. The effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack growth properties of D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1973-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that the shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. The analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions are presented.

  7. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miličević, Ivana; Štirmer, Nina; Banjad Pečur, Ivana

    2016-04-19

    This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.

  8. Influence of Applied Bias Voltage on the Composition, Structure, and Properties of Ti:Si-Codoped a-C:H Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The titanium- and silicon-codoped a-C:H films were prepared at different applied bias voltage by magnetron sputtering TiSi target in argon and methane mixture atmosphere. The influence of the applied bias voltage on the composition, surface morphology, structure, and mechanical properties of the films was investigated by XPS, AFM, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and nanoindenter. The tribological properties of the films were characterized on an UMT-2MT tribometer. The results demonstrated that the film became smoother and denser with increasing the applied bias voltage up to −200 V, whereas surface roughness increased due to the enhancement of ion bombardment as the applied bias voltage further increased. The sp3 carbon fraction in the films monotonously decreased with increasing the applied bias voltage. The film exhibited moderate hardness and the superior tribological properties at the applied bias voltage of −100 V. The tribological behaviors are correlated to the H/E or H3/E2 ratio of the films.

  9. Confusing Binaries: The Role of Stellar Binaries in Biasing Disk Properties in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoz, Smadar; Ghez, Andrea M.; Hees, Aurelien; Do, Tuan; Witzel, Gunther; Lu, Jessica R.

    2018-02-01

    The population of young stars near the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the Galactic Center (GC) has presented an unexpected challenge to theories of star formation. Kinematic measurements of these stars have revealed a stellar disk structure (with an apparent 20% disk membership) that has provided important clues regarding the origin of these mysterious young stars. However, many of the apparent disk properties are difficult to explain, including the low disk membership fraction and the high eccentricities given the youth of this population. Thus far, all efforts to derive the properties of this disk have made the simplifying assumption that stars at the GC are single stars. Nevertheless, stellar binaries are prevalent in our Galaxy, and recent investigations suggested that they may also be abundant in the Galactic Center. Here, we show that binaries in the disk can largely alter the apparent orbital properties of the disk. The motion of binary members around each other adds a velocity component, which can be comparable to the magnitude of the velocity around the SMBH in the GC. Thus, neglecting the contribution of binaries can significantly vary the inferred stars’ orbital properties. While the disk orientation is unaffected, the apparent disk’s 2D width will be increased to about 11.°2, similar to the observed width. For a population of stars orbiting the SMBH with zero eccentricity, unaccounted for binaries will create a wide apparent eccentricity distribution with an average of 0.23. This is consistent with the observed average eccentricity of the stars’ in the disk. We suggest that this high eccentricity value, which poses a theoretical challenge, may be an artifact of binary stars. Finally, our results suggest that the actual disk membership might be significantly higher than the one inferred by observations that ignore the contribution of binaries, alleviating another theoretical challenge.

  10. Revealing strong bias in common measures of galaxy properties using new inclination-independent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate measurement of galaxy structures is a prerequisite for quantitative investigation of galaxy properties or evolution. Yet, the impact of galaxy inclination and dust on commonly used metrics of galaxy structure is poorly quantified. We use infrared data sets to select inclination-independent samples of disc and flattened elliptical galaxies. These samples show strong variation in Sérsic index, concentration and half-light radii with inclination. We develop novel inclination-independent galaxy structures by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared on to the major axis, yielding inclination-independent 'linear' measures of size and concentration. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analogue galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, sizes and concentrations. Optical luminosities, light distributions and spectral properties are all found to vary strongly with inclination: When inclining to edge-on, r-band luminosities dim by >1 magnitude, sizes decrease by a factor of 2, 'dust-corrected' estimates of star formation rate drop threefold, metallicities decrease by 0.1 dex and edge-on galaxies are half as likely to be classified as star forming. These systematic effects should be accounted for in analyses of galaxy properties.

  11. Influence of duty ratio of pulsed bias on structure and properties of silicon-doped diamond-like carbon films by plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hideki; Kamata, Ryosuke; Miura, Soushi; Okuno, Saori

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of the duty ratio of pulsed substrate bias on the structure and properties of Si-doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) films deposited by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using CH 4 , Ar, and monomethylsilane (CH 3 SiH 3 ) as the Si source. The Si/(Si + C) ratios in the Si-DLC films deposited using pulsed bias were higher than that of the dc-biased Si-DLC film, and the Si fraction increased with decreasing pulse duty ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that Si-C, Si-H n , and C-H n bonds in the Si-DLC films increased with decreasing duty ratio. The internal stress decreased as the duty ratio decreased, which is probably due to the increase in Si-C, Si-H n , and C-H n bonds in the films. The Si-DLC films deposited using pulsed bias had higher adhesion strength than the dc-biased Si-DLC film because of the further reduction of internal stress. At higher duty ratios, although the Si fractions of the pulse-biased Si-DLC films were higher than that of the dc-biased Si-DLC film, the wear rates of the former were less than that of the latter. - Highlights: • The internal stress of Si-doped films was lowered at lower duty ratios. • The adhesion of pulse-biased films was improved compared with that of dc films. • The tribological properties of Si-doped films were improved by the use of pulse bias

  12. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; He, Liansheng; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China. The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined. Combined with rotated principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities. The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH. The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption. A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH, Fe, 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox), surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs. However, factors related to other properties (Ca, P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected. In addition, the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox+Alox) of the WTRs (p<0.05). Overall, WTRs with high contents of Alox, Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Microstructural damage and residual mechanical properties in helium-bearing gas metal Arc weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, S. H.; Yang, N. Y. C.

    1992-03-01

    The influence of entrapped helium on microstructural damage and residual mechanical properties subsequent to applying low-penetration gas metal arc (GMA) weld overlays was examined for an AISI Type 304 stainless steel. Two helium levels were examined: 22.5 and 85.0 atomic parts per million (appm) He. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The crack surfaces exhibited a dimple structure that was characteristic of a gas bubble embrittled material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the size and spacing of the grain boundary helium gas bubbles remained virtually unchanged (relative to that established by the charging and aging procedure) at distances greater than 1 mm from the fusion line. Within this first millimeter, the diameter of the bubbles increased rapidly, and the bubble spacing increased to the characteristic spacing of the dimples that decorated weld-induced cracks. Mechanical testing revealed a loss in strain-to-fracture and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at the higher helium level. While the majority of the fracture occurred in a transgranular, ductile manner, some deformation-induced intergranular cracking was observed. This cracking occurred over a very narrow region localized to the HAZ of the weldment. At the lower helium level, ductility and strength were unaffected compared to helium-free specimens.

  14. Preparation and mechanical properties of modified nanocellulose/PLA composites from cassava residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose was prepared by a mechanochemical method using cassava residue as a raw material and phosphoric acid as the auxiliary agent. The prepared nanocellulose was hydrophobically modified with stearic acid to improve its dispersibility. This modified nanocellulose was added to polylactic acid (PLA film-forming liquids at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, and the effect of modified nanocellulose on the mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA films were investigated. When at least 0.5% modified nanocellulose is added, more active groups of modified nanocellulose are adsorbed onto the PLA molecular chain. Although the tensile strength of the film is only improved by 13.59%, the flexibility of the film decreases, and the elastic modulus decreases by 28.91%. When 1% modified nanocellulose is added, the modified nanocellulose and PLA are tangled together through molecular chains and they co-crystallize to form a stable network structure. The tensile strength of the nanocomposite films is enhanced by 40.03%, the elastic modulus is enhanced by 55.65%, and the flexibility of the film decreases.

  15. Preparation and mechanical properties of modified nanocellulose/PLA composites from cassava residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lijie; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Mingzi; Chen, Jie; Shi, Yinghan; Huang, Chongxing; Wang, Shuangfei; An, Shuxiang; Li, Chunying

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose was prepared by a mechanochemical method using cassava residue as a raw material and phosphoric acid as the auxiliary agent. The prepared nanocellulose was hydrophobically modified with stearic acid to improve its dispersibility. This modified nanocellulose was added to polylactic acid (PLA) film-forming liquids at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, and the effect of modified nanocellulose on the mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) films were investigated. When at least 0.5% modified nanocellulose is added, more active groups of modified nanocellulose are adsorbed onto the PLA molecular chain. Although the tensile strength of the film is only improved by 13.59%, the flexibility of the film decreases, and the elastic modulus decreases by 28.91%. When 1% modified nanocellulose is added, the modified nanocellulose and PLA are tangled together through molecular chains and they co-crystallize to form a stable network structure. The tensile strength of the nanocomposite films is enhanced by 40.03%, the elastic modulus is enhanced by 55.65%, and the flexibility of the film decreases.

  16. Effect of residual Al content on microstructure and mechanical properties of Grade B+Steel for castings for locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaifeng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The bogie made of Grade B+ steel is one of the most important parts of heavy haul trains. Some accidents were found to be the result of fracture failure of the bogies. It is very important to find the reason why the fracture failure occurred. Because Al was added for the final deoxidation during the smelting process of the Grade B+Steel, residual Al existed to some extent in the castings. High residual Al content in the bogie casting was presumed to be the reason for the fracture. In this work, the influence of residual Al content in the range of 0.015wt.% to 0.3wt.% on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Grade B+ Steel was studied. The experimental results showed that when the residual Al content is between 0.02wt.% and 0.20wt.%, the mechanical properties of the steel meet the requirements of technical specification for heavy haul train parts, and the fracture is typical plastic fractures. If the residual Al content is less than 0.02wt.%, the microstructures are coarse, and the mechanical properties can not meet the demand of bogie steel castings. When the residual Al content is more than 0.2wt.%, the elongation, reduction of area, and low-temperature impact energy markedly deteriorate. The fracture mode then changes from plastic fracture to cleavage brittle fracture. Therefore, the amount of Al addition for the final deoxidation during the smelting process must be strictly controlled. The optimum addition amount needs to be controlled within the range of 0.02wt.% to 0.20wt.% for the Grade B+Steel.

  17. Conformational disorder and solvation properties of the key-residues of a protein in water-ethanol mixed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Dayanidhi; Santra, Santanu; Jana, Madhurima

    2017-12-13

    A small number of key-residues in a protein sequence play vital roles in the function, stability, and folding of the protein. The nonuniform conformational disorder of a small protein Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 (CI2) and its secondary segments has been quantified in the ethanol governed temperature induced unfolding process by estimating its change in configurational entropy in several water-ethanol mixed solutions. Such calculations further assist us in identifying the key-residues, from where the unfolding of the protein was initiated. Our findings match well with the reported experimental results. We then make an attempt to explore the properties of the solvent water and ethanol around the key-residues of the protein in its folded and unfolded forms at ambient temperature to identify the individual role of ethanol and water in the protein unfolding. We find that the key-residues of the unfolded protein are in good contact with both water and ethanol as compared to those of the folded protein. In the presence of ethanol, water molecules are noticed to form a rigid structurally bound solvation layer around the key-residues of the protein, irrespective of its conformational state. The restricted translational motion and prominent caging effect of the water and ethanol molecules present around the key-residues of the unfolded protein are a signature of the existence of a rigid mixed water-ethanol layer as compared to that around the folded protein. Furthermore, comparable restricted structural relaxation of the key-residue-water and key-residue-ethanol hydrogen bonds in the unfolded protein as compared to that in the folded one implies that the formation of a strong long-lived hydrogen bonding environment nourishes the unfolding process. We believe that our findings will shed light to several co-solvent governed unfolding processes of a protein in general.

  18. Properties of a new small-world network with spatially biased random shortcuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Ryo; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces a small-world (SW) network with a power-law distance distribution that differs from conventional models in that it uses completely random shortcuts. By incorporating spatial constraints, we analyze the divergence of the proposed model from conventional models in terms of fundamental network properties such as clustering coefficient, average path length, and degree distribution. We find that when the spatial constraint more strongly prohibits a long shortcut, the clustering coefficient is improved and the average path length increases. We also analyze the spatial prisoner's dilemma (SPD) games played on our new SW network in order to understand its dynamical characteristics. Depending on the basis graph, i.e., whether it is a one-dimensional ring or a two-dimensional lattice, and the parameter controlling the prohibition of long-distance shortcuts, the emergent results can vastly differ.

  19. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of solution properties, such as pH, ionic strength and competing ions on the adsorption of As by WTRs and WTR amended soils. Three types of WTRs are being used, namely Fe- WTR, Al- WTR and Ca-WTR. Effect of pH is being studied by varying the pH values between 3 and 9. The solid/solution ratio has been fixed at 1:5 and a 24 h equilibration has been chosen based on the results of earlier adsorption experiments. Furthermore, As adsorption will be studied in presence of potentially competing ions such as phosphate, sulfate, and selenate. Keywords: Adsorption, water treatment residuals, oxyanions, in-situ remediation, Arsenic

  20. A comparative analysis on the physicochemical properties of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope protein residues that affect its antigenic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukin, Y. S.; Dzhioev, Y.; Tkachev, S. E.; Kozlova, I.; Paramonov, A. I.; Růžek, Daniel; Qu, Z.; Zlobin, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 238, JUN 15 (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0168-1702 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * E protein * physicochemical properties amino acid residue * antigen * antibody Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  1. Zero-bias-field microwave dynamic magnetic properties in trapezoidal ferromagnetic stripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Mei; Wang, Xin; Lu, Haipeng; Zhang, Li; Deng, Longjiang; Xie, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic magnetization response of the axially magnetized ferromagnetic stripe with trapezoidal cross section has been studied. The stripe with beveled edges exhibits multiple resonant peaks modes under an in-plane microwave excitation compared with the single resonant of vertical edge surfaces. The complexity of the observed response is attributed to the spatially nonuniform equilibrium spin distribution at the stripe edges. Micromagnetic simulations identify spin waves as spatially localized mode at the modified edges. This one is also described by effective pinning boundary conditions taking into account finite-size effects, which is related to the exchange interaction, surface anisotropy and dipole–dipole interaction. These results provide detailed insights into the nonlinear spin dynamics of microstructures influenced by the edge properties. - Highlights: • Series of FeCoNbBCu stripes with trapezoidal cross section have been fabricated. • The stripe with beveled edges exhibits multiple resonant peaks modes. • Micromagnetic simulations identify the spatially localized mode. • The effective pinning boundary conditions taking into account finite-size effects.

  2. A reverse engineering approach to the suppression of citation biases reveals universal properties of citation distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The large amount of information contained in bibliographic databases has recently boosted the use of citations, and other indicators based on citation numbers, as tools for the quantitative assessment of scientific research. Citations counts are often interpreted as proxies for the scientific influence of papers, journals, scholars, and institutions. However, a rigorous and scientifically grounded methodology for a correct use of citation counts is still missing. In particular, cross-disciplinary comparisons in terms of raw citation counts systematically favors scientific disciplines with higher citation and publication rates. Here we perform an exhaustive study of the citation patterns of millions of papers, and derive a simple transformation of citation counts able to suppress the disproportionate citation counts among scientific domains. We find that the transformation is well described by a power-law function, and that the parameter values of the transformation are typical features of each scientific discipline. Universal properties of citation patterns descend therefore from the fact that citation distributions for papers in a specific field are all part of the same family of univariate distributions.

  3. Pulping and papermaking properties of the leaf fiber and fibrous residue from Agave tequilana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, T.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Kanetsuna, H.; Iguchi, M.; Shirota, T.; Trujillo, J.J.; Herrera, T.

    1981-01-01

    The leaves and fibrous residue of A. tequilana had fibriles with parallel orientation and helical arrangement to the fiber axis and contained fibers in average length and width of 1.7 mm and 10.3 mu m and 0.8 mm and 25.5 mu m, respectively. The cell wall in leaves was thicker and narrower than those in fibrous residue, and leaves contained cellulose and lignin lower than fibrous residue did. Alkali sulfite cooking of leaves gave pulp, the yield of which was lower than that from fibrous residue. The H/sub 2/On retention and bulk density of leaf pulps increased rapidly on beating suggesting that an internal fibrillation in pulp occurs easily during beating. The breaking length and burst and tear factors of paper from leaf pulp were higher than those from fibrous residue.

  4. Effects of twin-screw extrusion on soluble dietary fibre and physicochemical properties of soybean residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan; Chi, Yu-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Extrusion cooking technology was applied for soluble dietary fibre extraction from soybean residue. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the effects of extrusion parameters, namely extrusion temperature (90-130°C), feed moisture (25-35%) and screw speed (160-200 rpm) on the content of soluble dietary fibre. According to the regression coefficients significance of the quadratic polynomial model, the optimum extrusion parameters were as follows: extrusion temperature, 115°C; feed moisture, 31%; and screw speed, 180 rpm. Under these conditions, the soluble dietary fibre content of soybean residue could reach to 12.65% which increased 10.60% compared with the unextruded soybean residue. In addition, the dietary fibre in extrude soybean residue had higher water retention capacity, oil retention capacity and swelling capacity than those of dietary fibre in unextruded soybean residue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of negative substrate bias voltage on the structure and properties of CrN films deposited by modulated pulsed power (MPP) magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J; Sproul, W D; Moore, J J; Wu, Z L [Advanced Coatings and Surface Engineering Laboratory (ACSEL), Metallurgical and Materials Engineering department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Lee, S L, E-mail: jlin@mines.edu [US Army ARDEC Benet Labs, Watervliet, NY 12189 (United States)

    2011-10-26

    As a variation of high power pulsed magnetron sputtering technique, modulated pulsed power (MPP) magnetron sputtering has shown the capability of maintaining a good deposition rate while achieving a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material with low ion energies. It is critical to usefully utilize the negative substrate bias voltage (V{sub b}) to attract these ions towards the substrate to enhance the ion bombardment on growing films by controlling the kinetic energy and the behaviours of ions and electrons arriving on growing films. In this study, CrN thin films have been deposited by MPP in a closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system at different V{sub b} varied from 0 to -150 V. The peak and mean substrate ion current densities were measured during the depositions as a function of V{sub b}. The films were annealed at 450 deg. C in Ar for 1 hr in an effort to release the defects and residual stress in the as-deposited films. The structure and properties of as-deposited and annealed films were characterized by electron probe micro-analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and ball-on-disc wear test. An increase in the Cr/N ratio of the film was observed as the V{sub b} was increased negatively to above -70 V, which resulted in the formation of the hexagonal Cr{sub 2}N film at V{sub b} = -150 V. A preferred (3 1 1) texture was observed in the CrN films deposited as V{sub b} increased from -50 V to -100 V. The residual stress of the films increased as the V{sub b} was increased from 0 to -100 V and then decreased with further increasing the V{sub b}. The increase in the V{sub b} led to grain refinement and an increase in the hardness of the films, but the wear resistance of the films decreased rapidly as the V{sub b} was increased to -150 V.

  6. Ice residual properties in mixed-phase clouds at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiszewski, Piotr; Zanatta, Marco; Mertes, Stephan; Vochezer, Paul; Lloyd, Gary; Schneider, Johannes; Schenk, Ludwig; Schnaiter, Martin; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, Ernest; Gysel, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Ice residual (IR) and total aerosol properties were measured in mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch research station. Black carbon (BC) content and coating thickness of BC-containing particles were determined using single-particle soot photometers. The ice activated fraction (IAF), derived from a comparison of IR and total aerosol particle size distributions, showed an enrichment of large particles in the IR, with an increase in the IAF from values on the order of 10-4 to 10-3 for 100 nm (diameter) particles to 0.2 to 0.3 for 1 μm (diameter) particles. Nonetheless, due to the high number fraction of submicrometer particles with respect to total particle number, IR size distributions were still dominated by the submicrometer aerosol. A comparison of simultaneously measured number size distributions of BC-free and BC-containing IR and total aerosol particles showed depletion of BC by number in the IR, suggesting that BC does not play a significant role in ice nucleation in MPCs at the Jungfraujoch. The potential anthropogenic climate impact of BC via the glaciation effect in MPCs is therefore likely to be negligible at this site and in environments with similar meteorological conditions and a similar aerosol population. The IAF of the BC-containing particles also increased with total particle size, in a similar manner as for the BC-free particles, but on a level 1 order of magnitude lower. Furthermore, BC-containing IR were found to have a thicker coating than the BC-containing total aerosol, suggesting the importance of atmospheric aging for ice nucleation.

  7. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Andrei Shleifer

    2002-01-01

    There are two different types of media bias. One bias, which we refer to as ideology, reflects a news outlet's desire to affect reader opinions in a particular direction. The second bias, which we refer to as spin, reflects the outlet's attempt to simply create a memorable story. We examine competition among media outlets in the presence of these biases. Whereas competition can eliminate the effect of ideological bias, it actually exaggerates the incentive to spin stories.

  9. Static mechanical properties of 30 x 11.5 - 14.5, type 8 aircraft tires of bias-ply and radial-belted design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Lopez, Mercedes C.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the static mechanical properties of a 30 x 11.5 to 14.5, Type 8, bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tire. The properties measured were the spring rate and damping characteristics of each tire from vertical- and lateral-loading hysteresis loops. Mass moment of inertia tests were also conducted. The results of the study are presented along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of tire.

  10. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  11. Effect of combined external uniaxial stress and dc bias on the dielectric property of BaTiO3-based dielectrics in multilayer ceramic capacitor: thermodynamics and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Gang; Yue Zhenxing; Sun Tieyu; Gou Huanlin; Li Longtu

    2008-01-01

    The dielectric properties of (Nb, Y)-doped BaTiO 3 in a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under combined external uniaxial compressive stress and dc bias field were investigated at room temperature by using a modified Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic theory and the dielectric measurement. It is found that although dc bias decreases the dielectric properties dominantly, the influence of the external uniaixial compressive stress should not be neglected. When applied along a direction perpendicular to the internal electrode layer in the MLCC, the external uniaixal compressive stress will strengthen the negative effect of dc bias. In contrast, the external uniaxial compressive stress along a direction parallel to the internal electrode layer in the MLCC will increase the dielectric permittivity under dc bias field, i.e. improve the ε-V response of the MLCC. Furthermore, although there is a difference between the calculated permittivity and the measured permittivity, the effects of the combined external uniaxial compressive stress and dc bias field on the dielectric permittivity described through two approaches are in good agreement

  12. Electrochemical properties of GaN nanowire electrodes--influence of doping and control by external bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallys, J; Hoffmann, S; Furtmayr, F; Teubert, J; Eickhoff, M

    2012-04-27

    We report on the electrochemical characteristics of GaN nanowire (NW) ensembles grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si111 substrates and on the influence of Si and Mg doping. The NW electrochemical properties in terms of surface capacitance (C(S)), surface resistance (R(S)) are extracted from electrochemical impedance spectra. While Mg doping of GaN NWs does not cause a significant variation of these quantities, an increase of the Si concentration leads to an increase of C(S) and a simultaneous decrease of R(S), indicating the presence of charge carriers in the NWs. According to the extracted values for R(S) and C(S) the NWs are classified into resistive and conductive. For conductive NWs charge transfer to a ferricyanide redox couple in the electrolyte is demonstrated and the ensemble average of the flatband voltage was determined. Variation of the lateral surface potential due to application of an external bias via the electrolyte is demonstrated.

  13. Magnetic properties of Co-N films deposited by ECR nitrogen/argon plasma with DC negative-biased Co target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Yang, K.; Liu, H.X.; Zhu, X.D., E-mail: xdzhu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, H.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new method of synthesizing Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase. • Tunable magnetic properties achieved in ECR plasma CVD. • The change of magnetic properties is related to atoms mobility on substrate and the concentration of active species in plasma vapor. - Abstract: By introducing DC negative-biased Co target in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) nitrogen/argon plasma, the Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase were synthesized on Si(100) substrate. Effects of processing parameters on magnetic properties of the films are investigated. It is found that magnetic properties of Co-N films vary with N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio, substrate temperature, and target biasing voltage. The saturation magnetization M{sub s} decreased by increasing the N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio or decreasing target biasing voltage, while the coercive field H{sub c} increased, which is ascribed to the variation of relative concentration for N or Co active species in plasma vapor. The magnetic properties present complex dependency with growth temperature, which is related to the atom mobility on the substrate affected by the growth temperature. This study exhibits a potential of ECR plasma chemical vapor deposition to synthesize the interstitial compounds and tune magnetic properties of films.

  14. DOE's process and implementation guidance for decommissioning, deactivation, decontamination, and remedial action of property with residual contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domotor, S.; Peterson, H. Jr.; Wallo, A. III

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents DOE's requirements, process, and implementation guidance for the control and release of property that may contain residual radioactive material. DOE requires that criteria and protocols for release of property be approved by DOE and that such limits be selected using DOE's As Low as is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) process. A DOE Implementation Guide discusses how the levels and details (e.g., cleanup volumes, costs of surveys, disposal costs, dose to workers and doses to members of the public, social and economic factors) of candidate release options are to be evaluated using DOE's ALARA process. Supporting tools and models for use within the analysis are also highlighted. (author)

  15. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  16. Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on Residual Stress and Tensile Properties for 6061 Al Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kijung; Cho, Young-Rae; Ko, Dea Hoon; Kim, Byung Min; Lim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jung Min

    2011-01-01

    To develop a 6061 aluminum alloy with low residual stress and high tensile strength, a cryogenic treatment process was investigated. Compared to the conventional heat treatment process for precipitation hardening with artificial aging, the cryogenic treatment process has two additional steps. The first step is cryogenic quenching of the sample into liquid nitrogen, the second step is up-hill quenching of the sample into boiling water. The residual stress for the sample was measured by the sin 2 ψ method with X-ray diffraction. The 6061 aluminum alloy sample showed 67% relief in stress at the cryogenic treatment process with artificial aging at 175°C. From this study, it was found that the optimum cryogenic treatment process for a sample with low residual stress and high tensile strength is relatively low cooling speed in the cryogenic quenching step and a very high heating speed in the up-hill quenching step.

  17. Study on the microstructure, mechanical property and residual stress of SLM Inconel-718 alloy manufactured by differing island scanning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Chuanguang; Junjie, Lin; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-12-01

    Inconel-718 has received an extensive using in mold industry. The selective laser melting (SLM) is providing an ideal means for manufacturing mold insert with complex geometrical features and internal architecture. During the manufacturing of high quality mold inserts with conformal cooling channel, the parameters play a vital role in the SLM process. In the study, the Inconel-718 alloys were manufactured by SLM with 2×2 mm2, 3×3 mm2, 5×5 mm2, and 7×7 mm2 island scanning strategies. The microstructure, mechanical property, and residual stress were investigated by optical microscope, tensile test and Vickers micro-indentation, respectively. It can be found that the relative density increased with enlarging the island size; the results on the microstructure indicated that the cracks and more pores were detected in the 22-specimen; whilst the microstructures of all specimens were composed of fine dendritic grains, cellular, and columnar structures; the tensile testing suggested that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of all samples was similar; while the outcome of the residual stress showed that the value of residual stress was ranked in the following sequence: 22-specimen<55-specimen<77-specimen<33-specimen. Although the 22-specimen had lower residual stress compared with the other groups, the occurrence of cracks limited its processing application in SLM. Through integrated into account, the 55-scanning strategy is a promising candidate for manufacturing of mold inserts.

  18. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  19. Synergistic analyses of optical and microphysical properties of agricultural crop residue burning aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shibata, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). The present study deals with the spatial variability including the vertical structure of optical and microphysical properties of aerosols, during the crop residue burning season (October and November) of 2009 over the IGB. Increased number of fire counts observed by MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) that is associated with high aerosol optical depth (MODIS-AOD > 0.7) and enhanced tropospheric columnar NO2 concentrations observed by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), suggests agriculture crop residue burning as a main source of aerosol loading over the IGB during October and November. PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) observations show an increase in fine mode AOD (at 865 nm) from October (0.1-0.2) to November (0.2-0.3) over the IGB, which is well corroborated with MODIS observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) data shows the elevated aerosol plume (4.0-4.5 km) over the north-west IGB (associated with burning activities) that could have been caused by positive buoyancy through pyro-convection. However, large concentrations of aerosol were found below 1.0 km altitude. The averaged vertical structure of crop residue burning aerosols shows an exponential decrease with altitude (mean scale height ˜1.44 ± 0.20 km). Aerosol optical and microphysical properties coupled with backward air trajectories analyses at Kanpur indicated regional transport of biomass burning aerosols in a downwind direction from north-west IGB to south-east IGB. Aerosol classification, using AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)-derived absorption properties coupled with size parameter (2006-2010) showed clear seasonal dependency of aerosol types which revealed the presence of biomass burning aerosols only during the crop

  20. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  1. Role of substrate bias on the magnetic properties and microstructure of CoCrPt:SiO2 perpendicular recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piramanayagam, S. N.; Mah, C. S.; Ong, C. Y.; Shi, J. Z.; Dumaya, Jo Alvin; Onoue, T.; Ishibashi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The role of substrate bias during the sputter deposition of various layers of double-layered CoCrPt-SiO 2 perpendicular recording media has been investigated in order to understand the physical mechanisms behind the various effects observed. Perpendicular recording media with dual Ru intermediate layers were investigated using several magnetic and microstructural characterization techniques. It was observed that, in general, the application of a bias voltage during the deposition of the seedlayer (Ta) and the first intermediate layer (Ru) is helpful in reducing the c-axis dispersion of the recording layer. For the other layers, application of bias voltage leads to deterioration in the magnetic properties. It was also observed that the application of a bias voltage during the deposition of the first intermediate layer (especially Ru) may not enhance the preferred growth of Ru hexagonal-close-packed (00.2) planes parallel to the disk surface, as predicted before. However, the bias voltage on the Ru layer still reduces the c-axis dispersion of the magnetic layer. From the omega-offset x-ray diffraction investigations, it is estimated that the lattice parameter ''a'' of the Ru layer is reduced slightly with bias voltage, which could probably lead to a reduction in the lattice mismatch between the Ru layer and Co-alloy layer. Bias conditions also could lead to improved interface condition. Such an improvement in the lattice matching or interface conditions could probably be the cause of the reduction of c-axis dispersion of the recording layer

  2. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgal residual biomass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    German-Baez, L.J.; Valdez-Flores, M.A.; Felix-Medina, J.V.; Norzagaray-Valenzuela, C.D.; Santos-Ballardo, D.U.; Reyes-Moreno, C.; Shelton, L.M.; Valdez-Ortiz, A.

    2017-01-01

    The production of photosynthetic biofuels using microalgae is a promising strategy to combat the use of non-renewable energy sources. The microalgae residual biomass is a waste by-product of biofuel production; however, it could prove to have utility in the development of sustainable nutraceuticals

  3. Microstructural changes and residual properties of fiber reinforced cement composites exposed to elevated temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppert, M.; Vejmelková, E.; Švarcová, Silvie; Bezdička, Petr; Černý, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2012), s. 77-89 ISSN 1425-8129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : fiber reinforced cementcomposites * high temperatures * mineralodical composition * microstructure * residual strength * apparent moisture diffusivity Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.385, year: 2012

  4. Mutation of tryptophan residues in lipoprotein lipase. Effects on stability, immunoreactivity, and catalytic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookene, A.; Groot, N. B.; Kastelein, J. J.; Olivecrona, G.; Bruin, T.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies had pointed to an important function of a putative exposed loop in the C-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase for activity against emulsified lipid substrates. This loop contains 3 tryptophan residues (Trp390, Trp393, and Trp394). We have expressed and characterized lipase mutants

  5. Residual Tensile Strength and Bond Properties of GFRP Bars after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Devon S; Tabatabai, Habib; Nabizadeh, Azam

    2018-02-27

    The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire), there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete) of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 °C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed that the residual strength generally decreases with increasing temperature exposure. However, as much as 83% of the original tensile strength and 27% of the original bond strength was retained after the specimens were heated to 400 °C and then cooled to ambient temperature. The residual bond strength is a critical parameter in post-fire strength assessments of GFRP-reinforced concrete members.

  6. The influence of clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Getahun, Gizachew Tarekegn; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Schjønning, Per

    2016-01-01

    Tillage and residue management influence soil organic carbon (SOC) and lead to changes in soil physical behav-iour and functioning. We examined the effect of the clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management. Soil was sa...

  7. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to -100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to -100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = -100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0-50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO2 films deposited at -100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties. Comparison between the corrosion resistance of the uncoated and coated samples showed a reduction in corrosion current density for coated samples compared to the uncoated one. The best corrosion current density of the film deposited at -75 V was 5.9 nA/cm2, which is about 11 times less than that of the uncoated steel 68.3 nA/cm2). The

  8. Investigating the properties of residues. Characterization of pellets from fermentation residues; Den Eigenschaften der Reststoffe auf der Spur. Untersuchung widmet sich der Charakterisierung von Pellets aus Gaerresten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, Martin; Mueller, Joachim [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Starcevic, Nikica [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Strabag Umweltanlagen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Projekt Produktentwicklung/Schlammbehandlung

    2009-09-15

    Fermentation residues are by-products of the biogas process. Farmers use them as fertilizers, but as the size of biogas plants grows, so does the residues volume. It is now too much for local use, and transport to other sites is expensive. Fuel pellets production may be an alternative. Pellets from fermentation residues are not accepted as yet because too little is known about their characteristics. The contribution describes an investigation that intends to identify the fuel characteristics of pellets from fermentation residues. (orig.)

  9. Determination of Thermal Properties and Morphology of Eucalyptus Wood Residue Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kabakci

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 °C and one for recycled HDPE around 460 °C. Addition of EWR did not affect the melting temperature of the recycled HDPE. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between wood residue and recycled HDPE.

