Profile Monitors Based on Residual Gas Interaction
Forck, P; Giacomini, T; Peters, A
2005-01-01
The precise determination of transverse beam profiles at high current hadron accelerators has to be performed non-interceptingly. Two methods will be discussed based on the excitation of the residual gas molecules by the beam particles: Firstly, by beam induced fluorescence (BIF) light is emitted from the residual gas molecules and is observed with an image intensified CCD camera. At most laboratories N2 gas is inserted, which has a large cross section for emission in the blue wave length region. Secondly, a larger signal strength is achieved by detecting the ionization products in an Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM). By applying an electric field all ionization products are accelerated toward a spatial resolving Micro-Channel Plate. The signal read-out can either be performed by observing the light from a phosphor screen behind the MCP or electronically by a wire array. Methods to achieve a high spatial resolution and a fast turn-by-turn readout capability are discussed. Even though various approaches at dif...
Optimal Path Choice in Railway Passenger Travel Network Based on Residual Train Capacity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Dou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Passenger’s optimal path choice is one of the prominent research topics in the field of railway passenger transport organization. More and more different train types are available, increasing path choices from departure to destination for travelers are unstoppable. However, travelers cannot avoid being confused when they hope to choose a perfect travel plan based on various travel time and cost constraints before departure. In this study, railway passenger travel network is constructed based on train timetable. Both the generalized cost function we developed and the residual train capacity are considered to be the foundation of path searching procedure. The railway passenger travel network topology is analyzed based on residual train capacity. Considering the total travel time, the total travel cost, and the total number of passengers, we propose an optimal path searching algorithm based on residual train capacity in railway passenger travel network. Finally, the rationale of the railway passenger travel network and the optimal path generation algorithm are verified positively by case study.
Light Path Model of Fiber Optic Liquid Level Sensor Considering Residual Liquid Film on the Wall
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Zhijun Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The working principle of the refractive-type fiber optic liquid level sensor is analyzed in detail based on the light refraction principle. The optic path models are developed in consideration of common simplification and the residual liquid film on the glass tube wall. The calculating formulae for the model are derived, constraint conditions are obtained, influencing factors are discussed, and the scopes and skills of application are analyzed through instance simulations. The research results are useful in directing the correct usage of the fiber optic liquid level sensor, especially in special cases, such as those involving viscous liquid in the glass tube monitoring.
Assessment of elimination profile of albendazole residues in fish.
Busatto, Zenaís; de França, Welliton Gonçalves; Cyrino, José Eurico Possebon; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato
2018-01-01
Few drugs are specifically regulated for aquaculture. Thus this study considered albendazole (ABZ) as a potential drug for use in fish, which, however, is not yet regulated for this application. ABZ is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic approved for farmed ruminants and recently considered for treatment of fish parasites. It is the subject of careful monitoring because of potential residues in animal products. This study evaluated the depletion of ABZ and its main known metabolites: albendazole sulfoxide - ABZSO, albendazole sulfone - ABZSO 2 and albendazole amino sulfone - ABZ-2-NH 2 SO 2 , in the fillets of the Neotropical Characin pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, which were fed diets containing 10 mg ABZ kg -1 body weight in a single dose. Fish were euthanised at 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after medication and the depletion profiles of ABZ, each metabolite and the sum of all marker residues were assessed and evaluated taking into account methodological variations regarding determination of the maximum residue limits adopted by different international regulating agencies for estimation of the withdrawal period (WP). The estimated WPs ranged from 2 to 7 days.
Development of Residual Gas Profile Monitors at GSI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giacomini, T.; Forck, P.; Barabin, S.; Liakin, D.; Skachkov, V.
2004-01-01
Beam profile measurements at modern ion synchrotrons and storage rings require high timing performances on a turn-by-turn basis. High spatial resolutions are essential for cold beams and beamwidth measurings. The currently used RGM supported very interesting measurements and applications. Due to the readout technology the spatial and time resolution is limited. To meet the expanded demands a more comprehensive device is under development. It will be an all-purpose residual gas monitor to cover the wide range of beam currents and transversal particle distributions. Due to the fast profile detection it will operate on primary electrons after residual gas ionization. A magnetic field of 100 mT binds them to the ionization point inside 0.1-mm orbits. The high-resolution mode will be read out by a digital CCD camera with an upstream MCP-phosphor screen assembly. It is planned to read out the fast turn-by-turn mode by an array of 100 photodiodes with a resolution of 1 mm. Every photodiode is equipped with an amplifier-digitizer device providing a frame rate of ∼ 10 MSamples/s
Development of Residual Gas Profile Monitors at GSI
Giacomini, T.; Barabin, S.; Forck, P.; Liakin, D.; Skachkov, V.
2004-11-01
Beam profile measurements at modern ion synchrotrons and storage rings require high timing performances on a turn-by-turn basis. High spatial resolutions are essential for cold beams and beamwidth measurings. The currently used RGM supported very interesting measurements and applications. Due to the readout technology the spatial and time resolution is limited. To meet the expanded demands a more comprehensive device is under development. It will be an all-purpose residual gas monitor to cover the wide range of beam currents and transversal particle distributions. Due to the fast profile detection it will operate on primary electrons after residual gas ionization. A magnetic field of 100 mT binds them to the ionization point inside 0.1-mm orbits. The high-resolution mode will be read out by a digital CCD camera with an upstream MCP-phosphor screen assembly. It is planned to read out the fast turn-by-turn mode by an array of 100 photodiodes with a resolution of 1 mm. Every photodiode is equipped with an amplifier-digitizer device providing a frame rate of ˜ 10 MSamples/s.
Sander, Ulrich; Lubbe, Nils
2018-06-01
Car occupants account for one third of all junction fatalities in the European Union. Driver warning can reduce intersection accidents by up to 50 percent; adding Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) delivers a reduction of up to 70 percent. However, these findings are based on an assumed 100 percent equipment rate, which may take decades to achieve. Our study investigates the relationship between intersection AEB market penetration rates and avoidance of accidents and injuries in order to guide implementation strategies. Additionally, residual accident characteristics (impact configurations and severity) are analyzed to provide a basis for future in-crash protection requirements. We determined which accidents would have been avoided through the use of an Intersection AEB system with different sensor field-of-views (180° and 120°) by means of re-simulating the pre-crash phase of 792 straight crossing path (SCP) car-to-car accidents recorded in the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) and the associated Pre-Crash Matrix (PCM). Intersection AEB was activated when neither of the conflict opponents could avoid the crash through reasonable braking or steering reactions. For not-avoided accidents, we used the Kudlich-Slibar rigid body impulse model to calculate the change of velocity during the impact as a measure of impact severity and the principal direction of force. Accident avoidance over market penetration is not linear but exponential, with higher gains at low penetration rates and lower gains at higher rates. A wide field-of-view sensor (180°) substantially increased accident avoidance and injury mitigation rates compared to a 120° field-of-view sensor. For a 180° field-of-view sensor at 100 percent market penetration, about 80 percent of the accidents and 90 percent of the MAIS2 + F injuries could be avoided. For the remaining accidents, AEB intervention rarely affected side of impact. The median change of velocity (delta-V) of the remaining crashes
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I.I. Ahmed
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The development of residual stresses during fabrication is inevitable and often neglected with dire consequences during the service life of the fabricated components. In this work, the surface residual stress profile following the martensitic stainless steel (MSS pipe welding was investigated with X-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed the presence of residual stresses equilibrated across the weldment zones. Tensile residual stress observed in weld metal was balanced by compressive residual stresses in the parent material on the opposing sides of weld metal. Keywords: Residual stress, Weld, Stainless steel, X-ray, HAZ
Scanning Raman lidar for tropospheric water vapor profiling and GPS path delay correction
Tarniewicz, Jerome; Bock, Olivier; Pelon, Jacques R.; Thom, Christian
2002-01-01
The design of a ground based and transportable combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for the remote sensing of lower tropospheric water vapor and nitrogen concentration is described. This lidar is intended to be used for an external calibration of the wet path delay of GPS signals. A description of the method used to derive water vapor and nitrogen profiles in the lower troposphere is given. The instrument has been tested during the ESCOMPTE campaign in June 2001 and first measurements are presented.
Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.
1988-12-01
Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.
Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling
Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen
2010-04-01
OPTRA has developed an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize the design and build and detail system characterization and test of a prototype I-OP-FTIR instrument. System characterization includes radiometric performance and spectral resolution. Results from a series of tomographic reconstructions of sulfur hexafluoride plumes in a laboratory setting are also presented.
Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte
2017-01-01
Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological...... processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during...
Development of residual gas ionization profile monitor for high intensity proton beams
Sato, Y; Hirose, E; Ieiri, M; Igarashi, Y; Inaba, S; Katoh, Y; Minakawa, M; Noumi, H; Saitó, M; Suzuki, Y; Takahashi, H; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K; Toyoda, A; Yamada, Y; Yamanoi, Y; Watanabe, H
2006-01-01
Nondestructive beam profile monitor utilizing ionizations of residual gas has been developed for continuous monitoring of 3?0(J-PARC). Knock-on electrons produced in the ionizations of residual gas vacuumed to 1 Pa are collected with a uniform electric field applied between electrodes. Applying a uniform electric field parallel to the electric field is essential to reduce diffusion of electrons crossing over magnetic flux. A prototype monitor has been constructed and installed in EP2-C beam line at KEK 12 GeV proton synchrotron (12 Ge V-PS). The profiles measured with the present monitor agree with the ones measured with the existing destructive profile monitor. The present monitor shows sufficient performances as a candidate of the profile monitor at J-PARC. In the present article, the working principle of the present monitor, the results of test experiments, and further developments are described in detail.
The profile of the Montessori assistant: historical paths and new education projects
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Barbara De Serio
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper looks at the professional profile of the Montessori-trained teacher, as educated at the college devised by Maria Montessori and founded in the 1950s by one of her closest pupils, Adele Costa Gnocchi. The Montessori assistant was a professional figure specially trained to aid the birth process and the “mental” needs of the protagonists involved, referring specifically to the child. In this respect, the paper also looks at the subject of education from birth, starting with Montessori’s earliest ideas on new-born children and their creative capabilities. The purpose is to recover the scientific foundations on which the pedagogical practices usually applied by childhood services are based, with the awareness that these consolidated practices need strengthening and a scientific foundation – including on an historical level – in order to contribute to qualifying services for early childhood. Through specific methodological qualification, above all with regard to Montessori’s methods, as well as by placing more valid historical importance on the paths they began, early childhood services may even be able to move in the direction of possible institutionalised training.
Du, Yushen; Wu, Nicholas C; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Tianhao; Gong, Danyang; Shu, Sara; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren
2016-11-01
usually limited by sampling size. Sequence conservation-based methods are further confounded by structural constraints and multifunctionality of proteins. Here we present a method that can systematically identify and annotate functional residues of a given protein. We used a high-throughput functional profiling platform to identify essential residues. Coupling it with homologous-structure comparison, we were able to annotate multiple functions of proteins. We demonstrated the method with the PB1 protein of influenza A virus and identified novel functional residues in addition to its canonical function as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Not limited to virology, this method is generally applicable to other proteins that can be functionally selected and about which homologous-structure information is available. Copyright © 2016 Du et al.
Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings.
Larsen, Julie D; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte
2017-11-01
Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during the resting period. As the resting period proceeded, atmospheric air re-entered the pore space at all depth levels. The methane (CH 4 ) concentration was at its highest during the first part of the resting period, and then declined as the sludge residue became more dewatered and thereby aerated. In the pore space, the concentration of CH 4 often exceeded the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, the total emission of CO 2 from the surface of the sludge residue exceeded the total emission of CH 4 , suggesting that CO 2 was mainly produced in the layer of newly applied sludge and/or that CO 2 was emitted from the sludge residue more readily compared to CH 4 .
Development Of A Permanent Magnet Residual Gas Profile Monitor With Fast Readout
Barabin, S; Giacomini, T; Liakin, D; Orlov, A; Skachkov, V S
2004-01-01
The beam profile measurements at modern ion synchrotrons and storage rings require high timing performances on a turn-by-turn basis. On the other hand, high spatial resolutions are very desirable for cooled beams. We are developing a residual gas monitor to cover the wide range of beam intensities and dimensions. It supplies the needed high-resolution and high-speed tools for beam profiling. The new residual gas monitor will operate on scattered residual gas electrons whose trajectories are localized within 0.1 mm filaments by using appropriate magnetic field. The required magnetic field of 100 mT will be excited by either a permanent or an electromagnet. The high resolution mode of 0.1 mm is provided by a CCD camera with upstream MCP-phosphor screen assembly. In the fast turn-by-turn mode the beam profile will be read out with a resolution of 1 mm by a 100-channel photodiode-amplifier-digitizer, which will be explained in detail.
Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J
2012-02-01
The veneering process of frameworks induces residual stresses and can initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. The stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth is a key factor influencing failure by chipping. This is a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of veneer thickness on the stress profile in zirconia- and metal-based structures. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples of 20 mm diameter, with a 1 mm thick zirconia or metal framework. Different veneering ceramic thicknesses were performed: 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.5-1.0 mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework, except for the 1.5 mm-veneered zirconia samples which exhibited interior tensile stresses. Stresses in the surface of metal samples were not influenced by veneer thickness. Variation of interior stresses at 1.2 mm from the surface in function of veneer thickness was inverted for metal and zirconia samples. Veneer thickness influences in an opposite way the residual stress profile in metal- and in zirconia-based structures. A three-step approach and the hypothesis of the crystalline transformation are discussed to explain the less favorable residual stress development in zirconia samples. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J
2011-09-01
The manufacture of dental crowns and bridges generates residual stresses within the veneering ceramic and framework during the cooling process. Residual stress is an important factor that control the mechanical behavior of restorations. Knowing the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth can help the understanding of failures, particularly chipping, a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the cooling rate dependence of the stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on metal and zirconia frameworks. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples 20 mm in diameter, with a 0.7 mm thick metal or Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal framework and a 1.5mm thick veneering ceramic. Three different cooling procedures were investigated. The magnitude of the stresses in the surface of the veneering ceramic was found to increase with cooling rate, while the interior stresses decreased. At the surface, compressive stresses were observed in all samples. In the interior, compressive stresses were observed in metal samples and tensile in zirconia samples. Cooling rate influences the magnitude of residual stresses. These can significantly influence the mechanical behavior of metal-and zirconia-based bilayered systems. The framework material influenced the nature of the interior stresses, with zirconia samples showing a less favorable stress profile than metal. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.
2007-01-01
This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system
Ding, Anxin; Li, Shuxin; Wang, Jihui; Ni, Aiqing; Sun, Liangliang; Chang, Lei
2016-10-01
In this paper, the corner spring-in angles of AS4/8552 L-shaped composite profiles with different thicknesses are predicted using path-dependent constitutive law with the consideration of material properties variation due to phase change during curing. The prediction accuracy mainly depends on the properties in the rubbery and glassy states obtained by homogenization method rather than experimental measurements. Both analytical and finite element (FE) homogenization methods are applied to predict the overall properties of AS4/8552 composite. The effect of fiber volume fraction on the properties is investigated for both rubbery and glassy states using both methods. And the predicted results are compared with experimental measurements for the glassy state. Good agreement is achieved between the predicted results and available experimental data, showing the reliability of the homogenization method. Furthermore, the corner spring-in angles of L-shaped composite profiles are measured experimentally and the reliability of path-dependent constitutive law is validated as well as the properties prediction by FE homogenization method.