  10. Influence of lubricant oil residual fraction on recycled high density polyethylene properties and plastic packaging reverse logistics proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Moraes Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To recycle post-consumer HDPE contaminated with waste lubricating oils, companies include prior washing and drying in the process. This consumes large amounts of water and energy, generates significant effluent requiring treatment. This study assesses lubricating oil influence on HDPE properties to evaluate the feasibility of its direct mechanical recycling without washing. The current lubricating oil packaging reverse logistics in Rio de Janeiro municipality is also analyzed. HDPE bottle samples were processed with seven oil contents ranging from 1.6-29.4 (wt%. The results indicated the possibility to reprocess the polymer with oily residue not exceeding 3.2%. At higher levels, the external oil lubricating action affects the plastic matrix processing in the extruder and injection, and the recycled material has a burnt oil odor and free oil on the surface. Small residual oil amounts retain the plastic properties comparable to the washed recycled polymer and exhibited benefits associated with the oil plasticizer action. However, oil presence above 7.7% significantly changes the properties and reduces the elasticity and flexural modulus and the plastic matrix crystallinity.

  11. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B.; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual al...

  12. Impact of repeated long term application of atrazine on soil properties and bound residues formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behki, R.; Khan, S.U.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of repeated long term application of the herbicide atrazine on the activities of microorganisms, enzymes, as well as on the bound residues formation, was investigated. Bacteria, fungi and soil respiration were in general inhibited in the first year of application. However, in the second and third year no such trend was observed. Similarly, a decreasing trend in the Fe(III)-reduction, nitrification and arginine deamination was observed in the first year whereas in the subsequent two years no such trend was prominent. The dehydrogenase and arylsulfatase activities showed an increasing trend after the application of the herbicide. Column studies showed that extractable residues of atrazine and carbofuran gradually decreased after the application of the pesticides. Amendments of the soil containing 14 C-bound residues did not increase 14 CO 2 evolution. Unextractable 14 C was higher and mineralization of 14 C-2,4-D was lower in previously untreated soil than in soils with histories of atrazine and carbofuran application. (author)

  13. Properties of residual marine fuel produced by thermolysis from polypropylene waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Miknius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation of waste plastics with the aim of producing liquid fuel is one of the alternative solutions to landfill disposal or incineration. The paper describes thermal conversion of polypropylene waste and analysis of produced liquid fuel that would satisfy ISO 8217-2012 requirements for a residual marine fuel. Single pass batch thermolysis processes were conducted at different own vapour pressures (20-80 barg that determined process temperature, residence time of intermediates what resulted in different yields of the liquid product. Obtained products were stabilized by rectification to achieve required standard flash point. Gas chromatography and 1H NMR spectrometry show aliphatic nature of the liquid product where majority of the compounds are isoalkanes and isoalkenes. Only lightest fractions boiling up to a temperature of 72 oC have significant amount of n-pentane. Distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons is not even along the boiling range. The fractions boiling at a temperature of 128 oC and 160 oC have the highest content of monocyclic arenes – 3.16 % and 4.09 % respectively. The obtained final liquid residual product meets all but one requirements of ISO 8217-2012 for residual marine fuels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6105

  14. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  15. Identification of Soil Properties and Organophosphate Residues From Agricultural Land in Wanasari Sub-District, Brebes, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joko, Tri; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Rachmawati, Savitri

    2018-02-01

    Organophosphates have been used to eradicate pests and prevent losses from harvest failures caused by pest attack. It is undeniable that the organophosphate persist in soil. This study aims to identify the organophosphate residue and soil properties include pH, soil texture, and permeability. The soil samples were taken from cropland in 10 villages, Wanasari sub-district, Brebes, Indonesia. Organophosphate residue determined by gas chromatography using Flame Photometric Detector. Soil texture was determined by soil texture triangle from NRCS USDA, and the permeability value was determined by falling head method. The mean value of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, diazinon were 0.0078; 0.0388; 0.2271 mg/l respectively. The soil texture varies from clay, silt clay, loam, silt loam, and silt clay loam with permeability value at 10-7 with the soil pH value between 6.4 - 8.1. The results showed that organophosphate residues found in the soil and its potential affect the soil fertility decline. We recommend to conduct routine soil quality analysis to prevent soil damage in the agricultural environment.

  16. Prediction of hydrodynamic and other solution properties of rigid proteins from atomic- and residue-level models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A; Amorós, D; García de la Torre, J

    2011-08-17

    Here we extend the ability to predict hydrodynamic coefficients and other solution properties of rigid macromolecular structures from atomic-level structures, implemented in the computer program HYDROPRO, to models with lower, residue-level resolution. Whereas in the former case there is one bead per nonhydrogen atom, the latter contains one bead per amino acid (or nucleotide) residue, thus allowing calculations when atomic resolution is not available or coarse-grained models are preferred. We parameterized the effective hydrodynamic radius of the elements in the atomic- and residue-level models using a very large set of experimental data for translational and rotational coefficients (intrinsic viscosity and radius of gyration) for >50 proteins. We also extended the calculations to very large proteins and macromolecular complexes, such as the whole 70S ribosome. We show that with proper parameterization, the two levels of resolution yield similar and rather good agreement with experimental data. The new version of HYDROPRO, in addition to considering various computational and modeling schemes, is far more efficient computationally and can be handled with the use of a graphical interface. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Utilization of steel, pulp and paper industry solid residues in forest soil amendment: relevant physicochemical properties and heavy metal availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Watkins, Gary; Pöykiö, Risto; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Dahl, Olli

    2012-03-15

    Industrial residue application to soil was investigated by integrating granulated blast furnace or converter steel slag with residues from the pulp and paper industry in various formulations. Specimen analysis included relevant physicochemical properties, total element concentrations (HCl+HNO3 digestion, USEPA 3051) and chemical speciation of chosen heavy metals (CH3COOH, NH2OH·HCl and H2O2+H2O2+CH3COONH4, the BCR method). Produced matrices showed liming effects comparable to commercial ground limestone and included significant quantities of soluble vital nutrients. The use of converter steel slag, however, led to significant increases in the total concentrations of Cr and V. Subsequently, total Cr was attested to occur as Cr(III) by Na2CO3+NaOH digestion followed by IC UV/VIS-PCR (USEPA 3060A). Additionally, 80.6% of the total concentration of Cr (370 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the residual fraction. However, 46.0% of the total concentration of V (2470 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the easily reduced fraction indicating potential bioavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical properties of proportional residual energy intake as a new measure of energetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Pouya

    2017-08-01

    Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows. The aim of this study was to propose a new measure of efficiency to overcome the problems attributed to the previous criteria. A total of 1478 monthly records of 268 lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In addition to FCR, GME, GEE, NEE and REI, a new criterion called proportional residual energy intake (PREI) was calculated as REI to net energy intake ratio and defined as proportion of net energy intake lost as REI. The PREI had an average of -0·02 and range of -0·36 to 0·27, meaning that the least efficient cow lost 0·27 of her net energy intake as REI, while the most efficient animal saved 0·36 of her net energy intake as less REI. Traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) had high correlations with milk and fat corrected milk yields (absolute values from 0·469 to 0·816), while the REI and PREI had low correlations (0·000 to 0·069) with milk production. The results showed that the traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) are highly influenced by production traits, while the REI and PREI are independent of production level. Moreover, the PREI adjusts the REI magnitude for intake level. It seems that the PREI could be considered as a worthwhile measure of efficiency for future studies.

  19. Influence of Surface Properties and Impact Conditions on Insect Residue Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Penner, Ronald K.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow over airfoils used on current commercial aircraft transitions from laminar to turbulent at relatively low chord positions. As a result, drag increases, requiring more thrust to maintain flight. An airfoil with increased laminar flow would experience reduced drag and a lower fuel burn rate. One of the objectives of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation project is to identify and demonstrate technologies that will enable more environmentally friendly commercial aircraft. While more aerodynamically efficient airfoil shapes can be designed, surface contamination from ice, dirt, pollen, runway debris, and insect residue can degrade performance.

  20. Correlations Between Hubble Residuals and MCMC Estimated Local Stellar Ages of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin; Garnavich, Peter

    2018-01-01

    There appears to be correlations between SN Ia Hubble diagram residuals and host galaxy mass, metallicity, and star formation history. An uncorrected bias may produce a systematic offset in cosmological measurements. Global properties are the luminosity average of local environments, therefore the properties of local environments may hold stronger correlations than their global counterparts. There have been previous attempts at finding correlations between local environment properties and Hubble residuals, but nothing without contention has been seen. Looking at the host information from the SDSS Scene Modeling data, we use MCMC to constrain the properties of the stellar population using Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis. We estimate the stellar population's age and star formation history at each resolution element of the galaxy image. The stellar population properties are then compared to the SN Ia properties including the Hubble residuals in the search for correlations that could lead to any systematic bias.

  1. Effect of additional sample bias in Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) on microstructural, surface and mechanical properties of Si-DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mingzhong [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Tian, Xiubo, E-mail: xiubotian@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Muqin [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Gong, Chunzhi [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Ronghua [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition is proposed. • The deposited Si-DLC films possess denser structures and high deposition rate. • It is attributed to ion bombardment of the deposited films. • The ion energy can be independently controlled by an additional bias (novel set up). - Abstract: Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) using cage-like hollow cathode discharge is a modified process of conventional PIID, but it allows the deposition of thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (up to 50 μm) at a high deposition rate (up to 6.5 μm/h). To further improve the DLC film properties, a new approach to the MPIID process is proposed, in which the energy of ions incident to the sample surface can be independently controlled by an additional voltage applied between the samples and the metal meshed cage. In this study, the meshed cage was biased with a pulsed DC power supply at −1350 V peak voltage for the plasma generation, while the samples inside the cage were biased with a DC voltage from 0 V to −500 V with respect to the cage to study its effect. Si-DLC films were synthesized with a mixture of Ar, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and tetramethylsilane (TMS). After the depositions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to study the morphology, surface roughness, chemical bonding and structure, and the surface hardness as well as the modulus of elasticity of the Si-DLC films. It was observed that the intense ion bombardment significantly densified the films, reduced the surface roughness, reduced the H and Si contents, and increased the nanohardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (E), whereas the deposition rate decreased slightly. Using the H and E data, high values of H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} and H/E were obtained on the biased films, indicating the potential excellent mechanical and tribological properties of the films. In this

  2. Optical properties of bias-induced CH sub 4 -H sub 2 plasma for diamond film deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, X D; Zhou, H Y; Wen, X H; Li, D

    2002-01-01

    Methane (CH sub 4) and hydrogen (H sub 2) reactive gas mixture has been in situ investigated in a hot filament diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor with a negatively variable biasing voltage applied to the hot filament with respect to the substrate using infrared absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy. It is found that CH sub 4 converts increasingly to C sub 2 H sub 2 upon raising the filament temperature in a pure thermal activation state, no optical emission of species is observed. Upon bias application, both CH sub 4 and C sub 2 H sub 2 in infrared (IR) absorption intensity decrease with increasing bias current, even the IR absorption intensity of C sub 2 H sub 2 decreases more rapidly than that of CH sub 4. Meanwhile, the clear emission lines indexed to H, CH, and CH sup + appear in the optical emission spectrum obtained, showing that a large amount of excited radicals are produced in the gas phase after applying bias. It is believed that the further generation of activated radical...

  3. Determination of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties using Neutron, X-ray Diffraction, Micro- and Nanoindentation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Cecilia

    2003-12-01

    The existence of residual stresses in engineering materials can significantly affect subsequent lifetime by augmenting or impeding failure. Consequently, for an accurate assessment of engineering lifetimes, there is a need to quantify residual stresses. Furthermore, knowledge of the origin of these stresses in conjunction with mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness, among others, can be used to improve functionality by tailoring the microstructure through processing. In this work, neutron, x-ray diffraction, micro- and nanoindentation techniques were used for residual stress determination and mechanical characterization of WC-Co functionally graded composites, a Co-based Haynes 25 alloy weld, compressed steel and compacted Fe-brass powders. The neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to assess residual strains and stresses while the instrumented indentation techniques were used to determine hardness, fracture toughness and elastic modulus. In each of these engineering materials, valuable insight relating to the overall mechanical performance was obtained. X-ray diffraction was used to determine thermal residual stresses that develop in a functionally graded WC-Co composite, commonly used as tool bits. Microstresses in the graded zone were attributed to the thermal mismatch between WC and the Co phase. The compressive macrostresses were determined to be a result of the compositional gradient. Micro- and nanoindentation experiments were used to determine hardness as a function of depth in two WC-Co functionally graded materials (FGMs). A relationship between hardness and Co phase content was established and explained for the two graded and five homogeneous samples. An experimental and simulation study of residual stresses was made in the vicinity of a gas tungsten arc weld in a Co-based Haynes 25 alloy used in a satellite component. The experimental measurements were made by neutron diffraction on the recently commissioned

  4. Development of Analytical Method for Predicting Residual Mechanical Properties of Corroded Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. R. S. Appuhamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge infrastructure maintenance and assurance of adequate safety is of paramount importance in transportation engineering and maintenance management industry. Corrosion causes strength deterioration, leading to impairment of its operation and progressive weakening of the structure. Since the actual corroded surfaces are different from each other, only experimental approach is not enough to estimate the remaining strength of corroded members. However, in modern practices, numerical simulation is being used to replace the time-consuming and expensive experimental work and to comprehend on the lack of knowledge on mechanical behavior, stress distribution, ultimate behavior, and so on. This paper presents the nonlinear FEM analyses results of many corroded steel plates and compares them with their respective tensile coupon tests. Further, the feasibility of establishing an accurate analytical methodology to predict the residual strength capacities of a corroded steel member with lesser number of measuring points is also discussed.

  5. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates. Part 1: Mechanical properties and residual stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Y C; Doyle, C; Clyne, T W

    1998-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been sprayed on to substrates of Ti-6Al-4V, using a range of input power levels and plasma gas mixtures. Coatings have also been produced on substrates of mild steel and tungsten, in order to explore certain aspects of the mechanical behaviour of HA without the complication of yielding or creep in the substrate. Studies have been made of the phase constitution, porosity, degree of crystallinity, OH ion content, microstructure and surface roughness of the HA coatings. The Young's moduli in tension and in compression were evaluated by the cantilever beam bend test using a tungsten/HA composite beam. The flexural Young's modulus was determined using a free-standing deposit under the same test. Adhesion was characterised using the single-edge notch-bend test; this is considered superior to the tensile bond strength test in common use. Measured interfacial fracture energies were of the order 1-10 J m(-2). Stress levels were investigated using specimen curvature measurements in conjunction with a numerical process model. The quenching stress for HA was measured to be about 10-25 MPa and the residual stress level in HA coatings at room temperature are predicted to lie in the approximate range of 20-40 MPa (tensile). These residual stresses could be reduced in magnitude by maintaining the substrate at a low temperature (possibly below room temperature) during spraying and it may be worthwhile to explore this. Ideally, the HA coating should have low porosity, high cohesive strength, good adhesion to the substrate, a high degree of crystallinity and high chemical purity and phase stability. In practice, such combinations are rather difficult to achieve by just varying the spraying parameters.

  6. Effect of bias voltage on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of Al-Si-N coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chi-Lung; Huang, Chi-Song

    2011-01-01

    Al-Si-N coatings were deposited on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) and silicon wafer substrates using Cr and AlSi (12 at.% Si) alloy targets using a dual cathode source with short straight-duct filter in the cathode arc evaporation system. Al-Si-N coatings were synthesized under a constant flow of nitrogen, using various substrate bias voltages at a fixed AlSi cathode power. To enhance adhesive strength, the Cr/(Cr x Al y Si z )N graduated layer between the top coating and the substrate was deposited as a buffer interlayer. The effects of bias voltage on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of the Al-Si-N films were investigated. Experimental results reveal that the Al-Si-N coatings exhibited a nanocomposite structure of nano-crystalline h-AlN, amorphous Si 3 N 4 and a small amount of free Si and oxides. It was also observed that the deposition rate of as-deposited films gradually decreased from about 25.1 to 18.8 nm/min when the substrate bias was changed from - 30 to - 150 V. The XRD results revealed that h-AlN preferred orientation changed from (002) to (100) as the bias voltage increased. The maximum hardness of approximately 35 GPa was obtained at the bias voltage of -90 V. Moreover, the grain size was inversely proportional to the hardness of the film. Wear test results reveal that the Al-Si-N film had a lower coefficient of friction, between 0.5 and 0.7, than that 0.7 of the AlN film.

  7. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  8. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO{sub 2} deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bait, L. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Azzouz, L. [Université de Amar Telidji, Laghouat (Algeria); Madaoui, N. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, N., E-mail: nsaoula@cdta.dz [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO{sub 2} coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO{sub 2} films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO{sub 2} thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO{sub 2} films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O{sub 2} gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO{sub 2} films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO{sub 2} films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the

  9. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO 2 coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO 2 films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO 2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO 2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O 2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO 2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO 2 films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties

  10. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [es

  11. An automated flow for directed evolution based on detection of promiscuous scaffolds using spatial and electrostatic properties of catalytic residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The aspiration to mimic and accelerate natural evolution has fueled interest in directed evolution experiments, which endow or enhance functionality in enzymes. Barring a few de novo approaches, most methods take a template protein having the desired activity, known active site residues and structure, and proceed to select a target protein which has a pre-existing scaffold congruent to the template motif. Previously, we have established a computational method (CLASP based on spatial and electrostatic properties to detect active sites, and a method to quantify promiscuity in proteins. We exploit the prospect of promiscuous active sites to serve as the starting point for directed evolution and present a method to select a target protein which possesses a significant partial match with the template scaffold (DECAAF. A library of partial motifs, constructed from the active site residues of the template protein, is used to rank a set of target proteins based on maximal significant matches with the partial motifs, and cull out the best candidate from the reduced set as the target protein. Considering the scenario where this 'incubator' protein lacks activity, we identify mutations in the target protein that will mirror the template motif by superimposing the target and template protein based on the partial match. Using this superimposition technique, we analyzed the less than expected gain of activity achieved by an attempt to induce β-lactamase activity in a penicillin binding protein (PBP (PBP-A from T. elongatus, and attributed this to steric hindrance from neighboring residues. We also propose mutations in PBP-5 from E. coli, which does not have similar steric constraints. The flow details have been worked out in an example which aims to select a substitute protein for human neutrophil elastase, preferably related to grapevines, in a chimeric anti-microbial enzyme which bolsters the innate immune defense system of grapevines.

  12. Active subsite properties, subsite residues and targeting to lysosomes or midgut lumen of cathepsins L from the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Ticiane F; Dias, Renata O; de Oliveira, Juliana R; Salinas, Roberto K; Juliano, Maria A; Ferreira, Clelia; Terra, Walter R

    2017-10-01

    Cathepsins L are the major digestive peptidases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Two digestive cathepsins L (TmCAL2 and TmCAL3) from it had their 3D structures solved. The aim of this paper was to study in details TmCAL3 specificity and properties and relate them to its 3D structure. Recombinant TmCAL3 was assayed with 64 oligopeptides with different amino acid replacements in positions P2, P1, P1' and P2'. Results showed that TmCAL3 S2 specificity differs from the human enzyme and that its specificities also explain why on autoactivation two propeptide residues remain in the enzyme. Data on free energy of binding and of activation showed that S1 and S2' are mainly involved in substrate binding, S1' acts in substrate binding and catalysis, whereas S2 is implied mainly in catalysis. Enzyme subsite residues were identified by docking with the same oligopeptide used for kinetics. The subsite hydrophobicities were calculated from the efficiency of hydrolysis of different amino acid replacements in the peptide and from docking data. The results were closer for S1 and S2' than for S1' and S2, indicating that the residue subsites that were more involved in transition state binding are different from those binding the substrate seen in docking. Besides TmCAL1-3, there are nine other cathepsins L, most of them more expressed at midgut. They are supposed to be directed to lysosomes by a Drosophila-like Lerp receptor and/or motifs in their prodomains. The mannose 6-phosphate lysosomal sorting machinery is absent from T. molitor transcriptome. Cathepsin L direction to midgut contents seems to depend on overexpression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SucStruct: Prediction of succinylated lysine residues by using structural properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yosvany; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil Pranit; Taherzadeh, Ghazaleh; Michaelson, Jacob; Sattar, Abdul; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sharma, Alok

    2017-06-15

    Post-Translational Modification (PTM) is a biological reaction which contributes to diversify the proteome. Despite many modifications with important roles in cellular activity, lysine succinylation has recently emerged as an important PTM mark. It alters the chemical structure of lysines, leading to remarkable changes in the structure and function of proteins. In contrast to the huge amount of proteins being sequenced in the post-genome era, the experimental detection of succinylated residues remains expensive, inefficient and time-consuming. Therefore, the development of computational tools for accurately predicting succinylated lysines is an urgent necessity. To date, several approaches have been proposed but their sensitivity has been reportedly poor. In this paper, we propose an approach that utilizes structural features of amino acids to improve lysine succinylation prediction. Succinylated and non-succinylated lysines were first retrieved from 670 proteins and characteristics such as accessible surface area, backbone torsion angles and local structure conformations were incorporated. We used the k-nearest neighbors cleaning treatment for dealing with class imbalance and designed a pruned decision tree for classification. Our predictor, referred to as SucStruct (Succinylation using Structural features), proved to significantly improve performance when compared to previous predictors, with sensitivity, accuracy and Mathew's correlation coefficient equal to 0.7334-0.7946, 0.7444-0.7608 and 0.4884-0.5240, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Properties of nanocellulose isolated from corncob residue using sulfuric acid, formic acid, oxidative and mechanical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Bin; Du, Haishun; Lv, Dong; Zhang, Yuedong; Yu, Guang; Mu, Xindong; Peng, Hui

    2016-10-20

    In this work, nanocellulose was extracted from bleached corncob residue (CCR), an underutilized lignocellulose waste from furfural industry, using four different methods (i.e. sulfuric acid hydrolysis, formic acid (FA) hydrolysis, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and pulp refining, respectively). The self-assembled structure, morphology, dimension, crystallinity, chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared nanocellulose were investigated. FA hydrolysis produced longer cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) than the one obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and resulted in high crystallinity and thermal stability due to its preferential degradation of amorphous cellulose and lignin. The cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with fine and individualized structure could be isolated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. In comparison with other nanocellulose products, the intensive pulp refining led to the CNFs with the longest length and the thickest diameter. This comparative study can help to provide an insight into the utilization of CCR as a potential source for nanocellulose production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High Temperature Exposure of HPC – Experimental Analysis of Residual Properties and Thermal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík Zbyšek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high temperature exposure on properties of a newly designed High Performance Concrete (HPC is studied in the paper. The HPC samples are exposed to the temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C respectively. Among the basic physical properties, bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are measured. The mechanical resistivity against disruptive temperature action is characterised by compressive strength, flexural strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity. To study the chemical and physical processes in HPC during its high-temperature exposure, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA is performed. Linear thermal expansion coefficient is determined as function of temperature using thermodilatometry (TDA. In order to describe the changes in microstructure of HPC induced by high temperature loading, MIP measurement of pore size distribution is done. Increase of the total open porosity and connected decrease of the mechanical parameters for temperatures higher than 200 °C were identified.

  16. Effects of coal properties on the production rate of combustion solid residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgun, D. [Catalagzi Thermal Plant, Catalagzi, Zonguldak (Turkey); Genc, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    The production rates of furnace bottom ash in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were monitored for a two-year period and its variations with respect to coal properties were analyzed. The power plant was originally designed to fire the coal sludge generated from a washing process; however, the coal sludge and its mixture with low-rank bituminous coal have been started to be used as the main fuel with time. The results of the hardgrove grindability measurements have shown that the grinding properties of sludge or its mixtures could not be predicted based on proximate analysis (moisture, ash, carbon and volatile contents); it could only be determined by experiments. The production rate of bottom ash in this particular power plant remained relatively insensitive to the high ash and moisture contents and could be estimated almost only by knowing the calorific value of the source coal. The evaluated dependency was linear. (author)

  17. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid) Green Composites during Thermal Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katogi, Hideaki; Takemura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Motoki

    2016-07-14

    This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35-45 °C and 35-55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 10³ cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35-45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35-55 °C, tensile strength and Young's modulus of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 10³ cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  18. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid Green Composites during Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Katogi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35–45 °C and 35–55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 103 cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35–45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 103 cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35–55 °C, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composite at 103 cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 103 cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  19. Alkali solution extraction of rice residue protein isolates: Influence of alkali concentration on protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Furong; Ding, Wenhui; Qu, Wenjuan; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Ronghai; Ma, Haile

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the nutrient property and safety of the rice residue protein isolates (RRPI) product (extracted by different alkali concentrations) by exploring the protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine (LAL) formation. The results showed that with the rising of alkali concentration from 0.03M to 0.15M, the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of RRPI increased at first and then descended. When the alkali concentration was greater than 0.03M, the RRPI surface hydrophobicity decreased and the content of thiol and disulfide bond, Lys and Cys significantly reduced. By the analysis of HPLC, the content of LAL rose up from 276.08 to 15,198.07mg/kg and decreased to 1340.98mg/kg crude protein when the alkali concentration increased from 0.03 to 0.09M and until to 0.15M. These results indicated that RRPI alkaline extraction concentration above 0.03M may cause severe nutrient or safety problems of protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of allogeneic bone marrow cells in view of residual alloreactivity: sirolimus but not cyclosporine evolves tolerogenic properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Timrott

    Full Text Available Application of bone marrow cells (BMC is a promising strategy for tolerance induction, but usually requires strong depletion of the host immune system. This study evaluates the ability of immunosuppressants to evolve tolerogenic properties of BMC in view of residual alloreactivity.The rat model used a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II disparate bone marrow transplantation (BMT setting (LEW.1AR1 (RT1auu → LEW.1AR2 (RT1aau. Heart grafts (LEW.1WR1 (RT1uua were disparate for the complete MHC to recipients and for MHC class I to BMC donors. Limited conditioning was performed by total body irradiation of 6 Gy. Cyclosporine (CsA or Sirolimus (Srl were administered for 14 or 28 days. Transplantation of heart grafts (HTx was performed at day 16 or at day 100 after BMT. Chimerism and changes in the T cell pool were detected by flow cytometry.Mixed chimeras accepted HTx indefinitely, although the composition of the regenerated T cell pool was not changed to a basically donor MHC class II haplotype. Non-chimeric animals rejected HTx spontaneously. BMC recipients, who received HTx during T cell recovery at day 16, accepted HTx only after pre-treatment with Srl, although chimerism was lost. CsA pre-treatment led to accelerated HTx rejection as did isolated application of BMC.Srl evolves tolerogenic properties of allogeneic BMC to achieve indefinite acceptance of partly MHC disparate HTx despite residual alloreactivity and in particular loss of chimerism.

  1. Nutraceutical properties of cumin residue generated from Ayurvedic industries using cell line models

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, K. B.; Aswathi, U.; Venugopal, V. V.; Madhavankutty, T. S.; Nisha, P.

    2016-01-01

    Spent cumin (SC), generated from Ayurvedic industry, was evaluated for its nutraceutical potential in terms of antioxidant, antidiabetic and anticancer properties, and compared with that of the raw cumin (RC). SC and RC seeds were extracted with ethyl acetate (E) and methanol (M). SCM (methanol extract) were rich in p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid and cinnamic acid (6.4445, 5.8286, 2.1519, 4.3085 mg/g dry extract). SCM reduced Fe2+ ion (89.68 µM AA/g dry weight), scavenged DPPH ra...

  2. Thermal Properties of Green Fuel Briquettes from Residue Corncobs Materials Mixed Macadamia Shell Charcoal Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeta, Suminya; Nachaisin, Mali; Wanish, Suchana

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to produce green fuel briquettes from corncobs by adding macadamia shell charcoal powder. The study was sectioned into 3 parts: 1) Quality improvement of green fuel briquettes by adding macadamia; 2) Fuel property analysis based on ASTM standards and thermal fuel efficiency; and 3) Economics appropriateness in producing green fuel briquettes. This research produced green fuel briquettes using the ratio of corncobs weight and macadamia shell charcoal powder in 100:0 90:10 80:20 70:30 60:40 and 50:50 and pressing in the cold briquette machine. Fuel property analysis showed that green fuel briquettes at the ratio 50:50 produced maximum heating values at 21.06 Megajoule per kilogram and briquette density of 725.18 kilograms per cubic meter, but the percent of moisture content, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon were 10.09, 83.02, 2.17 and 4.72 respectively. The thermal efficiency of green fuel briquettes averaged 20.22%. Economics appropriateness was most effective where the ratio of corncobs weight to macadamia shell charcoal powder was at 50:50 which accounted for the cost per kilogram at 5.75 Baht. The net present value was at 1,791.25 Baht. Internal rate of return was at 8.62 and durations for a payback period of investment was at 1.9 years which was suitable for investment.

  3. Properties of a compost obtained starting from residuals of the production of cane sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis López Bravo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to determine the main properties of a compost made from bagasse, slowness and ash, obtained from the sugar factory process. To elaborate the mixture a characterization of the raw material was carried out in function of the properties related to the composting process. During the process of anaerobic biodigestion, the control of the main monitoring parameters was carried out, until reaching the maturation state. In the raw material used a bulk density of 0.12 to 0.48 g cm-3 was found, the pH oscillated between 5.2 and 8.7, while the electrical conductivity was in the range of 0,4 to 0,9 µ m-1. On the other hand, the contents of P, K, Ca and Mg showed values between 0.3 and 2.8 %. Finally, a bulk density of 0.5 g cm-3 was obtained in the compost. The carbon-nitrogen (C/N ratio, showed a linear relation with respect to the time of composting, showing a suitable maturation of the mixture. The presence of N, P, K, Ca and Mg with values of 1; 1.3; 1.1; 2 and 1.1 % were also verified. After evaluating the results it is concluded that compost shows a suitable composition to be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

  4. The effect of residual chlorides on resultant properties of solid and liquid phases after carbonization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevova Eva; Sugarkova Vera; Kaloc Miroslav [Institute of Geonics ASCR, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Petrology

    2004-07-01

    The low-concentration condition was employed to model the carbonisation mode for local (Czech Republic) coals with higher concentrations of some metals. After completing the carbonisation, mass balance calculations were performed. Results show that the presence of zinc dichloride, copper dichloride and sodium chloride caused the most pronounced impediment to the formation of tar in contrast to lead dichloride and aluminium chloride that increased tar. The results demonstrated that adding of chloride agents effect both the course of the coking process and the properties of solid and liquid products of coking. Evaluation of the solid phase showed that chloride addition caused a decrease of the caking and swelling value, which corresponds with measurements of plasticity values that are of significant influence on mechanical properties closely related to coking plant processes. Evaluation of the liquid phase pointed towards an increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (especially phenanthrene, fluoranthene, acenaphthylene, pyrene) but a decrease of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene. Chloride addition increased aromaticity and caused a difference in substitution rate at aromatic nucleus. Mesophase estimation indicated extensive mosaic, domain and laminated anisotropic texture occurrence after chloride addition, mainly NaCl and CuCl{sub 2} addition. A more detailed evaluation including detailed screening, TGA, IR and RTG analysis will be subject of further investigation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Effect of residual stresses on individual phase mechanical properties of austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhlaoui, R.; Baczmanski, A.; Braham, C.; Wronski, S.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Oliver, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties of both phases in duplex stainless steel have been studied in situ using neutron diffraction during mechanical loading. Important differences in the evolution of lattice strains are observed between tests carried out in tension and compression. An elastoplastic self-consistent model is used to predict the evolution of internal stresses during loading and to identify critical resolved shear stresses and strain hardening parameters of the material. The differences between tensile and compressive behaviours of the phases are explained when the initial stresses are taken into account in model calculations. The yield stresses in each phase of the studied steel have been experimentally determined and successfully compared with the results of the elastoplastic self-consistent model

  6. Magnetic properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4−δ} (nickel manganite): Multiple magnetic phase transitions and exchange bias effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Savic, S.M. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jaglicic, Z. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy and Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vojisavljevic, K.; Radojkovic, A.; Prsic, S. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nikolic, Dobrica [Department of Physics, University of Belgrade Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • We have successfully synthesized NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4−δ} sample by complex polymerization synthesis. • Magnetic measurements reveal complex properties and triple magnetic phase transitions. • Magnetic measurements of M(H) show hysteretic behavior below 120 K. • Hysteresis properties after cooling of the sample in magnetic field show exchange bias effect. -- Abstract: We present magnetic properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4−δ} (nickel manganite) which was synthesized by complex polymerization synthesis method followed by successive heat treatment and final calcinations in air at 1200 °C. The sample was characterized by using X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The XRPD and FE-SEM studies revealed NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4−δ} phase and good crystallinity of particles. No other impurities have been observed by XRPD. The magnetic properties of the sample have been studied by measuring the temperature and field dependence of magnetization. Magnetic measurements of M(T) reveal rather complex magnetic properties and multiple magnetic phase transitions. We show three magnetic phase transitions with transition temperatures at T{sub M1} = 35 K (long-range antiferromagnetic transition), T{sub M2} = 101 K (antiferromagnetic-type transition) and T{sub M3} = 120 K (ferromagnetic-like transition). We found that the T{sub M1} transition is strongly dependent on the strength of the applied magnetic field (T{sub M1} decreases with increasing applied field) whereas the T{sub M3} is field independent. Otherwise, the T{sub M2} maximum almost disappears in higher applied magnetic fields (H = 1 kOe and 10 kOe). Magnetic measurements of M(H) show hysteretic behavior below T{sub M3}. Moreover, hysteresis properties measured after cooling of the sample in magnetic field of 10 kOe show exchange bias effect with an

  7. Nutraceutical properties of cumin residue generated from Ayurvedic industries using cell line models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, K B; Aswathi, U; Venugopal, V V; Madhavankutty, T S; Nisha, P

    2016-10-01

    Spent cumin (SC), generated from Ayurvedic industry, was evaluated for its nutraceutical potential in terms of antioxidant, antidiabetic and anticancer properties, and compared with that of the raw cumin (RC). SC and RC seeds were extracted with ethyl acetate (E) and methanol (M). SCM (methanol extract) were rich in p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid and cinnamic acid (6.4445, 5.8286, 2.1519, 4.3085 mg/g dry extract). SCM reduced Fe 2+ ion (89.68 µM AA/g dry weight), scavenged DPPH radical (IC 50 -238.6 µg/mL), better α-amylase inhibition (IC 50 -337.22 µg/mL) and glucose uptake activity in 30.7% of L6 cells. SCM inhibited viability, retarded migration area up to 41.02%, arrested cell cycle at S phase and induced apoptosis in 2.45% of HT29 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that dietary interventions using nutraceutical food formulation made out of SC can play a significant role in the prevention and management of degenerative diseases.

  8. Concrete for PCRV's: Mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and residual mechanical behaviour after triaxial preloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschl, H.; Moosecker, W.

    1979-01-01

    During the lifetime of reactor vessels stress states will change as a result of changes in loading and heating, shrinkage and creep. For the design of prestressed concrete reactor vessels information is required about the behaviour of concrete under multiaxial short- and long-term loading at elevated temperatures. Therefore, tests were carried out at the Institut fuer Massivbau of the Technical University of Munich to study the properties of mass concrete under uniaxial loading at 353 K. Additionally, biaxial creep of concrete up to 368 K was investigated. Some of the uniaxial test specimens were sealed with a copper foil to avoid drying. The concrete contained calzite gravel. The thermal expansion coefficient of predried concrete was 9.5 x 10 -6 , of sealed concrete 13.6 x 10 -6 and of unsealed concrete 13.2 x 10 -6 . The modulus of elasticity at 353 K (393 K) was reduced by 10 (13)% for sealed and by 15 (22)% for unsealed specimens. Total shrinkage deformations of heated concrete were 190 to 225 microstrains for sealed and 250 to 350 microstrains for unsealed specimens. Creep deformations were highly dependent upon temperature being about 3 times higher at 353 K for sealed and unsealed concrete. (orig.)

  9. Solid state properties of oligomers containing dithienothiophene or fluorene residues suitable for field effect transistor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porzio, William; Destri, Silvia; Giovanella, Umberto; Pasini, Mariacecilia; Marin, Luminita; Iosip, Mariana Dana; Campione, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    A series of three thiophene based oligomers has been extensively characterized. The chemical design has been addressed to obtain ionization potential (IP) and electronic affinity (EA) values matching the work function of commonly used electrode materials. Such IP and EA values were tested by cyclovoltammetry. In order to tune electron-donation and drawing strength the sequence of the molecule subunits in the oligomer has been varied. The thermal properties with particular reference to their stability during preparation and operation were checked by using differential scanning calorimetry, polarised light microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Prototypes of thin film field effect transistor, based on this series of oligomers have been electrically and structurally characterized. The long axes of the molecules are oriented nearly perpendicular to the gate insulator, in agreement with both highly sensitive X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. From powder diffraction data the structure of oligomer I was solved. A general relation is envisaged between charge mobility and packing closeness in the series. For the most promising molecule a study of mobility/temperature behaviour was performed yielding interesting results

  10. Journal bias or author bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian

    2016-01-01

    I read with interest the comment by Mark Wilson in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics regarding bias and conflicts of interest in medical journals. Wilson targets one journal (the New England Journal of Medicine: NEJM) and one particular "scandal" to make his point that journals' decisions on publication are biased by commercial conflicts of interest (CoIs). It is interesting that he chooses the NEJM which, by his own admission, had one of the strictest CoI policies and had published widely on this topic. The feeling is that if the NEJM can be guilty, they can all be guilty.

  11. Preliminary investigation of the effect of air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration on the properties of cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Galluci, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    For preliminary assessment of the engineering properties of concrete with air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration (APC) the possible reactivity of APC and the effect of APC on cement hydration were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage (pychnometry), thermal...

  12. Discussing the distance bias in the estimation of Hi-GAL compact source physical properties - II. Evolutionary status and star formation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeschi, Adriano; Molinari, S.; Elia, D.; Pezzuto, S.; Schisano, E.

    2017-12-01

    The derivation of the evolutionary stage and rate of star formation of star-forming sites from Galactic single-dish far-infrared and submillimetre surveys suffers from the relatively limited spatial resolution that prevents access to 'core' scales (r ≤ 0.1 pc) for heliocentric distances d ≳ 1 kpc. In a previous article, we studied the implications of this 'distance bias' for the mass-radius relationship and its ability to diagnose potential sites for high-mass star formation, using a method that simulates the appearance at large distances of nearby and well-resolved star-forming regions mapped with Herschel. In the present article, we use the same method to quantify the bias introduced in the estimate of the evolutionary stage of dense 'clumps' (r ≥ 0.1 pc) revealed from the Herschel Hi-GAL survey, focusing in particular on the Lbol/Menv ratio, which is widely used as an evolutionary indicator. Furthermore, we discuss how the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) change with distance. The location of sources extracted from the virtual distance-displaced maps in the Lbol versus Menv diagram provides evolutionary indications that are consistent with those derived from the underlying population of cores and do not fluctuate substantially with distance. We also show that estimates of the SFR from integrated clump properties are consistent with estimates from the underlying resolved source population and show only minor variations with virtual distance. We conclude that methodologies commonly used to infer evolutionary indicators from clump-integrated quantities from large-scale single-dish Galactic far-infrared and submillimetre surveys are robust against distance and angular-resolution bias.

  13. Referee Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, Thomas; Sauermann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the empirical literature on the behavior of referees in professional football and other sports. Referees are typically appointed by a principal to be impartial, especially when unbiased referee judgment is vital for the accomplishment of the principal's objective. Answering whether referees make biased decisions and understanding the causes that lead referees to digress from their principal duty of impartiality is therefore fundamental from a theoretical point of view. At t...

  14. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  15. Effects of bias voltage and annealing on the structure and mechanical properties of WC0.75N0.25 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.D.; Hu, C.Q.; Wen, M.; Wang, C.; Liu, D.S.; Zheng, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both bias voltage and annealing on the structure and mechanical properties of WC 0.75 N 0.25 thin films, deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates by a direct current reactive magnetron sputtering system, in which the negative substrate bias voltage (V b ) was varied from floating (-1.6 V) to -200 V, and the deposited films were annealed at 800 deg. C for 2 h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction analyses, along with the density-functional theory (DFT) calculations on the electronic structure, showed that WC 0.75 N 0.25 films were a single-phase of carbonitrides. After annealing, a significant decrease in hardness for the films was observed, being a result of point-defect annihilation as V b was in the range of floating to -120 V. However, when V b was in the range of -160 to -200 V, the hardness increased from ∼37 GPa for the as-deposited film to a maximum of ∼43 GPa for the annealed one. This increase in hardness after annealing might be attributed to age-hardening.

  16. Amorphous FeCoSiB for exchange bias coupled and decoupled magnetoelectric multilayer systems: Real-structure and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrkac, V.; Strobel, J.; Kienle, L.; Lage, E.; Köppel, G.; McCord, J.; Quandt, E.; Meyners, D.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of field annealing for exchanged biased multilayer films is studied with respect to the resultant structural and magnetic film properties. The presented multilayer stacks comprise repeating sequences of Ta/Cu/(1 1 1) textured antiferromagnetic Mn 70 Ir 30 /amorphous ferromagnetic Fe 70.2 Co 7.8 Si 12 B 10 . Within the ferromagnetic layers crystalline filaments are observed. An additional Ta layer between the antiferromagnet and ferromagnet is used in order to investigate and separate the influence of the common Mn 70 Ir 30 /Fe 70.2 Co 7.8 Si 12 B 10 interface on the occurring filaments and structural changes. In situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is used for a comprehensive structure characterization of multilayer stacks for selected temperature stages. Up to 250 °C, the multilayers are structurally unaltered and preserve the as-deposited condition. A deliberate increase to 350 °C exhibits different crystallization processes for the films, depending on the presence of crystal nuclei within the amorphous ferromagnetic layer. The influence of volume-to-surface ratio of the multilayer stacks to the crystallization process is emphasized by the comparison of in situ and ex situ investigations as the respective specimen thickness is changed. Complementary magnetic studies reveal a defined exchange bias obtained at the first annealing step and a decrease of total anisotropy field with partial crystallization after the subsequent annealing at 350 °C.

  17. Boron doped bcc-W films: Achieving excellent mechanical properties and tribological performance by regulating substrate bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Zhang, Kan; Zeng, Yi; Wang, Xin; Du, Suxuan; Tao, Chuanying; Ren, Ping; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Mao

    2017-11-01

    Boron doped bcc-W (WBx, x = B/W) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates by magnetron co-sputtering pure W and B targets. Our results reveal that when the absolute value of substrate bias voltage (Vb) increases from floating to 240 V, the value of x monotonously decreases from 0.18 to 0.04, accompanied by a phase transition from a mixture of tetragonal γ-W2B and body-centered cubic α-W(B) phase (-Vb ≤ 60 V) to α-W(B) single phase (-Vb > 60 V). Hardness, depending on Vb, increases first and then drops, where the maximum hardness of 30.8 GPa was obtained at -Vb = 60 V and far higher than pure W and W2B theoretical value. In the mixed phase structure, the grain boundaries strengthening, Hall-Petch effect and solid-solution strengthening induced by B dominate the strengthening mechanism. Astonishingly, the film grown at -Vb = 120 V still possesses twice higher hardness than pure W, wherein unexpectedly low (6.7 at.%) B concentration and only the single α-W(B) phase can be identified. In this case, both Hall-Petch effect and solid-solution strengthening work. Besides, low friction coefficient of ∼0.18 can be obtained for the films with α-W(B) phase, which is competitive to that of reported B-rich transition-metal borides, such as TiB2, CrB and CrB2.

  18. Exchange bias properties of 140 nm-sized dipolarly interacting circular dots with ultrafine IrMn and NiFe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spizzo, F., E-mail: spizzo@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia and CNISM, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Chinni, F.; Bonfiglioli, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Gerardino, A. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, I-00156 Roma (Italy); Barucca, G. [Dipartimento SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Bisero, D.; Fin, S.; Del Bianco, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Confinement of IrMn magnetic correlation length affecting dots' exchange coupling. • Study of the effects of interdot dipolar interaction on the exchange bias properties. • Micromagnetic model to relate dots' exchange field to IrMn phase pinning strength.

  19. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X D; Jennett, N M

    2017-01-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed. (paper)

  20. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. D.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-11-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed.

  1. Nanoindentation data analysis of loading curve performed on DLC thin films: Effect of residual stress on the elasto-plastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchabane, M.; Dublanche-Tixier, Ch.; Dergham, D.

    2017-11-01

    The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of DLC thin films through nanoindentation tests. DLC films of different thicknesses deposited by the PECVD process on a silicon substrate contain high residual compressive stresses when they are very thin and the stresses become relatively low and more relaxed as the film thickens. These different levels of residual stress influence the values of hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) obtained when probing the film-substrate system by nanoindentation. It is observed that the DLC layers exhibit different mechanical behaviors even when they are deposited under the same conditions. It is proposed that the compressive stress induces structural modifications resulting in modifying the elasto-plastic properties of each thin film-substrate system. Data analysis of the loading curve can provide information on the elasto-plastic properties of DLC thin films, particularly the stiffness (S) and Er2/H, as a function of residual compressive stresses. The structural changes induced by residual stresses were probed by using Raman spectroscopy and correlated to the mechanical properties.

  2. Spin glass-like properties and exchange bias in La1.5Sr0.5CoIrO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutrim, L. T.; Bittar, E. M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Bufaiçal, L.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we report the synthesis and investigation of magnetic properties of La1.5Sr0.5CoIrO6. Study of temperature dependent magnetization on this double-perovskite compound revealed two anomalies at T ≃ 88 K and T ≃ 68 K, probably related to antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic couplings of Co and Ir ions, respectively. At T ≃ 27 K there is another anomaly, which was confirmed by means of ac magnetic susceptibility measurements to be related to the emergence of a spin glass(SG)-like phase. Magnetization as a function of applied magnetic field measurements revealed exchange bias effect of the same order of magnitude of that found for La1.5Ca0.5CoIrO6 analogue compound. We compare our results for La1.5Sr0.5CoIrO6 with those reported for La1.5Ca0.5CoIrO6, and discuss the magnetic properties of both materials in terms of their structural and electronic properties.

  3. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene C; Guber, Andrey K; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Marsh, Terence L; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S-18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75-80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g(-1) soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g(-1) soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  4. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakene C Negassa

    Full Text Available Physical protection of soil carbon (C is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i decomposition of added plant residue, (ii CO2 emission from soil, and (iii structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S-18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm pores, 75-80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g(-1 soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g(-1 soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of

  5. Properties of Soil Pore Space Regulate Pathways of Plant Residue Decomposition and Community Structure of Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g-1 soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g-1 soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  6. Theoretical Study on Synchronous Characterization of Surface and Interfacial Mechanical Properties of Thin-Film/Substrate Systems with Residual Stress Based on Pressure Blister Test Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-xin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on the pressure blister test technique, a theoretical study on the synchronous characterization of surface and interfacial mechanical properties of thin-film/substrate systems with residual stress was presented, where the problem of axisymmetric deformation of a blistering film with initial stress was analytically solved and its closed-form solution was presented. The expressions to determine Poisson’s ratios, Young’s modulus, and residual stress of surface thin films were derived; the work done by the applied external load and the elastic energy stored in the blistering thin film were analyzed in detail and their expressions were derived; and the interfacial adhesion energy released per unit delamination area of thin-film/substrate (i.e., energy release rate was finally presented. The synchronous characterization technique presented here has theoretically made a big step forward, due to the consideration for the residual stress in surface thin films.

  7. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  8. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  9. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance

  10. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K. [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  11. Preparation and Magnetic Properties of SrFe12O19 Ferrites Suitable for Use in Self-Biased LTCC Circulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Long; Hu, Yue-Bin; Guo, Cheng; Li, Le-Zhong; Wang, Rui; Hu, Yun; Tu, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Strontium ferrites with different Bi2O3 content are prepared by the solid phase method, and their magnetic properties are investigated primarily. The Bi2O3 additive and sintering temperature separately exhibit a strong effect on the sintering density, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the ferrites. As to the ferrites with 3 wt% Bi2O3, the relatively high sintering density ρs, saturation magnetization Ms, and intrinsic coercivity Hci can be obtained at a low sintering temperature of 900°C even much lower. Furthermore, the effective magnetic anisotropy constant Keff and magnetic anisotropy field Ha of the ferrites are calculated from the magnetization curve by the law of approach to saturation. It is suggested that the low-temperature sintered SrFe12O19 ferrites with Ms of 285.6 kA/m and Ha of 1564.6 kA/m possess a significant potentiality for applying in the self-biased low-temperature co-fired ceramics circulators from 34 to 40 GHz.

  12. Temperature dependence magnetic properties and exchange bias effect in CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded in NiO matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kashif [Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Sarfraz, A.K., E-mail: sarfraz.ak1@gmail.com [Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Ali, Atif; Mumtaz, A.; Hasanain, S.K. [Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Physics Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan)

    2014-11-15

    The effect of temperature on the magnetic properties of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/NiO nanocomposites of (1−x) NiO/xCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.5) has been investigated. The (1−x)NiO/xCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.5) nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation route and their crystallographic structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite sizes of the nanoparticles as determined from the XRD were found to lie in the range of 20–31 nm. Magnetic characterization including coercivity and magnetization were measured with effect of particle size and temperature. During magnetic measurement it is observed that the hysteresis loop displaces along negative field axis with exchange bias field (H{sub EB}) about 75 Oe at 5 K and vanish at 150 K which is irreversible temperature T{sub irr}. The temperature dependence of coercively follows Kneller's law while the saturation magnetization followed Bloch's law with exponent α=3/2. - Highlights: • Synthesis of (1−x)NiO/xCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.5) nanoparticles by co-precipitation route. • Magnetic characterization with particle size and temperature variation. • Exchange bias effect: monotonic decrease in exchange field with temperature. • Temperature dependence of coercivity follows Kneller's law. • Temperature dependence of saturation magnetization follows Bloch's law.

  13. Optical properties and residual stress in aluminum nitride films prepared by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Aluminum nitride films were deposited by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of different nitrogen flow and working pressures at a sputtering power of 5 kW on the refractive index, extinction coefficient, crystalline structure, residual stress, and surface roughness of aluminum nitride films was discussed. The aluminum nitride film would have high refractive index, low extinction coefficient and small residual stress at suitable nitrogen flow rate and low working pressure.

  14. Regression Analysis of the Effect of Bias Voltage on Nano- and Macrotribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Ion-Plating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films are deposited by bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA technique with DC and pulsed bias voltage. The effects of varying bias voltage on nanoindentation and nanowear properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy. DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage of −50 V exhibited the greatest hardness at approximately 50 GPa, a low modulus of dissipation, low elastic modulus to nanoindentation hardness ratio, and high nanowear resistance. Nanoindentation hardness was positively correlated with the Raman peak ratio Id/Ig, whereas wear depth was negatively correlated with this ratio. These nanotribological properties highly depend on the films’ nanostructures. The tribological properties of the FCVA-DLC films were also investigated using a ball-on-disk test. The average friction coefficient of DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage was lower than that of DLC films deposited with pulse bias voltage. The friction coefficient calculated from the ball-on-disk test was correlated with the nanoindentation hardness in dry conditions. However, under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction coefficient and specific wear rate had little correlation with nanoindentation hardness, and wear behavior seemed to be influenced by other factors such as adhesion strength between the film and substrate.

  15. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  16. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  17. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P acid solution (HP), while the mean molecular weight of SP was lower than that of HP. Compared with HP, SP exhibited higher viscosity and better emulsifying property. Based on the yield and physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Surface mechanical property and residual stress of peened nickel-aluminum bronze determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Jiang, Chuanhai; Zhao, Yuantao; Chen, Ming; Ji, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most important surface strengthening method, shot peening is widely used to improve the fatigue and stress corrosion crack resistance of components by introducing the refined microstructure and compressive residual stress in the surface layer. However, the mechanical properties of this thin layer are different from the base metal and are difficult to be characterized by conventional techniques. In this work, a micro uniaxial tensile tester equipped with in-situ X-ray stress analyzer was employed to make it achievable on a nickel-aluminum bronze with shot peening treatment. According to the equivalent stress-strain relationship based on Von Mises stress criterion, the Young's modulus and yield strength of the peened layer were calculated. The results showed that the Young's modulus was the same as the bulk material, and the yield strength corresponding to the permanent plastic strain of 0.2% was increased by 21% after SP. But the fractographic analysis showed that the fracture feature of the surface layer was likely to transform from the dimple to the cleavage, indicating the improved strength might be attained at the expense of ductility. The monotonic and cyclic loading were also performed via the same combined set-up. In addition, the specific relaxation behavior of compressive residual stress was quantified by linear logarithm relationship between residual stress and cycle numbers. It was found that the compressive residual stress mainly relaxed in the first few cycles, and then reached steady state with further cycles. The relaxation rate and the stable value were chiefly depended on the stress amplitude and number of cycles. The retained residual stress kept in compressive under all given applied stress levels, suggesting that the shot peening could introduce a more stable surface layer of compressive residual stress other than the elevated strength of nickel-aluminum bronze alloy.

  19. The variation of dust content with intrinsic galaxy properties: revealing strong dust biases in many commonly-used galaxy property measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian; Bell, Eric F.

    2018-01-01

    Dust strongly affects many observations of galaxy properties, and quantifying galaxy dust content and correcting for its effects is a delicate and often uncertain task. In particular, both the impact of dust on commonly-used metrics of galaxy structure and the variation of dust content with intrinsic galaxy properties are poorly quantified. The inclination dependence of dust attenuation is a powerful tool to quantify dust amounts and the effects of dust on galaxy property measurements; this requires the construction of dust and inclination-independent selection techniques to isolate samples of intrinsically similar galaxies for study. To this end we construct dust and inclination-independent measurements of galaxy mass and star formation rate using dust-penetrated infrared datasets, and we develop novel dust and inclination-independent galaxy ‘linear’ size and concentration measurements by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared onto the major axis. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analog galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, and linear sizes and concentrations. These galaxies - identical save for their orientation - show strong systematic dust and inclination dependence in their Sérsic index, concentration, half-light radius, luminosity, (dust-corrected!) star formation rate and metallicitity, and spectral classification. We use these new metrics to study the variation in relative face-on to edge-on attenuation as a function of intrinsic stellar mass, star formation rate, and linear size and concentration. We find that, if one accounts for geometric and radiative transfer effects, the complex patterns of variation in relative attenuation can be reproduced by simple scaling relation-based dust density models in which dust optical depth is set primarily by gas density and metallicity.

  20. Effect of residual Al content on microstructure and mechanical properties of Grade B+Steel for castings for locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Kaifeng; Guo Erjun; Cao Guojian

    2013-01-01

    The bogie made of Grade B+ steel is one of the most important parts of heavy haul trains. Some accidents were found to be the result of fracture failure of the bogies. It is very important to find the reason why the fracture failure occurred. Because Al was added for the final deoxidation during the smelting process of the Grade B+Steel, residual Al existed to some extent in the castings. High residual Al content in the bogie casting was presumed to be the reason for the fracture. In this wor...

  1. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: A study using satellite data and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.

  2. Understanding the Nonproductive Enzyme Adsorption and Physicochemical Properties of Residual Lignins in Moso Bamboo Pretreated with Sulfuric Acid and Kraft Pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Min, Douyong; Lai, Chenhuan; Yong, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, to elucidate why the acid-pretreated bamboo shows disappointingly low enzymatic digestibility comparing to the alkali-pretreated bamboo, residual lignins in acid-pretreated and kraft pulped bamboo were isolated and analyzed by adsorption isotherm to evaluate their extents of nonproductive enzyme adsorption. Meanwhile, physicochemical properties of the isolated lignins were analyzed and a relationship was established with non-productive adsorption. Results showed that the adsorption affinity and binding strength of cellulase on acid-pretreated bamboo lignin (MWLa) was significantly higher than that on residual lignin in pulped bamboo (MWLp). The maximum adsorption capacity of cellulase on MWLp was 129.49 mg/g lignin, which was lower than that on MWLa (160.25 mg/g lignin). When isolated lignins were added into the Avicel hydrolysis solution, the inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of MWLa was found to be considerably stronger than that with MWLp. The cellulase adsorption on isolated lignins was correlated positively with hydrophobicity, phenolic hydroxyl group, and degree of condensation but negatively with surface charges and aliphatic hydroxyl group. These results suggest that the higher nonproductive cellulase adsorption and physicochemical properties of residual lignin in acid-pretreated bamboo may be responsible for its disappointingly low enzymatic digestibility.

  3. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, A.; Reim, A.; Kim, S.; Meima-Franke, M.; Termorshuizen, A.; Boer, de W.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bodelier, P.

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and

  4. Comparative effect of different polymerization techniques on residual monomer and hardness properties of PMMA-based denture resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Durkan, Rukiye; Koroglu, Ayşegul; Bagis, Bora

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study was to compare the residual monomer and microhardness of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based denture resins processed by using autoclave and conventional water bath techniques. To determine the amount of residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, disk-shaped specimens (n=5) were prepared from 3 different acrylic resins (Meliodent, Paladent and Qc-20). Control groups were polymerized in water bath for 30 minutes at 100°C. The study groups were prepared in an autoclave device for 60°C/30 min followed 130°C/10 min and the other group for 60°C/30 min followed by 130°C/20 min. According to standard calibration curves, ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 230 nm was used to determine the residual monomer. For the Vickers hardness measurements, disk-shaped specimens (n=5) were prepared for each test group. Hardness measurements were performed with a Vickers hardness tester under a 4.91-N press load for a 30 seconds, after immersion in distilled water at 37ºC for 48 hours. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (phardness for all resin groups (p0.05). The autoclave polymerization technique exhibited significantly lower residual monomer content and greater hardness than conventional heat polymerization.

  5. Black carbon and particulate matter optical properties from agricultural residue burning in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, A. L.; Aurell, J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Hays, M. D.; Gullett, B.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of agricultural residues in field is a common management practice that is used to quickly clear fields of post-harvest vegetation and to stimulate seed production in some grass species. Although cropland burning contributes only a minor fraction to the United States particulate matter and black carbon emissions, it can have substantial impacts on local and regional air quality and visibility. During the 2013 burning season in the Pacific Northwest United States emissions were measured from a series of burns carried out on cropland. Kentucky bluegrass residues (Poa pratensis), winter wheat stubble (Triticum aestivum), and chemically fallowed winter wheat stubble were burned in field. Particulate matter, light absorption and scattering, and black carbon concentrations were measured at ground level downwind of the field. Although particulate emissions varied substantially by fuel type and even among fields of the same fuel with different treatments (i.e., light versus heavy residues) the black carbon fraction of particulate matter was consistently less than 5% and accordingly single scattering albedos were above 0.9. The emissions exhibited strong spectral variation, with absorption angstrom exponents in the range of 3 - 5 in the wavelength range of 405 to 532 nm. Laboratory burns with residues collected from the fields produced emissions that were considerably more absorbing with single scattering albedos near 0.65 and lower absorption angstrom exponents of 1 - 2.

  6. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, A.; Reim, A.; Kim, S.Y.; Meima-Franke, M.; Termorshuizen, Aad J; De Boer, W.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even

  7. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and sunflower head residue composites: Effects of composition and compatibilization on properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing the abundant byproducts generated from processing of agricultural materials has sustainable and cost–saving potential benefits. In this work, Sunflower Head Residues (SHR) in 3 different compositions were introduced into biodegradable Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) matrices...

  8. Influence of residual phases on the properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargankova, I.; Diko, P.; Timko, M.; Slanco, P.; Matas, S.; Mihalik, M. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Mihalik, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Materials Research; Bunda, V. [Uzhorod State Univ. (Ukraine). Dept. of Physics of Semiconductors

    1994-03-01

    The partial melting in YBaCuO incompletely synthesized powders occurring at temperatures below the peritectic decomposition of the 123 (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}) compounds is related to the presence of residual phases. The results showed that the final ceramic has got a high porosity, which is independent on the temperature of sintering, the double grain size distribution and two transition temperatures up to the sintering temperature 940 C as a consequence of a higher content of the residual carbonate. The sintering at higher-temperature improved superconducting properties of ceramics. This progress is connected with cracking of large grain ceramic and with the decomposition of carbonate BaCO{sub 3}.

  9. Residual stress, mechanical and microstructure properties of multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN coating produced by R.F Magnetron discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaouina, B., E-mail: b.bouaouina@gmail.com [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Besnard, A. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech—LaBoMaP, 71250 Cluny (France); Abaidia, S.E. [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Haid, F. [CDTA, Plasma discharges Group, Baba hassen, Algers (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Depositing of crystallized molybdenum nitride and chromium nitride multilayer at room temperature. • Correlation between stress measurement and the shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N. • Studied the effect of the bi-layer thickness on the mechanical properties. - Abstract: We have investigated the effect of the period thickness of the multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN deposited on Si substrate produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. Mo{sub 2}N presents a face centered cubic structure and CrN an orthorhombic one. The residual stress of the coatings was determined by the measurement of the substrate curvature. The microstructure of the multilayer was investigated from the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (cross section images). The residual stresses resulting from the deposition of the different bi-layer thickness were measured and correlated to the structural properties of the coating as well as the nanoindentation analysis of the coating. The stresses are compressive and tensile for the individual Mo{sub 2}N and CrN layer respectively. The result shows that an increase of the multilayer coatings Mo{sub 2}N/CrN thicknesses induce an increase of the hardness and the elastic modulus, in the other hand the tensile stress increases. The shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N at high angle which means the reduction of the residual stress is in good agreement with the residual stresses measurements.

  10. Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polymer Composites Reinforced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Reduction of Residual Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Ghasemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The micromechanical models are used to investigate mechanical and thermal properties of a polymer matrix nanocomposite containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT in their effects to reduce residual stresses in nanocomposites. To do this, first nanotubes with different weights and volume fractions were dispersed in ML-506 epoxy resin. By using different micromechanical models, the effect additional nanotubes on elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of nanotubes/epoxy were studied as critical parameters. Comparing the model and available experimental results, the modified Halpin-Tsai model and the modified Schapery model were chosen to calculate the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites. Then, using the matrix reinforced with MWCNT and classical micromechanics models the elastic modulus and coefficients of thermal expansion of the nanocomposites were determined for a single orthotropic ply. The results showed that the rule of mixture (ROM and Hashin-Rosen model to determine the longitudinal and transverse elastic moduli and Van Fo Fy model to calculate the coefficient of thermal expansion were in good agreements with the experimental results of a single-layer nanocomposite. Finally, the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT was used to calculate the residual stresses of the CNT/carbon fiber/epoxy composites with different weights and volume fractions of MWCNT for angle-ply, cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminated composite materials. The results showed that residual stresses were reduced using a maximum of 1% wt or 0.675% volume fraction of the MWCNT in polymer composites. Also, the highest reduction in residual stresses was observed in [02/902] cross-ply laminated composite materials.

  11. Study on the properties of chromium residue-cement matrices (CRCM) and the influences of superplasticizers on chromium(VI)-immobilising capability of cement matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui-Sheng; Kan, Li-Li

    2009-03-15

    The study of cementitious activity of chromium residue (CR) was carried out to formulate the properties of chromium residue-cement matrices (CRCM) by blending CR with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The particle size distribution, microstructures of CR were investigated by some apparatuses, and physical properties, leaching behavior of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] of CRCM were also determined by some experiments. Three types of commonly used superplasticizers (sulphonated acetone formaldehyde superplasticizer (J1), polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer (J2) and naphthalene superplasticizer (J3)) were chosen to investigate their influences on the physical properties and the Cr(VI)-immobilisation in the leachate of the CRCM hardened pastes. The results show that the CR has a certain cementitious activity. The incorporation of CR improves the pore size distribution of CRCM. The Cr(VI) concentrations in the leachate of CRCM significantly decrease by incorporation of J2. Among three superplasticizers, J2 achieves lowest Cr(VI) leaching ratio. Based on this study, it is likely to develop CR as a potential new additive used in cement-based materials.

  12. Bias against research on gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislak, Aleksandra; Formanowicz, Magdalena; Saguy, Tamar

    2018-01-01

    The bias against women in academia is a documented phenomenon that has had detrimental consequences, not only for women, but also for the quality of science. First, gender bias in academia affects female scientists, resulting in their underrepresentation in academic institutions, particularly in higher ranks. The second type of gender bias in science relates to some findings applying only to male participants, which produces biased knowledge. Here, we identify a third potentially powerful source of gender bias in academia: the bias against research on gender bias. In a bibliometric investigation covering a broad range of social sciences, we analyzed published articles on gender bias and race bias and established that articles on gender bias are funded less often and published in journals with a lower Impact Factor than articles on comparable instances of social discrimination. This result suggests the possibility of an underappreciation of the phenomenon of gender bias and related research within the academic community. Addressing this meta-bias is crucial for the further examination of gender inequality, which severely affects many women across the world.

  13. A micro-mechanical analysis of thermo-elastic properties and local residual stresses in ductile iron based on a new anisotropic model for the graphite nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2016-01-01

    analysis to verify its consistency with the room-temperature elastic properties of ductile iron measured at the macro scale. Subsequently, it is used to investigate the formation of local residual stresses around the graphite particles by simulating the manufacturing process of a typical ferritic ductile......In this paper, the thermo-elastic behavior of the graphite nodules contained in ductile iron is derived on the basis of recent transmission electron microscopy investigations of their real internal structure. The proposed model is initially validated by performing a finite element homogenization...

  14. Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emmanuelle R; Moritz, Steffen; Schwannauer, Matthias; Wiseman, Zoe; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Scott, Jan; Beck, Aaron T; Donaldson, Catherine; Hagen, Roger; Ross, Kerry; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Ison, Rebecca; Williams, Sally; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa A

    2014-03-01

    The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),(1) relating to "Anomalous Perceptions" and "Threatening Events" themes. Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples. The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis. Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas.

  15. Effect of Welding Processes on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses of Plain 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, S.; Vasantharaja, P.; Brahadees, G.; Vasudevan, M.; Mahadevan, S.

    2017-12-01

    9Cr-1Mo steel designated as P9 is widely used in the construction of power plants and high-temperature applications. It is chosen for fabricating hexcan fuel subassembly wrapper components of fast breeder reactors. Arc welding processes are generally used for fabricating 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. A-TIG welding process is increasingly being adopted by the industries. In the present study, shielded metal arc (SMA), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and A-TIG welding processes are used for fabricating the 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints of 10 mm thickness. Effect of the above welding processes on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties and residual stresses of the weld joints has been studied in detail. All the three weld joints exhibited comparable strength and ductility values. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by SMAW process exhibited lower impact toughness values caused by coarser grain size and inclusions. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by TIG welding exhibited higher toughness due to finer grain size, while the weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process exhibited adequate toughness values. SMA steel weld joint exhibited compressive residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ, while TIG and A-TIG weld joint exhibited tensile residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ.