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M. R. Monazzam ، P. Nassiri
2009-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation on the acoustic performance of tilted profile parallel barriers with quadratic residue diffuser (QRD tops and faces. A 2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the barrier insertion loss. The results of rigid and with absorptive coverage are also calculated for comparisons. Using QRD on the top surface and faces of all tilted profile parallel barrier models introduced here is found to improve the efficiency of barriers compared with rigid equivalent parallel barrier at the examined receiver positions. Applying a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz on 5 degrees tilted parallel barrier improves the overall performance of its equivalent rigid barrier by 1.8 dB(A. Increase in the treated surfaces with reactive elements shifts the effective performance toward lower frequencies. It is found that by tilting the barriers from 0 to 10 degrees in parallel set up, the degradation effects in parallel barriers is reduced but the absorption effect of fibrous materials and also diffusivity of the quadratic residue diffuser is reduced significantly. In this case all the designed barriers have better performance with 10 degrees tilting in parallel set up. The most economic traffic noise parallel barrier which produces significantly high performance, is achieved by covering the top surface of the barrier closed to the receiver by just a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz and tilting angle of 10 degrees. The average A-weighted insertion loss in this barrier is predicted to be 16.3 dB (A.
Low-Power Bitstream-Residual Decoder for H.264/AVC Baseline Profile Decoding
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Xu Ke
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We present the design and VLSI implementation of a novel low-power bitstream-residual decoder for H.264/AVC baseline profile. It comprises a syntax parser, a parameter decoder, and an Inverse Quantization Inverse Transform (IQIT decoder. The syntax parser detects and decodes each incoming codeword in the bitstream under the control of a hierarchical Finite State Machine (FSM; the IQIT decoder performs inverse transform and quantization with pipelining and parallelism. Various power reduction techniques, such as data-driven based on statistic results, nonuniform partition, precomputation, guarded evaluation, hierarchical FSM decomposition, TAG method, zero-block skipping, and clock gating , are adopted and integrated throughout the bitstream-residual decoder. With innovative architecture, the proposed design is able to decode QCIF video sequences of 30 fps at a clock rate as low as 1.5 MHz. A prototype H.264/AVC baseline decoding chip utilizing the proposed decoder is fabricated in UMC 0.18 m 1P6M CMOS technology. The proposed design is measured under 1 V 1.8 V supply with 0.1 V step. It dissipates 76 W at 1 V and 253 W at 1.8 V.
Mathew, J.; Moat, R. J.; Paddea, S.; Francis, J. A.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Bouchard, P. J.
2017-12-01
Economic and safe management of nuclear plant components relies on accurate prediction of welding-induced residual stresses. In this study, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness of austenitic stainless steel welds has been measured using neutron diffraction and the contour method. The measured data are used to validate residual stress profiles predicted by an artificial neural network approach (ANN) as a function of welding heat input and geometry. Maximum tensile stresses with magnitude close to the yield strength of the material were observed near the weld cap in both axial and hoop direction of the welds. Significant scatter of more than 200 MPa was found within the residual stress measurements at the weld center line and are associated with the geometry and welding conditions of individual weld passes. The ANN prediction is developed in an attempt to effectively quantify this phenomenon of `innate scatter' and to learn the non-linear patterns in the weld residual stress profiles. Furthermore, the efficacy of the ANN method for defining through-thickness residual stress profiles in welds for application in structural integrity assessments is evaluated.
Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.
Recent research results indicated that eddy current conductivity measurements can be exploited for nondestructive evaluation of near-surface residual stresses in surface-treated nickel-base superalloy components. Most of the previous experimental studies were conducted on highly peened (Almen 10-16A) specimens that exhibit harmful cold work in excess of 30% plastic strain. Such high level of cold work causes thermo-mechanical relaxation at relatively modest operational temperatures; therefore the obtained results were not directly relevant to engine manufacturers and end users. The main reason for choosing peening intensities in excess of recommended normal levels was that in low-conductivity engine alloys the eddy current penetration depth could not be forced below 0.2 mm without expanding the measurements above 10 MHz which is beyond the operational range of most commercial eddy current instruments. As for shot-peened components, it was initially felt that the residual stress effect was more difficult to separate from cold work, texture, and inhomogeneity effects in titanium alloys than in nickel-base superalloys. In addition, titanium alloys have almost 50% lower electric conductivity than nickel-base superalloys; therefore require proportionally higher inspection frequencies, which was not feasible until our recent breakthrough in instrument development. Our work has been focused on six main aspects of this continuing research, namely, (i) the development of an iterative inversion technique to better retrieve the depth-dependent conductivity profile from the measured frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC), (ii) the extension of the frequency range up to 80 MHz to better capture the peak compressive residual stress in nickel-base superalloys using a new eddy current conductivity measuring system, which offers better reproducibility, accuracy and measurement speed than the previously used conventional systems, (iii) the lift-off effect on
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Xia Qinxiang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Over thinning is a serious defect influencing the forming quality of spun workpiece during multi-pass deep drawing spinning. Surface-profile and movement-path of roller are the key factors influencing the thinning ratio of wall thickness of spun workpiece. The influence of surface-profile and movement-path of roller on thickness thinning were studied based on numerical simulation and experimental research, four groups of forming experiments were carried out under the combination of the different surface-profile of roller (R12 and R25-12 and movement-path of roller (spinning from the bottom of the blank and spinning from the middle of the blank. The results show that both the surface-profile and movement-path of roller have great influence on wall thickness thinning during multi-pass deep drawing spinning; and compared with the movement-path of roller, the influence of surface-profile of roller is more significant. The experimental results conform well to the simulation ones. It indicates that the FEA model established is reasonable and reliable.
PM2.5 emissions and source profiles from open burning of crop residues
Ni, Haiyan; Tian, Jie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Qiyuan; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Long, Xin; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Dusek, Ulrike
2017-11-01
Wheat straw, rice straw, and corn stalks, the major agricultural crop residues in China, were collected from six major crop producing regions, and burned in a laboratory combustion chamber to determine PM2.5 source profiles and speciated emission factors (EFs). Organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble ions (the sum of NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42-) are major constituents, accounting for 43.1 ± 8.3% and 27.4 ± 14.6% of PM2.5, respectively. Chloride (Cl-) and water-soluble potassium (K+) are the dominant ionic species, with an average abundance of 14.5 ± 8.2% and 6.4 ± 4.4% in PM2.5, respectively. The average K+/Cl- ratio is ∼0.4, lower than 2.8-5.4 for wood combustion. Similarity measures (i.e., Student's t-test, coefficient of divergence, correlations, and residual to uncertainty ratios) show the crop profiles are too similar for the species measured to be resolved from one another by receptor modeling. The largest difference was found between rice straw and corn stalk emissions, with higher OC and lower Cl- and K+ abundances (50%, 8%, and 3% of PM2.5, respectively) for corn stalks; lower OC, and higher Cl- and K+ abundances (38%, 21%, and 10% of PM2.5, respectively) for rice straw. Average EFs were 4.8 ± 3.1 g kg-1 for OC, 1.3 ± 0.8 g kg-1 for Cl- and 0.59 ± 0.56 g kg-1 for K+. Flaming and smoldering combustions resulted in an average modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of 0.92 ± 0.03, and low elemental carbon (EC) EFs (0.24 ± 0.12 g kg-1). OC/EC ratios from individual source profiles ranged from 12.9 ± 4.3 for rice straw to 24.1 ± 13.5 for wheat straw. The average K+/EC ratio was 2.4 ± 1.5, an order of magnitude higher than those from residential wood combustion (0.2-0.76). Elevated emission rates were found for OC (387 Gg yr-1) and Cl- (122 Gg yr-1), accounting for 44% and 14% of 2008 PM2.5 emissions in China.
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Carmela Bianco
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Tattoos and piercings can become a mask to hide behind? Everything can become a mask if we use it for masquerading. The tattoo is the anthropological roots of ancient and modern makeup that refers to the mask understood as that which creates the face, which gives it its social being. The tattoo is also an artistic decoration that should be born by the deep desire to communicate yourself to others. Tattoos must be able to "tell" the people who wear them, but if the latter decorate their body with a message or image that does not belong, it can cause the destruction of individuality. The tattoo is immortal. It can be a permanent dress, a way to resist the unwanted transformations using a piece of subjective identity, non-imitable, from which one cannot be excluded. Along with careful identification of psycho-sociological motivations that drive a young man to want a tattoo, you need to traverse an education that not only form a personality, teaches the knowledge of his own body. Getting a tattoo means not only change the morphology of the body but the risk of jeopardizing their health. Responsibility for their own health also means being aware that a tattoo can procure mild side effects or more severe depending on the initial state of health of the subject. Then a tattoo only after a careful history following the favorable opinion of the doctor and after a personal assessment aware. These initial objectives of a path bioethical-pedagogical significant.
Subjective Outcome Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S: Descriptive Profiles and Correlates
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Daniel T.L. Shek
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A total of 196 schools participated in the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 2 curriculum of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong. After the completion of the program, 1,178 instructors completed a subjective outcome evaluation form in order to assess their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Results showed that high proportions of the instructors had positive perceptions of the program (range: 76.79–93.69% and their own performance (range: 83.20–98.60%, and most of the respondents (range: 78.45–92.43% regarded the program as helpful to the program participants. While the ratings in some items in the present findings were relatively better than those in the Experimental Implementation Phase, they were similar to those based on the Secondary 1 curriculum. Consistent with previous studies, the ratings on the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness were significantly correlated.
Changes in volatile profile of soybean residue (okara) upon solid-state fermentation by yeasts.
Vong, Weng Chan; Liu, Shao-Quan
2017-01-01
Soybean residue (okara), a by-product of soymilk, is produced in large volumes by the soy food industry and is often discarded due to its undesirable flavour. As it contains a considerable amount of protein and fats, biotransformation of okara to improve its flavour presents an opportunity for alternative utilisation. This paper evaluated 10 yeasts in the solid-state fermentation of okara based on their volatile profiles as analysed with HS-SPME GC-MS/FID. Four 'dairy yeasts' (Geotrichum candidum, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii and Kluyveromyces lactis) and six 'wine yeasts' (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Williopsis saturnus) were studied. The main off-odourants in okara, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, significantly decreased after fermentation due to their bioconversion into methyl ketones and/or esters. The okara fermented by dairy yeasts contained greater proportions of methyl ketones, while that by wine yeasts contained more ethyl and acetyl esters. Notably, the okara fermented by W. saturnus contained 13 esters and the total GC-FID peak area of esters was about 380 times that in fresh okara, leading to a perceptible fruity note. Okara can be exploited as an inexpensive substrate for bioflavour extraction and/or a more pleasant food ingredient via yeast fermentation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Zeng, T; Huang, L; Ren, J; Chen, L; Tian, Y; Huang, Y; Zhang, H; Du, J; Lu, L
2017-12-01
Feed represents two-thirds of the total costs of poultry production, especially in developing countries. Improvement in feed efficiency would reduce the amount of feed required for production (growth or laying), the production cost, and the amount of nitrogenous waste. The most commonly used measures for feed efficiency are feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). As a more suitable indicator assessing feed efficiency, RFI is defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on maintenance and growth or laying. However, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown. Identifying molecular mechanisms explaining divergence in RFI in laying ducks would lead to the development of early detection methods for the selection of more efficient breeding poultry. The objective of this study was to identify duodenum genes and pathways through transcriptional profiling in 2 extreme RFI phenotypes (HRFI and LRFI) of the duck population. Phenotypic aspects of feed efficiency showed that RFI was strongly positive with FCR and feed intake (FI). Transcriptomic analysis identified 35 differentially expressed genes between LRFI and HRFI ducks. These genes play an important role in metabolism, digestibility, secretion, and innate immunity including (), (), (), β (), and (). These results improve our knowledge of the biological basis underlying RFI, which would be useful for further investigations of key candidate genes for RFI and for the development of biomarkers.
Accuracy Profiles for Analyzing Residual Solvents in Textiles by GC-MS.
Bao, Qibei; Fu, Kejie; Ren, Qingqing; Zhong, Yingying; Qian, Dan
2017-10-01
Excess residual solvents (RSs) in clothes or other textiles could be toxic and pose risks to both humans and the environment. N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) are important chemicals frequently used as solvents in the textile industry. Several organizations have proposed limiting DMF, DMAc and NMP in textiles, but an appropriate detection method has not been proposed. A sensitive GC-MS method for the quantification of DMF, DMAc and NMP in textiles was developed. After extraction with ethyl acetate, these RSs were separated on a DB-5MS capillary column. The oven temperature was increased from 50°C (held for 0.5 min) at 10°C/min to 120°C (held for 1 min). The method was fully validated according to the accuracy profile procedure, which is based on β-expectation tolerance intervals for the total measurement bias. Linearity was observed in the range of 0.5-10 mg/L for the solvents with limit of quantification values of 4.2, 3.5 and 2.5 mg/kg for DMF, DMAc and NMP, respectively. The repeatability and intermediate precision were NMP. The recoveries of DMF, DMAc and NMP were 91.2-106.3%, 89.5-97.7% and 85.6-101.3%, respectively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Zou, Long; Akoh, Casimir C
2013-01-09
The fate of endogenous vitamin E isomers during production and purification of structured lipids (SLs) was investigated. Two SLs involving tripalmitin, stearidonic acid soybean oil, and docosahexaenoic acid were synthesized by transesterification catalyzed by Novozym 435 (NSL) and acidolysis by Lipozyme TL IM (LDHA) and purified by short-path distillation (SPD). The electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra of tocopheryl and tocotrienyl fatty acid esters in the distillates measured by GC-MS in synchronous scan/SIM mode demonstrated that these esters were formed during acidolysis as well as transesterification. The predominant esters were tocopheryl palmitate, tocopheryl oleate, and tocopheryl linoleate homologues, and no tocopheryl or tocotrienyl linolenate, stearidonate, or docosahexaenoate was found. Meanwhile, none of these esters were detected in the residues for either NSL or LDHA. Less than 50% of vitamin E isomers were present in residues after SPD. This loss played a major role in the rapid oxidative deterioration of SLs from previous studies with less contribution from the formation of tocopheryl and tocotrienyl esters. The lost tocopherols and tocotrienols present at high concentration in the distillates may be recovered and used to improve the oxidative stability of SLs.
Mainjot, Amélie K; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J
2015-09-01
Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Δα=αcore-αveneer, ppm/°C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Δα concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Δα dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Δα varying from -1.3ppm/°C to +3.2ppm/°C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Δα≥+2.3 or ≤-0.3ppm/°C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Δα variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Δα. Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/°C Δα) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Δα-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Δα value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fukushima, K A; Sadoun, M J; Cesar, P F; Mainjot, A K
2014-02-01
The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19 mm diameter with a 0.7 mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optimal temperature profiles for minimum residual stress in the cure process of polymer composites
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Gopal, AK
2000-01-01
Full Text Available include the minimum residual stresses, minimum cure cycle lime and full degree of cure. The development of residual stresses during the cure cycle is one of the most important problems as they affect the strength and the mechanical properties of the final...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Do Hoon; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Oh, Sung Ook; Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Hang Moon; Jeon, In Seong
2003-01-01
To assess the relationship between the direction of the indicating rod of the radiographic stent for ideal prosthetic design and the actual possible path of implant fixture placement when residual ridge resorption is considered. The study materials considered of 326 implant sites (male 214 cases and female 112 cases) from a total of 106 patients (male 65 patients and female 41 patients) who desired implant prostheses. Computed tomography of patients were taken and reformatted using ToothPix software. Bony defects, bony sclerosis, the change of the direction of indicating rod, and root proximity of the adjacent teeth were examined on the CT-derived images. The rate of the irregular crestal cortex was relatively high on premolar and molar area of maxilla. Mandibular molar area showed relatively high rate of focal sclerosis on the area of implant fixture insertion. The position of the including rods were relatively acceptable on the molar areas of both jaws. However, the position of the indicating rods should be shifted to buccal side with lingual rotation of the apical end on maxillary anterior teeth and premolar area. Clinically determined rod direction and position of the indicating rod for implant placement was not always acceptable for insertion according to the reformatted CT images. The pre-operative treatment plan for implant should be determined carefully, considering the state of the alveolar bone using the reformatted CT images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushen Du
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Identification and annotation of functional residues are fundamental questions in protein sequence analysis. Sequence and structure conservation provides valuable information to tackle these questions. It is, however, limited by the incomplete sampling of sequence space in natural evolution. Moreover, proteins often have multiple functions, with overlapping sequences that present challenges to accurate annotation of the exact functions of individual residues by conservation-based methods. Using the influenza A virus PB1 protein as an example, we developed a method to systematically identify and annotate functional residues. We used saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing to measure the replication capacity of single nucleotide mutations across the entire PB1 protein. After predicting protein stability upon mutations, we identified functional PB1 residues that are essential for viral replication. To further annotate the functional residues important to the canonical or noncanonical functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp, we performed a homologous-structure analysis with 16 different vRdRp structures. We achieved high sensitivity in annotating the known canonical polymerase functional residues. Moreover, we identified a cluster of noncanonical functional residues located in the loop region of the PB1 β-ribbon. We further demonstrated that these residues were important for PB1 protein nuclear import through the interaction with Ran-binding protein 5. In summary, we developed a systematic and sensitive method to identify and annotate functional residues that are not restrained by sequence conservation. Importantly, this method is generally applicable to other proteins about which homologous-structure information is available.