  16. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  17. Analysis of binding properties and specificity through identification of the interface forming residues (IFR for serine proteases in silico docked to different inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silveira Carlos H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes belonging to the same super family of proteins in general operate on variety of substrates and are inhibited by wide selection of inhibitors. In this work our main objective was to expand the scope of studies that consider only the catalytic and binding pocket amino acids while analyzing enzyme specificity and instead, include a wider category which we have named the Interface Forming Residues (IFR. We were motivated to identify those amino acids with decreased accessibility to solvent after docking of different types of inhibitors to sub classes of serine proteases and then create a table (matrix of all amino acid positions at the interface as well as their respective occupancies. Our goal is to establish a platform for analysis of the relationship between IFR characteristics and binding properties/specificity for bi-molecular complexes. Results We propose a novel method for describing binding properties and delineating serine proteases specificity by compiling an exhaustive table of interface forming residues (IFR for serine proteases and their inhibitors. Currently, the Protein Data Bank (PDB does not contain all the data that our analysis would require. Therefore, an in silico approach was designed for building corresponding complexes The IFRs are obtained by "rigid body docking" among 70 structurally aligned, sequence wise non-redundant, serine protease structures with 3 inhibitors: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI, ecotine and ovomucoid third domain inhibitor. The table (matrix of all amino acid positions at the interface and their respective occupancy is created. We also developed a new computational protocol for predicting IFRs for those complexes which were not deciphered experimentally so far, achieving accuracy of at least 0.97. Conclusions The serine proteases interfaces prefer polar (including glycine residues (with some exceptions. Charged residues were found to be uniquely prevalent at the

  18. Analysis of binding properties and specificity through identification of the interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases in silico docked to different inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina; Togawa, Roberto C; Neshich, Izabella A P; Mazoni, Ivan; Mancini, Adauto L; Minardi, Raquel C de Melo; da Silveira, Carlos H; Jardine, José G; Santoro, Marcelo M; Neshich, Goran

    2010-10-20

    Enzymes belonging to the same super family of proteins in general operate on variety of substrates and are inhibited by wide selection of inhibitors. In this work our main objective was to expand the scope of studies that consider only the catalytic and binding pocket amino acids while analyzing enzyme specificity and instead, include a wider category which we have named the Interface Forming Residues (IFR). We were motivated to identify those amino acids with decreased accessibility to solvent after docking of different types of inhibitors to sub classes of serine proteases and then create a table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface as well as their respective occupancies. Our goal is to establish a platform for analysis of the relationship between IFR characteristics and binding properties/specificity for bi-molecular complexes. We propose a novel method for describing binding properties and delineating serine proteases specificity by compiling an exhaustive table of interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases and their inhibitors. Currently, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) does not contain all the data that our analysis would require. Therefore, an in silico approach was designed for building corresponding complexes. The IFRs are obtained by "rigid body docking" among 70 structurally aligned, sequence wise non-redundant, serine protease structures with 3 inhibitors: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), ecotine and ovomucoid third domain inhibitor. The table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface and their respective occupancy is created. We also developed a new computational protocol for predicting IFRs for those complexes which were not deciphered experimentally so far, achieving accuracy of at least 0.97. The serine proteases interfaces prefer polar (including glycine) residues (with some exceptions). Charged residues were found to be uniquely prevalent at the interfaces between the "miscellaneous-virus" subfamily

  19. Analysis of binding properties and specificity through identification of the interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases in silico docked to different inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Enzymes belonging to the same super family of proteins in general operate on variety of substrates and are inhibited by wide selection of inhibitors. In this work our main objective was to expand the scope of studies that consider only the catalytic and binding pocket amino acids while analyzing enzyme specificity and instead, include a wider category which we have named the Interface Forming Residues (IFR). We were motivated to identify those amino acids with decreased accessibility to solvent after docking of different types of inhibitors to sub classes of serine proteases and then create a table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface as well as their respective occupancies. Our goal is to establish a platform for analysis of the relationship between IFR characteristics and binding properties/specificity for bi-molecular complexes. Results We propose a novel method for describing binding properties and delineating serine proteases specificity by compiling an exhaustive table of interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases and their inhibitors. Currently, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) does not contain all the data that our analysis would require. Therefore, an in silico approach was designed for building corresponding complexes The IFRs are obtained by "rigid body docking" among 70 structurally aligned, sequence wise non-redundant, serine protease structures with 3 inhibitors: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), ecotine and ovomucoid third domain inhibitor. The table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface and their respective occupancy is created. We also developed a new computational protocol for predicting IFRs for those complexes which were not deciphered experimentally so far, achieving accuracy of at least 0.97. Conclusions The serine proteases interfaces prefer polar (including glycine) residues (with some exceptions). Charged residues were found to be uniquely prevalent at the interfaces between the

  20. Beyond assembly bias: exploring secondary halo biases for cluster-size haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2018-03-01

    Secondary halo bias, commonly known as `assembly bias', is the dependence of halo clustering on a halo property other than mass. This prediction of the Λ Cold Dark Matter cosmology is essential to modelling the galaxy distribution to high precision and interpreting clustering measurements. As the name suggests, different manifestations of secondary halo bias have been thought to originate from halo assembly histories. We show conclusively that this is incorrect for cluster-size haloes. We present an up-to-date summary of secondary halo biases of high-mass haloes due to various halo properties including concentration, spin, several proxies of assembly history, and subhalo properties. While concentration, spin, and the abundance and radial distribution of subhaloes exhibit significant secondary biases, properties that directly quantify halo assembly history do not. In fact, the entire assembly histories of haloes in pairs are nearly identical to those of isolated haloes. In general, a global correlation between two halo properties does not predict whether or not these two properties exhibit similar secondary biases. For example, assembly history and concentration (or subhalo abundance) are correlated for both paired and isolated haloes, but follow slightly different conditional distributions in these two cases. This results in a secondary halo bias due to concentration (or subhalo abundance), despite the lack of assembly bias in the strict sense for cluster-size haloes. Due to this complexity, caution must be exercised in using any one halo property as a proxy to study the secondary bias due to another property.

  1. D-amino acid residue in a defensin-like peptide from platypus venom: effect on structure and chromatographic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Allan M; Tsampazi, Chryssanthi; Geraghty, Dominic P; Bansal, Paramjit S; Alewood, Paul F; Kuchel, Philip W

    2005-10-15

    The recent discovery that the natriuretic peptide OvCNPb (Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide B) from platypus (Ornithorynchus anatinus) venom contains a D-amino acid residue suggested that other D-amino-acid-containing peptides might be present in the venom. In the present study, we show that DLP-2 (defensin-like peptide-2), a 42-amino-acid residue polypeptide in the platypus venom, also contains a D-amino acid residue, D-methionine, at position 2, while DLP-4, which has an identical amino acid sequence, has all amino acids in the L-form. These findings were supported further by the detection of isomerase activity in the platypus gland venom extract that converts DLP-4 into DLP-2. In the light of this new information, the tertiary structure of DLP-2 was recalculated using a new structural template with D-Met2. The structure of DLP-4 was also determined in order to evaluate the effect of a D-amino acid at position 2 on the structure and possibly to explain the large retention time difference observed for the two molecules in reverse-phase HPLC. The solution structures of the DLP-2 and DLP-4 are very similar to each other and to the earlier reported structure of DLP-2, which assumed that all amino acids were in the L-form. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the D-amino acid at position 2 has minimal effect on the overall fold in solution.

  2. Effect of the heating rate on residual thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of a high-strength concrete in the context of nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, C.; Pin, M.; Ranc, G.; Rodrigues, S.

    2003-01-01

    Concrete is likely to be used in massive structures for nuclear waste long-term storage facilities in France. In the framework of vitrified waste and spent fuel management, these structures could be submitted to high temperatures. In standard conditions, ambient temperature should not exceed 60 degC but in case of failure of a cooling system, concretes could be temporarily exposed to temperatures up to 250 degC. Depending on the temperature rise kinetics, concretes could be damaged to a greater or lesser extent. In this context, an experimental study on the effect of heating rate on concrete thermo-hydro-mechanical properties exposed to high temperatures (110 - 250 degC) was carried out at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Data analysis and interpretation provided enough arguments to conclude that, at local scale, the impact of heating rate on residual properties was real though relatively limited. (author)

  3. The meaning of the bias uncertainty measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, David L

    2008-08-01

    Characterization of measurement uncertainty in terms of root sums of squares of both unknown systematic as well as random error components is given meaning in the sense of prediction intervals. Both types of errors are commonly encountered with industrial hygiene air monitoring of hazardous substances. Two extreme types of measurement methods are presented for illustrating how confidence levels may be ascribed to prediction intervals defined by such uncertainty values. In the case of method calibration at each measurement, systematic error or bias may enter from a biased calibrant. At another extreme, a single initial method evaluation may leave residual bias owing to random error in the evaluation itself or to the use of a biased reference method. Analysis is simplified through new simple approximations to probabilistic limits (quantiles) on the magnitude of a non-central Student t-distributed random variable. Connection is established between traditional confidence limits, accuracy measures in the case of bias minimization and an uncertainty measure.

  4. Symmetry as Bias: Rediscovering Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a rational reconstruction of Einstein's discovery of special relativity, validated through an implementation: the Erlanger program. Einstein's discovery of special relativity revolutionized both the content of physics and the research strategy used by theoretical physicists. This research strategy entails a mutual bootstrapping process between a hypothesis space for biases, defined through different postulated symmetries of the universe, and a hypothesis space for physical theories. The invariance principle mutually constrains these two spaces. The invariance principle enables detecting when an evolving physical theory becomes inconsistent with its bias, and also when the biases for theories describing different phenomena are inconsistent. Structural properties of the invariance principle facilitate generating a new bias when an inconsistency is detected. After a new bias is generated. this principle facilitates reformulating the old, inconsistent theory by treating the latter as a limiting approximation. The structural properties of the invariance principle can be suitably generalized to other types of biases to enable primal-dual learning.

  5. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  6. The Sensory Properties, Color, Microbial, Lipid Oxidation, and Residual Nitrite of Se’i Marinated with Lime and Roselle Calyces Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. M. Malelak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat deterioration can occur because of lipid oxidation and bacteria that could affect meat quality. It has been recognized that fruits of lime (Citrus aurantifolia and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces contain bioactive compounds that have a capability to prevent oxidation and bacterial growth. The objective of this research was to  investigate the effect of lime and roselle calyces extracts on se’i (Rotenese smoked beef quality. Completely randomized design (CRD with 2x4 factorial pattern was used in this study. The first factor (E was source of extracts i.e., lime extract (E1 and roselle extract (E2. The second factor (L was level of the extract consisted of 4 levels i.e., control (without extract/ L0; L1= 1%; L2= 2%; and L3= 3% (v/v. Each treatment consisted of 3 replications. Sensory properties measured were aroma, taste, and tenderness. Other variables measured were color, total plate count (TPC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and residual nitrite.  The taste and tenderness of se’i were affected (P<0.05 by combination of the extract and the level of the extract.  Results showed that there were significant interactions (P<0.05 between the kind of extracts and the level of extract on L (lightness, a (redness, and b (yellowness values, TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. The level of 3% of  lime extract as well as 3% of roselle calyces extract improved score of taste and tenderness, reduced a values, decreased TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. Marinating in 3% of roselle calyces extract decreased the b value but marinating in 3% of lime increased the b value of se’i. It is concluded that marinating 3% of roselle or 3% of lime gives the best effect on taste, tenderness, TPC, and TBARS values of se’i.

  7. Distribution and properties of gunshot residue originating from a Luger 9 mm ammunition in the vicinity of the shooting gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2009-01-10

    Examinations of various features of gunshot residue (GSR) collected from targets in a function of the shooting distance as well as from hands and the forearm, front and back parts of the upper clothing of the shooting person were performed with SEM-EDX. GSR samples were obtained using Walther P-99 pistol and Luger 9 mm ammunition of Polish production. The experiments were designed in such a manner that the substrates for collecting GSR reminded the ones usually obtained for examinations within criminal cases. Results of the performed examinations in the form of parameters describing GSR particles: the number of GSR, proportions of their chemical classes as well as their sizes revealed a dependence on the shooting distance both, in the direction of shooting and backwards, i.e. on the shooting person. The analysis of the distribution of particles in the vicinity of the shooting gun may be utilised in description of the general rules of the dispersion of GSR as well as in the reconstruction of a real shooting case.

  8. Synthesis, optical properties and residual strain effect of GaN nanowires generated via metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2017-04-18

    Herein, we report on the studies of GaN nanowires (GaN NWs) prepared via a metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method with Pt as the catalyst. It has been found that etching time greatly influences the growth of GaN NWs. The density and the length of nanowires increased with longer etching time, and excellent substrate coverage was observed. The average nanowire width and length are around 35 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows a single-crystalline wurtzite structure and is confirmed by X-ray measurements. The synthesis mechanism of GaN NWs using the metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method was presented. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of GaN NWs show red-shift PL peaks compared to the as-grown sample associated with the relaxation of compressive stress. Furthermore, a shift of the E2 peak to the lower frequency in the Raman spectra for the samples etched for a longer time confirms such a stress relaxation. Based on Raman measurements, the compressive stress σxx and the residual strain εxx were evaluated to be 0.23 GPa and 2.6 × 10−4, respectively. GaN NW synthesis using a low cost method might be used for the fabrication of power optoelectronic devices and gas sensors.

  9. Residue Modification and Mass Spectrometry for the Investigation of Structural and Metalation Properties of Metallothionein and Cysteine-Rich Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gordon W; Stillman, Martin J

    2017-04-26

    Structural information regarding metallothioneins (MTs) has been hard to come by due to its highly dynamic nature in the absence of metal-thiolate cluster formation and crystallization difficulties. Thus, typical spectroscopic methods for structural determination are limited in their usefulness when applied to MTs. Mass spectrometric methods have revolutionized our understanding of protein dynamics, structure, and folding. Recently, advances have been made in residue modification mass spectrometry in order to probe the hard-to-characterize structure of apo- and partially metalated MTs. By using different cysteine specific alkylation reagents, time dependent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and step-wise "snapshot" ESI-MS, we are beginning to understand the dynamics of the conformers of apo-MT and related species. In this review we highlight recent papers that use these and similar techniques for structure elucidation and attempt to explain in a concise manner the data interpretations of these complex methods. We expect increasing resolution in our picture of the structural conformations of metal-free MTs as these techniques are more widely adopted and combined with other promising tools for structural elucidation.

  10. Investigation of fission properties and evaporation residue measurement in the reactions using 238U target nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saro S.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fragment mass distributions for fission after full momentum transfer were measured in the reactions of 30Si,34,36 S,31P,40Ar + 238U at bombarding energies around the Coulomb barrier. Mass distributions change significantly as a function of incident beam energy. The asymmetric fission probability increases at sub-barrier energy. The phenomenon is interpreted as an enhanced quasifission probability owing to orientation effects on fusion and/or quasifission. The evaporation residue (ER cross sections were measured in the reactions of 30Si + 238U and 34S + 238U to obtain information on fusion. In the latter reaction, significant suppression of fusion was implied. This suggests that fission events different from compound nucleus are included in the masssymmetric fragments. The results are supported by a model calculation based on a dynamical calculation using Langevin equation, in which the mass distribution for fusion-fission and quasifission fragments are separately determined.

  11. Bias-correction in vector autoregressive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the properties of various methods for bias-correcting parameter estimates in both stationary and non-stationary vector autoregressive models. First, we show that two analytical bias formulas from the existing literature are in fact identical. Next, based on a detailed simulation study...

  12. Suitable conditions for xylanases activities from Bacillus sp. GA2(1 and Bacillus sp. GA1(6 and their properties for agricultural residues hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Chantorn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sp. GA2(1 and Bacillus sp. GA1(6 were isolated from soybean field in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Crude enzymes from both isolates showed the activities of cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase at 37°C for 24 h. The highest xylanase activities of Bacillus sp. GA2(1 and Bacillus sp. GA1(6 were 1.58±0.25 and 0.82±0.16 U/ml, respectively. The relative xylanase activities from both strains were more than 60% at pH 5.0 to 8.0. The optimum temperature of xylanases was 50°C in both strains. The residual xylanase activities from both strains were more than 70% at 60°C for 60 min. Five agricultural wastes (AWs, namely coffee residue, soybean meal, potato peel, sugarcane bagasse, and corn cobs, were used as substrates for hydrolysis properties. The highest reducing sugar content of 101±1.32 µg/ml was obtained from soybean meal hydrolysate produced by Bacillus sp. GA2(1 xylanase.

  13. The residual monomer content and mechanical properties of CAD\\CAM resins used in the fabrication of complete dentures as compared to heat cured resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayman, Al-Dharrab

    2017-07-01

    The utilization of computer-assisted designing and computer-assisted milling CAD\\CAM resins in the fabrication of removable prostheses is a modern-day concept that offers many advantages over the use of the traditional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). This study instigated some of the mechanical properties of CAD\\CAM denture base resin including the amount of residual monomer. This study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University from October 2016 to February 2017. A total of seventy rectangular specimens were fabricated (group A: 35 heat-cured PMMA and group B: 35 CAD/CAM pre-polymerized acrylic resin blocks). The flexural strength and surface hardness were tested while the residual monomer content at baseline, two-day and seven-day intervals was estimated using gas chromatography (GC). Means and standard deviations were determined for each group as well as independent-samples t-test and ANOVA with repeated measures for comparison between the groups and subgroups of varying time intervals. Heat cured PMMA (A), displayed higher flexural strength and low value flexural modulus compared to CAD/CAM acrylic resin denture base material (B). Student t-test indicated highly significant differences (pCAD/CAM resin may be considered suitable for use in the construction of denture bases.

  14. The influence of different acid dissolution methods on insoluble residues of limestones and their magnetic properties and mineralogical composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koptíková, Leona; Hladil, Jindřich; Schnabl, Petr; Skála, Roman; Slavík, Ladislav; Šlechta, Stanislav; Böhmová, Vlasta; Šťastný, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2011), s. 58-59 ISSN 1608-8166. [IGCP 596 Opening Meeting. 19.09.2011-24.09.2011, Graz] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/2351; GA AV ČR IAAX00130702 Grant - others: UNESCO IGCP 596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : mineralogy * magnetic properties * limestones Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://erdwissenschaften.uni-graz.at/publikationen/zeitschrift/band16/Band16.pdf

  15. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of the Effect of Axial and Transverse Compression on the Residual Tensile Properties of Ballistic Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib C. Chowdhury

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic impact induces multiaxial loading on Kevlar® and polyethylene fibers used in protective armor systems. The influence of multiaxial loading on fiber failure is not well understood. Experiments show reduction in the tensile strength of these fibers after axial and transverse compression. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD simulations to explain and develop a fundamental understanding of this experimental observation since the property reduction mechanism evolves from the atomistic level. An all-atom MD method is used where bonded and non-bonded atomic interactions are described through a state-of-the-art reactive force field. Monotonic tension simulations in three principal directions of the models are conducted to determine the anisotropic elastic and strength properties. Then the models are subjected to multi-axial loads—axial compression, followed by axial tension and transverse compression, followed by axial tension. MD simulation results indicate that pre-compression distorts the crystal structure, inducing preloading of the covalent bonds and resulting in lower tensile properties.

  16. Influence of liming on residual soil respiration and chemical properties in a tropical no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Valente Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the climate changes occurring across the planet, especially global warming, the different forms of agricultural soil use have attracted researchers´ attention. Changes in soil management may influence soil respiration and, consequently, C sequestration. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term influence of liming on soil respiration and correlate it with soil chemical properties after two years of liming in a no-tillage system. A randomized complete block design was used with six replications. The experimental treatments consisted of four lime rates and a control treatment without lime. Two years after liming, soil CO2 emission was measured and the soil sampled (layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. The P, Ca2+ e Mg2+ soil contents and pH and base saturation were determined. CO2 emission from soil limed at the recommended rate was 24.1 % higher, and at twice the recommended rate, 47.4 % higher than from unlimed soil. Liming improved the chemical properties, and the linear increase in soil respiration rate correlated positively with the P, Ca2+ and Mg2+ soil contents, pH and base saturation, and negatively with H + Al and Al3+ contents. The correlation coefficient between soil respiration rate and chemical properties was highest in the 10-20 cm layer.

  17. Phenolic acids identified in sorghum distillery residue demonstrated antioxidative and anti-cold-stress properties in cultured tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Mei; Lin, Jing-Jen; Liao, Chih-Yuan; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Pan, Bonnie Sun

    2014-05-21

    This study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds and evaluate the anti-cold-stress function of the sorghum distillery residue (SDR) using tilapia as an alternative animal model. The highest contents of water-soluble bioactive compounds in SDR were polyphenols, followed by tannins, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. SDR was extracted with double-distilled water, 95% ethanol, and ethyl acetate, separately. The ethanol extract (SDR-E) yielded the highest polyphenol content [15.03 mg/g of SDR dry weight (dw)], of which the EC50 value of R,R-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging efficiency was 0.56 ± 0.04 mg/mL. The SDR-E suppressed the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) more efficiently than that of other extracts. Tilapia fed a diet containing 3.6% SDR-E decreased accumulative mortality during cold stress, of 46.2%. The accumulative morality of the control was 92.9%. The phenolic acids identified in SDR included gallic acid (0.36 ± 0.08 mg/g of SDR dw), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (0.16 ± 0.12 mg/g of SDR dw), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.49 ± 0.23 mg/g of SDR dw). Diets supplemented with 0.5% 4-hydroxybenzoic acid fed to tilapia showed a lower mortality rate than that fed 1.0% 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, comparable to that of the tilapia fed 20% SDR. The latter showed lower mortality than that of the control. These results suggested that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is one of the major anti-cold-stress compounds in SDR.

  18. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong-hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the extracted compositions of D-DCLR were heavy oil (HS, asphaltene (A, pre-asphaltene (PA and tetrahydrofuran isolusion (THFIS, whose contents were 5.10%, 40.90%, 14.4%, 39.60%, respectively. During the pyrolysis process, HS was the main source of tar, and HS, A as well as PA were conducive to improve gas yields. The THFIS helped to improve the yield of the formed-coke up to 89.5%, corresponding to the compressive strength was only 147.7N/ball for the coke. A and PA were the key factors affecting the compressive strength and surface structure of the formed-coke. The compressive strength of coke could be up to 728.0N/ball with adding D-DCLR, which reduced by 50% after the removal of A and PA. The FT-IR analysis showed that the types of surface functional groups of the formed-coke were remained the same after co-pyrolysis, but the absorption peak intensity of each functional group was changed.

  19. Dominant negative mutant of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluR3: implications for the role of a cysteine residue for its channel activity and pharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watase, K; Sekiguchi, M; Matsui, T A; Tagawa, Y; Wada, K

    1997-01-01

    We reported that a 33-amino-acid deletion (from tyrosine-715 to glycine-747) in a putative extracellular loop of GluR3 produced a mutant that exhibited dominant negative effects upon the functional expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors [Sekiguchi et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 14559-14565]. In this study, we searched for a key residue in the dominant negative effects to explore the mechanism and examined the role of the residue in the function of the AMPA receptor. We prepared 20 GluR3 mutants with amino acid substitutions within the 33-amino-acid-region, and dominant negative effects were tested electrophysiologically in Xenopus oocytes co-expressing the mutant and normal subunits. Among the mutants, only a GluR3 mutant in which an original cysteine (Cys)-722 was replaced by alanine exhibited a dominant negative effect comparable with that of the original mutant in which the entire 33-amino-acid segment is deleted. The co-expression of the Cys-722 mutant did not inhibit the translation of normal subunits in oocytes. The Cys-722 mutant formed a functional homomeric receptor with significantly higher affinity for glutamate or kainate than a homomeric GluR3 receptor. The Cys-722 mutation greatly enhanced the sensitivity of GluR3 for aniracetam, which alters kinetic properties of AMPA receptors. The kainate-induced currents in oocytes expressing the Cys-722 mutant alone showed strong inward rectification. These results suggest that the Cys-722 in GluR3 is important for dominant negative effects and plays a crucial role in the determination of pharmacological properties in AMPA receptor function. PMID:9065754

  20. Utilization of crops residues as compost and biochar for improving soil physical properties and upland rice productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of crops waste in the agricultural field can be converted to organic fertilizer throughout the process of composting or pyrolysis to return back into the soil. The study aimed to elucidate the effect of compost and biochar application on the physical properties and productivity of upland rice at Village of Sukaraja Nuban, Batanghari Nuban Sub district, East Lampung Regency in 2015. The amendment treatments were A. control; B. 10 t rice husk biochar/ ha; C. 10 t maize cob biochar/ha; D. 10 t straw compost/ha; E. 10 t stover compost/ha, F. 10 t rice husk biochar/ha + 10 t straw compost/ha; F. 10 t maize cob biochar/ha + 10 t maize stover compost/ha. The treatments were arranged in randomized block design with four replicates. The plot size for each treatment was 10 x 20 m. After incubation for about one month, undisturbed soil samples were taken using copper ring at 10–20 cm depth for laboratory analyzes. Analyses of soil physical properties included bulk density, particle density, total porosity, drainage porosity, and soil water condition. Plant observations conducted at harvest were plant height, number of panicle, number of grain/panicle, and grain weight/plot. Results of the study showed that biochar and compost improved soil physical properties such as bulk density, total porosity, fast drainage pores, water content, and permeability of soil. The combination of rice husk biochar and straw compost gave better effect than single applications on rice production components (numbers of panicle and grains of rice, and gave the highest yield of 4.875 t/ha.

  1. Benefits of being biased!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian fitness; Drosophila melanogaster. RESEARCH COMMENTARY. Benefits of being biased! SUTIRTH DEY*. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,. Jakkur P.O. Box 6436 ...

  2. Static mechanical properties of 30 x 11.5-14.5, type VII, aircraft tires of bias-ply and radial-belted design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Lopez, Mercedes C.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the static mechanical characteristics of 30 x 115-14.5 bias-ply and radial aircraft tires. The tires were subjected to vertical and lateral loads and mass moment of inertia tests were conducted. Static load deflection curves, spring rates, hysteresis losses, and inertia data are presented along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of one tire over the other.

  3. Corneal Biomechanical Properties after FS-LASIK with Residual Bed Thickness Less Than 50% of the Original Corneal Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The changes in corneal biomechanical properties after LASIK remain an unknown but important topic for surgical design and prognostic evaluation. This study aims to observe the postoperative corneal biomechanical properties one month after LASIK with amount of corneal cutting (ACC greater than 50% of the central corneal thickness (CCT. Methods. FS-LASIK was performed in 10 left rabbit eyes with ACC being 60% (L60 and 65% (L65 of the CCT, while the right eyes (R were the control. After 4 weeks, rabbits were executed and corneal strip samples were prepared for uniaxial tensile tests. Results. At the same strain, the stresses of L65 and L60 were larger than those of R. The elastic moduli of L60 and L65 were larger than those of R when the stress was 0.02 MPa, while they began to be less than those of R when stress exceeds the low-stress region. After 10 s relaxation, the stress of specimens L65, L60, and R increased in turn. Conclusion. The elastic moduli of the cornea after FS-LASIK with ACC greater than 50% of the CCT do not become less under normal rabbit IOP. The limit stress grows with the rise of ACC when relaxation becomes stable.

  4. The impact of the amount of polypropylene fibres on spalling behaviour and residual mechanical properties of Reactive Powder Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study on the spalling behaviour and mechanical properties of Reactive Powder Concretes (RPCs in high temperature are presented. The research program was established to evaluate the impact of low melting temperature polypropylene fibres PP on mechanical properties evolution with temperature but also to verify the effectiveness of their addition to prevent spalling. Three sets of RPC specimens were prepared for this study with different amount of PP fibres (no fibres, 1.0 kg/m3 and 2.0 kg/m3. The addition of PP fibres reduces the initial compressive strength of the RPC material by approx. 14% no significant influence on modulus of elasticity was observed. Addition of 1 kg/m3 of PP fibres in RPC, seem not to give a sufficient protection against occurrence of spalling phenomenon. By adding 2 kg/m3 of PP fibres the risk of spalling is significantly reduced.

  5. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  6. Influence of residual catalyst on the properties of conjugated polyphenylenevinylene materials: Palladium nanoparticles and poor electrical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Nyberg, R.B.; Jørgensen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of conjugated polymer materials using palladium catalysis was shown to result in a contamination of the polymer product with palladium nanoparticles that were difficult to detect and remove. The particle size was on the order of 20 nm, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy...... (TEM). Further, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to establish the chemical and physical nature of the catalyst remnants. We demonstrate the identity of many physical and chemical properties of the same...... polymer material prepared by two different routes: the palladium route and the condensation route. The performance in a device application of the two polymer materials was, however, very different, and the palladium route was demonstrated to give poor films with low breakdown voltages and short circuits....

  7. Comparative chemistry and biological properties of the solid residues from hydrodistillation of Spanish populations of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Vioque, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid residues from the hydrodistillation of selected Spanish populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. have been analyzed for their polyphenol composition, and antioxidant and bioplaguicide activities. The objective was to evaluate and select the most suitable plant materials as sources of natural antioxidants and crop protectants. Total polyphenol content and polyphenol composition of rosemary populations were very dependent on the growth location: populations from Aranjuez showed a higher content of total polyphenols and were richer in rosmarinic acid as compared with their equivalent populations from Cuenca, whereas these latter were characterized by an overall higher content in genkwanin and carnosol. Most of the antioxidant activities were highly correlated with the total content of polyphenols although some polyphenols like carnosic acid and carnosol seemed to favor such activities. The extracts from R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and moderate against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and Myzus persicae Sulzer, according to their feeding ecologies. The biological effects of the active samples cannot be accounted by their chemical composition, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Both the phytotoxic and stimulating effects on Lactuca sativa L., and Lolium perenne L. leaf and/or root growth were observed.Se ha analizado la composición en polifenoles y las actividades antioxidante y bioplaguicida de los residuos sólidos procedentes de la hidrodestilación de poblaciones seleccionadas de romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. El objetivo fue evaluar y seleccionar los materiales vegetales más adecuados como fuente de antioxidantes y bioplaguicidas naturales. El contenido total y la composición en polifenoles de las poblaciones de romero dependieron mucho de la localidad de cultivo: las poblaciones de Aranjuez mostraron un mayor contenido en polifenoles y fueron más ricas en

  8. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki; Miyazato, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H 2 O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, 13 C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously

  9. Catalytic Properties of Amylolytic Enzymes Produced by Gongronella butleri Using Agroindustrial Residues on Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriéla Finoto Cavalheiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of starch, a vegetable polysaccharide abundant in nature. These enzymes can be utilized in the production of syrups, alcohol, detergent, pharmaceutical products, and animal feed formulations. The aim of this study was to optimize the production of amylases by the filamentous fungus Gongronella butleri by solid-state fermentation and to evaluate the catalytic properties of the obtained enzymatic extract. The highest amylase production, 63.25 U g−1 (or 6.32 U mL−1, was obtained by culturing the fungus in wheat bran with 55% of initial moisture, cultivated for 96 h at 25°C. The enzyme presented optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 55°C. The amylase produced was stable in a wide pH range (3.5–9.5 and maintained its catalytic activity for 1 h at 40°C. Furthermore, the enzymatic extract hydrolyzed starches from different vegetable sources, presenting predominant dextrinizing activity for all substrates evaluated. However, the presence of glucose was observed in a higher concentration during hydrolysis of corn starch, indicating the synergistic action of endo- and exoamylases, which enables the application of this enzymatic extract to produce syrups from different starch sources.

  10. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki, E-mail: ebitani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Miyazato, Akio [Nanotechnology Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H{sub 2}O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  11. Catalytic Properties of Amylolytic Enzymes Produced by Gongronella butleri Using Agroindustrial Residues on Solid-State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Gabriéla Finoto; Sanguine, Isadora Stranieri; Santos, Flávia Regina da Silva; da Costa, Ana Carolina; Fernandes, Matheus; da Paz, Marcelo Fossa; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano

    2017-01-01

    Amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of starch, a vegetable polysaccharide abundant in nature. These enzymes can be utilized in the production of syrups, alcohol, detergent, pharmaceutical products, and animal feed formulations. The aim of this study was to optimize the production of amylases by the filamentous fungus Gongronella butleri by solid-state fermentation and to evaluate the catalytic properties of the obtained enzymatic extract. The highest amylase production, 63.25 U g−1 (or 6.32 U mL−1), was obtained by culturing the fungus in wheat bran with 55% of initial moisture, cultivated for 96 h at 25°C. The enzyme presented optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 55°C. The amylase produced was stable in a wide pH range (3.5–9.5) and maintained its catalytic activity for 1 h at 40°C. Furthermore, the enzymatic extract hydrolyzed starches from different vegetable sources, presenting predominant dextrinizing activity for all substrates evaluated. However, the presence of glucose was observed in a higher concentration during hydrolysis of corn starch, indicating the synergistic action of endo- and exoamylases, which enables the application of this enzymatic extract to produce syrups from different starch sources. PMID:29376074

  12. Catalytic Properties of Amylolytic Enzymes Produced byGongronella butleriUsing Agroindustrial Residues on Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Gabriéla Finoto; Sanguine, Isadora Stranieri; Santos, Flávia Regina da Silva; da Costa, Ana Carolina; Fernandes, Matheus; da Paz, Marcelo Fossa; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Leite, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of starch, a vegetable polysaccharide abundant in nature. These enzymes can be utilized in the production of syrups, alcohol, detergent, pharmaceutical products, and animal feed formulations. The aim of this study was to optimize the production of amylases by the filamentous fungus Gongronella butleri by solid-state fermentation and to evaluate the catalytic properties of the obtained enzymatic extract. The highest amylase production, 63.25 U g -1 (or 6.32 U mL -1 ), was obtained by culturing the fungus in wheat bran with 55% of initial moisture, cultivated for 96 h at 25°C. The enzyme presented optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 55°C. The amylase produced was stable in a wide pH range (3.5-9.5) and maintained its catalytic activity for 1 h at 40°C. Furthermore, the enzymatic extract hydrolyzed starches from different vegetable sources, presenting predominant dextrinizing activity for all substrates evaluated. However, the presence of glucose was observed in a higher concentration during hydrolysis of corn starch, indicating the synergistic action of endo- and exoamylases, which enables the application of this enzymatic extract to produce syrups from different starch sources.

  13. Effect of Araxa rockphosphate and simple superphosphate on some physico-chemical properties and on the available residual P of an oxic Paleudalf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquiaga C, S.; Reichardt, K.; Libardi, P.L.

    The experiment was developed using soil samples (TRE, Oxic Paleudalfs) from the Experimental Field Station of ESALQ, located in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. This soil had received during the period of three years 6 ton/ha of Araxa Rockphosphate (34.6% P 2 O 5 ) or 0.5 ton/ha of Simple Superphosphate (20% P 2 O 5 ) while three crops of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were grown. This greenhouse experiment had the objective of evaluating the effect of these fertilizer applications on some physico-chemical properties of the soil, and also study the residual P effect through the Olsen and 'A value' methods. Results indicate that Araxa Rockphosphate (48.4% CaO), although applied at high rate, did not affect soil reaction. On the other hand, both fertilizers increased the exchangeable Ca 2+ level in approximately 0.5 me/100 g. In short therm (less than 3 years), the response of Araxa Rockphosphate corresponded to its 2% citric acid soluble P 2 O 5 content (4%) rather than to its total P 2 O 5 content. Through 'A values' (using KH 2 32 PO 4 ) it was shown that the residual effect of Simple Superphosphate (108.6 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha) was similar to the Araxa Rockphosphate (136.6 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha), but these were significantly greater than the natural P content of the soil (54.0 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha). The evaluation of available P in the soil (with and without fertilizer) by Olsen's method, had and efficiency of 64 and 94% (respectively) as compared to the 'A value' method. (Author) [pt

  14. Bias voltage effect on the structure and property of chromium copper-diamond-like carbon multilayer films fabricated by cathodic arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jao, Jui-Yun; Han, Sheng; Chang, Li-Shin; Chang, Chi-Lung; Liu, Yu-Ching; Shih, Han C.

    2010-01-01

    Chromium copper-diamond-like carbon (Cr:Cu)-DLC films were deposited onto silicon and by cathodic arc evaporation process using chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) target arc sources to provide Cr and Cu in the Me-DLC. Acetylene reactive gases were the carbon source and activated at 180 deg. C at 13 mTorr, and a substrate bias voltage was varied from -50 V to -200 V to provide the (Cr:Cu)-DLC structure. The structure, interface, and chemical bonding state of the produced film were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), IR Fourier transform (FTIR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the Cr-containing a-C:H/Cu coatings exhibited an amorphous layer of DLC:Cr layer and a crystalline layer of Cu multilayer structure. The profiles of sp 3 /sp 2 (XPS) ratios corresponded to the change of microhardness profile by varying the pressure of the negative DC bias voltage. These (Cr:Cu)-DLC coatings are promising materials for soft substrate protective coatings.

  15. Stochastic bias-correction of daily rainfall scenarios for hydrological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Portoghese

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of rainfall predictions provided by climate models is crucial for the assessment of climate change impacts on hydrological processes. In fact, the presence of bias in downscaled precipitation may produce large bias in the assessment of soil moisture dynamics, river flows and groundwater recharge.

    In this study, a comparison between statistical properties of rainfall observations and model control simulations from a Regional Climate Model (RCM was performed through a robust and meaningful representation of the precipitation process. The output of the adopted RCM was analysed and re-scaled exploiting the structure of a stochastic model of the point rainfall process. In particular, the stochastic model is able to adequately reproduce the rainfall intermittency at the synoptic scale, which is one of the crucial aspects for the Mediterranean environments. Possible alteration in the local rainfall regime was investigated by means of the historical daily time-series from a dense rain-gauge network, which were also used for the analysis of the RCM bias in terms of dry and wet periods and storm intensity. The result is a stochastic scheme for bias-correction at the RCM-cell scale, which produces a realistic representation of the daily rainfall intermittency and precipitation depths, though a residual bias in the storm intensity of longer storm events persists.

  16. Bias determination for space accelerometers using the ZARM Catapult system - experimental setup and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Hanns; Santos Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Accelerometers for space applications - like the electrostatic differential accelrometer for the MICROSCOPE mission for testing the equivalence principle in space - have to be tested and qualified in μg-conditions in order to demonstrate the system operation and to determine the characteristic sensor parameters. One important characteristic property is the sensor bias. In principle one can determine the sensor bias directly by using the ZARM catapult system as test platform. Even in the evacuated drop tube the residual air pressure results in an air friction that depends on the capsule velocity. At the apex (highest point of the capsule trajectory) the acceleration (relative to the gravitational acceleration g) becomes zero due to the zero velocity at the apex. The direct measurement of the vertical linear acceleration sensor bias is affected by some additional effects that have to be understood in order to be able to determine the sensor bias. Two catapult campaigns have been carried out to demonstrate the principles of the bias determination using a SuperStar accelerometer (Onera). The presentation gives an overview on the experimental setup and on the corresponding data analysis.

  17. The influence of a residual group in low-molecular-weight allergoids of Artemisia vulgaris pollen on their allergenicity, IgE- and IgG-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirković, T; Gavrović-Jankulović, M; Prisić, S; Jankov, R M; Burazer, L; Vucković, O; Sporcić, Z; Paranos, S

    2002-11-01

    Reaction of epsilon-amino groups of lysine with potassium cyanate, maleic, or succinic anhydride leads to allergoids of low molecular weight. No study has been performed to compare their properties and investigate the influence of a residual group on allergenicity and human IgE- and IgG-binding of these derivatives. Allergoids of a pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, and succinic and maleic anhydride. Biochemical properties were investigated by determination of amino groups, enzyme activity, isoelectric focusing IEF and SDS-PAGE. IgE- and IgG-binding was determined using immunoblots and ELISA inhibition. Allergenicity was investigated by skin prick tests (SPT) on a group of 52 patients, of which 6 were control subjects, 30 were patients with no previous immunotherapy (IT), and 16 were patients undergoing immunotherapy. The same degree of amino-group modification (more than 85%), residual enzyme activity (less then 15%), IEF, and SDS-PAGE pattern were noted. In the immunoblots of IgE-binding, there was more pronounced reduction in the succinyl and maleyl derivatives than in the carbamyl one. IgG-binding was less affected by carbamylation than by acid anhydride modification. The SPT showed that the succinylated derivative had the most reduced allergenicity (98% showed a reduced wheal diameter when tested with the succinyl derivative, 87% with the maleyl allergoid, and 83% with the carbamyl allergoid). The most significant difference among allergoids could be seen in the group of patients with high skin reactivity (83% of patients showed no reaction to the succinyl derivative when compared to the value of 28% for the carbamyl derivative or 22% for the maleyl derivative). According to our results, all three modification procedures yielded allergoids with a similar extent of modification. No single biochemical parameter investigated in the study could predict the degree of reduced allergenicity in vivo. The most reduced

  18. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  19. CPI Bias in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Chung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001. This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS. Following Hamilton’s model with non­linear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005 was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the period can be attributed to the bias. In light of purchasing power parity, we provide an interpretation of the estimated bias.

  20. Bias in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    By writing scientific articles we communicate science among colleagues and peers. By doing this, it is our responsibility to adhere to some basic principles like transparency and accuracy. Authors, journal editors and reviewers need to be concerned about the quality of the work submitted for publication and ensure that only studies which have been designed, conducted and reported in a transparent way, honestly and without any deviation from the truth get to be published. Any such trend or deviation from the truth in data collection, analysis, interpretation and publication is called bias. Bias in research can occur either intentionally or unintentionally. Bias causes false conclusions and is potentially misleading. Therefore, it is immoral and unethical to conduct biased research. Every scientist should thus be aware of all potential sources of bias and undertake all possible actions to reduce or minimize the deviation from the truth. This article describes some basic issues related to bias in research.

  1. On commercial media bias

    OpenAIRE

    Germano, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Within the spokes model of Chen and Riordan (2007) that allows for non-localized competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets, we quantify the effect of concentration of ownership on quality and bias of media content. A main result shows that too few commercial outlets, or better, too few separate owners of commercial outlets can lead to substantial bias in equilibrium. Increasing the number of outlets (commercial and non-commercial) tends to bring down this bias; but the strongest ef...

  2. Aging impacts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on furfural production residue-derived biochars: Porosity, functional properties, and inorganic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhixiang; Zheng, Hao; Dai, Yanhui; Luo, Xianxiang; Wang, Zhenyu

    2017-12-31

    The aging of biochar by low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), which are typical root-derived exudates, is not well understood. Three LMWOAs (ethanoic, malic, and citric acids) were employed to investigate their aging impacts on the biochars from furfural production residues at 300-600°C (BC300-600). The LMWOAs created abundant macropores in BC300, whereas they significantly increased the mesoporosity and surface area of BC600 by 13.5-27.0% and 44.6-61.5%, respectively. After LMWOA aging, the content of C and H of the biochars increased from 51.3-60.2% and 1.87-3.45% to 56.8-69.9% and 2.06-4.45%, respectively, but the O content decreased from 13.8-24.8% to 7.82-19.4% (except BC300). For carbon fraction in the biochars, the LMWOAs barely altered the bulk and surface functional properties during short-term aging. The LMWOAs facilitated the dissolution of minerals (e.g., K 2 Mg(PO 3 ) 4 , AlPO 4 , and Pb 2 P 2 O 7 ) and correspondingly promoted the release of not only plant nutrients (K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 3+ , PO 4 3- , and SO 4 2- ) but also toxic metals (Al 3+ and Pb 2+ ). This research provided systematic insights on the responses of biochar properties to LMWOAs and presented direct evidence for acid activation of inorganic minerals in the biochars by LMWOAs, which could enhance the understanding of environmental behaviors of biochars in rhizosphere soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellulose nanocrystals from Actinidia deliciosa pruning residues combined with carvacrol in PVA_CH films with antioxidant/antimicrobial properties for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Francesca; Fortunati, Elena; Giovanale, Geremia; Mazzaglia, Angelo; Torre, Luigi; Balestra, Giorgio Mariano

    2017-11-01

    Kiwi Actinidia deliciosa pruning residues were here used for the first time as precursors for the extraction of high performing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) by applying a bleaching treatment followed by an acidic hydrolysis. The resultant cellulosic nanostructures, obtained by an optimize extraction procedure (0.7% wt/v two times of sodium chlorite NaClO 2 ) followed by an hydrolysis step, were then used as reinforcements phases in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with natural chitosan (CH) based films and also combined, for the first time, with carvacrol used here as active agent. Morphological and optical characteristics, mechanical response, thermal and migration properties, moisture content and antioxidant and antimicrobial assays were conducted. The morphological, optical and colorimetric results underlined that no particular alterations were induced on the transparency and color of PVA and PVA_CH blend by the presence of CNC and carvacrol, while they were able to modulate the mechanical responses, to induce antioxidant activities maintaining the migration levels below the permitted limits and suggesting the possible application in industrial sectors. Finally, inhibitions on bacterial development were detected for multifunctional systems, suggesting their protective function against microorganisms contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of influence of the inclusion of residue of kaolin on the properties and on the variation of major oxides present in clay city Bento Fernandes (RN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hugo Fernandes Medeiros de; Lima, Cassiano dos Santos; Silva, Gilson Garcia da; Machado, Tercio Graciano; Albuquerque, Rosanne Azevedo de; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino

    2011-01-01

    Research Foundation for Support of Education and Technological Development of Rio Grande do Norte - FUNCERN found that 38% of deposits visited in RN products sold in other states, 20% did not sell tiles RN, 8% preferred the tiles outside. All to supply a market segment demanding and are looking for differentiated products, which require manufacturers of certified quality products contributing to the quality process in the construction industry. It is known that the ceramic bodies are manufactured from the composition of two or more materials with different characteristics in their composition. Thus, one of the key steps is the dosage of raw materials and additives. This device allows to target the many wastes from industry. This paper aims to study the physical and mechanical properties of ceramic body resulting from the inclusion of residual kaolin clay on the city of Bento Fernandes (RN), analyzing the influence of variation of major oxides present in the raw material on the behavior of the final product. (author)

  5. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  6. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  7. Simulating publication bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    are made by data variation, while the model is the same. It appears that SR0 generates narrow funnels much at odds with observed funnels, while the other four funnels look more realistic. SR1 to SR4 give the mean a substantial bias that confirms the prior causing the bias. The FAT-PET MRA works well...

  8. Biases in categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    On what grounds can we conclude that an act of categorization is biased? In this chapter, it is contended that in the absence of objective norms of what categories actually are, biases in categorization can only be specified in relation to theoretical understandings of categorization. Therefore, the

  9. Influence of SEBS-MA and SBS compatibilizers on properties and morphology of blends of polystyrene/rubber residue (SBRr from the footwear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of rubber waste is very important today, both to reduce the harmful effects on the environment, and to reduce the cost of new material development. Considering that most of the studies reported in literature refer to the reuse of tire waste, this article aims to evaluate the influence of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS and styrene-(ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-MA compatibilizers on the blend performance of polystyrene (PS/styrene-butadiene rubber residue (SBRr, which come from the footwear industry. The blends were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw extruder and then were molded by injection. They were analyzed by impact and tensile tests, heat deflection temperature (HDT, ductile-brittle transition temperature, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results evidenced that the use of any of the compatibilizers on the PS/SBRr blend significantly increased the impact strength, while the tensile properties and HDT were lower when compared to the polymer matrix. The ductile-brittle transition temperature remains at approximately 25°C range for all the blends. In general, it has been proved that the SBS was the most effective compatibilization process in the PS/SBRr system. The DMTA test shows the presence of two distinct temperature peaks. The morphologies obtained by TEM of binary and ternary blends were quite different and typical of immiscible blend. The results show a good perspective regarding the use of industrial waste (SBRr, since it may enhance a material that would be discarded.

  10. On Size Biased Kumaraswamy Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreamlee Sharma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and study the size-biased form of Kumaraswamy distribution. The Kumaraswamy distribution which has drawn considerable attention in hydrology and related areas was proposed by Kumarswamy. The new distribution is derived under sizebiased probability of sampling taking the weights as the variate values. Various distributional and characterizing properties of the model are studied. The methods of maximum likelihood and matching quantiles estimation are employed to estimate the parameters of the proposed model. Finally, we apply the proposed model to simulated and real data sets.

  11. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen E Allahverdyan

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  12. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  13. Harassment, Bias, and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welliver, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a new principle which has been added to the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics regarding discrimination, harassment, and bias. An example is presented which illustrates a violation of a professional colleague's rights. (LRW)

  14. Biases in casino betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sundali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine two departures of individual perceptions of randomness from probability theory: the hot hand and the gambler's fallacy, and their respective opposites. This paper's first contribution is to use data from the field (individuals playing roulette in a casino to demonstrate the existence and impact of these biases that have been previously documented in the lab. Decisions in the field are consistent with biased beliefs, although we observe significant individual heterogeneity in the population. A second contribution is to separately identify these biases within a given individual, then to examine their within-person correlation. We find a positive and significant correlation across individuals between hot hand and gambler's fallacy biases, suggesting a common (root cause of the two related errors. We speculate as to the source of this correlation (locus of control, and suggest future research which could test this speculation.

  15. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...

  16. Gender-Biased Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2001-01-01

    Looks at how gender shapes the way humans learn from biological and sociological perspectives. Indicates that teachers interact more frequently with males and that trainers should try to overcome gender bias. Suggests that discrimination persists in adult education. (JOW)

  17. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  18. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  19. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  20. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  1. Electrostatically biased binding of kinesin to microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Grant

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimum motor domain of kinesin-1 is a single head. Recent evidence suggests that such minimal motor domains generate force by a biased binding mechanism, in which they preferentially select binding sites on the microtubule that lie ahead in the progress direction of the motor. A specific molecular mechanism for biased binding has, however, so far been lacking. Here we use atomistic Brownian dynamics simulations combined with experimental mutagenesis to show that incoming kinesin heads undergo electrostatically guided diffusion-to-capture by microtubules, and that this produces directionally biased binding. Kinesin-1 heads are initially rotated by the electrostatic field so that their tubulin-binding sites face inwards, and then steered towards a plus-endwards binding site. In tethered kinesin dimers, this bias is amplified. A 3-residue sequence (RAK in kinesin helix alpha-6 is predicted to be important for electrostatic guidance. Real-world mutagenesis of this sequence powerfully influences kinesin-driven microtubule sliding, with one mutant producing a 5-fold acceleration over wild type. We conclude that electrostatic interactions play an important role in the kinesin stepping mechanism, by biasing the diffusional association of kinesin with microtubules.

  2. Biasing of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliano, Giosue; Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) represent an effective alternative to piezoelectric transducers for medical ultrasound imaging applications. They are microelectromechanical devices fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques, developed in the last two decades in many laboratories. The interest for this novel transducer technology relies on its full compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology that makes it possible to integrate on the same chip the transducers and the electronics, thus enabling the realization of extremely low-cost and high-performance devices, including both 1-D or 2-D arrays. Being capacitive transducers, CMUTs require a high bias voltage to be properly operated in pulse-echo imaging applications. The typical bias supply residual ripple of high-quality high-voltage (HV) generators is in the millivolt range, which is comparable with the amplitude of the received echo signals, and it is particularly difficult to minimize. The aim of this paper is to analyze the classical CMUT biasing circuits, highlighting the features of each one, and to propose two novel HV generator architectures optimized for CMUT biasing applications. The first circuit proposed is an ultralow-residual ripple (CMUT by charging a buffer capacitor synchronously with the pulsing sequence, thus reducing the impact of the switching noise on the received echo signals. The small area of the circuit (about 1.5 cm 2 ) makes it possible to generate the bias voltage inside the probe, very close to the CMUT, making the proposed solution attractive for portable applications. Measurements and experiments are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approaches presented.

  3. The Learning Community Experience: Cultivating a Residual Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell Marinchak, Christina L.; DeIuliis, David

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, we conceptualize first-year learning communities as worldviews that, during the first year and residually in subsequent years, allow students to recognize and engage difference and acknowledge and articulate their biases. Students who take part in a learning community have an opportunity to develop the biases and presuppositions of…

  4. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  5. Chebyshev's bias for composite numbers with restricted prime divisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moree, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    Let P(x,d,a) denote the number of primes p<=x with p=a(mod d). Chebyshev's bias is the phenomenon that `more often' P(x;d,n)>P(x;d,r), than the other way around, where n is a quadratic non-residue mod d and r is a quadratic residue mod d. If P(x;d,n)>=P(x;d,r) for every x up to some large number,

  6. Effect of repeated pesticide applications on soil properties in cotton fields: II. Insecticide residues and impact on dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, K.; Singh, D.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Dhawan, A.K.; Dureja, P.

    2001-01-01

    Insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages post crop emergence in cotton fields and soil was sampled at regular intervals after each treatment. Soil was analysed for insecticide residues and activity of the enzymes dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Insecticide residues detected in the soil were in small quantities and they did not persist for long. Only endosulfan leached below 15 cm. Insecticides had only temporary effects on enzyme activities which disappeared either before the next insecticide treatment or by the end of the experimental period. (author)

  7. Obesity Stigma and Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruh, Sharon M; Nadglowski, Joe; Hall, Heather R; Davis, Sara L; Crook, Errol D; Zlomke, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are escalating in epidemic proportions in the United States. Individuals with overweight and obesity are often reluctant to seek medical help, not only for weight reduction but also for any health issue because of perceived provider discrimination. Providers who are biased against individuals with obesity can hinder our nation's effort to effectively fight the obesity epidemic. By addressing weight bias in the provider setting, individuals affected by obesity may be more likely to engage in a meaningful and productive discussion of weight. Providers need to be the go-to source for obesity-focused information on new and emerging treatments.

  8. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul......Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  9. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  10. On weighted cumulative residual Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammar, A. H.; Jahanshahi, S. M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, Sati and Gupta (2015) have introduced a generalized cumulative residual entropy based on the non-additive Tsallis entropy. The cumulative residual entropy, introduced by Rao et al. (2004) is a generalized measure of uncertainty which is applied in reliability and image alignment and non-additive measures of entropy. This entropy finds justifications in many physical, biological and chemical phenomena. In this paper, we derive the weighted form of this measure and call it Weighted Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy (WCRTE). Being a "length-biased" shift-dependent information measure, WCRTE is related to the differential information in which higher weight is assigned to large values of observed random variables. Based on the dynamic version of this new information measure, we propose ageing classes and it is shown that it can uniquely determine the survival function and Rayleigh distribution. Several properties, including linear transformations, bounds and related results to stochastic orders are obtained for these measures. Also, we identify classes of distributions in which some well-known distributions are maximum dynamic version of WCRTE. The empirical WCRTE is finally proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  11. Increased component safety through improved methods for residual stress analysis. Subprojects. Consideration of the elastic-plastic material properties (Phase 2). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirbach, David von

    2015-01-01

    Residual stresses in mechanical components can result in both detrimental but also beneficial effects on the strength and lifetime of the components. The most detailed knowledge of the residual stress state is of advantage or a pre-requisite for the assessment of the component performance. Two commonly used methods for determination of residual stresses are the hole drilling method and the ring core method which can be regarded to the mechanical methods. In the context of reactor safety research of the German Federal Ministry of Economic and Energy (BMWi) two fundamental and interacting weak points of the hole drilling method as well as of the ring core method, respectively, in order to determine residual stresses are going to be investigated. As a consequence reliability of the methods will be improved in this joint research project. On the one hand there are effects of geometrical boundary conditions of the components and on the other hand there is the influence of plasticity due to notch effects both affecting the released strain field after removing material and after all the calculated residual stresses. The first issue mentioned above is under the responsibility of the Institute of Materials Engineering (Kassel University) and the last one is investigated by materials testing institute university Stuttgart. As a consequence of a successful project the knowledge base will be considerably improved resulting in benefits for various engineering fields. Especially the quantitative consideration of real residual stress states for optimized component designs will be possible and after all the consequences of residual stresses on safety of components which are used in nuclear facilities can be evaluated. In this second experimental research chapter (phase 2) the findings of the first numerical and theoretical research chapter (phase 1) where proofed. The developed differential calculation method with the method of adaptive calibration functions were compared with the

  12. Internal residual stress studies and enhanced dielectric properties in La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 buffered (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui

    2009-09-01

    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited on La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 (LSCO) buffered and unbuffered Pt (111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The former exhibits a (100) preferred orientation and the latter a random orientation, respectively. Grazing incident x-ray diffraction study revealed that the tensile residual stress observed in the latter is markedly reduced in the former. As a result, the dielectric property of the LSCO buffered BST thin film is greatly improved, which shows a larger dielectric constant and tunability, smaller loss tangent, and lower leakage current than those of the unbuffered BST thin film. The relaxation of the larger tensile residual stress is attributed to the larger grain size in the buffered BST thin film and to a closer match of thermal expansion coefficient between the BST and the LSCO buffer layer.

  13. Opinion Dynamics with Confirmation Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. Methodology/Principal Findings We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect–when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) –and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. Conclusions The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development. PMID:25007078

  14. Correlation of Magnetic Properties and Residual Stress Distribution Monitored by X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction in Welded AISI 1008 Steel Sheets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vourna, P.; Hervoches, Charles; Vrána, Miroslav; Ktena, A.; Hristoforou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2015), s. 6200104 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283883 - NMI3-II Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) * neutron diffraction (ND) * residual stress * X- ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2015

  15. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Lignin from Corn Stover Residue Pretreated with Low-Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingming; Jin, Tony; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Fan, Xuetong; Qi, Phoebe X; Jang, Chan Ho; Shao, Lingxiao; Wu, Changqing

    2018-01-01

    Lignin accounts for 15-35% of dry biomass materials. Therefore, developing value-added co-products from lignin residues is increasingly important to improve the economic viability of biofuel production from biomass resources. The main objective of this work was to study the lignin extracts from corn stover residue obtained from a new and improved process for bioethanol production. Extraction conditions that favored high lignin yield were optimized, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the resulting lignin were investigated. Potential estrogenic toxicity of lignin extracts was also evaluated. The corn stover was pretreated by low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) and then subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase and hemicellulase. The residues were then added with sodium hydroxide and extracted for different temperatures and times for enhancing lignin yield and the bioactivities. The optimal extraction conditions using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide were determined to be 50 °C, 120 min, and 1:8 (w:v), the ratio between corn stover solids and extracting liquid. Under the optimal condition, 33.92 g of lignin yield per 100 g of corn stover residue was obtained. Furthermore, the extracts produced using these conditions showed the highest antioxidant activity by the hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The extracts also displayed significant antimicrobial activities against Listeria innocua. Minimal estrogenic impacts were observed for all lignin extracts when tested using the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. Thus, the lignin extracts could be used for antioxidant and antimicrobial applications, and improve the value of the co-products from the biomass-based biorefinery.

  16. Residual stress and its effect on the mechanical properties of Y-doped Mg alloy fabricated via back-pressure assisted equal channel angular pressing (ECAP-BP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jianghua, E-mail: j_shen@live.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Gärtnerová, Viera [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, CZ – 182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kecskes, Laszlo J. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaragi, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Jäger, Aleš, E-mail: jager@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, CZ – 182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Wei, Qiuming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    In this study, pure magnesium (Mg) and Mg-0.6 wt% yttrium (Y) binary alloy were fabricated via casting followed by room temperature equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using an applied back pressure (BP). Microstructural examination after ECAP-BP revealed a fine-grained Mg-Y alloy with a high residual stress level, whereas, the pure Mg exhibited a well-recrystallized microstructure with uniform and equiaxed grains, but retaining very little residual stress. The Y atoms were present in the Mg matrix as solid solutes and acted as dislocation and grain boundary blockers, thus suppressing dynamic recovery and/or recrystallization during the ECAP process. The Mg-Y alloy had an average grain size of ~400 nm, approximately one order smaller than that of pure Mg. The combination of high residual stress and ultrafine grains of the Mg-Y alloy gave rise to a significant difference in its mechanical behavior from that of the pure Mg, under both quasi-static and dynamic compressive loading.

  17. Weak-lensing shear estimates with general adaptive moments, and studies of bias by pixellation, PSF distortions, and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Patrick; Schneider, Peter

    2017-08-01

    In weak gravitational lensing, weighted quadrupole moments of the brightness profile in galaxy images are a common way to estimate gravitational shear. We have employed general adaptive moments (GLAM ) to study causes of shear bias on a fundamental level and for a practical definition of an image ellipticity. The GLAM ellipticity has useful properties for any chosen weight profile: the weighted ellipticity is identical to that of isophotes of elliptical images, and in absence of noise and pixellation it is always an unbiased estimator of reduced shear. We show that moment-based techniques, adaptive or unweighted, are similar to a model-based approach in the sense that they can be seen as imperfect fit of an elliptical profile to the image. Due to residuals in the fit, moment-based estimates of ellipticities are prone to underfitting bias when inferred from observed images. The estimation is fundamentally limited mainly by pixellation which destroys information on the original, pre-seeing image. We give an optimised estimator for the pre-seeing GLAM ellipticity and quantify its bias for noise-free images. To deal with images where pixel noise is prominent, we consider a Bayesian approach to infer GLAM ellipticity where, similar to the noise-free case, the ellipticity posterior can be inconsistent with the true ellipticity if we do not properly account for our ignorance about fit residuals. This underfitting bias, quantified in the paper, does not vary with the overall noise level but changes with the pre-seeing brightness profile and the correlation or heterogeneity of pixel noise over the image. Furthermore, when inferring a constant ellipticity or, more relevantly, constant shear from a source sample with a distribution of intrinsic properties (sizes, centroid positions, intrinsic shapes), an additional, now noise-dependent bias arises towards low signal-to-noise if incorrect prior densities for the intrinsic properties are used. We discuss the origin of this

  18. A Design of Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Sensor Fault Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyung Soo

    2017-04-01

    In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for sensor fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite measurements and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noisefree systems. The proposed residual generation filter is specified to the digital filter structure for the amenability to hardware implementation. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, extensive simulations are performed for the discretized DC motor system with two types of sensor faults, incipient soft bias-type fault and abrupt bias-type fault. In particular, according to diverse noise levels and windows lengths, meaningful simulation results are given for the abrupt bias-type fault.

  19. Impact of long term applications of cotton pesticides on soil biological properties, dissipation of [14C]-methyl parathion and persistence of multi-pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M.; Peres, T.B.; Luchini, L.C.; Marcondes, M.A.; Pettinelli, A. Jr.; Nakagawa, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Biological parameters were followed in soils from a cotton farm (Tatui) where the recommended pesticides have been used for years, and from an experimental field (Sao Paulo) which was subdivided in two areas: one received the recommended pesticides and the other was maintained untreated. The soil bioactivities monitored from 1995 to 1998, after different pesticide applications, were: basal and glucose-induced respiration; anaerobic activity; nitrification rate; activity of the enzymes: dehydrogenase, aryl sulfatase and arginine deaminase; the soil capacity to mineralize an aromatic pesticide molecule ([ 14 C]-2,4-D), fungal and bacterial contributions for soil respiration until the beginning of 1998, and fungal and bacterial numbers from the beginning of 1998. The dissipation of [ 14 C]-methyl parathion - one of the recommended pesticides - was followed by radiometric techniques only in Sao Paulo, but persistence of multi-residues was determined in both soils by gas-liquid chromatography. All the biological parameters varied each sampling time and values also varied among soil samples, being inhibited or stimulated by the different pesticide applications, but they mostly recovered the initially detected activity. Dissipation of methyl parathion was fast and not affected by the other pesticide applications. Pesticide residues varied between the two soils but were mostly low after all applications, which indicates their dissipation. (author)

  20. Superhard behaviour, low residual stress, and unique structure in diamond-like carbon films by simple bilayer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Simple bilayer approach is proposed for synthesizing hard and superhard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with reduced residual stress. For this, M/DLC bilayer (M = Ti and Cu) structures are grown using hybrid system involving radio frequency (RF)-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Ti/DLC bilayer deposited at negative self bias of 100 V shows superhard behaviour with hardness (H) as 49 GPa. Cu/DLC bilayer grown at self bias of 100 V exhibits hard behaviour with H as 22.8 GPa. The hardness of Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer gets changed from superhard (hard) to hard (moderate hard) regime, when the self bias is raised to 300 V. Residual stress in Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer is found to be significantly low that varies in the range of 1 GPa-1.65 GPa (0.8 GPa-1.6 GPa). The microstructure and morphology are studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM and AFM pictures reveal the creation of nanostructured features in the deposited bilayers. Raman, SEM, and AFM analyses are correlated with the nano-mechanical properties. Owing to excellent nano-mechanical properties, these bilayers can find their direct industrial applications as hard and protective coatings.

  1. Ligation bias in Illumina next-generation DNA libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel; Clary, Joel

    2013-01-01

    that library preparation based on adapter ligation at AT-overhangs are biased against DNA templates starting with thymine residues, contrarily to blunt-end adapter ligation. We observe the same bias on fresh DNA extracts sheared on Bioruptor, Covaris and nebulizers. This contradicts previous reports suggesting...... that this bias could originate from the methods used for shearing DNA. This also suggests that AT-overhang adapter ligation efficiency is affected in a sequence-dependent manner and results in an uneven representation of different genomic contexts. We then show how this bias could affect the base composition...... of ancient DNA libraries prepared following AT-overhang ligation, mainly by limiting the ability to ligate DNA templates starting with thymines and therefore deaminated cytosines. This results in particular nucleotide misincorporation damage patterns, deviating from the signature generally expected...

  2. Test Bias and the Elimination of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, William E.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of test bias are discussed: content bias, atmosphere bias, and use bias. Use bias is considered the most important. Tests reflect the bias in society, and eliminating test bias means eliminating racism and sexism in society. A six-stage model to eliminate racism and sexism is presented. (Author)

  3. Assessing the extent of non-stationary biases in GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jannatun; Johnson, Fiona; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-06-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are the main tools for estimating changes in the climate for the future. The imperfect representation of climate models introduces biases in the simulations that need to be corrected prior to their use for impact assessments. Bias correction methods generally assume that the bias calculated over the historical period does not change and can be applied to the future. This study investigates this assumption by considering the extent and nature of bias non-stationarity using 20th century precipitation and temperature simulations from six CMIP5 GCMs across Australia. Four statistics (mean, standard deviation, 10th and 90th quantiles) in monthly and seasonal biases are obtained for three different time window lengths (10, 25 and 33 years) to examine the properties of bias over time. This approach is repeated for two different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which is known to have strong influences on the Australian climate. It is found that bias non-stationarity at decadal timescales is indeed an issue over some of Australia for some GCMs. When considering interdecadal variability there are significant difference in the bias between positive and negative phases of the IPO. Regional analyses confirmed these findings with the largest differences seen on the east coast of Australia, where IPO impacts tend to be the strongest. The nature of the bias non-stationarity found in this study suggests that it will be difficult to modify existing bias correction approaches to account for non-stationary biases. A more practical approach for impact assessments that use bias correction maybe to use a selection of GCMs where the assumption of bias non-stationarity holds.