PROFIL RESIDU PESTISIDA DITIOKARBAMAT DALAM TOMAT DAN SELADA PADA TINGKAT KONSUMEN DI DKI JAKARTA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Mutiatikum
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Penggunaan pestisida untuk meningkatkan produksi hasil pertanian menunjukkan adanya residu pestisida dalam komoditi pertanian. Pemaparan pestisida pada manusia dapat menimbulkan keracunan, baik akut maupun kronis bergantung pada lamanya pemaparan. Tomat dan selada adalah sayuran yang biasa dikonsumsi langsung tanpa dimasak lebih dahulu sebagai makanan, seperti lalaban, burger. salad. juice dan sebagainya Monitoring terhadap makanan tersebut dilakukan dengan cara sampling ke pasar-pasar yang berada di Jakarta. Kemudian, ditentukan kadar residu pestisida dengan menggunakan kromatografi gas (GC. Hasil analisis residu pestisida ditiokarbamat dalam tomat, terdeteksi pada semua contoh makanan dengan kadar antara 0,66- 22,27 mg/kg. Sedangkan pada selada antara 0,43- 18,57 mg/kg (BMR tomat 3 dan selada 5. 41,67% dari yang disampling melebihi BMR baik tomat maupun selada. Kata Kunci : Ditiokarbamat (Pestisida
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Strašík
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Experimental and simulation data concerning fragmentation of ^{238}U ion beam in aluminum, copper, and stainless-steel targets with the initial energy 500 and 950 MeV/u are collected in the paper. A range-verification technique based on depth profiling of residual activity is presented. The irradiated targets were constructed in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. One of the purposes of these experiments was depth profiling of residual activity of induced nuclides and projectile fragments. Among the projectile fragments, special attention is paid to the ^{237}U isotope that has a range very close to the range of the primary ^{238}U ions. Therefore, the depth profiling of the ^{237}U isotope can be utilized for experimental verification of the ^{238}U primary-beam range, which is demonstrated and discussed in the paper. The experimental data are compared with computer simulations by FLUKA, SRIM, and ATIMA, as well as with complementary experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengkui Cui
2018-01-01
Full Text Available To obtain a good surface layer performance of the complex functional profile during the high-speed cold roll-beating forming process, this paper analyzed the metal plastic flow and residual stress-formed mechanism by using a theoretical model of the metal flow and residual stress generation. By using simulation software, the cold roll-beating forming process of a spline shaft was simulated and analyzed. The metal flow and residual stress formation law in the motion were researched. In a practical experiment, the changes in the grains in the spline tooth profile section and the residual stress distribution on the tooth profile were studied. A microcorrespondence relationship was established between the metal plastic flow and the residual stress generation. The conclusions indicate that the rate at which the metal flow decreases changes gradually at different metal layers. The residual stress value is directly related to the plastic flow difference. As the roll-beating speed increases, the uneven degree of plastic deformation at the workpiece surface increases, and the residual stress in the tooth profile is generally greater. At the same roll-beating speed, the rate change trend of the metal flow decreases gradually from the surface to the inner layer and from the dedendum to the addendum. The residual stress distribution on the surface of the tooth profile decreases from the dedendum to the addendum. These findings provide a basis and guidance for the controlled use of residual stress, obtaining better surface layer quality in the high-speed cold roll-beating process of the complex functional profile.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lau, Erwin T.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Nagai, Daisuke
2009-01-01
We present analysis of bulk and random gas motions in the intracluster medium using high-resolution Eulerian cosmological simulations of 16 simulated clusters, including both very relaxed and unrelaxed systems and spanning a virial mass range of 5 x 10 13 - 2 x 10 15 h -1 M-odot. We investigate effects of the residual subsonic gas motions on the hydrostatic estimates of mass profiles and concentrations of galaxy clusters. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the gas motions contribute up to ∼5%-15% of the total pressure support in relaxed clusters with contribution increasing with the cluster-centric radius. The fractional pressure support is higher in unrelaxed systems. This contribution would not be accounted for in hydrostatic estimates of the total mass profile and would lead to systematic underestimate of mass. We demonstrate that total mass can be recovered accurately if pressure due to gas motions measured in simulations is explicitly taken into account in the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Given that the underestimate of mass is increasing at larger radii, where gas is less relaxed and contribution of gas motions to pressure is larger, the total density profile derived from hydrostatic analysis is more concentrated than the true profile. This may at least partially explain some high values of concentrations of clusters estimated from hydrostatic analysis of X-ray data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marques, Maria Jose; Batista, A.C.; Nobre, J.P.; Loureiro, Altino; Kornmeier, Joana R.
2013-01-01
The neutron diffraction is a non-destructive technique, particularly suitable for the analysis of residual stress fields in welds. The technique is used in this article to study ferritic samples, coated by submerged arc welding using stainless steel filler metals. This procedure is often used for manufacturing process equipment for chemical and nuclear industries, for ease of implementation and economic reasons. The main disadvantage of that processes is the cracking phenomenon that often occurs at the interface between the base material and coatings, which can be minimized by performing post-weld stress relief heat treatments. The samples analyzed in this study were made of carbon steel plates, coated by submerged arc welding two types of stainless steel filler metals. For the first layer was used one EN 12 072 - S 2 U 23 12 electrode, while for the second and third layers were used an EN 12 072 - 19 12 3 S L electrode. After cladding, the samples were submitted to a post-weld heat treatment for 1 hour at 620 deg C. The residual stress profiles obtained by neutron diffraction evidence the relaxation of residual stress given by the heat treatment. (author)
Pesticide residue profile and nutrient characteristics of the Densu River Basin in Ghana
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fianko, J.R.
2010-01-01
The Densu River Basin is one of the largest agricultural areas in Ghana. About 80% of people living in this area rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. The practice of using pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids and several others in agriculture and public health programs have raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on human health and the environment. Assessment of human health implications of non-point sources within a river basin include pesticide residues analysis of water, sediment and fish and monitoring of physico-chemical parameters in waters that serve as source of drinking water for the entire community within the basin. In this study, a field survey was conducted to assess farmers' knowledge of safe handling and use of pesticides. Nutrient chemistry and surface water characteristics of the Densu River and its tributaries, type and levels of pesticide residues and their trends in water, sediment and fish in the basin were also evaluated. The study also assessed the health risk associated with pesticide contamination of fish from the Basin as well as the relationship between land use and groundwater contamination. Generally surface and ground water bodies in the Densu River basin were found to be polluted with respect to nutrients and pesticides. Waters from the basin were found to be fresh, slightly acidic, and weakly mineralized with low chemical constituents. Nitrate (NO 3- N) levels in surface water ranged between 0.12 - 31.07 mgL -1 while ammonia was between 0.01 - 2.10 mgL -1 and that of phosphate was 0.012 - 2.45 mgL -1 . Pesticide residues and metabolites detected in water, sediment and fish samples from the Densu River Basin were organochlorines. In an average 96% of fish samples, 13.69% of sediment and 3.30% of water samples, at least one pesticide residue was detected per sample. Of the numerous pesticides evaluated, γ -HCH, DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, DDE, endosulfan sulphate,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skala, R.D.
2002-01-01
Full text: In previous studies of the aluminium titanate/alumina functionally graded system, it was proposed that the mechanisms responsible for the observed flaw tolerance and quasi-ductile behaviour of the composite system were due to the generation of residual strain fields in the bulk of the composite. These residual strain fields are induced by a combination of the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the alumina and aluminium titanate phases and also the high degree of thermal anisotropy exhibited by the aluminium titanate phase. In the current study, both the macro-strain (linear) and micro-strain (non-linear) were extracted from x-ray diffraction data. The macro-strains were extracted from variations in the lattice parameters, whilst the micro-strains were extracted from line broadening of the diffraction peaks. Strain profiles were obtained by carefully removing layers of the composite till the centre region was reached. Analysis of the data showed that the macro-strain in the alumina phase was compressive and decreased from -0.149 ± 0.012 % at the surface to -0.086 ± 0.006 % at the centre of the composite system. The macro-strain in the aluminium titanate phase was observed to remain constant at a value of 0.181 ± 0.013 % and be tensile in nature. The micro-strains within the composite system were also seen to exhibit a similar profile with the micro-strain in the alumina phase ranging from 0.065 ± 0.003 % to 0.008 ± 0.005 % from the surface to the centre respectively and the aluminium titanate phase displaying a mean micro-strain value of 0.117 ± 0.033 %. These results were also seen to correlate well with the compositional profiles observed in previous studies of the system. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc
Reversal of asymmetry of X-ray peak profiles from individual grains during a strain path change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wejdemann, Christian; Lienert, U.; Pantleon, Wolfgang
2010-01-01
X-ray peak profiles are measured from individual bulk grains during tensile deformation. Two differently oriented copper samples pre-deformed in tension show the expected peak profile asymmetry caused by intra-grain stresses. One of the samples is oriented to achieve a significant change of the i......X-ray peak profiles are measured from individual bulk grains during tensile deformation. Two differently oriented copper samples pre-deformed in tension show the expected peak profile asymmetry caused by intra-grain stresses. One of the samples is oriented to achieve a significant change...
Yuksel, Onur; Baran, Ismet; Ersoy, Nuri; Akkerman, Remko
2018-05-01
Process induced stresses inherently exist in fiber reinforced polymer composites particularly in thick parts due to the presence of non-uniform cure, shrinkage and thermal expansion/contraction during manufacturing. In order to increase the reliability and the performance of the composite materials, process models are developed to predict the residual stress formation. The accuracy of the process models is dependent on the geometrical (micro to macro), material and process parameters as well as the numerical implementation. Therefore, in order to have reliable process modelling framework, there is a need for validation and if necessary calibration of the developed models. This study focuses on measurement of the transverse residual stresses in a relatively thick pultruded profile (20×20 mm) made of glass/polyester. Process-induced residual stresses in the middle of the profile are examined with different techniques which have never been applied for transverse residual stresses in thick unidirectional composites. Hole drilling method with strain gage and digital image correlation are employed. Strain values measured from measurements are used in a finite element model (FEM) to simulate the hole drilling process and predict the residual stress level. The measured released strain is found to be approximately 180 μm/m from the strain gage. The tensile residual stress at the core of the profile is estimated approximately as 7-10 MPa. Proposed methods and measured values in this study will enable validation and calibration of the process models based on the residual stresses.
Inversion of residual stress profiles from ultrasonic Rayleigh wave dispersion data
Mora, P.; Spies, M.
2018-05-01
We investigate theoretically and with synthetic data the performance of several inversion methods to infer a residual stress state from ultrasonic surface wave dispersion data. We show that this particular problem may reveal in relevant materials undesired behaviors for some methods that could be reliably applied to infer other properties. We focus on two methods, one based on a Taylor-expansion, and another one based on a piecewise linear expansion regularized by a singular value decomposition. We explain the instabilities of the Taylor-based method by highlighting singularities in the series of coefficients. At the same time, we show that the other method can successfully provide performances which only weakly depend on the material.
Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J
2012-04-01
Framework design is reported to influence chipping in zirconia-based restorations, which is an important cause of failure of such restorations. Residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic after the manufacturing process is an important predictive factor of the mechanical behavior of the material. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of framework thickness on the stress profile measured in zirconia-based structures. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 1.5 mm thick veneering ceramic layer. Six different framework thicknesses from 0.5 mm to 3 mm were studied. Two different cooling procedures were also investigated. Compressive stresses were observed in the surface, and tensile stresses in the depth of most of the samples. The slow cooling procedure was found to promote the development of interior tensile stresses, except for the sample with a 3mm thick framework. With the tempering procedure, samples with a 1.5 mm thick framework exhibited the most favorable stress profile, while thicker and thinner frameworks exhibited respectively in surface or interior tensile stresses. The measurements performed highlight the importance of framework thickness, which determine the nature of stresses and can explain clinical failures encountered, especially with thin frameworks. The adequate ratio between veneering ceramic and zirconia is hard to define, restricting the range of indications of zirconia-based restorations until a better understanding of such a delicate veneering process is achieved. Copyright Â© 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Nissen, Jakob N.; Hamberger, Björn Robert
2017-01-01
residue gave mixed product profiles. Two mutants, TwTPS14:Y265H and TwTPS21:A325V, also produced ent-copalyl diphosphate, highlighting the evolutionary potential of enzymes of this family to drive rapid diversification of plant diterpene biosynthesis through neo-functionalization. Our study contributes......The medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) contains a pair of class II diterpene synthases (diTPS) of specialized labdane-type metabolism that, despite remarkably close homology, form strikingly different products. TwTPS21 catalyzes bicyclization of the linear C20 precursor......-directed mutagenesis, we generated a panel of six variants, where one, or both positions were exchanged between the enzymes. In coupled heterologous assays with a corresponding class I diTPS, TwTPS2, complete product interchange was observed in variants with both reciprocal mutations, while substitutions of either...
Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Mehl, Florence; Debrus, Benjamin; Marcourt, Laurence; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Sommer, Horst; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc
2014-05-01
The detailed characterization of cold-pressed lemon oils (CPLOs) is of great importance for the flavor and fragrance (F&F) industry. Since a control of authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed. The present study describes a combined metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-TOF-MS profiling and (1)H NMR fingerprinting to highlight metabolite differences on a set of representative samples used in the F&F industry. A new protocol was set up and adapted to the use of CPLO residues. Multivariate analysis based on both fingerprinting methods showed significant chemical variations between Argentinian and Italian samples. Discriminating markers identified in mixtures belong to furocoumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Quantitative NMR revealed low citropten and high bergamottin content in Italian samples. The developed metabolomic approach applied to CPLO residues gives some new perspectives for authenticity assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silicone Wristband Passive Samplers Yield Highly Individualized Pesticide Residue Exposure Profiles.
Aerts, Raf; Joly, Laure; Szternfeld, Philippe; Tsilikas, Khariklia; De Cremer, Koen; Castelain, Philippe; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Van Orshoven, Jos; Somers, Ben; Hendrickx, Marijke; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An
2018-01-02
Monitoring human exposure to pesticides and pesticide residues (PRs) remains crucial for informing public health policies, despite strict regulation of plant protection product and biocide use. We used 72 low-cost silicone wristbands as noninvasive passive samplers to assess cumulative 5-day exposure of 30 individuals to polar PRs. Ethyl acetate extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for the identification of PRs. Thirty-one PRs were detected of which 15 PRs (48%) were detected only in worn wristbands, not in environmental controls. The PRs included 16 fungicides (52%), 8 insecticides (26%), 2 herbicides (6%), 3 pesticide derivatives (10%), 1 insect repellent (3%), and 1 pesticide synergist (3%). Five detected pesticides were not approved for plant protection use in the EU. Smoking and dietary habits that favor vegetable consumption were associated with higher numbers and higher cumulative concentrations of PRs in wristbands. Wristbands featured unique PR combinations. Our results suggest both environment and diet contributed to PR exposure in our study group. Silicone wristbands could serve as sensitive passive samplers to screen population-wide cumulative dietary and environmental exposure to authorized, unauthorized and banned pesticides.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehme, Christian Gerhard Heinrich
2011-01-01
Modern particle accelerators are applied for a long time no more only in the fundamental physical research but in ever larger extent also in the concrete application for instance in the tumor irradiation or the microprocessor fabrication. The precise knowledge of the beam profile is thereby of great importance for the success. But in intermediate-energy hadron accelerators it hitherto not satisfyingly succeeds to measure the beam profiles not disturbingly. These study presents two not beam-disturbing measuring methods, which are based on the ion beam-residual gas interactions of luminescence and ionization. They were developed for different framework conditions at the JESSICA beam place of the COSY accelerator of the Juelich research center, an advance experiment of the planned European Spallation Source (ESS), as well at the proton synchrotron COSY itself, and the iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science, Somerset West, South Africa. Thereby the studies consider a large range of possible configuration parameters: Particle momenta from 3 MeV/c to 3 GeV/c, pressures from 1 mbar to 10 -11 mbar and time structures from DC beam to beam bunches of 100 ns length. The experimental arrangement, the application ranges, and the advantages and disadvantages of both methods are explained in this book.
Contamination profile of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk supply chain of Sindh, Pakistan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sana Jawaid
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen found in the milk when lactating animals consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. In the present study, the contamination of AFM1 was evaluated in the milk supply chain of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. For the broader profiling of targeted toxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for the determination of AFM1 in both branded and non-branded milk samples. The results showed that 96.43% of samples (81 out of 84 were contaminated with AFM1 in the range of 0.01–0.76 μg/L. The average contamination level was 0.38 μg/L. The determined values of AFM1 in the collected milk samples were above the standard limit of the European Commission while 70% of the samples exceeded levels established by United States regulations. According to these results, the estimated daily intake of AFM1 for adults was determined as 3.1 ng/kg of body weight per day.
[A socio-economic profile of exposed populations to petroleum exploration residues].
Corrêa, Gyselle Guimarães; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Rodrigues Fróes; Coeli, Cláudia Medina
2011-09-01
Environmental Macro-Area Five (EMA-5) is located in Rio de Janeiro. Their municipalities are suffering the consequences of rapid urbanization, especially after the discovery of large reserves of petroleum and natural gas (PNG) in the Campos Basin. To describe the socio-economic profile of the region and compare their indicators in space and time. This is an ecological study, which made comparisons between the 11 municipalities of EMA-5. It is based on the behavior of the indicators before and after the increase in royalties and special participatioms (RPE) and the division of the production areas of PNG (main production area - MPA - and the border zone of MPA, BZMPA). The period of analysis of the indicators ranged from 1991 to 2005. Higher values of gross domestic product per capita were found in the municipalities of MPA, especially Macaé. The same occurred in the RPE per capita, especially Rio das Ostras (higher value) and Nova Friburgo (lower value). In 2004, more than 50% of total revenues of municipalities were dependent on the funds derived from royalties. In 2000, Nova Friburgo had the best Human Development Index. The highest value of the Quality Index of Municipalities Potential for Development was found in Macaé. The major indexes of Social Exclusion was found in Macaé, Nova Friburgo and Rio das Ostras. It was found, in the municipalities of MPA, economic growth with great exclusive reliance on royalties. It should invest in alternative economic activities for which there is no damage to the population with the completion of these resources.
Mark Setterfield
2015-01-01
Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.
Conley, David T.; Gaston, Paul L.
2013-01-01
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS), which aim to assure competency in English/language arts and mathematics through the K-12 curriculum, define necessary but not sufficient preparedness for success in college. The Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP), which describes what a college degree should signify, regardless of major, offers useful but…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bottoli, Federico; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Winther, Grethe
2016-01-01
The present work deals with the evaluation of the residual stress profiles in expanded austenite by applying grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) combined with successive sublayer removal. Annealed and deformed (εeq=0.5) samples of stable stainless steel EN 1.4369 were nitrided...... or nitrocarburized. The residual stress profiles resulting from the thermochemical low-temperature surface treatment were measured. The results indicate high-residual compressive stresses of several GPa’s in the nitrided region, while lower-compressive stresses are produced in the carburized case. Plastic...... deformation in the steel prior to thermochemical treatment has a hardly measurable influence on the nitrogen-rich zone, while it has a measurable effect on the stresses and depth of the carbon-rich zone....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sina-Catherine Siegerstetter
Full Text Available Intestinal microbe-host interactions can affect the feed efficiency (FE of chickens. As inconsistent findings for FE-associated bacterial taxa were reported across studies, the present objective was to identify whether bacterial profiles and predicted metabolic functions that were associated with residual feed intake (RFI and performance traits in female and male chickens were consistent across two different geographical locations. At six weeks of life, the microbiota in ileal, cecal and fecal samples of low (n = 34 and high (n = 35 RFI chickens were investigated by sequencing the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Location-associated differences in α-diversity and relative abundances of several phyla and genera were detected. RFI-associated bacterial abundances were found at the phylum and genus level, but differed among the three intestinal sites and between males and females. Correlation analysis confirmed that, of the taxonomically classifiable bacteria, Lactobacillus (5% relative abundance and two Lactobacillus crispatus-OTUs in feces were indicative for high RFI in females (P < 0.05. In males, Ruminococcus in cecal digesta (3.1% relative abundance and Dorea in feces (<0.1% relative abundance were best indicative for low RFI, whereas Acinetobacter in feces (<1.5% relative abundance related to high RFI (P < 0.05. Predicted metabolic functions in feces of males confirmed compositional relationships as functions related to amino acid, fatty acid and vitamin metabolism correlated with low RFI, whereas an increasing abundance of bacterial signaling and interaction (i.e. cellular antigens genes correlated with high RFI (P < 0.05. In conclusion, RFI-associated bacterial profiles could be identified across different geographical locations. Results indicated that consortia of low-abundance taxa in the ileum, ceca and feces may play a role for FE in chickens, whereby only bacterial FE-associations found in ileal and cecal digesta may serve as useful
Fractional path planning and path tracking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melchior, P.; Jallouli-Khlif, R.; Metoui, B.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the main results of the application of fractional approach in path planning and path tracking. A new robust path planning design for mobile robot was studied in dynamic environment. The normalized attractive force applied to the robot is based on a fictitious fractional attractive potential. This method allows to obtain robust path planning despite robot mass variation. The danger level of each obstacles is characterized by the fractional order of the repulsive potential of the obstacles. Under these conditions, the robot dynamic behavior was studied by analyzing its X - Y path planning with dynamic target or dynamic obstacles. The case of simultaneously mobile obstacles and target is also considered. The influence of the robot mass variation is studied and the robustness analysis of the obtained path shows the robustness improvement due to the non integer order properties. Pre shaping approach is used to reduce system vibration in motion control. Desired systems inputs are altered so that the system finishes the requested move without residual vibration. This technique, developed by N.C. Singer and W.P.Seering, is used for flexible structure control, particularly in the aerospace field. In a previous work, this method was extended for explicit fractional derivative systems and applied to second generation CRONE control, the robustness was also studied. CRONE (the French acronym of C ommande Robuste d'Ordre Non Entier ) control system design is a frequency-domain based methodology using complex fractional integration.
Brust, H.; van Asten, A.; Koeberg, M.; van der Heijden, A.; Kuijpers, C.J.; Schoenmakers, P.
2013-01-01
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and its degradation products are analyzed to discriminate between residues originating from PETN explosions and residues obtained under other circumstances, such as natural degradation on textile, or after handling intact PETN. The degradation products observed in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wijdan Al-Husseini
2016-10-01
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of mRNAs in many biological pathways. Liver plays an important role in the feed efficiency of animals and high and low efficient cattle demonstrated different gene expression profiles by microarray. Here we report comprehensive miRNAs profiles by next-gen deep sequencing in Angus cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI and identify miRNAs related to feed efficiency in beef cattle. Two microRNA libraries were constructed from pooled RNA extracted from livers of low and high RFI cattle, and sequenced by Illumina genome analyser. In total, 23,628,103 high quality short sequence reads were obtained and more than half of these reads were matched to the bovine genome (UMD 3.1. We identified 305 known bovine miRNAs. Bta-miR-143, bta-miR-30, bta-miR-122, bta-miR-378, and bta-let-7 were the top five most abundant miRNAs families expressed in liver, representing more than 63% of expressed miRNAs. We also identified 52 homologous miRNAs and 10 novel putative bovine-specific miRNAs, based on precursor sequence and the secondary structure and utilizing the miRBase (v. 21. We compared the miRNAs profile between high and low RFI animals and ranked the most differentially expressed bovine known miRNAs. Bovine miR-143 was the most abundant miRNA in the bovine liver and comprised 20% of total expressed mapped miRNAs. The most highly expressed miRNA in liver of mice and humans, miR-122, was the third most abundant in our cattle liver samples. We also identified 10 putative novel bovine-specific miRNA candidates. Differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI cattle were identified with 18 miRNAs being up-regulated and 7 other miRNAs down-regulated in low RFI cattle. Our study has identified comprehensive miRNAs expressed in bovine liver. Some of the expressed miRNAs are novel in cattle. The differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonor Morgado
Full Text Available PpcA is the most abundant member of a family of five triheme cytochromes c7 in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs and is the most likely carrier of electrons destined for outer surface during respiration on solid metal oxides, a process that requires extracellular electron transfer. This cytochrome has the highest content of lysine residues (24% among the family, and it was suggested to be involved in e-/H(+ energy transduction processes. In the present work, we investigated the functional role of lysine residues strategically located in the vicinity of each heme group. Each lysine was replaced by glutamine or glutamic acid to evaluate the effects of a neutral or negatively charged residue in each position. The results showed that replacing Lys9 (located near heme IV, Lys18 (near heme I or Lys22 (between hemes I and III has essentially no effect on the redox properties of the heme groups and are probably involved in redox partner recognition. On the other hand, Lys43 (near heme IV, Lys52 (between hemes III and IV and Lys60 (near heme III are crucial in the regulation of the functional mechanism of PpcA, namely in the selection of microstates that allow the protein to establish preferential e-/H(+ transfer pathways. The results showed that the preferred e-/H(+ transfer pathways are only established when heme III is the last heme to oxidize, a feature reinforced by a higher difference between its reduction potential and that of its predecessor in the order of oxidation. We also showed that K43 and K52 mutants keep the mechanistic features of PpcA by establishing preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values than the wild-type protein, a property that can enable rational design of Gs strains with optimized extracellular electron transfer capabilities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romppanen, A.-J.; Immonen, E.
2013-12-01
The residual stresses formed as a result of Electronic Beam welding (EB-welding) in copper are investigated by Posiva. In the present study, residual stresses of EB-welded copper plates were studied with contour method. In the method eleven copper plates (X436 - X440 and X453 - X458) were cut in half with wire electric discharge machining (EDM) after which the deformation due to stress relaxation was measured with coordinate measurement system. The measured data was then used as boundary displacement data for the FEM analyses, in which the corresponding residual stresses were calculated. Before giving the corresponding displacement boundary conditions to the FE models, the deformation data was processed and smoothed appropriately. The residual stress levels of the copper plates were found to be around 40 - 55 MPa at maximum. This corresponds to other reported residual stress measurements and current state of knowledge with this material in Posiva. (orig.)
1975-06-01
Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in [3]. Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Mogens Ove
Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Wooster
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gas release from vegetation fires. Here we evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa using ground-based open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and an IR source separated by 150–250 m distance. Molecular abundances along the extended open path are retrieved using a spectral forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting approach. We demonstrate derivation of trace gas column amounts for horizontal paths transecting the width of the advected plume, and find for example that CO mixing ratio changes of ~0.01 μmol mol^{−1} [10 ppbv] can be detected across the relatively long optical paths used here. Though FTIR spectroscopy can detect dozens of different chemical species present in vegetation fire smoke, we focus our analysis on five key combustion products released preferentially during the pyrolysis (CH_{2}O, flaming (CO_{2} and smoldering (CO, CH_{4}, NH_{3} processes. We demonstrate that well constrained emissions ratios for these gases to both CO_{2} and CO can be derived for the backfire, headfire and residual smouldering combustion (RSC stages of these savannah fires, from which stage-specific emission factors can then be calculated. Headfires and backfires often show similar emission ratios and emission factors, but those of the RSC stage can differ substantially. The timing of each fire stage was identified via airborne optical and thermal IR imagery and ground-observer reports, with the airborne IR imagery also used to derive estimates of fire radiative energy (FRE, allowing the relative amount of fuel burned in each stage to be calculated and "fire averaged" emission ratios and emission factors to be determined. These "fire averaged" metrics are dominated by the headfire contribution, since the FRE data indicate that the vast majority
Dieter, M.P.
1975-01-01
Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2004-01-01
Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)
Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M
2015-10-21
Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu
2012-01-01
This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts. Competenc......This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts....... Competencies emerged through processes and mechanisms such as co-creation that implicated multiple learning processes. The process was not an orderly linear one as emergent contingencies influenced the learning processes. An implication is that public policy to catalyse clusters cannot be based...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
HANPINITSAK, Panawit; SAITO, Kentaro; Fan, Wei
2017-01-01
Comparison of channel characteristics at many frequency bands is necessary to study the frequency-de-pendency which is important for consistent multi-frequency spatial-temporal channel model. Path loss (PL) and power spectrum characteristics of the channel measured in a typical classroom line...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ligia Uribe Gonçalves
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of two lipids sources of fish residue (tilapia and salmon compared with a vegetable oil source (soybean oil on the fatty acid profiles of male and female lambari. This experiment was developed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments resulting from the combination of the three experimental diets for both sexes, with four replications for each treatment. This study involved 120 male (2.58±0.13 g and 72 female lambari (4.00±0.09 g, fed the experimental diets twice a day until apparent satiation for a period of 60 days. Oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids were found at higher concentrations in all experimental oils and diets, as well in the muscle of male and female lambari. The low amounts of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the experimental diets and subsequent greater concentrations in muscle tissue, suggested that lambari are able to desaturate and elongate the chain of fatty acids with 18 carbons. The fish of both sexes that received the diet with soybean oil showed high levels of n-6 fatty acids, especially of C18: 2n-6 and low levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The diet with salmon residue oil promoted higher levels of fatty acids of the n-3 series and resulted in the best n-3/n-6 ratio in the muscle of male and female lambari. The oils from fish residues can be a substitute for traditional fish oil and its use in the lambari diets does not impair its growth.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ju, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China)]. E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn; Gao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China); College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118 (China); Christie, P. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang, F.S. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China)
2007-03-15
{sup 15}N-labeled nitrate was injected into different depths of an alluvial calcareous soil profile on the North China Plain. Subsequent movement of NO{sub 3} {sup -}N and its recovery by deep-rooted maize (Zea mays L.) and shallow-rooted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were studied. Under conventional water and nutrient management the mean recoveries of {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate from K{sup 15}NO{sub 3} injected at depths 15, 45, and 75 cm were 22.4, 13.8, and 7.8% by maize and 7.9, 4.9, and 2.7% by eggplant. The recovery rate by maize at each soil depth was significantly higher than by eggplant. The deeper the injection of nitrate the smaller the distance of its downward movement and this corresponded with the movement of soil water during crop growth. Deeper rooting crops with high root length density and high water consumption may therefore be grown to utilize high concentrations of residual nitrate in the subsoil from previous intensive cropping and to protect the environment. - Deep-rooted crops have a greater capacity than shallow-rooted crops to intercept residual nitrate from the subsoil and restrict its movement down to the shallow groundw0010at.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju, X.T.; Gao, Q.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F.S.