  4. Elaboration of construction materials from mineral residues, properties and perspectives; Elaboracion de materiales de construccion a partir de residuos mineros, propiedades y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The introduction in 1887 of the leaching process of metals, using the sodium cyanides revolutionized the techniques for the obtaining of gold and silver. Starting from then it is a method used in the entire world for the recovery of these and other metals. The mining activity generates the accustomed to residuals known popularly like 'jales' (voice derived nahuatl of the xalli that means sand). An important case, is it related with those 'jales' whose pyre content (FeS{sub 2}) it is high and wherefore they are subject to chemical reactions, caused by the intemperateness in 'jales'. Before this panorama, it is important to process the 'jales' to use them for the construction. (Author)

  5. Effect of Dry Red Grape Pomace as a Nitrite Substitute on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of Dry-cured Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP as a natural alternative to sodium nitrite. Materials and Methods: The effect of two levels of DRGP (1 and 2% on the proximate composition, microbial counts, pH values and residual nitrite level of the samples formulated with two levels of sodium nitrite (30 and 60 mg/kg, as well as the comparison of these sausages with the blank (nitrite-free  and control (full nitrite added samples on the 1rst, 10th, 20th and 30th days of storage at 3-5 °C were evaluated. Results: The results showed that all chemical compositions were in the ranges reported by other researchers, and nitrite was very effective in preventing the microbial growth. Also about 50 % of the ingoing nitrite could be analyzed in the samples after processing. Moreover, the residual nitrite level declined both during the storage of sausage and after the addition of DRGP. Conclusions: The use of DRGP in combination with nitrite for sausages was more effective in keeping the quality and safety of the refrigerated consumer products as indicated by the lower nitrite levels, microbial count and similar composition as compared to the samples treated with nitrite and without nitrite. Keywords: Dry red grape pomace (DRGP, Sausage, Nitrite, Microbial count

  6. Photoconductivity of biased graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Marcus

    2013-03-01

    The origin of photosensitivity of graphene devices has been attributed to either thermoelectric, photovoltaic, or bolometric effects. Here we report on the intrinsic photoresponse of electrically biased, but otherwise homogeneous single-layer graphene. In this simple, yet unstudied experimental condition, the photocurrent shows polarity reversal, as it alternates between two of these effects while sweeping the electronic potential. Near the Dirac point, the photovoltaic effect dominates, and the photocurrent adds to the transport current. Away from the Dirac point, the bolometric effect dominates, and reduces the transport current. Magnitude and polarity of the photocurrent allow us to infer the hot carrier and phonon temperatures under light illumination. The electron temperature is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the phonon temperature, shedding light on energy loss pathways other than via intrinsic graphene phonons. (M. Freitag et al., Nature Photonics, accepted for publication (2012).)

  7. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of spatial soil property information from ancillary sensor data using ordinary linear regression: Model derivations, residual assumptions and model validation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geospatial measurements of ancillary sensor data, such as bulk soil electrical conductivity or remotely sensed imagery data, are commonly used to characterize spatial variation in soil or crop properties. Geostatistical techniques like kriging with external drift or regression kriging are often use...

  9. Residual tensile stresses and piezoelectric properties in BiFeO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2O3-PbTiO3 ternary solid solution perovskite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For low dielectric loss perovskite-structured (1-x-yBiFeO3-xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2O3-yPbTiO3 (BF-BZT-PT (x = 0.04-0.15 and y = 0.15-0.26 ceramics in rhombohedral/tetragonal coexistent phase, structural phase transitions were studied using differential thermal analyzer combined with temperature-dependent dielectric measurement. Two lattice structural phase transitions are disclosed in various BF-BZT-PT perovskites, which is different from its membership of BiFeO3 exhibiting just one lattice structural phase transition at Curie temperature TC= 830oC. Consequently, residual internal tensile stresses were revealed experimentally through XRD measurements on ceramic pellets and counterpart powders, which are reasonably attributed to special structural phase transition sequence of BF-BZT-PT solid solution perovskites. Low piezoresponse was observed and argued extrinsically resulting from residual tensile stresses pinning ferroelectric polarization switching. Post-annealing and subsequent quenching was found effective for eliminating residual internal stresses in those BZT-less ceramics, and good piezoelectric property of d33 ≥ 28 pC/N obtained for 0.70BF-0.08BZT-0.22PT and 0.05 wt% MnO2-doped 0.70BF-0.04BZT-0.26PT ceramics with TC ≥ 640oC, while it seemed no effective for those BZT-rich BF-BZT-PT ceramics with x = 0.14 and 0.15 studied here.

  10. Biased Monte Carlo optimization: the basic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campioni, Luca; Scardovelli, Ruben; Vestrucci, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that the Monte Carlo method is very successful in tackling several kinds of system simulations. It often happens that one has to deal with rare events, and the use of a variance reduction technique is almost mandatory, in order to have Monte Carlo efficient applications. The main issue associated with variance reduction techniques is related to the choice of the value of the biasing parameter. Actually, this task is typically left to the experience of the Monte Carlo user, who has to make many attempts before achieving an advantageous biasing. A valuable result is provided: a methodology and a practical rule addressed to establish an a priori guidance for the choice of the optimal value of the biasing parameter. This result, which has been obtained for a single component system, has the notable property of being valid for any multicomponent system. In particular, in this paper, the exponential and the uniform biases of exponentially distributed phenomena are investigated thoroughly

  11. Influence of length and dosage of polypropylene fibres on the spalling tendency and the residual properties of self-compacting concrete after heated at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sideris K.K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the influence of different length and dosage of polypropylene fibres on the properties of self-compacting concretes at elevated temperatures. A total of five self compacting concretes and one normally vibrated concrete were produced. The poypropylene fibres were of different length (12 mm, 6 mm and 3 mm and were added at dosages of 1.0 Kg/m3 and 0.5 Kg/m3. The properties measured after fire exposure were the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and water capillary absorption. The best overall performance was observed on the fibre reinforced self compacting concrete produced with the 6 mm HPR fibres at a dosage of 0.5 Kg/m3.

  12. CULTURAL BIAS IN LANGUAGE TESTING

    OpenAIRE

    Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: An issue that has recently been gaining more attention in the domain of language testing is item bias. Defined as the characteristic of an item which causes learners of the same abilities but of different social groups to perform differently, the bias can be present as gender, ethnic, religious, social class, or cultural bias. The paper brings up a discussion in this area of concern by starting off from the concept of culture. It then explains what cultural bias is, how it manifests...

  13. Bias in clinical intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2006-01-01

    Research on bias in clinical trials may help identify some of the reasons why investigators sometimes reach the wrong conclusions about intervention effects. Several quality components for the assessment of bias control have been suggested, but although they seem intrinsically valid, empirical...... evidence is needed to evaluate their effects on the extent and direction of bias. This narrative review summarizes the findings of methodological studies on the influence of bias in clinical trials. A number of methodological studies suggest that lack of adequate randomization in published trial reports...

  14. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Can information environment of a firm explain home bias in analysts’ recommendations? Can the extent of agency problems explain optimism difference between foreign and local analysts? This paper answers these questions by documenting the effect of information environment on home bias in analysts’...

  15. 12 CFR 23.21 - Estimated residual value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... estimated residual value in connection with leases of personal property to Federal, State, or local... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated residual value. 23.21 Section 23.21...) Leases § 23.21 Estimated residual value. (a) Recovery of investment and costs. A national bank's estimate...

  16. Toroidal-Core Microinductors Biased by Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Blaes, Brent

    2003-01-01

    The designs of microscopic toroidal-core inductors in integrated circuits of DC-to-DC voltage converters would be modified, according to a proposal, by filling the gaps in the cores with permanent magnets that would apply bias fluxes (see figure). The magnitudes and polarities of the bias fluxes would be tailored to counteract the DC fluxes generated by the DC components of the currents in the inductor windings, such that it would be possible to either reduce the sizes of the cores or increase the AC components of the currents in the cores without incurring adverse effects. Reducing the sizes of the cores could save significant amounts of space on integrated circuits because relative to other integrated-circuit components, microinductors occupy large areas - of the order of a square millimeter each. An important consideration in the design of such an inductor is preventing magnetic saturation of the core at current levels up to the maximum anticipated operating current. The requirement to prevent saturation, as well as other requirements and constraints upon the design of the core are expressed by several equations based on the traditional magnetic-circuit approximation. The equations involve the core and gap dimensions and the magnetic-property parameters of the core and magnet materials. The equations show that, other things remaining equal, as the maximum current is increased, one must increase the size of the core to prevent the flux density from rising to the saturation level. By using a permanent bias flux to oppose the flux generated by the DC component of the current, one would reduce the net DC component of flux in the core, making it possible to reduce the core size needed to prevent the total flux density (sum of DC and AC components) from rising to the saturation level. Alternatively, one could take advantage of the reduction of the net DC component of flux by increasing the allowable AC component of flux and the corresponding AC component of current

  17. Redox Properties of Human Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, Modulation by Charged Active-Site Amino Acid Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini-Samuelson, Gina J.; Kieweg, Volker; Sabaj, Kim Marie; Ghisla, Sandro; Stankovich, Marian T.

    1998-01-01

    The modulation of the electron-transfer properties of human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (hwtMCADH) has been studied using wild-type and site-directed mutants by determining their midpoint potentials at various pH values and estimating the involved pKs. The mutants used were E376D, in which the negative charge is retained; E376Q, in which one negative charge (pKa ≈ 6.0) is removed from the active center; E99G, in which a different negative charge (pKa ≈ 7.3) also is affected; and E376H...

  18. Bias changing molecule–lead couple and inducing low bias negative differential resistance for electrons acceptor predicted by first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Y.; Fang, J.H.; Zhong, C.G.; Dong, Z.C.; Zhao, Z.Y.; Zhou, P.X.; Yao, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    A first-principles study of the transport properties of 3,13-dimercaptononacene–6,21-dione molecule sandwiched between two gold leads is reported. The strong effect of negative differential resistance with large peak-to-valley ratio of 710% is present under low bias. We found that bias can change molecule–lead couple and induce low bias negative differential resistance for electrons acceptor, which may promise the potential applications in molecular devices with low-power dissipation in the future. - Highlights: • Acceptor is constructed to negative differential resistor (NDR). • NDR effect is present under low bias. • Bias change molecule–lead couple and induce NDR effect

  19. Biased Predecessor Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Fagerberg, Rolf; Howat, John

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of performing predecessor searches in a bounded universe while achieving query times that depend on the distribution of queries. We obtain several data structures with various properties: in particular, we give data structures that achieve expected query times logarithmic...

  20. Biased predecessor search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Fagerberg, Rolf; Howat, John

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of performing predecessor searches in a bounded universe while achieving query times that depend on the distribution of queries. We obtain several data structures with various properties: in particular, we give data structures that achieve expected query times logarithmic...

  1. Exact optimum coin bias in Efron's randomization procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognini, Alessandro Baldi; Rosenberger, William F; Wang, Yang; Zagoraiou, Maroussa

    2015-12-10

    Efron's biased coin design is a restricted randomization procedure that has very favorable balancing properties, yet it is fully randomized, in that subjects are always randomized to one of two treatments with a probability less than 1. The parameter of interest is the bias p of the coin, which can range from 0.5 to 1. In this note, we propose a compound optimization strategy that selects p based on a subjected weighting of the relative importance of the two fundamental criteria of interest for restricted randomization mechanisms, namely balance between the treatment assignments and allocation randomness. We use exact and asymptotic distributional properties of Efron's coin to find the optimal p under compound criteria involving imbalance variability, expected imbalance, selection bias, and accidental bias, for both small/moderate trials and large samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Heuristic Biases in Mathematical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we briefly describe the dual process account of reasoning, and explain the role of heuristic biases in human thought. Concentrating on the so-called matching bias effect, we describe a piece of research that indicates a correlation between success at advanced level mathematics and an ability to override innate and misleading…

  3. Chemical and physical properties of organic residues Caracterização química e física de resíduos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Satoshi Higashikawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to human activity, large amounts of organic residue are generated daily. Therefore, an adequate use in agricultural activities requires the characterization of the main properties. The chemical and physical characterization is important when planning the use and management of organic residue. In this study, chemical and physical properties of charcoal, coffee husk, pine-bark, cattle manure, chicken manure, coconut fiber, sewage sludge, peat, and vermiculite were determined. The following properties were analyzed: N-NH4+, N-N0(3-, and total concentrations of N, P, S, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B, as well as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC and bulk density. Coffee husk, sewage sludge, chicken manure and cattle manure were generally richer in nutrients. The EC values of these residues were also the highest (0.08 - 40.6 dS m-1. Peat and sewage sludge had the highest bulky density. Sodium contents varied from 0 to 4.75 g kg-1, with the highest levels in chicken manure, cattle manure and sewage sludge. Great care must be taken when establishing proportions of organic residues in the production of substrates with coffee husk, cattle or chicken manure or sewage sludge in the calculation of the applied fertilizer quantity in crop fertilization programs.Uma diversidade de resíduos orgânicos, oriundos das atividades humanas, é gerada diariamente e demanda pesquisas para avaliar a viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental do seu uso agrícola. A caracterização química e física auxiliam no planejamento de uso e no manejo dos resíduos orgânicos, pois permitem avaliar atributos que tornam o uso na agricultura atrativo ou limitante. Este trabalho teve como objetivos a caracterização química e física e a avaliação de teores de nutrientes e de Na em carvão vegetal, casca de café, casca de pínus, esterco bovino, esterco de galinha, fibra de coco, lodo de esgoto, turfa e vermiculita. Os seguintes atributos foram analisados: N-amônio e N

  4. Vowel bias in Danish word-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    one or two phonological features. Danish was chosen because it has more vowels than consonants, and is characterized by extensive consonant lenition. Both phenomena could disfavor a consonant bias. Evidence of word-learning was found only for vocalic information, irrespective of whether one or two......The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña and Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function...... of the phonological or lexical properties of the language in acquisition. To do so, we used the interactive word-learning task set up by Havy and Nazzi (2009), teaching Danish-learning 20-month-olds pairs of phonetically similar words that contrasted either on one of their consonants or one of their vowels, by either...

  5. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  6. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  7. Comparative Study of Microbial Activity and Chemical Properties of Soil by Implementing Anti-erosion Measure Vertical Mulching with Organic Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Slavova Kuncheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water soil erosion is a phenomenon in which soil particles are separated transported and translocated by the action of rain water. Removal of topsoil by water flow leads to a decrease of humus in the soil, deterioration of soil structure, compaction, and reduction of microbial activity.Developed and tested have been number of methods and technologies for soil protection from the effects of water erosion. Such technology is vertical mulching, and straw or compost applied as mulching material.This work is a study of the changes that occur in some soil chemical properties and soil microbiological activity, as a result in the implementation of anti-erosion measure vertical mulching with different mulching materials for growing corn and wheat grain on carbonate chernozem, on sloping agricultural lands.

  8. Residual stress measurement for injection molded components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Adhikari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress induced during manufacturing of injection molded components such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA affects the mechanical and optical properties of these components. These residual stresses can be visualized and quantified by measuring their birefringence. In this paper, a low birefringence polariscope (LBP is used to measure the whole-field residual stress distribution of these injection molded specimens. Detailed analytical and experimental study is conducted to quantify the residual stress measurement in these materials. A commercial birefringence measurement system was used to validate the results obtained to our measurement system. This study can help in material diagnosis for quality and manufacturing purpose and be useful for understanding of residual stress in imaging or other applications.

  9. Confirmation biases in selective exposure to political online information : Source bias vs. content bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerwick, Axel; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The present work examines the role of source vs. content cues for the confirmation bias, in which recipients spend more time with content aligning with preexisting attitudes. In addition to testing how both source and content cues facilitate this biased pattern of selective exposure, the study

  10. Redox properties of human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, modulation by charged active-site amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini-Samuelson, G J; Kieweg, V; Sabaj, K M; Ghisla, S; Stankovich, M T

    1998-10-13

    The modulation of the electron-transfer properties of human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (hwtMCADH) has been studied using wild-type and site-directed mutants by determining their midpoint potentials at various pH values and estimating the involved pKs. The mutants used were E376D, in which the negative charge is retained; E376Q, in which one negative charge (pKa approximately 6. 0) is removed from the active center; E99G, in which a different negative charge (pKa approximately 7.3) also is affected; and E376H (pKa approximately 9.3) in which a positive charge is present. Em for hwtMCADH at pH 7.6 is -0.114 V. Results for the site-directed mutants indicate that loss of a negative charge in the active site causes a +0.033 V potential shift. This is consistent with the assumption that electrostatic interactions (as in the case of flavodoxins) and specific charges are important in the modulation of the electron-transfer properties of this class of dehydrogenases. Specifically, these charge interactions appear to correlate with the positive Em shift observed upon binding of substrate/product couple to MCADH [Lenn, N. D., Stankovich, M. T., and Liu, H. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 3709-3715], which coincides with a pK increase of Glu376-COOH from approximately 6 to 8-9 [Rudik, I., Ghisla, S., and Thorpe, C. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8437-8445]. From the pH dependence of the midpoint potentials of hwtMCADH two mechanistically important ionizations are estimated. The pKa value of approximately 6.0 is assigned to the catalytic base, Glu376-COOH, in the oxidized enzyme based on comparison with the pH behavior of the E376H mutant, it thus coincides with the pK value recently estimated [Vock, P., Engst, S., Eder, M., and Ghisla, S. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 1848-1860]. The pKa of approximately 7.1 is assigned to Glu376-COOH in reduced hwtMCADH. Comparable values for these pKas for Glu376-COOH in pig kidney MCADH are pKox = 6.5 and pKred = 7.9. The Em measured for K304E-MCADH (a

  11. Investigation on the effect of mixed rapeseed stalk residues with wood particles, and mixing of melamine and urea formaldehyde resin on properties of manufactured particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the possibility of using the rapeseed stalk mixed with industrial wood particles for manufacturing particleboard with target density of 0.7 gr/cm3 was considered. Variable factors such as mixing ratios of rapeseed stalk with industrial wood particles at five mixing levels of (0-100, 25-75, 50-50, 75-25 and 100-0 percent, mixing ratios of melamine resin with urea formaldehyde at three levels of 0-100, 15-85 and 30-70 percent, and kind of board at two levels of homogenate and layer were considered. 10 percent resin based on oven dried weight of particles, 2 percent catalyzer based on oven dried weight of resin, press temperature and time with 170 OC and 7 minute, press pressure and rate with 30 Kg/cm3 and 4.5 mm/min were fixed. Then, the boards were manufactured and the physical and mechanical properties including modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling were measured according to EN standard. Results indicated that the modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and thickness swelling of boards increased with increase rapeseed stalk loading; however, the internal bonding decreased. Also, the use of melamine urea formaldehyde resin caused to improve the mechanical strength and dimensional stability in the samples.

  12. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

  13. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  14. Neutron diffraction residual strain / stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Residual stresses affect mechancial properties of materials and prodcuts, it is essential to estimate them practically in order to esatblish acceptable limits. Knowledge of the development of residual stresses in components at the various production stages- extrusion, rolling, machining, welding and heat treating-can be used to imporve product reliability and performance. This short article gives an example relevant to the power industry using ANSTO's 'Kowari' neutron strain scanner.

  15. Gender bias in academic recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that women are underrepresented in the academic systems of many countries. Gender discrimination is one of the factors that could contribute to this phenomenon. This study considers a recent national academic recruitment campaign in Italy, examining whether women are subject...... to more or less bias than men. The findings show that no gender-related differences occur among the candidates who benefit from positive bias, while among those candidates affected by negative bias, the incidence of women is lower than that of men. Among the factors that determine success in a competition...

  16. Heuristics and bias in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souter, K

    2006-10-01

    The practice of Homeopathy ought to be strictly logical. In the Organon Samuel Hahnemann gives the impression that the unprejudiced observer should be able to follow an algorithmic route to the simillimum in every case. Judgement and Decision Research, however, indicates that when people grapple with complex systems like homeopathy they are more likely to use heuristics or empirical rules to help them reach a solution. Thus Hahnemann's concept of the unprejudiced observer is virtually impossible to attain. There is inevitable bias in both case-taking and remedy selection. Understanding the types of bias may enable the practitioner to reduce his/her own bias.

  17. Durability of cement-based materials: modeling of the influence of physical and chemical equilibria on the microstructure and the residual mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, E.

    2004-09-01

    A large part of mechanical and durability characteristics of cement-based materials comes from the performances of the hydrated cement, cohesive matrix surrounding the granular skeleton. Experimental studies, in situ or in laboratory, associated to models, have notably enhanced knowledge on the cement material and led to adapted formulations to specific applications or particularly aggressive environments. Nevertheless, these models, developed for precise cases, do not permit to specifically conclude for other experimental conclusions. To extend its applicability domain, we propose a new evolutive approach, based on reactive transport expressed at the microstructure scale of the cement. In a general point of view, the evolution of the solid compounds of the cement matrix, by dissolutions or precipitations, during chemical aggressions can be related to the pore solution evolution, and this one relied to the ionic exchanges with the external environment. By the utilization of a geochemical code associated to a thermodynamical database and coupled to a 3D transport model, this approach authorizes the study of all aggressive solution. The approach has been validated by the comparison of experimental observations to simulated degradations for three different environments (pure water, mineralized water, seawater) and on three different materials (CEM I Portland cement with 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 water-to cement ratio). The microstructural approach permits also to have access to mechanical properties evolutions. During chemical aggressions, the cement matrix evolution is traduced in a microstructure evolution. This one is represented from 3D images similarly to the models developed at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). A new finite-element model, validated on previous tests or models, evaluates the stiffness of the cement paste, using as a mesh these microstructures. Our approach identifies and quantifies the major influence of porosity and its spatial

  18. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  19. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  20. Learning biases predict a word order universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul; Legendre, Géraldine

    2012-03-01

    How recurrent typological patterns, or universals, emerge from the extensive diversity found across the world's languages constitutes a central question for linguistics and cognitive science. Recent challenges to a fundamental assumption of generative linguistics-that universal properties of the human language acquisition faculty constrain the types of grammatical systems which can occur-suggest the need for new types of empirical evidence connecting typology to biases of learners. Using an artificial language learning paradigm in which adult subjects are exposed to a mix of grammatical systems (similar to a period of linguistic change), we show that learners' biases mirror a word-order universal, first proposed by Joseph Greenberg, which constrains typological patterns of adjective, numeral, and noun ordering. We briefly summarize the results of a probabilistic model of the hypothesized biases and their effect on learning, and discuss the broader implications of the results for current theories of the origins of cross-linguistic word-order preferences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp-collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.09 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presen...

  2. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  3. Property (

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Mikhail; Kassabov, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The authors introduce and study the class of groups graded by root systems. They prove that if \\Phi is an irreducible classical root system of rank \\geq 2 and G is a group graded by \\Phi, then under certain natural conditions on the grading, the union of the root subgroups is a Kazhdan subset of G. As the main application of this theorem the authors prove that for any reduced irreducible classical root system \\Phi of rank \\geq 2 and a finitely generated commutative ring R with 1, the Steinberg group {\\mathrm St}_{\\Phi}(R) and the elementary Chevalley group \\mathbb E_{\\Phi}(R) have property (T). They also show that there exists a group with property (T) which maps onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank \\geq 2, thereby providing a "unified" proof of expansion in these groups.

  4. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  5. Capturing Dynamics of Biased Attention: Are New Attention Variability Measures the Way Forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Wil Kruijt

    Full Text Available New indices, calculated on data from the widely used Dot Probe Task, were recently proposed to capture variability in biased attention allocation. We observed that it remains unclear which data pattern is meant to be indicative of dynamic bias and thus to be captured by these indices. Moreover, we hypothesized that the new indices are sensitive to SD differences at the response time (RT level in the absence of bias.Randomly generated datasets were analyzed to assess properties of the Attention Bias Variability (ABV and Trial Level Bias Score (TL-BS indices. Sensitivity to creating differences in 1 RT standard deviation, 2 mean RT, and 3 bias magnitude were assessed. In addition, two possible definitions of dynamic attention bias were explored by creating differences in 4 frequency of bias switching, and 5 bias magnitude in the presence of constant switching.ABV and TL-BS indices were found highly sensitive to increasing SD at the response time level, insensitive to increasing bias, linearly sensitive to increasing bias magnitude in the presence of bias switches, and non-linearly sensitive to increasing the frequency of bias switches. The ABV index was also found responsive to increasing mean response times in the absence of bias.Recently proposed DPT derived variability indices cannot uncouple measurement error from bias variability. Significant group differences may be observed even if there is no bias present in any individual dataset. This renders the new indices in their current form unfit for empirical purposes. Our discussion focuses on fostering debate and ideas for new research to validate the potentially very important notion of biased attention being dynamic.

  6. Assessing attentional biases with stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Onslow, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Many adults who stutter presenting for speech treatment experience social anxiety disorder. The presence of mental health disorders in adults who stutter has been implicated in a failure to maintain speech treatment benefits. Contemporary theories of social anxiety disorder propose that the condition is maintained by negative cognitions and information processing biases. Consistent with cognitive theories, the probe detection task has shown that social anxiety is associated with an attentional bias to avoid social information. This information processing bias is suggested to be involved in maintaining anxiety. Evidence is emerging for information processing biases being involved with stuttering. This study investigated information processing in adults who stutter using the probe detection task. Information processing biases have been implicated in anxiety maintenance in social anxiety disorder and therefore may have implications for the assessment and treatment of stuttering. It was hypothesized that stuttering participants compared with control participants would display an attentional bias to avoid attending to social information. Twenty-three adults who stutter and 23 controls completed a probe detection task in which they were presented with pairs of photographs: a face displaying an emotional expression-positive, negative or neutral-and an everyday household object. All participants were subjected to a mild social threat induction being told they would speak to a small group of people on completion of the task. The stuttering group scored significantly higher than controls for trait anxiety, but did not differ from controls on measures of social anxiety. Non-socially anxious adults who stutter did not display an attentional bias to avoid looking at photographs of faces relative to everyday objects. Higher scores on trait anxiety were positively correlated with attention towards photographs of negative faces. Attentional biases as assessed by the probe

  7. Vowel bias in Danish word-learning: processing biases are language-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña and Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function of the phonological or lexical properties of the language in acquisition. To do so, we used the interactive word-learning task set up by Havy and Nazzi (2009), teaching Danish-learning 20-month-olds pairs of phonetically similar words that contrasted either on one of their consonants or one of their vowels, by either one or two phonological features. Danish was chosen because it has more vowels than consonants, and is characterized by extensive consonant lenition. Both phenomena could disfavor a consonant bias. Evidence of word-learning was found only for vocalic information, irrespective of whether one or two phonological features were changed. The implication of these findings is that the phonological biases found in early lexical processing are not language-general but develop during language acquisition, depending on the phonological or lexical properties of the native language. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  9. Hindsight bias in political elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Hartmut; Fischer, Volkhard; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    Two studies on political hindsight bias were conducted on the occasions of the German parliament election in 1998 and the Nordrhein-Westfalen state parliament election in 2000. In both studies, participants predicted the percentage of votes for several political parties and recalled these predictions after the election. The observed hindsight effects were stronger than those found in any prior study on political elections (using percentage of votes as the dependent variable). We argue that the length of the retention interval between original judgement and recollection is mainly responsible for this difference. In our second study, we investigated possible artifacts in political hindsight biases using a control-group design where half of the participants recalled their predictions shortly before or after the election. Hindsight bias was preserved, reinforcing the results of earlier studies with non-control-group designs. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the hindsight experience (in political judgement and in general) actually consists of three different, partly independent components.

  10. News Consumption and Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Xiang; Miklos Sarvary

    2007-01-01

    Bias in the market for news is well-documented. Recent research in economics explains the phenomenon by assuming that consumers want to read (watch) news that is consistent with their tastes or prior beliefs rather than the truth. The present paper builds on this idea but recognizes that (i) besides “biased” consumers, there are also “conscientious” consumers whose sole interest is in discovering the truth, and (ii) consistent with reality, media bias is constrained by the truth. These two fa...

  11. Biased limiter experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.E.; Wootton, A.J.; Rowan, W.L.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Hodge, W.L.; Durst, R.D.; McCool, S.C.; Richards, B.; Gentle, K.W.; Schoch, P.; Forster, J.C.; Hickok, R.L.; Evans, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments using an electrically biased limiter have been performed on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). A small movable limiter is inserted past the main poloidal ring limiter (which is electrically connected to the vacuum vessel) and biased at V Lim with respect to it. The floating potential, plasma potential and shear layer position can be controlled. With vertical strokeV Lim vertical stroke ≥ 50 V the plasma density increases. For V Lim Lim > 0 the results obtained are inconclusive. Variation of V Lim changes the electrostatic turbulence which may explain the observed total flux changes. (orig.)

  12. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  13. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  14. Unpacking the Evidence of Gender Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Connie L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender bias in pre-service principals using the Gender-Leader Implicit Association Test. Analyses of student-learning narratives revealed how students made sense of gender bias (biased or not-biased) and how each reacted to evidence (surprised or not-surprised). Two implications were: (1) the need for…

  15. Without Bias: A Guidebook for Nondiscriminatory Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Judy E., Ed.; And Others

    This guidebook discusses ways to eliminate various types of discrimination from business communications. Separately authored chapters discuss eliminating racial and ethnic bias; eliminating sexual bias; achieving communication sensitive about handicaps of disabled persons; eliminating bias from visual media; eliminating bias from meetings,…

  16. Collection Development and the Psychology of Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The library literature addressing the role of bias in collection development emphasizes a philosophical approach. It is based on the notion that bias can be controlled by the conscious act of believing in certain values and adhering to a code of ethics. It largely ignores the psychological research on bias, which suggests that bias is a more…

  17. Measurement Bias Detection through Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…

  18. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  19. Taming astrophysical bias in direct dark matter searches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pato, M.; Strigari, L.E.; Trotta, R.; Bertone, G.

    2013-01-01

    We explore systematic biases in the identification of dark matter in future direct detection experiments and compare the reconstructed dark matter properties when assuming a self-consistent dark matter distribution function and the standard Maxwellian velocity distribution. We find that the

  20. EVOLUTION OF THE MERGER-INDUCED HYDROSTATIC MASS BIAS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke; Rudd, Douglas H.; Shaw, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine the effects of mergers on the hydrostatic mass estimate of galaxy clusters using high-resolution Eulerian cosmological simulations. We utilize merger trees to isolate the last merger for each cluster in our sample and follow the time evolution of the hydrostatic mass bias as the systems relax. We find that during a merger, a shock propagates outward from the parent cluster, resulting in an overestimate in the hydrostatic mass bias. After the merger, as a cluster relaxes, the bias in hydrostatic mass estimate decreases but remains at a level of –5%-10% with 15%-20% scatter within r 500 . We also investigate the post-merger evolution of the pressure support from bulk motions, a dominant cause of this residual mass bias. At r 500 , the contribution from random motions peaks at 30% of the total pressure during the merger and quickly decays to ∼10%-15% as a cluster relaxes. Additionally, we use a measure of the random motion pressure to correct the hydrostatic mass estimate. We discover that 4 Gyr after mergers, the direct effects of the merger event on the hydrostatic mass bias have become negligible. Thereafter, the mass bias is primarily due to residual bulk motions in the gas which are not accounted for in the hydrostatic equilibrium equation. We present a hydrostatic mass bias correction method that can recover the unbiased cluster mass for relaxed clusters with 9% scatter at r 500 and 11% scatter in the outskirts, within r 200 .

  1. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  2. fLPS: Fast discovery of compositional biases for the protein universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paul M

    2017-11-13

    Proteins often contain regions that are compositionally biased (CB), i.e., they are made from a small subset of amino-acid residue types. These CB regions can be functionally important, e.g., the prion-forming and prion-like regions that are rich in asparagine and glutamine residues. Here I report a new program fLPS that can rapidly annotate CB regions. It discovers both single-residue and multiple-residue biases. It works through a process of probability minimization. First, contigs are constructed for each amino-acid type out of sequence windows with a low degree of bias; second, these contigs are searched exhaustively for low-probability subsequences (LPSs); third, such LPSs are iteratively assessed for merger into possible multiple-residue biases. At each of these stages, efficiency measures are taken to avoid or delay probability calculations unless/until they are necessary. On a current desktop workstation, the fLPS algorithm can annotate the biased regions of the yeast proteome (>5700 sequences) in 65 million sequences) in as little as ~1 h, which is >2 times faster than the commonly used program SEG, using default parameters. fLPS discovers both shorter CB regions (of the sort that are often termed 'low-complexity sequence'), and milder biases that may only be detectable over long tracts of sequence. fLPS can readily handle very large protein data sets, such as might come from metagenomics projects. It is useful in searching for proteins with similar CB regions, and for making functional inferences about CB regions for a protein of interest. The fLPS package is available from: http://biology.mcgill.ca/faculty/harrison/flps.html , or https://github.com/pmharrison/flps , or is a supplement to this article.

  3. Deadly Attraction - Attentional Bias toward Preferred Cigarette Brand in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaradzka, Ewa; Bielecki, Maksymilian

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that biases in visual attention might be evoked by affective and personally relevant stimuli, for example addiction-related objects. Despite the fact that addiction is often linked to specific products and systematic purchase behaviors, no studies focused directly on the existence of bias evoked by brands. Smokers are characterized by high levels of brand loyalty and everyday contact with cigarette packaging. Using the incentive-salience mechanism as a theoretical framework, we hypothesized that this group might exhibit a bias toward the preferred cigarette brand. In our study, a group of smokers ( N = 40) performed a dot probe task while their eye movements were recorded. In every trial a pair of pictures was presented - each of them showed a single cigarette pack. The visual properties of stimuli were carefully controlled, so branding information was the key factor affecting subjects' reactions. For each participant, we compared gaze behavior related to the preferred vs. other brands. The analyses revealed no attentional bias in the early, orienting phase of the stimulus processing and strong differences in maintenance and disengagement. Participants spent more time looking at the preferred cigarettes and saccades starting at the preferred brand location had longer latencies. In sum, our data shows that attentional bias toward brands might be found in situations not involving choice or decision making. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of formation and maintenance of attentional biases to stimuli of personal relevance and might serve as a first step toward developing new attitude measurement techniques.