2007-01-01
15 N-labeled nitrate was injected into different depths of an alluvial calcareous soil profile on the North China Plain. Subsequent movement of NO 3 - N and its recovery by deep-rooted maize (Zea mays L.) and shallow-rooted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were studied. Under conventional water and nutrient management the mean recoveries of 15 N-labeled nitrate from K 15 NO 3 injected at depths 15, 45, and 75 cm were 22.4, 13.8, and 7.8% by maize and 7.9, 4.9, and 2.7% by eggplant. The recovery rate by maize at each soil depth was significantly higher than by eggplant. The deeper the injection of nitrate the smaller the distance of its downward movement and this corresponded with the movement of soil water during crop growth. Deeper rooting crops with high root length density and high water consumption may therefore be grown to utilize high concentrations of residual nitrate in the subsoil from previous intensive cropping and to protect the environment. - Deep-rooted crops have a greater capacity than shallow-rooted crops to intercept residual nitrate from the subsoil and restrict its movement down to the shallow groundwater
Calixto, Clediana Dantas; da Silva Santana, Jordana Kaline; de Lira, Evandro Bernardo; Sassi, Patrícia Giulianna Petraglia; Rosenhaim, Raul; da Costa Sassi, Cristiane Francisca; da Conceição, Marta Maria; Sassi, Roberto
2016-12-01
The potential of four regional microalgae species was evaluated in relation to their cell growth and biomass production when cultured in the following alternative media: bio-composts of fruit/horticultural wastes (HB), sugarcane waste and vinasse (VB) chicken excrements (BCE), raw chicken manure (RCM), and municipal domestic sewage (MDS). The cultures were maintained under controlled conditions and their growth responses, productivities, biochemical compositions, and the ester profiles of their biomasses were compared to the results obtained in the synthetic media. The MDS and HB media demonstrated promising results for cultivation, especially of Chlorella sp., Chlamydomonas sp., and Lagerheimia longiseta, which demonstrated productivities superior to those seen when grown on the control media. The highest lipid levels were obtained with the HB medium. The data obtained demonstrated the viability of cultivating microalgae and producing biomass in alternative media prepared from MDS and HB effluents to produce biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Daniel J.; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A.
2018-01-01
Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness (τ) and effective radius (re) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5–10 g/m2. In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic re profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques. PMID:29637042
Miller, Daniel J; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A
2016-04-27
Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness ( τ ) and effective radius ( r e ) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5-10 g/m 2 . In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic r e profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques.
Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M
2016-09-01
Protein modifications of meat cooked by typical dry-heat methods (e.g., roasting) are currently not well understood. The present study utilised a shotgun proteomic approach to examine the molecular-level effect of roasting on thin lamb longissimus thoracis et lumborum patties, in terms of changes to both the protein profile and amino acid residue side-chain modifications. Cooking caused aggregation of actin, myosin heavy chains and sarcoplasmic proteins. Longer roasting time resulted in significantly reduced protein extractability as well as protein truncation involving particularly a number of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, e.g., 6-phosphofructokinase, beta-enolase, l-lactate dehydrogenase A chain, alpha-actinin-3, actin and possibly myosin heavy chains. Modifications that have potential influence on nutritional properties, including carboxyethyllysine and a potentially glucose-derived N-terminal Amadori compound, were observed in actin and myoglobin after roasting. This study provided new insights into molecular changes resulting from the dry-heat treatment of meat, such as commonly used in food preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Investigation of the residue in an electric rail gun employing a plasma armature
Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.
1984-01-01
The performance of dc electric rail guns using plasma-armature-accelerated projectiles was studied. It was found that the initial rail launcher acceleration profile was consistent with the simulation, but that after the projectile had traveled approximately 25 to 30 cm along the gun, a considerable portion of the current in the projectile armature commutated into a secondary current path. Also noted were the lower than expected muzzle velocities. It was proposed that the secondary current path was a relatively high conductivity layer of residue on the launcher bore.
Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path
Wang, Jens; Hedman, Jonas; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina
2016-01-01
The explanation of how and why firms succeed or fail is a recurrent research challenge. This is particularly important in the context of technological innovations. We focus on the role of historical events and decisions in explaining such success and failure. Using a case study of Nokia, we develop and extend a multi-layer path dependence framework. We identify four layers of path dependence: technical, strategic and leadership, organizational, and external collaboration. We show how path dep...
Feynman's path integrals and Bohm's particle paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tumulka, Roderich
2005-01-01
Both Bohmian mechanics, a version of quantum mechanics with trajectories, and Feynman's path integral formalism have something to do with particle paths in space and time. The question thus arises how the two ideas relate to each other. In short, the answer is, path integrals provide a re-formulation of Schroedinger's equation, which is half of the defining equations of Bohmian mechanics. I try to give a clear and concise description of the various aspects of the situation. (letters and comments)
Path coupling and aggregate path coupling
Kovchegov, Yevgeniy
2018-01-01
This book describes and characterizes an extension to the classical path coupling method applied to statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, the aggregate path coupling method is used to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The book shows how the parameter regions for rapid mixing for several classes of statistical mechanical models are derived using the aggregate path coupling method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahotra, I.M.
2006-01-01
The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macherauch, E.
1978-01-01
Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marques, Maria Jose; Batista, A.C.; Nobre, J.P. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica. Centro de Estudos de Materiais por Difraccao de Raios X (CEMDRX); Loureiro, Altino [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Engenharia Mecanica (CEMUC); Kornmeier, Joana R., E-mail: mjvaz@fe.up.pt [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany). FRM II
2013-04-15
The neutron diffraction is a non-destructive technique, particularly suitable for the analysis of residual stress fields in welds. The technique is used in this article to study ferritic samples, coated by submerged arc welding using stainless steel filler metals. This procedure is often used for manufacturing process equipment for chemical and nuclear industries, for ease of implementation and economic reasons. The main disadvantage of that processes is the cracking phenomenon that often occurs at the interface between the base material and coatings, which can be minimized by performing post-weld stress relief heat treatments. The samples analyzed in this study were made of carbon steel plates, coated by submerged arc welding two types of stainless steel filler metals. For the first layer was used one EN 12 072 - S 2 U 23 12 electrode, while for the second and third layers were used an EN 12 072 - 19 12 3 S L electrode. After cladding, the samples were submitted to a post-weld heat treatment for 1 hour at 620 deg C. The residual stress profiles obtained by neutron diffraction evidence the relaxation of residual stress given by the heat treatment. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrapko, R.I.
1985-01-01
A uniform description of various path-dependent functions is presented with the help of expansion of the type of the Taylor series. So called ''path-integrals'' and ''path-tensor'' are introduced which are systems of many-component quantities whose values are defined for arbitrary paths in coordinated region of space in such a way that they contain a complete information on the path. These constructions are considered as elementary path-dependent functions and are used instead of power monomials in the usual Taylor series. Coefficients of such an expansion are interpreted as partial derivatives dependent on the order of the differentiations or else as nonstandard cavariant derivatives called two-point derivatives. Some examples of pathdependent functions are presented.Space curvature tensor is considered whose geometrica properties are determined by the (non-transitive) translator of parallel transport of a general type. Covariant operation leading to the ''extension'' of tensor fiels is pointed out
Iterated Leavitt Path Algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazrat, R.
2009-11-01
Leavitt path algebras associate to directed graphs a Z-graded algebra and in their simplest form recover the Leavitt algebras L(1,k). In this note, we introduce iterated Leavitt path algebras associated to directed weighted graphs which have natural ± Z grading and in their simplest form recover the Leavitt algebras L(n,k). We also characterize Leavitt path algebras which are strongly graded. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janse van Rensburg, E J, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada)
2010-08-20
In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) {yields} f as f {yields} {infinity}, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) {yields} 2f as f {yields} {infinity}, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.
Janse van Rensburg, E. J.
2010-08-01
In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) → f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) → 2f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janse van Rensburg, E J
2010-01-01
In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) → f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) → 2f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.
Multi-Dimensional Path Queries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bækgaard, Lars
1998-01-01
to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments......We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.
2013-01-01
We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhorov, L.V.
1982-01-01
The properties of path integrals associated with the allowance for nonstandard terms reflecting the operator nature of the canonical variables are considered. Rules for treating such terms (''equivalence rules'') are formulated. Problems with a boundary, the behavior of path integrals under canonical transformations, and the problem of quantization of dynamical systems with constraints are considered in the framework of the method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.
1995-01-01
A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeWitt-Morette, C.
1983-01-01
Much is expected of path integration as a quantization procedure. Much more is possible if one recognizes that path integration is at the crossroad of stochastic and differential calculus and uses the full power of both stochastic and differential calculus in setting up and computing path integrals. In contrast to differential calculus, stochastic calculus has only comparatively recently become an instrument of thought. It has nevertheless already been used in a variety of challenging problems, for instance in the quantization problem. The author presents some applications of the stochastic scheme. (Auth.)
Two dimensional simplicial paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piso, M.I.
1994-07-01
Paths on the R 3 real Euclidean manifold are defined as 2-dimensional simplicial strips which are orbits of the action of a discrete one-parameter group. It is proven that there exists at least one embedding of R 3 in the free Z-module generated by S 2 (x 0 ). The speed is defined as the simplicial derivative of the path. If mass is attached to the simplex, the free Lagrangian is proportional to the width of the path. In the continuum limit, the relativistic form of the Lagrangian is recovered. (author). 7 refs
Simons, Jacob V., Jr.
2017-01-01
The critical path method/program evaluation and review technique method of project scheduling is based on the importance of managing a project's critical path(s). Although a critical path is the longest path through a network, its location in large projects is facilitated by the computation of activity slack. However, logical fallacies in…
Leamer, Micah J.
2004-01-01
Let K be a field and Q a finite directed multi-graph. In this paper I classify all path algebras KQ and admissible orders with the property that all of their finitely generated ideals have finite Groebner bases. MS
Path planning in changeable environments
Nieuwenhuisen, D.
2007-01-01
This thesis addresses path planning in changeable environments. In contrast to traditional path planning that deals with static environments, in changeable environments objects are allowed to change their configurations over time. In many cases, path planning algorithms must facilitate quick
Path optimization method for the sign problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ohnishi Akira
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a path optimization method (POM to evade the sign problem in the Monte-Carlo calculations for complex actions. Among many approaches to the sign problem, the Lefschetz-thimble path-integral method and the complex Langevin method are promising and extensively discussed. In these methods, real field variables are complexified and the integration manifold is determined by the flow equations or stochastically sampled. When we have singular points of the action or multiple critical points near the original integral surface, however, we have a risk to encounter the residual and global sign problems or the singular drift term problem. One of the ways to avoid the singular points is to optimize the integration path which is designed not to hit the singular points of the Boltzmann weight. By specifying the one-dimensional integration-path as z = t +if(t(f ϵ R and by optimizing f(t to enhance the average phase factor, we demonstrate that we can avoid the sign problem in a one-variable toy model for which the complex Langevin method is found to fail. In this proceedings, we propose POM and discuss how we can avoid the sign problem in a toy model. We also discuss the possibility to utilize the neural network to optimize the path.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.
1980-01-01
Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt
Aubert, D.; Probst, A.; Stille, P.
2003-04-01
Physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals lead to soil formation and allow the removal of chemical elements from these systems to ground- or surface waters. But most of the time the determination of element concentrations in soils is not sufficient to estimate whether they are being accumulated or what is their ability to be released in the environment. Thus, the distribution and chemical binding for a given element is very important because it determines its mobility and potential bioavailability throughout a soil profile. Heavy metals and REE (Rare Earth Elements) are particularly of environmental concern because of their potential toxicity. For most of them, their chemical form strongly depends on the evolution of physico-chemical parameters like pH or redox conditions that will induce adsorption-desorption, complexation or co-precipitation phenomena in the material. The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution of several major and trace elements (especially REE, Th and U) in an acidic forested podzolic soil profile from the Vosges Mountains (France). To achieve this goal we use a 7 step sequential extraction procedure that allows determining precisely the origin and the behaviour of particular elements in the environment (Leleyter et al., 1999). In addition we performed leaching experiments using very dilute acetic and hydrochloric acid in order to establish the origin of REE in this soil. The results of the sequential extraction indicate that most of the metals, Th and U are mainly bound to Fe oxides. Organic matter appears also to be a great carrier of P, Ca, Fe and REE even if its content is very low in the deep horizons of the soil. Moreover, we show that in each soil horizon, middle REE (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) are more labile than light REE (LREE). Leaching experiments using dilute acid solution further suggest that in the shallowest horizons REE largely derive from atmospheric deposition whereas at greater depth, weathering
MinePath: Mining for Phenotype Differential Sub-paths in Molecular Pathways
Koumakis, Lefteris; Kartsaki, Evgenia; Chatzimina, Maria; Zervakis, Michalis; Vassou, Despoina; Marias, Kostas; Moustakis, Vassilis; Potamias, George
2016-01-01
Pathway analysis methodologies couple traditional gene expression analysis with knowledge encoded in established molecular pathway networks, offering a promising approach towards the biological interpretation of phenotype differentiating genes. Early pathway analysis methodologies, named as gene set analysis (GSA), view pathways just as plain lists of genes without taking into account either the underlying pathway network topology or the involved gene regulatory relations. These approaches, even if they achieve computational efficiency and simplicity, consider pathways that involve the same genes as equivalent in terms of their gene enrichment characteristics. Most recent pathway analysis approaches take into account the underlying gene regulatory relations by examining their consistency with gene expression profiles and computing a score for each profile. Even with this approach, assessing and scoring single-relations limits the ability to reveal key gene regulation mechanisms hidden in longer pathway sub-paths. We introduce MinePath, a pathway analysis methodology that addresses and overcomes the aforementioned problems. MinePath facilitates the decomposition of pathways into their constituent sub-paths. Decomposition leads to the transformation of single-relations to complex regulation sub-paths. Regulation sub-paths are then matched with gene expression sample profiles in order to evaluate their functional status and to assess phenotype differential power. Assessment of differential power supports the identification of the most discriminant profiles. In addition, MinePath assess the significance of the pathways as a whole, ranking them by their p-values. Comparison results with state-of-the-art pathway analysis systems are indicative for the soundness and reliability of the MinePath approach. In contrast with many pathway analysis tools, MinePath is a web-based system (www.minepath.org) offering dynamic and rich pathway visualization functionality, with the
Quivers of Bound Path Algebras and Bound Path Coalgebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Intan Muchtadi
2010-09-01
Full Text Available bras and coalgebras can be represented as quiver (directed graph, and from quiver we can construct algebras and coalgebras called path algebras and path coalgebras. In this paper we show that the quiver of a bound path coalgebra (resp. algebra is the dual quiver of its bound path algebra (resp. coalgebra.
Hubert, Cécile; Roosen, Martin; Levi, Yves; Karolak, Sara
2017-06-02
The analysis of biomarkers in wastewater has become a common approach to assess community behavior. This method is an interesting way to estimate illicit drug consumption in a given population: by using a back calculation method, it is therefore possible to quantify the amount of a specific drug used in a community and to assess the consumption variation at different times and locations. Such a method needs reliable analytical data since the determination of a concentration in the ngL -1 range in a complex matrix is difficult and not easily reproducible. The best analytical method is liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry coupling after solid-phase extraction or on-line pre-concentration. Quality criteria are not specially defined for this kind of determination. In this context, it was decided to develop an UHPLC-MS/MS method to analyze 10 illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant influent or effluent using a pre-concentration on-line system. A validation process was then carried out using the accuracy profile concept as an innovative tool to estimate the probability of getting prospective results within specified acceptance limits. Influent and effluent samples were spiked with known amounts of the 10 compounds and analyzed three times a day for three days in order to estimate intra-day and inter-day variations. The matrix effect was estimated for each compound. The developed method can provide at least 80% of results within ±25% limits except for compounds that are degraded in influent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang
2015-09-15
Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.
Abrams, Gene; Siles Molina, Mercedes
2017-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive introduction by three of the leading experts in the field, collecting fundamental results and open problems in a single volume. Since Leavitt path algebras were first defined in 2005, interest in these algebras has grown substantially, with ring theorists as well as researchers working in graph C*-algebras, group theory and symbolic dynamics attracted to the topic. Providing a historical perspective on the subject, the authors review existing arguments, establish new results, and outline the major themes and ring-theoretic concepts, such as the ideal structure, Z-grading and the close link between Leavitt path algebras and graph C*-algebras. The book also presents key lines of current research, including the Algebraic Kirchberg Phillips Question, various additional classification questions, and connections to noncommutative algebraic geometry. Leavitt Path Algebras will appeal to graduate students and researchers working in the field and related areas, such as C*-algebras and...
2016-07-22
be reduced to TP in -D UDH for any . We then show that the 2-D disk hypergraph constructed in the proof of Theorem 1 can be modified to an exposed...transmission range that induces hy- peredge , i.e., (3) GAO et al.: THINNEST PATH PROBLEM 1181 Theorem 5 shows that the covered area of the path...representation of (the two hyperedges rooted at from the example given in Fig. 6 are illustrated in green and blue, respectively). step, we show in this
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter
This edited volume stems from a conference held in Copenhagen that the authors ran in August of 1997. The authors, aware of the recent work in evolutionary theory and the science of chaos and complexity, challenge the sometimes deterministic flavour of this work. They are interested in uncovering...... the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...
Reparametrization in the path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storchak, S.N.
1983-01-01
The question of the invariance of a measure in the n-dimensional path integral under the path reparametrization is considered. The non-invariance of the measure through the jacobian is suggeste. After the path integral reparametrization the representatioq for the Green's function of the Hamilton operator in terms of the path integral with the classical Hamiltonian has been obtained
Toward solving the sign problem with path optimization method
Mori, Yuto; Kashiwa, Kouji; Ohnishi, Akira
2017-12-01
We propose a new approach to circumvent the sign problem in which the integration path is optimized to control the sign problem. We give a trial function specifying the integration path in the complex plane and tune it to optimize the cost function which represents the seriousness of the sign problem. We call it the path optimization method. In this method, we do not need to solve the gradient flow required in the Lefschetz-thimble method and then the construction of the integration-path contour arrives at the optimization problem where several efficient methods can be applied. In a simple model with a serious sign problem, the path optimization method is demonstrated to work well; the residual sign problem is resolved and precise results can be obtained even in the region where the global sign problem is serious.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Juhasz
2017-03-01
Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm
Path integral quantization in the temporal gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scholz, B.; Steiner, F.
1983-06-01
The quantization of non-Abelian gauge theories in the temporal gauge is studied within Feynman's path integral approach. The standard asymptotic boundary conditions are only imposed on the transverse gauge fields. The fictituous longitudinal gauge quanta are eliminated asymptotically by modified boundary conditions. This abolishes the residual time-independent gauge transformations and leads to a unique fixing of the temporal gauge. The resulting path integral for the generating functional respects automatically Gauss's law. The correct gauge field propagator is derived. It does not suffer from gauge singularities at n x k = 0 present in the usual treatment of axial gauges. The standard principal value prescription does not work. As a check, the Wilson loop in temporal gauge is calculated with the new propagator. To second order (and to all orders in the Abelian case) the result agrees with the one obtained in the Feynman and Coulomb gauge. (orig.)
Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailov, R V
2005-01-01
The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.
Nonadiabatic transition path sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.
2016-01-01
Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.
Investigation of the residue in an electric railgun employing a plasma armature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, D.P.; Barber, J.P.
1984-01-01
This paper examines the performance of DC electric railguns using plasmaarmature-accelerated projectiles. The adverse effects on performance of a black residue produced in the railgun are examined. The residue appears to be responsible for causing secondary current paths within the railgun. The secondary current paths result in muzzle velocities lower than predicted
PATHS groundwater hydrologic model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.
1980-04-01
A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.
Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Bjørn
This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....
The measurement of residual stresses in claddings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofer, G.; Bender, N.
1978-01-01
The ring core method, a variation of the hole drilling method for the measurement of biaxial residual stresses, has been extended to measure stresses from depths of about 5 to 25mm. It is now possible to measure the stress profiles of clad material. Examples of measured stress profiles are shown and compared with those obtained with a sectioning technique. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamie Waters
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.
Mehhtz, Peter
2005-01-01
JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhorov, L.V.
1982-01-01
Problems related to consideration of operator nonpermutability in Hamiltonian path integral (HPI) are considered in the review. Integrals are investigated using trajectories in configuration space (nonrelativistic quantum mechanics). Problems related to trajectory integrals in HPI phase space are discussed: the problem of operator nonpermutability consideration (extra terms problem) and corresponding equivalence rules; ambiguity of HPI usual recording; transition to curvilinear coordinates. Problem of quantization of dynamical systems with couplings has been studied. As in the case of canonical transformations, quantization of the systems with couplings of the first kind requires the consideration of extra terms
Wolfowitz,Paul
2006-01-01
Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank, discussed Singapore's remarkable progress along the road from poverty to prosperity which has also been discovered by many other countries in East Asia and around the world. He spoke of how each country must find its own path for people to pursue the same dreams of the chance to go to school, the security of a good job, and the ability to provide a better future for their children. Throughout the world, and importantly in the developing world, ther...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.
1979-01-01
In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand
Path creation in the software industry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leimbach, Timo
2017-01-01
The article analyzes the development of the German software company Software AG, which was among the few European companies that succeeded in the US market already in the 1970s. Utilizing the concept of "path creation" it examines how early success impacted the development of the company. It shows...... that at least two paths in the development, the focus on the ADABAS product ecosystem and the underlying technology as well as the strong internationalization, relate to the early success and influenced the further evolution of it. The analyses reveal that they played an important role in how the company...... reacted on the rise of relational databases and the vertical disintegration of the computer industry. As a consequence of the late adoption of them they company got into troubles and needed adjust their profile and orientation during the 1990s and early 2000s, which is analyzed in the final part...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Ballonoff
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A theory of cultural structures predicts the objects observed by anthropologists. We here define those which use kinship relationships to define systems. A finite structure we call a partially defined quasigroup (or pdq, as stated by Definition 1 below on a dictionary (called a natural language allows prediction of certain anthropological descriptions, using homomorphisms of pdqs onto finite groups. A viable history (defined using pdqs states how an individual in a population following such history may perform culturally allowed associations, which allows a viable history to continue to survive. The vector states on sets of viable histories identify demographic observables on descent sequences. Paths of vector states on sets of viable histories may determine which histories can exist empirically.
Propagators and path integrals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holten, J.W. van
1995-08-22
Path-integral expressions for one-particle propagators in scalar and fermionic field theories are derived, for arbitrary mass. This establishes a direct connection between field theory and specific classical point-particle models. The role of world-line reparametrization invariance of the classical action and the implementation of the corresponding BRST-symmetry in the quantum theory are discussed. The presence of classical world-line supersymmetry is shown to lead to an unwanted doubling of states for massive spin-1/2 particles. The origin of this phenomenon is traced to a `hidden` topological fermionic excitation. A different formulation of the pseudo-classical mechanics using a bosonic representation of {gamma}{sub 5} is shown to remove these extra states at the expense of losing manifest supersymmetry. (orig.).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Jian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The world has entered the information age, all kinds of information technologies such as cloud technology, big data technology are in rapid development, and the “Internet plus” appeared. The main purpose of “Internet plus” is to provide an opportunity for the further development of the enterprise, the enterprise technology, business and other aspects of factors combine. For enterprises, grasp the “Internet plus” the impact of the market economy will undoubtedly pave the way for the future development of enterprises. This paper will be on the innovation path of the enterprise management “Internet plus” era tied you study, hope to be able to put forward some opinions and suggestions.
Characterization of Proteins in Filtrate from Biodegradation of Crop Residue
Horton, Wileatha; Trotman, A. A.
1997-01-01
Biodegradation of plant biomass is a feasible path for transformation of crop residue and recycling of nutrients for crop growth. The need to model the effects of factors associated with recycling of plant biomass resulting from hydroponic sweet potato production has led to investigation of natural soil isolates with the capacity for starch hydrolysis. This study sought to use nondenaturing gel electrophoresis to characterize the proteins present in filtered effluent from bioreactors seeded with starch hydrolyzing bacterial culture used in the biodegradation of senesced sweet potato biomass. The study determined the relative molecular weight of proteins in sampled effluent and the protein banding pattern was characterized. The protein profiles of effluent were similar for samples taken from independent runs under similar conditions of starch hydrolysis. The method can be used as a quality control tool for confirmation of starch hydrolysis of crop biomass. In addition, this method will allow monitoring for presence of contaminants within the system-protein profiles indicative of new enzymes in the bioreactors.
Residual stresses around Vickers indents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.
1995-01-01
The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)
2016-04-29
The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mignemi, S.; Štrajn, R.
2016-01-01
The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.
UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy
Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf
1994-01-01
Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive
Two Generations of Path Dependence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Mogens Ove
Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...
Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Carsten
2000-01-01
We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.; Kolerov, G.I.
1980-01-01
A Hilbert space of paths, the elements of which are determined by trigonometric series, was proposed and used recently by Truman. This space is shown to consist precisely of all absolutely continuous paths ending in the origin with square-integrable derivatives
Handling of wet residues in industry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villanueva, Alejandro
is fundamental in most disposal routes for clarifying the possibility of treating the residue. The better the characterisation from the start is, the easier the assessment of the feasible disposal alternatives becomes. The decision about the handling/disposal solution for the residue is a trade-off between......, and can depend on factors such as the investment capacity, the relationships with the stakeholders, or the promotion of its environmental profile....
Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions
Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.
2014-01-01
In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.
Optimal Paths in Gliding Flight
Wolek, Artur
Underwater gliders are robust and long endurance ocean sampling platforms that are increasingly being deployed in coastal regions. This new environment is characterized by shallow waters and significant currents that can challenge the mobility of these efficient (but traditionally slow moving) vehicles. This dissertation aims to improve the performance of shallow water underwater gliders through path planning. The path planning problem is formulated for a dynamic particle (or "kinematic car") model. The objective is to identify the path which satisfies specified boundary conditions and minimizes a particular cost. Several cost functions are considered. The problem is addressed using optimal control theory. The length scales of interest for path planning are within a few turn radii. First, an approach is developed for planning minimum-time paths, for a fixed speed glider, that are sub-optimal but are guaranteed to be feasible in the presence of unknown time-varying currents. Next the minimum-time problem for a glider with speed controls, that may vary between the stall speed and the maximum speed, is solved. Last, optimal paths that minimize change in depth (equivalently, maximize range) are investigated. Recognizing that path planning alone cannot overcome all of the challenges associated with significant currents and shallow waters, the design of a novel underwater glider with improved capabilities is explored. A glider with a pneumatic buoyancy engine (allowing large, rapid buoyancy changes) and a cylindrical moving mass mechanism (generating large pitch and roll moments) is designed, manufactured, and tested to demonstrate potential improvements in speed and maneuverability.
Computational study of the vortex path variation with the VG height
Fernández-Gámiz, U.; Zamorano, G.; Zulueta, E.
2014-06-01
An extensive range of conventional, vane-type, passive vortex generators (VGs) are in use for successful applications of flow separation control. In most cases, the VG height is designed with the same thickness as the local boundary layer at the VG position. However, in some applications, these conventional VGs may produce excess residual drag. The so-called low-profile VGs can reduce the parasitic drag associated to this kind of passive control devices. As suggested by many authors, low-profile VGs can provide enough momentum transfer over a region several times their own height for effective flow-separation control with much lower drag. The main objective of this work is to study the variation of the path and the development of the primary vortex generated by a rectangular VG mounted on a flat plate with five different device heights h = δ, h1 = 0.8δ, h2 = 0.6δ, h3 = 0.4δ and h4 = 0.25m, where 5 is the local boundary layer thickness. For this purpose, computational simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number Re = 1350 based on the height of the conventional VG h = 0.25m with the angle of attack of the vane to the oncoming flow β = 18.5°. The results show that the VG scaling significantly affects the vortex trajectory and the peak vorticity generated by the primary vortex.
Computational study of the vortex path variation with the VG height
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernández-Gámiz, U; Zamorano, G; Zulueta, E
2014-01-01
An extensive range of conventional, vane-type, passive vortex generators (VGs) are in use for successful applications of flow separation control. In most cases, the VG height is designed with the same thickness as the local boundary layer at the VG position. However, in some applications, these conventional VGs may produce excess residual drag. The so-called low-profile VGs can reduce the parasitic drag associated to this kind of passive control devices. As suggested by many authors, low-profile VGs can provide enough momentum transfer over a region several times their own height for effective flow-separation control with much lower drag. The main objective of this work is to study the variation of the path and the development of the primary vortex generated by a rectangular VG mounted on a flat plate with five different device heights h = δ, h 1 = 0.8δ, h 2 = 0.6δ, h 3 = 0.4δ and h 4 = 0.25m, where 5 is the local boundary layer thickness. For this purpose, computational simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number Re = 1350 based on the height of the conventional VG h = 0.25m with the angle of attack of the vane to the oncoming flow β = 18.5°. The results show that the VG scaling significantly affects the vortex trajectory and the peak vorticity generated by the primary vortex
Perfect discretization of path integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2012-01-01
In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.
Perfect discretization of path integrals
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2012-05-01
In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.
Borderland: The Smuggler's Paths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Candida Rosa Ramos Nunes
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The present work is intended to reveal, through literary tales of authors from Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguay, a view of the smuggler's profile, explaining joints that allow the reading public have different versions of this character that, for some, is considered a hero and, for others, bandit. To achieve such proposal, will be examined the tales "Contrabandistas" by João Simões Lopes Neto; "Contos IV" and "Nossa Senhora Aparecida" by Aldyr Garcia Schlee ; “Contrabandistas”, by Julián Murguía; “Contrabando”, de Darcy Azambuja; “Cerrazón” e “Renuncia del comisario Portela y del Cabo Lapuente”, de José Monegal, that focuses on the life of the residents of the border, space where transited the illegal trade. For the analysis of the texts, was taken as references researches by Guilhermino César, Adriana Dorfman, Léa Masina e Mariana Flores da Cunha Thompson Flores, critics of different areas that takes literature to deepen studies on smuggling at the border. This research will allow detecting the reasons that led the individuals to do smuggling, as well as the consequences of their illicit acts. This leads us to reflect on the character of these subjects. Would they be heroes or bandits?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2010-06-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management developed this report as a guide for discussions with the Colorado State regulators and other interested stakeholders in response to increased drilling for natural gas reserves near the underground nuclear explosion site at Rulison, Colorado. The Rulison site is located in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado, 40 miles northeast of Grand Junction. The Rulison test was the second natural gas reservoir stimulation experiment in the Plowshare Program, which was designed to develop peaceful uses for nuclear energy. On September 10, 1969, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of DOE, detonated a 40-kiloton nuclear device 8426 feet below the ground surface in an attempt to release commercially marketable quantities of natural gas. The blast vaporized surrounding rock and formed a cavity about 150 feet in diameter. Although the contaminated materials from drilling operations were subsequently removed from the surface of the blast site, no feasible technology exists to remove subsurface radioactive contamination in or around the test cavity. An increase in drilling for natural gas near the site has raised concern about the possibility of encountering residual radioactivity from the area of the detonation. DOE prohibits drilling in the 40-acre lot surrounding the blast site at a depth below 6000 feet. DOE has no evidence that indicates contamination from the Rulison site detonation has migrated or will ever migrate beyond the 40-acre institutional control boundary. The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) established two wider boundaries around the site. When a company applies for a permit to drill within a 3-mile radius of surface ground zero, COGCC notifies DOE and provides an opportunity to comment on the application. COGCC also established a half-mile radius around surface ground zero. An application to drill within one-half mile requires a full hearing before the
An Introduction to Path Analysis
Wolfe, Lee M.