  4. Revealing the Cosmic Web-dependent Halo Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Lu, Tianhuan; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Feng; Tweed, Dylan; Li, Shijie; Luo, Wentao; Lu, Yi; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Halo bias is the one of the key ingredients of the halo models. It was shown at a given redshift to be only dependent, to the first order, on the halo mass. In this study, four types of cosmic web environments—clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids—are defined within a state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulation. Within these environments, we use both halo-dark matter cross correlation and halo-halo autocorrelation functions to probe the clustering properties of halos. The nature of the halo bias differs strongly between the four different cosmic web environments described here. With respect to the overall population, halos in clusters have significantly lower biases in the {10}11.0˜ {10}13.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ mass range. In other environments, however, halos show extremely enhanced biases up to a factor 10 in voids for halos of mass ˜ {10}12.0 {h}-1 {M}⊙ . Such a strong cosmic web environment dependence in the halo bias may play an important role in future cosmological and galaxy formation studies. Within this cosmic web framework, the age dependency of halo bias is found to be only significant in clusters and filaments for relatively small halos ≲ {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ .

  5. Temporal evolution of the central fixation bias in scene viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkegel, Lars O M; Trukenbrod, Hans A; Schütt, Heiko H; Wichmann, Felix A; Engbert, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    When watching the image of a natural scene on a computer screen, observers initially move their eyes toward the center of the image-a reliable experimental finding termed central fixation bias. This systematic tendency in eye guidance likely masks attentional selection driven by image properties and top-down cognitive processes. Here, we show that the central fixation bias can be reduced by delaying the initial saccade relative to image onset. In four scene-viewing experiments we manipulated observers' initial gaze position and delayed their first saccade by a specific time interval relative to the onset of an image. We analyzed the distance to image center over time and show that the central fixation bias of initial fixations was significantly reduced after delayed saccade onsets. We additionally show that selection of the initial saccade target strongly depended on the first saccade latency. A previously published model of saccade generation was extended with a central activation map on the initial fixation whose influence declined with increasing saccade latency. This extension was sufficient to replicate the central fixation bias from our experiments. Our results suggest that the central fixation bias is generated by default activation as a response to the sudden image onset and that this default activation pattern decreases over time. Thus, it may often be preferable to use a modified version of the scene viewing paradigm that decouples image onset from the start signal for scene exploration to explicitly reduce the central fixation bias.

  6. Residual thermal stresses in injection moulded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, W.F.; Douven, L.F.A.; Ingen Housz, A.J.; Ingen housz, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Nonisothermal flow of a polymer melt in a cold mold cavity introduces stresses that are partly frozen-in during solidification. Flow-induced stresses cause anisotropy of mechanical, thermal, and optical properties, while the residual thermal stresses induce warpage and stress-cracking. In this

  7. Towards a theory of bias and equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Fons J.R. van de

    1998-01-01

    "Bias refers to the presence of nuisance factors in cross-cultural research. Three types of bias are distinguished, depending on whether the nuisance factor is located at the level of the construct (construct bias), the measurement instrument as a whole (method bias) or the items (item bias or differential item functioning). Equivalence refers to the measurement level characteristics that apply to cross-cultural score comparisons; three types of equivalence are defined: construct (identity of...

  8. Gender bias in teaching evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengel, Friederike; Sauermann, Jan; Zölitz, Ulf Zoelitz

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on gender bias in teaching evaluations. We exploit a quasi-experimental dataset of 19,952 student evaluations of university faculty in a context where students are randomly allocated to female or male instructors. Despite the fact that neither students’ grades nor

  9. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  10. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  11. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  12. On the linearity of tracer bias around voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollina, Giorgia; Hamaus, Nico; Dolag, Klaus; Weller, Jochen; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro

    2017-07-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe can be observed only via luminous tracers of the dark matter. However, the clustering statistics of tracers are biased and depend on various properties, such as their host-halo mass and assembly history. On very large scales, this tracer bias results in a constant offset in the clustering amplitude, known as linear bias. Towards smaller non-linear scales, this is no longer the case and tracer bias becomes a complicated function of scale and time. We focus on tracer bias centred on cosmic voids, I.e. depressions of the density field that spatially dominate the Universe. We consider three types of tracers: galaxies, galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei, extracted from the hydrodynamical simulation Magneticum Pathfinder. In contrast to common clustering statistics that focus on auto-correlations of tracers, we find that void-tracer cross-correlations are successfully described by a linear bias relation. The tracer-density profile of voids can thus be related to their matter-density profile by a single number. We show that it coincides with the linear tracer bias extracted from the large-scale auto-correlation function and expectations from theory, if sufficiently large voids are considered. For smaller voids we observe a shift towards higher values. This has important consequences on cosmological parameter inference, as the problem of unknown tracer bias is alleviated up to a constant number. The smallest scales in existing data sets become accessible to simpler models, providing numerous modes of the density field that have been disregarded so far, but may help to further reduce statistical errors in constraining cosmology.

  13. Unburned carbon in combustion residues from mainly solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem H; Lind B; Lagerkvist A

    2012-02-15

    Unburned carbon in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels is investigated using several methods of analysis (a.o. LOI and TOC), as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results are used to discuss the distribution of unburned carbon in the residues from the different combustion plants and its nature (organic or elemental). The consequences of the elemental nature of carbon for environmental properties of the residue are noted

  14. Weight bias internalization across weight categories among school-aged children. Validation of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2018-02-22

    Anti-fat bias is widespread and is linked to the internalization of weight bias and psychosocial problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the internalization of weight bias among children across weight categories and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale for Children (WBIS-C). Data were collected from 1484 primary school children and their parents. WBIS-C demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .86) after exclusion of Item 1. The unitary factor structure was supported using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (factorial validity). Girls and overweight children reported higher WBIS-C scores in comparison to boys and non-overweight peers (known-groups validity). Convergent validity was shown by significant correlations with psychosocial problems. Internalization of weight bias explained additional variance in different indicators of psychosocial well-being. The results suggest that the WBIS-C is a psychometrically sound and informative tool to assess weight bias internalization among children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Residue Management: A Computer Program About Conservation Tillage Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Steve J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, Residue Management, which is designed to supplement discussions on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the impact of tillage on soil properties for introductory soil courses. The program advances the user through three stages of residue management. Information on obtaining the program is also included. (ML)

  16. Comparative effects of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of Southeast Nigeria to assess the effects of amending soil with plant residues on soil physical and chemical properties. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, ...

  17. Measurement Error and Bias in Value-Added Models. Research Report. ETS RR-17-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    By aggregating residual gain scores (the differences between each student's current score and a predicted score based on prior performance) for a school or a teacher, value-added models (VAMs) can be used to generate estimates of school or teacher effects. It is known that random errors in the prior scores will introduce bias into predictions of…

  18. Bias-variance decomposition in Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowaliw Taras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study properties of Linear Genetic Programming (LGP through several regression and classification benchmarks. In each problem, we decompose the results into bias and variance components, and explore the effect of varying certain key parameters on the overall error and its decomposed contributions. These parameters are the maximum program size, the initial population, and the function set used. We confirm and quantify several insights into the practical usage of GP, most notably that (a the variance between runs is primarily due to initialization rather than the selection of training samples, (b parameters can be reasonably optimized to obtain gains in efficacy, and (c functions detrimental to evolvability are easily eliminated, while functions well-suited to the problem can greatly improve performance—therefore, larger and more diverse function sets are always preferable.

  19. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  20. Jets in minimum bias physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancheri, G.; Srivastava, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion was made on a phenomenological evidence to support the hypothesis that several new phenomena observed in low psub(t) physics are due to the presence of low-x QCD jets in minimum bias physics. The phenomena we examine are KNO scaling violations, growth of with multiplicity and rise of the non-single diffractive part of the total cross-section. We have discussed the importance of low-x hard parton scattering in minimum bias events and pointed out its connection to both KNO scaling violations as well as to the observed growth of with multiplicity in inclusive pion distributions. The contribution of these mini-jets to the total cross-section has been calculated and a model for the transverse energy distribution characterizing any event accompanied by jets has been presented. (author)

  1. Variable-bias coin tossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Alice is a charismatic quantum cryptographer who believes her parties are unmissable; Bob is a (relatively) glamorous string theorist who believes he is an indispensable guest. To prevent possibly traumatic collisions of self-perception and reality, their social code requires that decisions about invitation or acceptance be made via a cryptographically secure variable-bias coin toss (VBCT). This generates a shared random bit by the toss of a coin whose bias is secretly chosen, within a stipulated range, by one of the parties; the other party learns only the random bit. Thus one party can secretly influence the outcome, while both can save face by blaming any negative decisions on bad luck. We describe here some cryptographic VBCT protocols whose security is guaranteed by quantum theory and the impossibility of superluminal signaling, setting our results in the context of a general discussion of secure two-party computation. We also briefly discuss other cryptographic applications of VBCT

  2. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN TRADING SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  3. Cultural Biases in Economic Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Guiso; Paola Sapienza; Luigi Zingales

    2004-01-01

    How much do cultural biases affect economic exchange? We try to answer this question by using the relative trust European citizens have for citizens of other countries. First, we document that this trust is affected not only by objective characteristics of the country being trusted, but also by cultural aspects of the match between trusting country and trusted country, such as religion, history of conflicts, and genetic and somatic similarities. We then find that lower relative...

  4. Compostos orgânicos hidrossolúveis de resíduos vegetais e seus efeitos nos atributos químicos do solo Water-soluble organic compounds in plant residue and the effects on soil chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cátia Diehl

    2008-12-01

    characteristics of a dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplortox, on soil samples in columns. The treatments consisted of: distilled water, lime incorporated in the 0-5 cm soil layer, lime and percolation of the following plant extracts: oilseed radish, black oat and wheat, maize and soybean straw. The following properties were determined in the plant extracts: the water-soluble organic ligand (WSOL by potentiometry with selective Cu2+ electrode; titration of organic anions (TOA and organic anions (OA by base addition. The OA and TOA concentrations varied from 7.0 to 32.0 mmol L-1 and WSOL from 0.60 to 2.23 mmol L-1. All plant extracts increased pH and exchangeable Ca, Mg and K and decreased the potential acidity and exchangeable Al down to a soil depth of 15 cm, while the effect of lime without plant extract was only observed down to 10 cm. The soluble organic compound concentrations of the plant residues were correlated with pH, Al3+, H+Al and soil base saturation in the 0-20 cm layer, confirming the role of these organic compounds to improve the chemical characteristics of an acid soil as well as the action of the surface-applied lime.

  5. PVC/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites: evaluation of electrical resistivity and the residual solvent effect over the thermal properties of nanocomposites; Nanocompositos PVC/nanotubos de carbono: avaliacao da resistividade eletrica e efeito do solvente utilizado na obtencao dos nanocompositos nas propriedades termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rogerio Gomes [Instituto Superior Tupy (UNISOCIESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Pires, Alfredo T.N., E-mail: araujo@sociesc.org.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The procedure for obtaining nanocomposite by dispersing the nanoparticles in matrix polymer in solution with subsequent elimination of the solvent has been widely used, considering better efficiency in obtaining homogeneity of the final product. However, the presence of residual solvent may affect the nanocomposites in micro-and macroscopic properties of the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal properties of nanocomposites of poly(vinylchloride)/multi-walled carbon nanotube obtained from the polymer solution and dispersion of carbon nanotubes in tetrahydrofuran (THF), as well as the electrical resistivity of nanocomposites and the influence of residual solvent. The presence of residual tetrahydrofuran reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) up to 26 °C, being independent of the amount of carbon nanotubes. The total elimination of the solvent is an important factor that does not induce changes in the properties of the polymeric matrix. The graft-COOH groups in the structure of the nanotubes leads to a considerable reduction of the electrical resistivity in ten orders of magnitude, from 0.4 %wt of nanotubes in the nanocomposite composition. (author)

  6. Testing the efficiency of extraction of incurred residues from soil with optimized multi-residue method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszter, Gabriella K; Ambrus, Árpád

    2017-08-03

    The reproducibility of extraction of residues from spiked soil samples and from soils containing incurred residues was tested with 14 C-labeled test compounds of different physical-chemical properties. Nearly 100% of the compounds added to the sample before extraction could be recovered with an average reproducibility relative standard deviation (CV) of 5.4%. The additional steps of the determination process (cleanup, evaporation, etc.) contributed to the major part of the variability of the results (CV = 10-20%). The incurred residues were most efficiently extracted with acetone for 30 min followed by the mixture of acetone/ethyl acetate 1:1 for additional 30 min. However, they could only be recovered at various extent (64-90% of total residues), underlying the importance of testing the efficiency of extraction. The residues were identified and quantified by gas chromatography applying thermionic detector. The performance parameters of the method complied with the international method validation guidelines, and they proved to be robust and suitable for determination of pesticide residues in soils of widely different physical-chemical properties.

  7. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, Lauren M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d 33 piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m −1 . It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response

  8. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, Lauren M., E-mail: lmg309@psu.edu; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d{sub 33} piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m{sup −1}. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  9. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Lauren M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d33 piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m-1. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  10. Nonlinear bias compensation of ZiYuan-3 satellite imagery with cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinshan; Fu, Jianhong; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Gong, Jianya

    2017-11-01

    Like many high-resolution satellites such as the ALOS, MOMS-2P, QuickBird, and ZiYuan1-02C satellites, the ZiYuan-3 satellite suffers from different levels of attitude oscillations. As a result of such oscillations, the rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) obtained using a terrain-independent scenario often have nonlinear biases. In the sensor orientation of ZiYuan-3 imagery based on a rational function model (RFM), these nonlinear biases cannot be effectively compensated by an affine transformation. The sensor orientation accuracy is thereby worse than expected. In order to eliminate the influence of attitude oscillations on the RFM-based sensor orientation, a feasible nonlinear bias compensation approach for ZiYuan-3 imagery with cubic splines is proposed. In this approach, no actual ground control points (GCPs) are required to determine the cubic splines. First, the RPCs are calculated using a three-dimensional virtual control grid generated based on a physical sensor model. Second, one cubic spline is used to model the residual errors of the virtual control points in the row direction and another cubic spline is used to model the residual errors in the column direction. Then, the estimated cubic splines are used to compensate the nonlinear biases in the RPCs. Finally, the affine transformation parameters are used to compensate the residual biases in the RPCs. Three ZiYuan-3 images were tested. The experimental results showed that before the nonlinear bias compensation, the residual errors of the independent check points were nonlinearly biased. Even if the number of GCPs used to determine the affine transformation parameters was increased from 4 to 16, these nonlinear biases could not be effectively compensated. After the nonlinear bias compensation with the estimated cubic splines, the influence of the attitude oscillations could be eliminated. The RFM-based sensor orientation accuracies of the three ZiYuan-3 images reached 0.981 pixels, 0.890 pixels, and 1

  11. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  12. Deformações residuais longitudinais decorrentes de tensões de crescimento em eucaliptos e suas associações com outras propriedades Longitudinal residual strains resulted from growth stresses in eucalypts and their association with other properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima

    2004-02-01

    ânicas da madeira fossem significativamente estimadas por modelos múltiplos.Growth stresses are a limiting factor in the use of fast growing eucalypts for the production of sawing logs. Further studies are needed for the qualification and mensuration of these stresses in eucalypts trees in Brazil. Thus, the main objective of this work was to evaluate the application of a new instrument, CIRAD-Forêt extensometer, in the measurement of the longitudinal residual strain (DRL in standing trees of five genetic materials of eucalypts, experimentally cultivated in Aracruz-Espirito Santo, and to correlate the magnitude of such strain with other wood properties and tree dimensions. The results obtained showed that: i the extensometer is a simple, rapid and reliable instrument to measure and identify trees with different levels of growth stresses; ii the DRL associated to the growth stresses measured with the extensometer were in average equal to 71 mm; iii no statistical differences were found in the DRLs measured in different cardinal orientations; iv the DRLs varied significantly with the genetic material according to the analyses of variance; v for clone 1, in which the DRLs were measured in two positions along the stem (1.3 m and 2.5 m, the values were similar; vi among various wood properties, only basic density was positive and significantly correlated with the DRLs when the five genetic materials were analysed together; vii except for the stability factor (DBH/total height of variety 5, the correlation between DRL and the tree growth dimensions were not significant when the genetic materials were analyzed separately, however, when the five genetic materials were analyzed together, only total height of the tree did not result in significant correlation with the DRLs; viii DRL addition to the tree growth dimensions allowed density and several wood mechanical properties to be significantly estimated by multiple models.

  13. Cognitive debiasing 1: origins of bias and theory of debiasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat; Singhal, Geeta; Mamede, Sílvia

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that diagnostic failure depends upon a variety of factors. Psychological factors are fundamental in influencing the cognitive performance of the decision maker. In this first of two papers, we discuss the basics of reasoning and the Dual Process Theory (DPT) of decision making. The general properties of the DPT model, as it applies to diagnostic reasoning, are reviewed. A variety of cognitive and affective biases are known to compromise the decision-making process. They mostly appear to originate in the fast intuitive processes of Type 1 that dominate (or drive) decision making. Type 1 processes work well most of the time but they may open the door for biases. Removing or at least mitigating these biases would appear to be an important goal. We will also review the origins of biases. The consensus is that there are two major sources: innate, hard-wired biases that developed in our evolutionary past, and acquired biases established in the course of development and within our working environments. Both are associated with abbreviated decision making in the form of heuristics. Other work suggests that ambient and contextual factors may create high risk situations that dispose decision makers to particular biases. Fatigue, sleep deprivation and cognitive overload appear to be important determinants. The theoretical basis of several approaches towards debiasing is then discussed. All share a common feature that involves a deliberate decoupling from Type 1 intuitive processing and moving to Type 2 analytical processing so that eventually unexamined intuitive judgments can be submitted to verification. This decoupling step appears to be the critical feature of cognitive and affective debiasing.

  14. The Probability Distribution for a Biased Spinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article advocates biased spinners as an engaging context for statistics students. Calculating the probability of a biased spinner landing on a particular side makes valuable connections between probability and other areas of mathematics. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  15. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  16. Expectancy bias mediates the link between social anxiety and memory bias for social evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Justin D; Ruiz, Sarah K; Lee, Clinton C; Anbari, Zainab; Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety (SA) involves a multitude of cognitive symptoms related to fear of evaluation, including expectancy and memory biases. We examined whether memory biases are influenced by expectancy biases for social feedback in SA. We hypothesised that, faced with a socially evaluative event, people with higher SA would show a negative expectancy bias for future feedback. Furthermore, we predicted that memory bias for feedback in SA would be mediated by expectancy bias. Ninety-four undergraduate students (55 women, mean age = 19.76 years) underwent a two-visit task that measured expectations about (Visit 1) and memory of (Visit 2) feedback from unknown peers. Results showed that higher levels of SA were associated with negative expectancy bias. An indirect relationship was found between SA and memory bias that was mediated by expectancy bias. The results suggest that expectancy biases are in the causal path from SA to negative memory biases for social evaluation.

  17. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.

  18. Culturally Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul B.

    2003-01-01

    Eight clusters of culturally biased assumptions are identified for further discussion from Leong and Ponterotto's (2003) article. The presence of cultural bias demonstrates that cultural bias is so robust and pervasive that is permeates the profession of counseling psychology, even including those articles that effectively attack cultural bias…

  19. Using Newspapers to Study Media Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn to recognize media bias by studying media reports of current events or historical topics. Describes a study unit using media coverage of the second anniversary of the Palestinian uprising against Israel. Discusses lesson objectives, planning, defining bias teaching procedures, and criteria for determining bias. (DK)

  20. Attentional bias predicts heroin relapse following treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Marlies A. E.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Waters, Andrew J.; Blanken, Peter; van den Brink, Wim; Hendriks, Vincent M.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: Previous studies have shown that abstinent heroin addicts exhibit an attentional bias to heroin-related stimuli. It has been suggested that attentional bias may represent a vulnerability to relapse into drug use. In the present study, the predictive value of pre-treatment attentional bias on

  1. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category, and revise the main theoretical and empirical developments, linking each bias with other biases and anomalies that are related to them, according to the literature.

  2. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  3. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  4. Recursive bias estimation for high dimensional regression smoothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengartner, Nicolas W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cornillon, Pierre - Andre [AGROSUP, FRANCE; Matzner - Lober, Eric [UNIV OF RENNES, FRANCE

    2009-01-01

    In multivariate nonparametric analysis, sparseness of the covariates also called curse of dimensionality, forces one to use large smoothing parameters. This leads to biased smoother. Instead of focusing on optimally selecting the smoothing parameter, we fix it to some reasonably large value to ensure an over-smoothing of the data. The resulting smoother has a small variance but a substantial bias. In this paper, we propose to iteratively correct of the bias initial estimator by an estimate of the latter obtained by smoothing the residuals. We examine in details the convergence of the iterated procedure for classical smoothers and relate our procedure to L{sub 2}-Boosting, For multivariate thin plate spline smoother, we proved that our procedure adapts to the correct and unknown order of smoothness for estimating an unknown function m belonging to H({nu}) (Sobolev space where m should be bigger than d/2). We apply our method to simulated and real data and show that our method compares favorably with existing procedures.

  5. Numerical bias estimation for mass spectrometric mass isotopomer analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Hoon; Bolten, Christoph J; Coppi, Maddalena V; Sun, Jun; Heinzle, Elmar

    2009-05-15

    Mass spectrometric (MS) isotopomer analysis has become a standard tool for investigating biological systems using stable isotopes. In particular, metabolic flux analysis uses mass isotopomers of metabolic products typically formed from (13)C-labeled substrates to quantitate intracellular pathway fluxes. In the current work, we describe a model-driven method of numerical bias estimation regarding MS isotopomer analysis. Correct bias estimation is crucial for measuring statistical qualities of measurements and obtaining reliable fluxes. The model we developed for bias estimation corrects a priori unknown systematic errors unique for each individual mass isotopomer peak. For validation, we carried out both computational simulations and experimental measurements. From stochastic simulations, it was observed that carbon mass isotopomer distributions and measurement noise can be determined much more precisely only if signals are corrected for possible systematic errors. By removing the estimated background signals, the residuals resulting from experimental measurement and model expectation became consistent with normality, experimental variability was reduced, and data consistency was improved. The method is useful for obtaining systematic error-free data from (13)C tracer experiments and can also be extended to other stable isotopes. As a result, the reliability of metabolic fluxes that are typically computed from mass isotopomer measurements is increased.

  6. Motion signals bias localization judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2008-01-01

    In the flash-lag illusion, a moving object aligned with a flash is perceived to be offset in the direction of motion following the flash. In the “flash-drag” illusion, a flash is mislocalized in the direction of nearby motion. In the “flash-jump” illusion, a transient change in the appearance of a moving object (e.g., color) is mislocalized in the direction of subsequent motion. Finally, in the Frohlich illusion, the starting position of a suddenly appearing moving object is mislocalized in the direction of the subsequent motion. We demonstrate, in a series of experiments, a unified explanation for all these illusions: Perceptual localization is influenced by motion signals collected over ∼80 ms after a query is triggered. These demonstrations rule out “latency difference” and asynchronous feature binding models, in which objects appear in their real positions but misaligned in time. Instead, the illusions explored here are best understood as biases in localization caused by motion signals. We suggest that motion biasing exists because it allows the visual system to account for neural processing delays by retrospectively “pushing” an object closer to its true physical location, and we propose directions for exploring the neural mechanisms underlying the dynamic updating of location by the activity of motion-sensitive neurons. PMID:17461687

  7. Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.

  8. Gender Bias Affects Forests Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Elias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure, forest spaces, division of labor, and ecological knowledge. Each emerges across geographic regions in the northern and southern hemisphere and reflects inequities in women’s and men’s ability to make decisions about and benefit from trees, forests, and their products. Women’s ability to participate in community-based forest governance is typically less than men’s, causing concern for social equity and forest stewardship. Women’s access to trees and their products is commonly more limited than men’s, and mediated by their relationship with their male counterparts. Spatial patterns of forest use reflect gender norms and taboos, and men’s greater access to transportation. The division of labor results in gender specialization in the collection of forest products, with variations in gender roles across regions. All these gender differences result in ecological knowledge that is distinct but also complementary and shifting across the genders. The ways gender plays out in relation to each theme may vary across cultures and contexts, but the influence of gender, which intersects with other factors of social differentiation in shaping forest landscapes, is global.

  9. Volunteer bias, sexuality, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, N; Sabini, J

    1998-04-01

    Participants were recruited either for a study of sexual attitudes and behavior or for a study of attitudes and behavior without mention of sexuality. Both groups answered questions about their sexual behavior and completed the Self-Monitoring Scale, the Balanced F Scale, and the Social Responsibility Scale. No differences were found as a function of recruitment technique in the mean reports of subjects' sexual behavior, but substantial differences were found in some of the relationships between these personality variables and sexual behavior reports as a function of recruitment technique; the correlation between the balanced F Scale score and masturbation frequency for females was +0.61 for those recruited for a study of sexual behavior and -0.61 for those recruited for a study of general attitudes and behavior. In both groups, larger correlations were found between female sexual behavior and personality than between male sexual behavior and personality. In all groups, the Self-Monitoring Scale was significantly correlated with masturbation frequency. The results are discussed in terms of self-selection bias and self-presentation bias, both of which may affect research on sexuality.

  10. Bias, redshift space distortions and primordial nongaussianity of nonlinear transformations: application to Ly-α forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, Uroš

    2012-01-01

    On large scales a nonlinear transformation of matter density field can be viewed as a biased tracer of the density field itself. A nonlinear transformation also modifies the redshift space distortions in the same limit, giving rise to a velocity bias. In models with primordial nongaussianity a nonlinear transformation generates a scale dependent bias on large scales. We derive analytic expressions for the large scale bias, the velocity bias and the redshift space distortion (RSD) parameter β, as well as the scale dependent bias from primordial nongaussianity for a general nonlinear transformation. These biases can be expressed entirely in terms of the one point distribution function (PDF) of the final field and the parameters of the transformation. The analysis shows that one can view the large scale bias different from unity and primordial nongaussianity bias as a consequence of converting higher order correlations in density into 2-point correlations of its nonlinear transform. Our analysis allows one to devise nonlinear transformations with nearly arbitrary bias properties, which can be used to increase the signal in the large scale clustering limit. We apply the results to the ionizing equilibrium model of Lyman-α forest, in which Lyman-α flux F is related to the density perturbation δ via a nonlinear transformation. Velocity bias can be expressed as an average over the Lyman-α flux PDF. At z = 2.4 we predict the velocity bias of -0.1, compared to the observed value of −0.13±0.03. Bias and primordial nongaussianity bias depend on the parameters of the transformation. Measurements of bias can thus be used to constrain these parameters, and for reasonable values of the ionizing background intensity we can match the predictions to observations. Matching to the observed values we predict the ratio of primordial nongaussianity bias to bias to have the opposite sign and lower magnitude than the corresponding values for the highly biased galaxies, but this

  11. Lignin biochemistry and soil N determine crop residue decomposition and soil priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping history can affect soil properties, including available N, but little is known about the interactive effects of residue biochemistry, temperature and cropping history on residue decomposition. A laboratory incubation examined the role of residue biochemistry and temperature on the decomposi...

  12. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  13. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers; Las tensiones residuales y las propiedades mecánicas de compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [Spanish] Se ha investigado el efecto de las tensiones residuales en la resistencia, dureza y trabajo de fractura de los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC. Puede ser una manera eficaz de diseñar y optimizar las propiedades mecánicas de los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC mediante el control de las propiedades de las capas de SiC. Los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC se fabricaron por medio de colado en cinta en medio acuoso y sinterización sin presión. Las tensiones residuales se calcularon mediante el uso de la simulación ANSYS, los valores máximos de las fuerzas de tracción y compresión fueron 553,2 MPa y −552,1 MPa, respectivamente. Se observó una fractura escalonada a partir de las superficies de fractura. La fracción de capas de deslaminación aumenta con la tensión residual, lo que puede mejorar la fiabilidad de los materiales. La fuerza de tracción residual era beneficiosa para la mejora de la dureza y el trabajo de fractura, pero la resistencia de los compuestos disminuyó.

  14. System Model Bias Processing Approach for Regional Coordinated States Information Involved Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Kalman filtering applications, the conventional dynamic model which connects the states information of two consecutive epochs by state transition matrix is usually predefined and assumed to be invariant. Aiming to improve the adaptability and accuracy of dynamic model, we propose multiple historical states involved filtering algorithm. An autoregressive model is used as the dynamic model which is subsequently combined with observation model for deriving the optimal window-recursive filter formulae in the sense of minimum mean square error principle. The corresponding test statistics characteristics of system residuals are discussed in details. The test statistics of regional predicted residuals are then constructed in a time-window for model bias testing with two hypotheses, that is, the null and alternative hypotheses. Based on the innovations test statistics, we develop a model bias processing procedure including bias detection, location identification, and state correction. Finally, the minimum detectable bias and bias-to-noise ratio are both computed for evaluating the internal and external reliability of overall system, respectively.

  15. Intergroup biases and eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, T; Christianson, S A

    1998-12-01

    The study examined how the in-group/out-group status of a perpetrator of a distinctly violent crime might influence an eyewitness's evaluation of his behavior and a witness's performance in an identification task. Immigrant and Swedish students saw a film showing a simulated robbery, with an immigrant or a Swede as the perpetrator. Results showed that both groups evaluated an ethnically dissimilar perpetrator as more culpable than an ethnically similar perpetrator. In a line-up task, both immigrant and Swedish participants mistakenly identified an innocent immigrant more often than an innocent Swede. Participants' biased evaluations of the perpetrator are discussed in terms of cognitive and motivational mechanisms. Expectations regarding the typical ethnicity of a perpetrator of this type of crime are suggested to account for the findings of the line-up task.

  16. Structure-Activity Investigation of a G Protein-Biased Agonist Reveals Molecular Determinants for Biased Signaling of the D2 Dopamine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lani S. Chun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R is known to elicit effects through activating two major signaling pathways mediated by either G proteins (Gi/o or β-arrestins. However, the specific role of each pathway in physiological or therapeutic activities is not known with certainty. One approach to the dissection of these pathways is through the use of drugs that can selectively modulate one pathway vs. the other through a mechanism known as functional selectivity or biased signaling. Our laboratory has previously described a G protein signaling-biased agonist, MLS1547, for the D2R using a variety of in vitro functional assays. To further evaluate the biased signaling activity of this compound, we investigated its ability to promote D2R internalization, a process known to be mediated by β-arrestin. Using multiple cellular systems and techniques, we found that MLS1547 promotes little D2R internalization, which is consistent with its inability to recruit β-arrestin. Importantly, we validated these results in primary striatal neurons where the D2R is most highly expressed suggesting that MLS1547 will exhibit biased signaling activity in vivo. In an effort to optimize and further explore structure-activity relationships (SAR for this scaffold, we conducted an iterative chemistry campaign to synthesize and characterize novel analogs of MLS1547. The resulting analysis confirmed previously described SAR requirements for G protein-biased agonist activity and, importantly, elucidated new structural features that are critical for agonist efficacy and signaling bias of the MLS1547 scaffold. One of the most important determinants for G protein-biased signaling is the interaction of a hydrophobic moiety of the compound with a defined pocket formed by residues within transmembrane five and extracellular loop two of the D2R. These results shed new light on the mechanism of biased signaling of the D2R and may lead to improved functionally-selective molecules.

  17. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  18. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  19. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  20. Political Accountability, Electoral Control, and Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Takanori Adachi; Yoichi Hizen

    2012-01-01

    Are anti-establishment mass media really useful in preventing politicians from behaving dishonestly? This paper proposes a voting model for analyzing how differences in the direction of media bias affect politicians' behavior. In particular, the probability of corruption by an incumbent is higher (than that in the case of no media bias) if and only if the mass media have some degree of "anti-incumbent" bias (i.e., information favorable to the incumbent is converted into unfavorable news about...

  1. Production bias and cluster annihilation: Why necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    the primary cluster density is high. Therefore, a sustained high swelling rate driven by production bias must involve the annihilation of primary clusters at sinks. A number of experimental observations which are unexplainable in terms of the conventional dislocation bias for monointerstitials is considered....... It is found that the production bias and cluster annihilation are necessary to explain these observations, with, in many cases, the explicit consideration of the annihilation of the primary interstitial clusters....

  2. Functional significance of the conserved residues for the 23-residue module among MTH1 and MutT family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Shimokawa, H; Sekiguchi, M; Nakabeppu, Y

    1999-12-31

    Human MTH1 and Escherichia coli MutT proteins hydrolyze 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-dGTP (8-oxo-dGTP) to monophosphate, thus avoiding the incorporation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine into nascent DNA. Although only 30 amino acid residues (23%) are identical between MTH1 and MutT, there is a highly conserved region consisting of 23 residues (MTH1, Gly(36)-Gly(58)) with 14 identical residues. A chimeric protein MTH1-Ec, in which the 23-residue sequence of MTH1 was replaced with that of MutT, retains its capability to hydrolyze 8-oxo-dGTP, thereby indicating that the 23-residue sequences of MTH1 and MutT are functionally and structurally equivalent and constitute functional modules. By saturation mutagenesis of the module in MTH1, 14 of the 23 residues proved to be essential to exert 8-oxo-dGTPase activity. For the other 9 residues (40, 42, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 54, and 58), positive mutants were obtained, and Arg(50) can be replaced with hydrophobic residues (Val, Leu, or Ile), with a greater stability and higher specific activity of the enzyme. Indispensabilities of Val(39), Ile(45), and Leu(53) indicate that an amphipathic property of alpha-helix I consisting of 14 residues of the module (Thr(44)-Gly(58)) is essential to maintain the stable catalytic surface for 8-oxo-dGTPase.