1977-01-01
The analytical procedure of path analysis is described in terms of its use in nonexperimental settings in the social sciences. The description assumes a moderate statistical background on the part of the reader. (JKS)
Probabilistic simulation of fermion paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhirov, O.V.
1989-01-01
Permutation symmetry of fermion path integral allows (while spin degrees of freedom are ignored) to use in its simulation any probabilistic algorithm, like Metropolis one, heat bath, etc. 6 refs., 2 tabs
Formal language constrained path problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.
1997-07-08
In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.
Perfect discretization of path integrals
Steinhaus, Sebastian
2011-01-01
In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discu...
Path integration in conical space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inomata, Akira; Junker, Georg
2012-01-01
Quantum mechanics in conical space is studied by the path integral method. It is shown that the curvature effect gives rise to an effective potential in the radial path integral. It is further shown that the radial path integral in conical space can be reduced to a form identical with that in flat space when the discrete angular momentum of each partial wave is replaced by a specific non-integral angular momentum. The effective potential is found proportional to the squared mean curvature of the conical surface embedded in Euclidean space. The path integral calculation is compatible with the Schrödinger equation modified with the Gaussian and the mean curvature. -- Highlights: ► We study quantum mechanics on a cone by the path integral approach. ► The path integral depends only on the metric and the curvature effect is built in. ► The approach is consistent with the Schrödinger equation modified by an effective potential. ► The effective potential is found to be of the “Jensen–Koppe” and “da Costa” type.
Path integrals on curved manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.; Steiner, F.
1987-01-01
A general framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. We also show how to perform general coordinate and space-time transformations in path integrals. The main result is that one has to subtract a quantum correction ΔV ∝ ℎ 2 from the classical Lagrangian L, i.e. the correct effective Lagrangian to be used in the path integral is L eff = L-ΔV. A general prescription for calculating the quantum correction ΔV is given. It is based on a canonical approach using Weyl-ordering and the Hamiltonian path integral defined by the midpoint prescription. The general framework is illustrated by several examples: The d-dimensional rotator, i.e. the motion on the sphere S d-1 , the path integral in d-dimensional polar coordinates, the exact treatment of the hydrogen atom in R 2 and R 3 by performing a Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation, the Langer transformation and the path integral for the Morse potential. (orig.)
Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis
2014-01-01
In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path...... a specific path by only retrieving data from the first and last edge in the path. To correctly answer strict path queries existing network-constrained trajectory indexes must retrieve data from all edges in the path. An extensive performance study of NETTRA using a very large real-world trajectory data set...
Vapor nucleation paths in lyophobic nanopores.
Tinti, Antonio; Giacomello, Alberto; Casciola, Carlo Massimo
2018-04-19
In recent years, technologies revolving around the use of lyophobic nanopores gained considerable attention in both fundamental and applied research. Owing to the enormous internal surface area, heterogeneous lyophobic systems (HLS), constituted by a nanoporous lyophobic material and a non-wetting liquid, are promising candidates for the efficient storage or dissipation of mechanical energy. These diverse applications both rely on the forced intrusion and extrusion of the non-wetting liquid inside the pores; the behavior of HLS for storage or dissipation depends on the hysteresis between these two processes, which, in turn, are determined by the microscopic details of the system. It is easy to understand that molecular simulations provide an unmatched tool for understanding phenomena at these scales. In this contribution we use advanced atomistic simulation techniques in order to study the nucleation of vapor bubbles inside lyophobic mesopores. The use of the string method in collective variables allows us to overcome the computational challenges associated with the activated nature of the phenomenon, rendering a detailed picture of nucleation in confinement. In particular, this rare event method efficiently searches for the most probable nucleation path(s) in otherwise intractable, high-dimensional free-energy landscapes. Results reveal the existence of several independent nucleation paths associated with different free-energy barriers. In particular, there is a family of asymmetric transition paths, in which a bubble forms at one of the walls; the other family involves the formation of axisymmetric bubbles with an annulus shape. The computed free-energy profiles reveal that the asymmetric path is significantly more probable than the symmetric one, while the exact position where the asymmetric bubble forms is less relevant for the free energetics of the process. A comparison of the atomistic results with continuum models is also presented, showing how, for simple
Relationship between total quality management, critical paths, and outcomes management.
Lynn, P A
1996-09-01
Total quality management (TQM), clinical paths, and outcomes management are high-profile strategies in today's health care environment. Each strategy is distinct, yet there are interrelationships among them. TQM supports a customer-focused organizational culture, providing tools and techniques to identify and solve problems. Clinical paths are tools for enhancing patient care coordination and for identifying system-wide and patient population specific issues. Outcomes management is an integrated system for measuring the results in patient populations over time. There is a recent shift in outcomes measurement towards expanding both the nature of the outcomes examined and the timeframes in which they are studied.
Prediction of slant path rain attenuation statistics at various locations
Goldhirsh, J.
1977-01-01
The paper describes a method for predicting slant path attenuation statistics at arbitrary locations for variable frequencies and path elevation angles. The method involves the use of median reflectivity factor-height profiles measured with radar as well as the use of long-term point rain rate data and assumed or measured drop size distributions. The attenuation coefficient due to cloud liquid water in the presence of rain is also considered. Absolute probability fade distributions are compared for eight cases: Maryland (15 GHz), Texas (30 GHz), Slough, England (19 and 37 GHz), Fayetteville, North Carolina (13 and 18 GHz), and Cambridge, Massachusetts (13 and 18 GHz).
Design of Smooth Ramp Feedrate for Machining Complex NURBS Paths
Sekar, M.; Suresha, B.; Kantharaj, I.
2017-10-01
The feedrate scheduling algorithms proposed in this work permit the complex NURBS tool paths to be traversed quickly in those areas not limited by dynamic constraints, but slowdown in critical areas just enough to keep the machine within its dynamic limits and the specified tolerance zone. Due to the typically improved path tracking performance, surface finish can improve greatly, reducing the need for secondary finishing operations such as polishing. This work implements the Acceleration Deceleration Before Interpolation (ADBI) approach which is desired in modern CNC controller design and high speed machining of complex micro profiles common in Aerospace applications.
Klimasewski, A.; Sahakian, V. J.; Baltay, A.; Boatwright, J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Baker, L. M.
2017-12-01
A large source of epistemic uncertainty in Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) is derived from the path term, currently represented as a simple geometric spreading and intrinsic attenuation term. Including additional physical relationships between the path properties and predicted ground motions would produce more accurate and precise, region-specific GMPEs by reclassifying some of the random, aleatory uncertainty as epistemic. This study focuses on regions of Southern California, using data from the Anza network and Southern California Seismic network to create a catalog of events magnitude 2.5 and larger from 1998 to 2016. The catalog encompasses regions of varying geology and therefore varying path and site attenuation. Within this catalog of events, we investigate several collections of event region-to-station pairs, each of which share similar origin locations and stations so that all events have similar paths. Compared with a simple regional GMPE, these paths consistently have high or low residuals. By working with events that have the same path, we can isolate source and site effects, and focus on the remaining residual as path effects. We decompose the recordings into source and site spectra for each unique event and site in our greater Southern California regional database using the inversion method of Andrews (1986). This model represents each natural log record spectra as the sum of its natural log event and site spectra, while constraining each record to a reference site or Brune source spectrum. We estimate a regional, path-specific anelastic attenuation (Q) and site attenuation (t*) from the inversion site spectra and corner frequency from the inversion event spectra. We then compute the residuals between the observed record data, and the inversion model prediction (event*site spectra). This residual is representative of path effects, likely anelastic attenuation along the path that varies from the regional median attenuation. We examine the
Randomized path optimization for thevMitigated counter detection of UAVS
2017-06-01
to tracking, such as sea state, altitude, and the position of the sun, could all be used 1 in designing a program that allows for the recovery of...qgoal , an infinite set of possible paths exists in between them. In order to scale down the problem from an infinite number of paths, a polynomial path...flight to a vehicle that used 70%. With 100 potential waypoints and five different time profiles, the set of infinite paths was narrowed down to a set
Path integration on hyperbolic spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grosche, C [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
1991-11-01
Quantum mechanics on the hyperbolic spaces of rank one is discussed by path integration technique. Hyperbolic spaces are multi-dimensional generalisation of the hyperbolic plane, i.e. the Poincare upper half-plane endowed with a hyperbolic geometry. We evalute the path integral on S{sub 1} {approx equal} SO (n,1)/SO(n) and S{sub 2} {approx equal} SU(n,1)/S(U(1) x U(n)) in a particular coordinate system, yielding explicitly the wave-functions and the energy spectrum. Futhermore we can exploit a general property of all these spaces, namely that they can be parametrized by a pseudopolar coordinate system. This allows a separation in path integration over spheres and an additional path integration over the remaining hyperbolic coordinate, yielding effectively a path integral for a modified Poeschl-Teller potential. Only continuous spectra can exist in all the cases. For all the hyperbolic spaces of rank one we find a general formula for the largest lower bound (zero-point energy) of the spectrum which is given by E{sub O} = h{sup 2} /8m(m{sub {alpha}} +2m{sub 2} {alpha}){sup 2} (m {alpha} and m{sub 2}{alpha} denote the dimension of the root subspace corresponding to the roots {alpha} and 2{alpha}, respectively). I also discuss the case, where a constant magnetic field on H{sup n} is incorporated. (orig.).
Path integration on hyperbolic spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.
1991-11-01
Quantum mechanics on the hyperbolic spaces of rank one is discussed by path integration technique. Hyperbolic spaces are multi-dimensional generalisation of the hyperbolic plane, i.e. the Poincare upper half-plane endowed with a hyperbolic geometry. We evalute the path integral on S 1 ≅ SO (n,1)/SO(n) and S 2 ≅ SU(n,1)/S[U(1) x U(n)] in a particular coordinate system, yielding explicitly the wave-functions and the energy spectrum. Futhermore we can exploit a general property of all these spaces, namely that they can be parametrized by a pseudopolar coordinate system. This allows a separation in path integration over spheres and an additional path integration over the remaining hyperbolic coordinate, yielding effectively a path integral for a modified Poeschl-Teller potential. Only continuous spectra can exist in all the cases. For all the hyperbolic spaces of rank one we find a general formula for the largest lower bound (zero-point energy) of the spectrum which is given by E O = h 2 /8m(m α +2m 2 α) 2 (m α and m 2 α denote the dimension of the root subspace corresponding to the roots α and 2α, respectively). I also discuss the case, where a constant magnetic field on H n is incorporated. (orig.)
Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
2010-04-05
Apr 5, 2010 ... In Sarawak, East Malaysia, agro-residues from sago starch processing industries are ... conversion to animal food or fuel ethanol (Species. Profiles for Pacific Island ..... serious contamination of the rivers. Based on study by.
Effects of varying hydraulics on the calibration of eight path chordal ultrasonic meters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauser, E.; Estrada, H.; Regan, J.
2003-01-01
Eight path transit time ultrasonic meters are being used in the US, Europe and Japan to support measurement uncertainty power uprates of nuclear power plants. Power uprates rely on the demonstration of improved power accuracy to justify a reduction in the traditional 2% margin between operating power and the power at which loss of coolant accidents and other transients have been analyzed. The flow, density and enthalpy of the feedwater are key elements in the power calculation, and the eight path ultrasonic meters measure the flow and temperature from which these elements are derived. A key element in the uncertainty analysis for these meters is an allowance for the uncertainties that the feedwater flow profiles introduce in the meters' flow calibrations. To minimize and bound this uncertainty calibration tests are performed on each eight path element to be used in an uprate application. This paper describes extensive testing of a prototype eight path meter, results of which have be used to define the sensitivity of 8 path meters to broad variations in flow profiles, both axial and transverse and to establish a methodology whereby the impact of these changes on the uncertainty of the meters can be minimized. This testing confirms the general insensitivity of 8 path chordal systems to axial and transverse fluid velocity profiles. An 8 path chordal system provides a quantitative measurement of the flatness of the axial profile, which allows a quantitative assessment of the differences in hydraulic profile seen by a meter in a plant versus the hydraulic profile seen by that same meter in the calibration lab. Since the sensitivity of the meter's calibration can be established as a function of profile flatness in the lab through parametric testing, the profile flatness in the plant can be used to confirm or to adapt as necessary the calibration coefficient measured in the lab for use in the plant. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berecz, I.
1982-01-01
Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)
Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louko, J
2005-01-01
Jean Zinn-Justin's textbook Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics aims to familiarize the reader with the path integral as a calculational tool in quantum mechanics and field theory. The emphasis is on quantum statistical mechanics, starting with the partition function Tr exp(-β H) and proceeding through the diffusion equation to barrier penetration problems and their semiclassical limit. The 'real time' path integral is defined via analytic continuation and used for the path-integral representation of the nonrelativistic S-matrix and its perturbative expansion. Holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals are introduced and applied to nonrelativistic quantum field theory. There is also a brief discussion of path integrals in phase space. The introduction includes a brief historical review of path integrals, supported by a bibliography with some 40 entries. As emphasized in the introduction, mathematical rigour is not a central issue in the book. This allows the text to present the calculational techniques in a very readable manner: much of the text consists of worked-out examples, such as the quartic anharmonic oscillator in the barrier penetration chapter. At the end of each chapter there are exercises, some of which are of elementary coursework type, but the majority are more in the style of extended examples. Most of the exercises indeed include the solution or a sketch thereof. The book assumes minimal previous knowledge of quantum mechanics, and some basic quantum mechanical notation is collected in an appendix. The material has a large overlap with selected chapters in the author's thousand-page textbook Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena (2002 Oxford: Clarendon). The stand-alone scope of the present work has, however, allowed a more focussed organization of this material, especially in the chapters on, respectively, holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals. In my view the book accomplishes its aim admirably and is eminently usable as a textbook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canright, G.S.
1992-01-01
I offer a pedagogical review of the homotopy arguments for fractional statistics in two dimensions. These arguments arise naturally in path-integral language since they necessarily consider the properties of paths rather than simply permutations. The braid group replaces the permutation group as the basic structure for quantum statistics; hence properties of the braid group on several surfaces are briefly discussed. Finally, the question of multiple (real-space) occupancy is addressed; I suggest that the ''traditional'' treatment of this question (ie, an assumption that many-anyon wavefunctions necessarily vanish for multiple occupancy) needs reexamination
Isomorphisms and traversability of directed path graphs
Broersma, Haitze J.; Li, Xueliang; Li, X.