  3. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  4. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  5. Use of demolition residues construction in soil-lime bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.S.; Silva, C.G.; Silva, I.A.; Neves, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Besides being responsible for several environmental damage caused by its residues, the construction industry is also considered the greatest natural resources consumer. When finely ground, such residues can exhibit cementing properties, which may replace part of the lime used in the manufacture of soil-lime bricks. This study aimed to verify the viability of using demolition residues (DR) in soil-lime bricks without structural function. For this, test specimens were prepared using mixes in a 1:10 ratio of lime:soil and embedding residue in partial replacement of lime in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75%. The test specimens were submitted to curing periods of 28 and 52 days, then it was determined the compression strength. The results showed that when embedded on moderate percentages, demolition residues construction can be used in the production of soil-lime bricks. (author)

  6. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The mean residual life measures the expected remaining life of a subject who has survived up to a particular time. When survival time distribution is highly skewed or heavy tailed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose an additive-multiplicative restricted...... mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline....... For the suggested model, some covariate effects are allowed to be time-varying. To estimate the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the large sample properties of the resulting estimators are established. In addition, to assess the adequacy of the model, we investigate a goodness...

  7. Biases in the production and reception of collective knowledge: the case of hindsight bias in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; von der Beck, Ina; D Back, Mitja; Cress, Ulrike; Nestler, Steffen

    2017-04-17

    The Web 2.0 enabled collaboration at an unprecedented level. In one of the flagships of mass collaboration-Wikipedia-a large number of authors socially negotiate the world's largest compendium of knowledge. Several guidelines in Wikipedia restrict contributions to verifiable information from reliable sources to ensure recognized knowledge. Much psychological research demonstrates, however, that individual information processing is biased. This poses the question whether individual biases translate to Wikipedia articles or whether they are prevented by its guidelines. The present research makes use of hindsight bias to examine this question. To this end, we analyzed foresight and hindsight versions of Wikipedia articles regarding a broad variety of events (Study 1). We found the majority of articles not to contain traces of hindsight bias-contrary to prior individual research. However, for a particular category of events-disasters-we found robust evidence for hindsight bias. In a lab experiment (Study 2), we then examined whether individuals' hindsight bias is translated into articles under controlled conditions and tested whether collaborative writing-as present in Wikipedia-affects the resultant bias (vs. individual writing). Finally, we investigated the impact of biased Wikipedia articles on readers (Study 3). As predicted, biased articles elicited a hindsight bias in readers, who had not known of the event previously. Moreover, biased articles also affected individuals who knew about the event already, and who had already developed a hindsight bias: biased articles further increased their hindsight.

  8. Enhanced magnetic behavior, exchange bias effect, and dielectric property of BiFeO3 incorporated in (BiFeO30.50 (Co0.4Zn0.4Cu0.2 Fe2O40.5 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mukhopadhyay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of BiFeO3 (BFO are incorporated in the nanocomposite of (BiFeO30.50 (Co0.4Zn0.4Cu0.2 Fe2O40.5, (BFO-CZCF and these are prepared by chemical route. The formation of pure crystallographic phase of each component (BFO and CZCF in the nanocomposite of BFO-CZCF has been confirmed by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffractograms using FULLPROF program. Morphology, average particle size and its distribution, crystallographic phase etc. are obtained from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of BFO-CZCF. Magnetic measurements of BFO-CZCF have been carried out to explore the modulation of magnetic behavior of BFO in BFO-CZCF. Interestingly, magnetization of BFO-CZCF has been drastically enhanced compared to that of the pristine BFO. An exchange bias effect is also observed in the M vs. H loops of BFO-CZCF recorded in field cooled and zero field cooled conditions, which suggest that nanoparticles of BFO (AFM are encapsulated by nanoparticles of CZCF (FM in BFO-CZCF. Thermal variation of dielectric constant of BFO-CZCF is recorded in the range of 300 to 1073 K and a ferroelectric to paraelectric transition is observed at ∼728 K. Enhanced magnetic property of BFO would quite interesting for this important multiferroic.

  9. Semiparametric regression for restricted mean residual life under right censoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    A mean residual life function (MRLF) is the remaining life expectancy of a subject who has survived to a certain time point. In the presence of covariates, regression models are needed to study the association between the MRLFs and covariates. If the survival time tends to be too long or the tail...... is not observed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose the proportional restricted mean residual life model for fitting survival data under right censoring. For inference on the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the asymptotic properties...

  10. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ali, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  11. Transition-transversion bias is not universal: a counter example from grasshopper pseudogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Irene; Bensasson, Douda; Nichols, Richard A

    2007-02-02

    Comparisons of the DNA sequences of metazoa show an excess of transitional over transversional substitutions. Part of this bias is due to the relatively high rate of mutation of methylated cytosines to thymine. Postmutation processes also introduce a bias, particularly selection for codon-usage bias in coding regions. It is generally assumed, however, that there is a universal bias in favour of transitions over transversions, possibly as a result of the underlying chemistry of mutation. Surprisingly, this underlying trend has been evaluated only in two types of metazoan, namely Drosophila and the Mammalia. Here, we investigate a third group, and find no such bias. We characterize the point substitution spectrum in Podisma pedestris, a grasshopper species with a very large genome. The accumulation of mutations was surveyed in two pseudogene families, nuclear mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA sequences. The cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides exhibit the high transition frequencies expected of methylated sites. The transition rate at other cytosine residues is significantly lower. After accounting for this methylation effect, there is no significant difference between transition and transversion rates. These results contrast with reports from other taxa and lead us to reject the hypothesis of a universal transition/transversion bias. Instead we suggest fundamental interspecific differences in point substitution processes.

  12. Transition-transversion bias is not universal: a counter example from grasshopper pseudogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Keller

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the DNA sequences of metazoa show an excess of transitional over transversional substitutions. Part of this bias is due to the relatively high rate of mutation of methylated cytosines to thymine. Postmutation processes also introduce a bias, particularly selection for codon-usage bias in coding regions. It is generally assumed, however, that there is a universal bias in favour of transitions over transversions, possibly as a result of the underlying chemistry of mutation. Surprisingly, this underlying trend has been evaluated only in two types of metazoan, namely Drosophila and the Mammalia. Here, we investigate a third group, and find no such bias. We characterize the point substitution spectrum in Podisma pedestris, a grasshopper species with a very large genome. The accumulation of mutations was surveyed in two pseudogene families, nuclear mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA sequences. The cytosine-guanine (CpG dinucleotides exhibit the high transition frequencies expected of methylated sites. The transition rate at other cytosine residues is significantly lower. After accounting for this methylation effect, there is no significant difference between transition and transversion rates. These results contrast with reports from other taxa and lead us to reject the hypothesis of a universal transition/transversion bias. Instead we suggest fundamental interspecific differences in point substitution processes.

  13. Media bias under direct and indirect government control: when is the bias smaller?

    OpenAIRE

    Abhra Roy

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical framework to compare media bias under direct and indirect government control. In this context, we show that direct control can lead to a smaller bias and higher welfare than indirect control. We further show that the size of the advertising market affects media bias only under direct control. Media bias, under indirect control, is not affected by the size of the advertising market.

  14. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  15. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present trapping issues of weight-dependent walks on weighted hierarchical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. Assuming that edge's weight is used as local information by a random walker, we introduce a biased walk. The biased walk is that a walker, at each step, ...

  16. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    In stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In Choice Experiments, status quo bias is found to be strongly correlated with protest attitudes...

  17. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    to be superior, i.e. a status quo effect. However, in the stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In the Choice Experiment literature, status quo bias...

  18. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  19. Monotheism versus an innate bias towards mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan John

    2016-01-01

    Norenzayan et al.'s account for the spread of monotheistic "Big God" religions sees these religions originating as by-products of innate cognitive biases. These biases produce polytheistic rather than monotheistic systems, however, and so do not explain the origin of monotheism. Accounts where monotheism arises from polytheism (for political reasons, for example) appear better able to explain the spread of monotheism.

  20. Attention bias modification: the Emperor's new suit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    A series of primarily laboratory-based studies found attention bias modification in socially anxious participants to lead to reduced anxiety. It is argued that the failure to replicate the positive results of attention bias modification in the study of Carlbring et al. may be due to reasons other

  1. Developmental Changes in the Whole Number Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    Many students' knowledge of fractions is adversely affected by whole number bias, the tendency to focus on the separate whole number components (numerator and denominator) of a fraction rather than on the fraction's magnitude (ratio of numerator to denominator). Although whole number bias appears early in the fraction learning process and under…

  2. Dialogue Games for Inconsistent and Biased Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, H.J.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, a dialogue game is presented in which coherent conversational sequences with inconsistent and biased information are described at the speech act level. Inconsistent and biased information is represented with bilattice structures, and based on these bilattice structures, a

  3. Adjusting the Interview to Avoid Cultural Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Frances Eileen

    1992-01-01

    Considers cultural bias in employment interviews. Compares white American and Navajo interview styles and suggests new approach for recruiters to make interviewing less culturally biased. Recommends that recruiters not ask direct questions about personal achievements, try indirect approach, avoid making judgments on first impressions and…

  4. EVIDENCE OF NATIONALISTIC BIAS IN MUAYTHAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D. Myers

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available MuayThai is a combat sport with a growing international profile but limited research conducted into judging practices and processes. Problems with judging of other subjectively judged combat sports have caused controversy at major international tournaments that have resulted in changes to scoring methods. Nationalistic bias has been central to these problems and has been identified across a range of sports. The aim of this study was to examine nationalistic bias in MuayThai. Data were collected from the International Federation of MuayThai Amateur (IFMA World Championships held in Almaty, Kazakhstan September 2003 and comprised of tournament results from 70 A-class MuayThai bouts each judged by between five and nine judges. Bouts examined featured 62 competitors from 21 countries and 25 judges from 11 countries. Results suggested that nationalistic bias was evident. The bias observed equated to approximately one round difference between opposing judges over the course of a bout (a mean of 1.09 (SE=0.50 points difference between judges with opposing affilations. The number of neutral judges used meant that this level of bias generally did not influence the outcome of bouts. Future research should explore other ingroup biases, such as nearest neighbour bias and political bias as well as investigating the feasibility adopting an electronic scoring system

  5. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  6. Gender Bias: Inequities in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Reeve

    1993-01-01

    This article explores sex bias in curricular materials for elementary and secondary schools. Sex bias is defined as a set of unconscious behaviors that, in themselves, are often trivial and generally favorable. Although these behaviors do not hurt if they happen only once, they can cause a great deal of harm if a pattern develops that serves to…

  7. The Battle over Studies of Faculty Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravois, John

    2007-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) recently commissioned a study to review the research that finds liberal bias run amok in academe. Believing that the AFT is not a dispassionate observer of this debate, this article provides "The Chronicle of Higher Education's" survey of the genre. The studies reviewed include: (1) "Political Bias in the…

  8. Spatial bias in estimating the position of visual and proprioceptive targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sexton, Brandon Montgomery; Block, Hannah J

    2018-02-21

    When people match an unseen hand to a visual or proprioceptive target, they make both variable and systematic (bias) errors. Variance is a well-established factor in behavior, but the origin and implications of bias, and its connection to variance, are poorly understood. Eighty healthy adults matched their unseen right index finger to proprioceptive (left index finger) and visual targets with no performance feedback. We asked whether matching bias was related to target modality and to the magnitude or spatial properties of matching variance. Bias errors were affected by target modality, with subjects estimating visual and proprioceptive targets 20 mm apart. We found three pieces of evidence to suggest a connection between bias and variable errors: (1) for most subjects, the target modality that yielded greater spatial bias was also estimated with greater variance; (2) magnitudes of matching bias and variance were somewhat correlated for each target modality (R = 0.24 and 0.29); and (3), bias direction was closely related to the angle of the major axis of the confidence ellipse (R = 0.60 and 0.63). However, while variance was significantly correlated with visuo-proprioceptive weighting as predicted by multisensory integration theory (R = -0.29 and 0.27 for visual and proprioceptive variance, respectively), bias was not. In a second session, subjects improved their matching variance, but not bias, for both target modalities, indicating a difference in stability. Taken together, these results suggest bias and variance are related only in some respects, which should be considered in the study of multisensory behavior.

  9. Effect of pulse biasing on the morphology of diamond films grown by hot filament CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beake, B.D.; Hussain, I.U.; Rego, C.; Ahmed, W.

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond due to its unique mechanical, optical and electronic properties, which make it useful for many applications. For use in optical and electronic applications further developments in the CVD process are required to control the surface morphology and crystal size of the diamond films. These will require a detailed understanding of both the nucleation and growth processes that effect the properties. The technique of bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) of diamond offers better reproducibility than conventional pre-treatment methods such as mechanical abrasion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used study the surface modification of diamond films on silicon substrates during pulse biased growth in a hot filament CVD reactor. Pre-abraded silicon substrates were subjected to a three-step sequential growth process: (i) diamond deposition under standard CVD conditions, (ii) bias pre-treatment and (iii) deposition under standard conditions. The results show that the bias pre-treatment time is a critical parameter controlling the surface morphology and roughness of the diamond films deposited. Biasing reduces the surface roughness from 152 nm for standard CVD diamond to 68 nm for the 2.5 minutes pulse biased film. Further increase in the bias time results in an increase in surface roughness and crystallite size. (author)

  10. Bias detection and certified reference materials for random measurands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhin, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    A problem that frequently occurs in metrology is the bias checking of data obtained by a laboratory against the specified value and uncertainty estimate given in the certificate of analysis. The measurand—a property of a certified reference material (CRM)—is supposed to be random with a normal distribution whose parameters are given by the certificate specifications. The laboratory’s data from subsequent measurements of the CRM (a CRM experiment) are summarized by the sample mean value and its uncertainty which is commonly based on a repeatability standard deviation. New confidence intervals for the lab’s bias are derived. Although they may lack intuitive appeal, those obtained by using higher order asymptotic methods, compared and contrasted in this paper, are recommended.

  11. A model explaining the matrilateral bias in alloparental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gretchen; Daly, Martin

    2017-08-29

    Maternal grandmothers invest more in childcare than paternal grandmothers. This bias is large where the expression of preferences is unconstrained by residential and lineage norms, and is detectable even where marriage removes women from their natal families. We maintain that the standard evolutionary explanation, paternity uncertainty, is incomplete, and present an expanded model incorporating effects of alloparents on the mother as well as on her children. Alloparenting lightens a mother's load and increases her residual nepotistic value: her expected fitness from later investments in personal reproduction and in her natal relatives. The mother's mother derives fitness from all such investments, whereas her mother-in-law gains only from further investment in children sired by her son, and thus has less incentive to assist the mother even if paternity is certain. This logic extends to kin other than grandmothers. We generate several hypotheses for future research.

  12. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. N3 Bias Field Correction Explained as a Bayesian Modeling Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Thode; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Although N3 is perhaps the most widely used method for MRI bias field correction, its underlying mechanism is in fact not well understood. Specifically, the method relies on a relatively heuristic recipe of alternating iterative steps that does not optimize any particular objective function....... In this paper we explain the successful bias field correction properties of N3 by showing that it implicitly uses the same generative models and computational strategies as expectation maximization (EM) based bias field correction methods. We demonstrate experimentally that purely EM-based methods are capable...

  14. Childhood obesity: issues of weight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Reginald L

    2011-09-01

    Although the effects of obesity on children's physical health are well documented, the social consequences of obesity are less well described and may not be addressed in intervention programs. Weight bias may take several forms. It may result in teasing and discrimination and may affect employment and educational opportunities. Health care providers may limit care of overweight or obese children. The media promote weight bias in multiple ways. Some parents are biased against their obese children. In an effort to avoid weight bias, new efforts to reduce obesity must be evaluated to determine whether these efforts do, in fact, add to the problem. It is important to understand that the weight bias that obese youth face is just as serious as the physical consequences of excessive weight on the welfare of the child.

  15. Probability-scale residuals for continuous, discrete, and censored data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Bryan E; Li, Chun; Liu, Qi

    2016-12-01

    We describe a new residual for general regression models, defined as pr ( Y * y ), where y is the observed outcome and Y * is a random variable from the fitted distribution. This probability-scale residual can be written as E {sign( y , Y * )} whereas the popular observed-minus-expected residual can be thought of as E ( y - Y * ). Therefore, the probability-scale residual is useful in settings where differences are not meaningful or where the expectation of the fitted distribution cannot be calculated. We present several desirable properties of the probability-scale residual that make it useful for diagnostics and measuring residual correlation, especially across different outcome types. We demonstrate its utility for continuous, ordered discrete, and censored outcomes, including current status data, and with various models including Cox regression, quantile regression, and ordinal cumulative probability models, for which fully specified distributions are not desirable or needed, and in some cases suitable residuals are not available. The residual is illustrated with simulated data and real datasets from HIV-infected patients on therapy in the southeastern United States and Latin America.

  16. Evaluation of biases present in the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Candlish

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT design provides an opportunity to incorporate the benefits of randomisation within clinical practice; thus reducing costs, integrating electronic healthcare records, and improving external validity. This study aims to address a key concern of the cmRCT design: refusal to treatment is only present in the intervention arm, and this may lead to bias and reduce statistical power. Methods We used simulation studies to assess the effect of this refusal, both random and related to event risk, on bias of the effect estimator and statistical power. A series of simulations were undertaken that represent a cmRCT trial with time-to-event endpoint. Intention-to-treat (ITT, per protocol (PP, and instrumental variable (IV analysis methods, two stage predictor substitution and two stage residual inclusion, were compared for various refusal scenarios. Results We found the IV methods provide a less biased estimator for the causal effect when refusal is present in the intervention arm, with the two stage residual inclusion method performing best with regards to minimum bias and sufficient power. We demonstrate that sample sizes should be adapted based on expected and actual refusal rates in order to be sufficiently powered for IV analysis. Conclusion We recommend running both an IV and ITT analyses in an individually randomised cmRCT as it is expected that the effect size of interest, or the effect we would observe in clinical practice, would lie somewhere between that estimated with ITT and IV analyses. The optimum (in terms of bias and power instrumental variable method was the two stage residual inclusion method. We recommend using adaptive power calculations, updating them as refusal rates are collected in the trial recruitment phase in order to be sufficiently powered for IV analysis.

  17. Medical journal peer review: process and bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Scientific peer review is pivotal in health care research in that it facilitates the evaluation of findings for competence, significance, and originality by qualified experts. While the origins of peer review can be traced to the societies of the eighteenth century, it became an institutionalized part of the scholarly process in the latter half of the twentieth century. This was a response to the growth of research and greater subject specialization. With the current increase in the number of specialty journals, the peer review process continues to evolve to meet the needs of patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The peer review process itself faces challenges. Unblinded peer review might suffer from positive or negative bias towards certain authors, specialties, and institutions. Peer review can also suffer when editors and/or reviewers might be unable to understand the contents of the submitted manuscript. This can result in an inability to detect major flaws, or revelations of major flaws after acceptance of publication by the editors. Other concerns include potentially long delays in publication and challenges uncovering plagiarism, duplication, corruption and scientific misconduct. Conversely, a multitude of these challenges have led to claims of scientific misconduct and an erosion of faith. These challenges have invited criticism of the peer review process itself. However, despite its imperfections, the peer review process enjoys widespread support in the scientific community. Peer review bias is one of the major focuses of today's scientific assessment of the literature. Various types of peer review bias include content-based bias, confirmation bias, bias due to conservatism, bias against interdisciplinary research, publication bias, and the bias of conflicts of interest. Consequently, peer review would benefit from various changes and improvements with appropriate training of reviewers to provide quality reviews to maintain the quality and integrity of

  18. Effect of bias voltage on microstructure and mechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    References. Ahlgren M and Blomqvist H 2005 Surf. Coat. Technol. 200 157. Bujak J, Walkowicz J and Kusiñski J 2004 Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–. 181 150. Coll B F, Sathrum P, Fontana R, Peyre J P, Duchateau D and. Benmalek M 1992 Surf. Coat. Technol. 52 57. Freller H and Haessler H 1988 Surf. Coat. Technol. 36 219.

  19. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  20. Ação da atividade física sobre as propriedades mecânicas dos fêmures e tíbias de ratas osteopênicas Effects of physical activity on the mechanical properties of osteopenic female rats' femurs and tibiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silva Arahão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliamos as propriedades mecânicas, obtidas através de ensaios de flexo-compressão de fêmures e de flexão em 3 pontos de tíbias, de ratas adultas, ovariectomizadas e submetidas à atividade física. Foram utilizadas 30 ratas divididas em 3 grupos: G1: Controle. G2: Animais ovariectomizados e não submetidos a exercícios. G3: Foram treinados em uma gaiola giratória por cinco dias consecutivos, em seguida submetidos à ovariectomia, permanecendo em repouso por 24 horas. Exercitaram por 30 minutos, 5 dias por semana durante 9 semanas com velocidade de aproximadamente 0,31 m/s. Os valores obtidos de carga e de deformação evidenciaram que os fêmures das ratas ovariectomizadas apresentaram redução estatisticamente significativa nas propriedades mecânicas de carga e de deformação no limite máximo. Os fêmures do grupo ovariectomizado e submetido à prática de exercícios apresentaram valores de carga e de deformação no limite máximo superiores aos do grupo apenas ovariectomizado, no entanto, sem significância estatística. As tíbias não apresentaram alterações significativas em nenhuma das propriedades mecânicas estudadas. A atividade física aplicada por 30 minutos, 5 dias por semana durante 9 semanas a 0,31 m/s não foi suficiente para corrigir as alterações biomecânicas do tecido ósseo provocadas pela ovariectomia.We evaluated the mechanical properties, obtained by means of flexion-compression assays in femurs and flexion assays on three tibial sites of ovariectomized adult female rats submitted to physical activity. Thirty rats were employed and divided into 3 groups: G1: Control. G2: Ovariectomized animals and not submitted to physical activity. G3: Animals trained in a spinning cage for five consecutive days, subsequently submitted to ovariectomy, and allowed to rest during 24 hours. The animals were submitted to physical activity for 30 minutes, 5 days a week, for a period of 9 weeks, at a speed of approximately 0

  1. Species-specific differences of the spectroscopic properties of P700 - Analysis of the influence of non-conserved amino acid residues by site-directed mutagenesis of photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, H.; Bordignon, E.; Carbonera, D.; Dekker, J.P.; Karapetyan, N.; Teutloff, C.; Webber, A.; Lubitz, W.; Schlodder, E.

    2003-01-01

    We applied optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance techniques, and redox titrations to investigate the properties of the primary electron donor P700 in photosystem I (PS I) core complexes from cyanobacteria (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Spirulina platensis, and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), algae

  2. Bias in phylogenetic reconstruction of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B S; Campbell, D L

    2000-08-01

    Two spurious nodes were found in phylogenetic analyses of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences in comparison with well-established vertebrate relationships. These spurious reconstructions were well supported in bootstrap analyses and occurred independently of the method of phylogenetic analysis used (parsimony, distance, or likelihood). Use of this data set of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences allowed us to exploit established vertebrate relationships, as well as the considerable amount known about the molecular evolution of this gene, in order to identify important factors contributing to the spurious reconstructions. Simulation studies using parametric bootstrapping indicate that it is unlikely that the spurious nodes in the parsimony analyses are due to long branches or other topological effects. Rather, they appear to be due to base compositional bias at third positions, codon bias, and convergent evolution at nucleotide positions encoding the hydrophobic residues isoleucine, leucine, and valine. LogDet distance methods, as well as maximum-likelihood methods which allow for nonstationary changes in base composition, reduce but do not entirely eliminate support for the spurious resolutions. Inclusion of five additional rhodopsin sequences in the phylogenetic analyses largely corrected one of the spurious reconstructions while leaving the other unaffected. The additional sequences not only were more proximal to the corrected node, but were also found to have intermediate levels of base composition and codon bias as compared with neighboring sequences on the tree. This study shows that the spurious reconstructions can be corrected either by excluding third positions, as well as those encoding the amino acids Ile, Val, and Leu (which may not be ideal, as these sites can contain useful phylogenetic signal for other parts of the tree), or by the addition of sequences that reduce problems associated with convergent evolution.

  3. Automation bias in electronic prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyell, David; Magrabi, Farah; Raban, Magdalena Z; Pont, L G; Baysari, Melissa T; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-03-16

    Clinical decision support (CDS) in e-prescribing can improve safety by alerting potential errors, but introduces new sources of risk. Automation bias (AB) occurs when users over-rely on CDS, reducing vigilance in information seeking and processing. Evidence of AB has been found in other clinical tasks, but has not yet been tested with e-prescribing. This study tests for the presence of AB in e-prescribing and the impact of task complexity and interruptions on AB. One hundred and twenty students in the final two years of a medical degree prescribed medicines for nine clinical scenarios using a simulated e-prescribing system. Quality of CDS (correct, incorrect and no CDS) and task complexity (low, low + interruption and high) were varied between conditions. Omission errors (failure to detect prescribing errors) and commission errors (acceptance of false positive alerts) were measured. Compared to scenarios with no CDS, correct CDS reduced omission errors by 38.3% (p < .0001, n = 120), 46.6% (p < .0001, n = 70), and 39.2% (p < .0001, n = 120) for low, low + interrupt and high complexity scenarios respectively. Incorrect CDS increased omission errors by 33.3% (p < .0001, n = 120), 24.5% (p < .009, n = 82), and 26.7% (p < .0001, n = 120). Participants made commission errors, 65.8% (p < .0001, n = 120), 53.5% (p < .0001, n = 82), and 51.7% (p < .0001, n = 120). Task complexity and interruptions had no impact on AB. This study found evidence of AB omission and commission errors in e-prescribing. Verification of CDS alerts is key to avoiding AB errors. However, interventions focused on this have had limited success to date. Clinicians should remain vigilant to the risks of CDS failures and verify CDS.

  4. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  5. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  6. Large sample approximations of probabilities of correct evolutionary tree estimation and biases of maximum likelihood estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Simulation studies have been the main way in which properties of maximum likelihood estimation of evolutionary trees from aligned sequence data have been studied. Because trees are unusual parameters and because fitting is computationally intensive, such studies have a heavy computational cost. We develop an asymptotic framework that can be used to obtain probabilities of correct topological reconstruction and study other properties of likelihood methods when a single split is poorly resolved. Simulations suggest that while approximations to log likelihood differences are better for less well-resolved topologies, approximations to probabilities of correct reconstruction are generally good. We used the approximations to investigate biases in estimation and found that maximum likelihood estimation has a long-branch-repels bias. This differs from the long-branch-attracts bias often reported in the literature because it is a different form of bias. For maximum likelihood estimation, usually long-branch-attracts bias results arise in the presence of model misspecification and are a form of statistical inconsistency where the estimated tree converges upon an incorrect tree with long edges together. Here, by bias we mean a tendency to favour a particular topology when data are generated from a four-taxon star tree. While we find a tendency to favour the tree with long branches apart, with more extreme long edges, a strong small sequence-length long-branch-attracts bias overwhelms the long-branch-repels bias. The long-branch-repels bias generalizes to five and six taxa in the sense that subtrees containing taxa that are all distant from the poorly resolved split repel each other.

  7. Removing Malmquist bias from linear regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verter, Frances

    1993-01-01

    Malmquist bias is present in all astronomical surveys where sources are observed above an apparent brightness threshold. Those sources which can be detected at progressively larger distances are progressively more limited to the intrinsically luminous portion of the true distribution. This bias does not distort any of the measurements, but distorts the sample composition. We have developed the first treatment to correct for Malmquist bias in linear regressions of astronomical data. A demonstration of the corrected linear regression that is computed in four steps is presented.

  8. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect...... the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements...

  9. Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  10. Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2006-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  11. Influence of ion irradiation on internal residual stress in DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaseov, Platon A., E-mail: platon.karaseov@rphf.spbstu.r [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Podsvirov, Oleg A.; Karabeshkin, Konstantin V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, Andrei Ya. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute RAS, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 195252 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Azarov, Alexander Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Karasev, Nikita N. [State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Sablinskaya Str. 14, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Titov, Andrei I.; Smirnov, Alexander S. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-01

    The dependence of internal residual stress in thin diamond-like carbon films grown on Si substrate by PECVD technique on most important growth parameters, namely RF-power, DC bias voltage and substrate temperature, is described. Results show that compressive stress reaches the highest value of 2.7 GPa at low RF-power and DC bias. Increase of substrate temperature from 250 to 350 {sup o}C leads to nonlinear increase of stress value. Inhomogeneity of residual stress along the film surface disappears when film is deposited at temperatures above 275 {sup o}C. Post-growth film irradiation by P{sup +} and In{sup +} ions cause decrease of compressive stress followed by its inversion to tensile. For all ion energy combinations used residual stress changes linearly with normalized fluence up to 0.2 DPA with slope (8.7 {+-} 1.3) GPa/DPA.

  12. Residual radiation measurement with the BLMs in J-PARC MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Takeshi; Kuboki, Hironori; Satou, Kenichirou; Yee-Rendon, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In the high intensity proton accelerators, the residual radiation limits the available time and procedure of maintenance works. Measuring and controlling the residual radiations and beam losses are very important in this context. One of these, continuous measurement of residual radiations is initiated recently with the beam loss monitors along the J-PARC MR. The measurement can be possible just after the beam stop. This method was planned since the beginning of MR construction. The BLM signal outputs are DC-connected and have the gain lager than 30000 at maximum. We need to change (1) DAQ trigger, (2) bias voltage, when the machine is switched off. The results are obtained by subtracting the system-offset data with zero bias voltages. (author)

  13. Biased Agonism of Endogenous Opioid Peptides at the μ-Opioid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Georgina L; Lane, J Robert; Coudrat, Thomas; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur; Canals, Meritxell

    2015-08-01

    Biased agonism is having a major impact on modern drug discovery, and describes the ability of distinct G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands to activate different cell signaling pathways, and to result in different physiologic outcomes. To date, most studies of biased agonism have focused on synthetic molecules targeting various GPCRs; however, many of these receptors have multiple endogenous ligands, suggesting that "natural" bias may be an unappreciated feature of these GPCRs. The μ-opioid receptor (MOP) is activated by numerous endogenous opioid peptides, remains an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of pain, and exhibits biased agonism in response to synthetic opiates. The aim of this study was to rigorously assess the potential for biased agonism in the actions of endogenous opioids at the MOP in a common cellular background, and compare these to the effects of the agonist d-Ala2-N-MePhe4-Gly-ol enkephalin (DAMGO). We investigated activation of G proteins, inhibition of cAMP production, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 phosphorylation, β-arrestin 1/2 recruitment, and MOP trafficking, and applied a novel analytical method to quantify biased agonism. Although many endogenous opioids displayed signaling profiles similar to that of DAMGO, α-neoendorphin, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and the putatively endogenous peptide endomorphin-1 displayed particularly distinct bias profiles. These may represent examples of natural bias if it can be shown that they have different signaling properties and physiologic effects in vivo compared with other endogenous opioids. Understanding how endogenous opioids control physiologic processes through biased agonism can reveal vital information required to enable the design of biased opioids with improved pharmacological profiles and treat diseases involving dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. A review of bias flow liners for acoustic damping in gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, C.; Bake, F.

    2017-07-01

    The optimized design of bias flow liner is a key element for the development of low emission combustion systems in modern gas turbines and aero-engines. The research of bias flow liners has a fairly long history concerning both the parameter dependencies as well as the methods to model the acoustic behaviour of bias flow liners under the variety of different bias and grazing flow conditions. In order to establish an overview over the state of the art, this paper provides a comprehensive review about the published research on bias flow liners and modelling approaches with an extensive study of the most relevant parameters determining the acoustic behaviour of these liners. The paper starts with a historical description of available investigations aiming on the characterization of the bias flow absorption principle. This chronological compendium is extended by the recent and ongoing developments in this field. In a next step the fundamental acoustic property of bias flow liner in terms of the wall impedance is introduced and the different derivations and formulations of this impedance yielding the different published model descriptions are explained and compared. Finally, a parametric study reveals the most relevant parameters for the acoustic damping behaviour of bias flow liners and how this is reflected by the various model representations. Although the general trend of the investigated acoustic behaviour is captured by the different models fairly well for a certain range of parameters, in the transition region between the resonance dominated and the purely bias flow related regime all models lack the correct damping prediction. This seems to be connected to the proper implementation of the reactance as a function of bias flow Mach number.

  15. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  16. Accounting for Unobservable Exposure Time Bias Wh...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Accounting for Unobservable Exposure Time Bias When Using Medicare Prescription Drug Data Unobservable exposure time is common among Medicare Part D beneficiaries,...

  17. Biases in Gender-Role Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Det P.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the profession's code of ethics that opposes discrimination because of sex, the knowledge base on which social work is built is permeated by bias. In this review of the literature, the author identifies trends that illustrate this dilemma. (Author)

  18. Students' gender bias in teaching evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narissra Punyanunt-Carter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate if there is gender bias in student evaluations. Researchers administered a modified version of the teacher evaluation forms to 58 students (male=30; female=28 in a basic introductory communications class. Half the class was instructed to fill out the survey about a male professor, and the other half a female professor. Researchers broke down the evaluation results question by question in order to give a detailed account of the findings. Results revealed that there is certainly some gender bias at work when students evaluate their instructors. It was also found that gender bias does not significantly affect the evaluations. The results align with other findings in the available literature, which point to some sort of pattern regarding gender bias in evaluations, but it still seems to be inconsequential.  DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i3.234

  19. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Minimum Bias Interaction Triggers in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic ppcollisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presente...