1998-01-01
The concept of a line digraph is generalized to that of a directed path graph. The directed path graph $\\forw P_k(D)$ of a digraph $D$ is obtained by representing the directed paths on $k$ vertices of $D$ by vertices. Two vertices are joined by an arc whenever the corresponding directed paths in $D$
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi
2008-02-01
Full Text Available O cultivo de microalgas representa uma potencial fonte de biomassa rica em clorofila e sais minerais como: fósforo, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, magnésio e cálcio. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a composição de minerais, bem como determinar o teor de clorofila a e b da microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual em três diferentes concentrações comparadas com um cultivo controle. Os resultados mostraram que os teores de clorofila a e b da microalga não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os cultivos. Com relação à composição dos sais minerais, a Chlorella cultivada na solução residual mais concentrada apresentou valores superiores quando comparada com a cultivada nos demais cultivos. Dessa forma, a biomassa da Chlorella vulgaris demonstrou ser uma potencial fonte de clorofila e de sais minerais, quando cultivada em solução hidropônica residual, possibilitando a utilização desse resíduo de forma sustentável.The microalgaes cultive represents a potential source of biomass rich in chlorophyll and minerals as: P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg and Ca. This research was aimed at evaluating the composition of minerals, as well as, determining the content of chlorophyll a and b from the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater in three different concentrations compared with the control cultive. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll a and b of the microalgae did not show significant difference between the cultives. In relation to the composition of the minerals, the Chlorella cultivated in the most concentrated wastewater, showed higher values when compared with the one cultivated in the others cultures. In this manner, the Chlorella vulgaris biomass demonstrated to be a potential source of chlorophyll and minerals, when cultivated in hydroponic wastewater, allowing the use of this residue in a sustainable way.
Residual Entropy, the Third Law and Latent Heat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank L. Lambert
2008-09-01
Full Text Available A novel thermodynamic treatment of residual entropy in crystals, involving the configurational partition function, is suggested, which is consistent with both classical and statistical thermodynamics. It relates residual entropy to the inherent latent heat which would be released upon cooling if the reversible path were available. The nature of this heat is that if the crystal possessing residual entropy freezes above its BoltzmannÃ¢Â€Â™s characteristic temperature of molecular alignment, the difference in energy between different molecular arrangements is overcome by the kT heat bath to form a nearly-ideal solution. However, upon cooling below this characteristic temperature, they would separate with a concomitant release of the corresponding energy, provided the reversible path were available.
Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals and a test for white noise
de Gooijer, J.G.
2008-01-01
Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals are defined. By studying the sample paths of these statistics, changes in residual dependence can be detected that might be missed by statistics using only the total sum of cross-products. Also, a test statistic for white noise is proposed. It is
Some problems of residual activity measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katrik, P.; Mustafin, E.; Strasik, I.; Pavlovic, M.
2013-01-01
As a preparatory work for constructing the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt, samples of copper were irradiated by 500 MeV/u 238 U ion beam and investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nuclides that contribute dominantly to the residual activity have been identified and their contributions have been quantified by two different methods: from the whole-target gamma spectra and by integration of depth-profiles of residual activity of individual nuclides. Results obtained by these two methods are compared and discussed in this paper. (authors)
DiversePathsJ: diverse shortest paths for bioimage analysis.
Uhlmann, Virginie; Haubold, Carsten; Hamprecht, Fred A; Unser, Michael
2018-02-01
We introduce a formulation for the general task of finding diverse shortest paths between two end-points. Our approach is not linked to a specific biological problem and can be applied to a large variety of images thanks to its generic implementation as a user-friendly ImageJ/Fiji plugin. It relies on the introduction of additional layers in a Viterbi path graph, which requires slight modifications to the standard Viterbi algorithm rules. This layered graph construction allows for the specification of various constraints imposing diversity between solutions. The software allows obtaining a collection of diverse shortest paths under some user-defined constraints through a convenient and user-friendly interface. It can be used alone or be integrated into larger image analysis pipelines. http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms/diversepathsj. michael.unser@epfl.ch or fred.hamprecht@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
A SIMPLE ANALYTICAL METHOD TO DETERMINE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES' MEAN FREE PATH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, H.-Q.; Qin, G.
2011-01-01
To obtain the mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs) for a solar event, one usually has to fit time profiles of both flux and anisotropy from spacecraft observations to numerical simulations of SEPs' transport processes. This method can be called a simulation method. But a reasonably good fitting needs a lot of simulations, which demand a large amount of calculation resources. Sometimes, it is necessary to find an easy way to obtain the mean free path of SEPs quickly, for example, in space weather practice. Recently, Shalchi et al. provided an approximate analytical formula of SEPs' anisotropy time profile as a function of particles' mean free path for impulsive events. In this paper, we determine SEPs' mean free path by fitting the anisotropy time profiles from Shalchi et al.'s analytical formula to spacecraft observations. This new method can be called an analytical method. In addition, we obtain SEPs' mean free path with the traditional simulation methods. Finally, we compare the mean free path obtained with the simulation method to that of the analytical method to show that the analytical method, with some minor modifications, can give us a good, quick approximation of SEPs' mean free path for impulsive events.
Spreading paths in partially observed social networks
Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.
2012-03-01
Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.
Spreading paths in partially observed social networks.
Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A
2012-03-01
Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines
1999-01-01
The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development
Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van Noort Vera
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.
Stochastic control with rough paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diehl, Joscha; Friz, Peter K.; Gassiat, Paul
2017-01-01
We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).
Stochastic control with rough paths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)
2017-04-15
We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).
Path modeling and process control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.
2007-01-01
and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables...... be performed regarding the foreseeable output property y, and with respect to an admissible range of correcting actions for the parameters of the next stage. In this paper the basic principles of path modeling is presented. The mathematics is presented for processes having only one stage, having two stages...... of the next stage with the purpose of obtaining optimal or almost optimal quality of the output variable. An important aspect of the methods presented is the possibility of extensive graphic analysis of data that can provide the engineer with a detailed view of the multi-variate variation in data....
Factorization-algebraization-path integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inomata, A.; Wilson, R.
1986-01-01
The authors review the method of factorization proposed by Schroedinger of a quantum mechanical second-order linear differential equation into a product of two first-order differential operators, often referred to as ladder operators, as well as the modifications made to Schroedinger's method by Infeld and Hull. They then review the group theoretical treatments proposed by Miller of the Schroedinger-Infeld-Hull factorizations and go on to demonstrate the application of dynamical symmetry to path integral calculations. 30 references
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.
Career path for operations personnel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asher, J.A.
1985-01-01
This paper explains how selected personnel can now obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics with a Nuclear Power Operations option. The program went into effect the Fall of 1984. Another program was worked out in 1982 whereby students attending the Nuclear Operators Training Program could obtain an Associates of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology at the end of two years of study. This paper presents tables and charts which describe these programs and outline the career path for operators
Conditionally solvable path integral problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.
1995-05-01
Some specific conditionally exactly solvable potentials are discussed within the path integral formalism. They generalize the usually known potentials by the incorporation of a fractional power behaviour and strongly anharmonic terms. We find four different kinds of such potentials, the first is related to the Coulomb potential, the second is an anharmonic confinement potential, and the third and the fourth are related to the Manning-Rosen potential. (orig.)
Path integrals in curvilinear coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhorov, L.V.
1984-01-01
Integration limits are studied for presenting the path integral curvilinear coordinates. For spherical (and topoloqically equivalent) coordinates it is shown that in formulas involving classical action in the exponent integration over all variables should be carried out within infinite limits. Another peculiarity is associated with appearance of the operator q which provides a complete definition of the wave functions out of the physical region. arguments are given upporting the validity of the cited statament in the general case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.; Kolerov, G.I.
1981-01-01
Properties of the subset of polygonal paths in the Hilbert space H of paths referring to a d-dimensional quantum-mechanical system are examined. Using the reproduction kernel technique we prove that each element of H is approximated by polygonal paths uniformly with respect to the ''norm'' of time-interval partitions. This result will be applied in the second part of the present paper to prove consistency of the uniform polygonal-path extension of the Feynman maps [ru
Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chetouani, L
2005-01-01
By treating path integrals the author, in this book, places at the disposal of the reader a modern tool for the comprehension of standard quantum mechanics. Thus the most important applications, such as the tunnel effect, the diffusion matrix, etc, are presented from an original point of view on the action S of classical mechanics while having it play a central role in quantum mechanics. What also emerges is that the path integral describes these applications more richly than are described traditionally by differential equations, and consequently explains them more fully. The book is certainly of high quality in all aspects: original in presentation, rigorous in the demonstrations, judicious in the choice of exercises and, finally, modern, for example in the treatment of the tunnel effect by the method of instantons. Moreover, the correspondence that exists between classical and quantum mechanics is well underlined. I thus highly recommend this book (the French version being already available) to those who wish to familiarize themselves with formulation by path integrals. They will find, in addition, interesting topics suitable for exploring further. (book review)
Nonperturbative path integral expansion II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, H.J.
1976-05-01
The Feynman path integral representation of the 2-point function for a self-interacting Bose field is investigated using an expansion ('Path Integral Expansion', PIE) of the exponential of the kinetic term of the Lagrangian. This leads to a series - illustrated by a graph scheme - involving successively a coupling of more and more points of the lattice space commonly employed in the evaluation of path integrals. The values of the individual PIE graphs depend of course on the lattice constant. Two methods - Pade approximation and Borel-type extrapolation - are proposed to extract information about the continuum limit from a finite-order PIE. A more flexible PIE is possible by expanding besides the kinetic term a suitably chosen part of the interaction term too. In particular, if the co-expanded part is a mass term the calculation becomes only slightly more complicated than in the original formulation and the appearance of the graph scheme is unchanged. A significant reduction of the number of graphs and an improvement of the convergence of the PIE can be achieved by performing certain sums over an infinity of graph elements. (author)
Distribution definition of path integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerler, W.
1979-01-01
By starting from quantum mechanics it turns out that a rather general definition of quantum functional integrals can be given which is based on distribution theory. It applies also to curved space and provides clear rules for non-linear transformations. The refinements necessary in usual definitions of path integrals are pointed out. Since the quantum nature requires special care with time sequences, it is not the classical phase space which occurs in the phase-space form of the path integral. Feynman's configuration-space form only applies to a highly specialized situation, and therefore is not a very advantageous starting point for general investigations. It is shown that the commonly used substitutions of variables do not properly account for quantum effects. The relation to the traditional ordering problem is clarified. The distribution formulation has allowed to treat constrained systems directly at the quantum level, to complete the path integral formulation of the equivalence theorem, and to define functional integrals also for space translation after the transition to fields. (orig.)
Simulation and validation of concentrated subsurface lateral flow paths in an agricultural landscape
Zhu, Q.; Lin, H. S.
2009-08-01
The importance of soil water flow paths to the transport of nutrients and contaminants has long been recognized. However, effective means of detecting concentrated subsurface flow paths in a large landscape are still lacking. The flow direction and accumulation algorithm based on single-direction flow algorithm (D8) in GIS hydrologic modeling is a cost-effective way to simulate potential concentrated flow paths over a large area once relevant data are collected. This study tested the D8 algorithm for simulating concentrated lateral flow paths at three interfaces in soil profiles in a 19.5-ha agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania, USA. These interfaces were (1) the interface between surface plowed layers of Ap1 and Ap2 horizons, (2) the interface with subsoil water-restricting clay layer where clay content increased to over 40%, and (3) the soil-bedrock interface. The simulated flow paths were validated through soil hydrologic monitoring, geophysical surveys, and observable soil morphological features. The results confirmed that concentrated subsurface lateral flow occurred at the interfaces with the clay layer and the underlying bedrock. At these two interfaces, the soils on the simulated flow paths were closer to saturation and showed more temporally unstable moisture dynamics than those off the simulated flow paths. Apparent electrical conductivity in the soil on the simulated flow paths was elevated and temporally unstable as compared to those outside the simulated paths. The soil cores collected from the simulated flow paths showed significantly higher Mn content at these interfaces than those away from the simulated paths. These results suggest that (1) the D8 algorithm is useful in simulating possible concentrated subsurface lateral flow paths if used with appropriate threshold value of contributing area and sufficiently detailed digital elevation model (DEM); (2) repeated electromagnetic surveys can reflect the temporal change of soil water storage
On residual stress prescriptions for fitness for service assessment of pipe girth welds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao; Kim, Myung H.
2014-01-01
This paper aims to provide a detailed assessment of some of the existing residual stress profiles stipulated in widely used fitness-for-service assessment codes and standards, such as BS 7910 Appendix Q and API 579 RP Annex E, by taking advantage of some comprehensive residual stress studies that have recently become available. After presenting a case study on which residual stress measurements are available for validating finite element based residual stress analysis procedure, residual stress profiles stipulated in BS 7910 for pipe girth welds are selected for detailed evaluation by comparing residual stress distribution characteristics shown in parametric finite element results. A shell theory based full-field residual stress profile estimation scheme is then presented to illustrate how an improved estimation of residual stress profiles can be achieved in light of some of the deficiencies in BS 7910 and API 579 identified in this study. - Highlights: • Critically assessed girth weld residual stress profiles in major FFS Codes and Standards. • Identified deficiencies in relating to pipe geometry, heat input, and axial distance from weld. • Presented a shell theory based scheme for prescribing full-field residual stress profiles
Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles
Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan
2010-01-01
An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...
Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database
SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge) This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.
Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.
1993-01-01
Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.
Characterization of Hospital Residuals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.
1997-01-01
The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es
Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals
Dittrich, Walter
2016-01-01
Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.
Path Integral Formulation of Anomalous Diffusion Processes
Friedrich, Rudolf; Eule, Stephan
2011-01-01
We present the path integral formulation of a broad class of generalized diffusion processes. Employing the path integral we derive exact expressions for the path probability densities and joint probability distributions for the class of processes under consideration. We show that Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRWs) are included in our framework. A closed expression for the path probability distribution of CTRWs is found in terms of their waiting time distribution as the solution of a Dyson ...
Partial Path Column Generation for the ESPPRC
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn
This talk introduces a decomposition of the Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints(ESPPRC), where the path is combined by smaller sub paths. We show computational result by comparing different approaches for the decomposition and compare the best of these with existing algorit...
Strain path dependency in metal plasticity
Viatkina, E.M.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.
2003-01-01
A change in strain path has a significant effect on the mechanical response of metals. Strain path change effects physically originate from a complex microstructure evolution. This paper deals with the contribution of cell structure evolution to the strain path change effect. The material with cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wald, H.B.
1990-01-01
The 'PATH' codes are used to design magnetic optics subsystems for neutral particle beam systems. They include a 2-1/2D and three 3-D space charge models, two of which have recently been added. This paper describes the 3-D models and reports on preliminary benchmark studies in which these models are checked for stability as the cloud size is varied and for consistency with each other. Differences between the models are investigated and the computer time requirements for running these models are established
Innovation paths in wind power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke
Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back....... The ‘Danish Design’ remains the global standard. The direct drive design, while uncommon in Denmark, dominates the German installation base. Direct drive technology has thus emerged as a distinctly German design and sub-trajectory within the overall technological innovation path. When it comes to organising...... global interconnectedness of wind technology markets and the role of emerging new players, such as China and India....
Uncommon paths in quantum physics
Kazakov, Konstantin V
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the most fascinating, and at the same time most controversial, branches of contemporary science. Disputes have accompanied this science since its birth and have not ceased to this day. Uncommon Paths in Quantum Physics allows the reader to contemplate deeply some ideas and methods that are seldom met in the contemporary literature. Instead of widespread recipes of mathematical physics, based on the solutions of integro-differential equations, the book follows logical and partly intuitional derivations of non-commutative algebra. Readers can directly penetrate the
Effect of process parameters on the residual stresses in AA5083-H321 friction stir welds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lombard, H. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hattingh, D.G. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Steuwer, A. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); FaME38 at the ILL-ESRF, 6 rue J Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steuwer@ill.fr; James, M.N. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)
2009-02-15
This paper investigates the effect of varying welding parameters on the residual stress profiles in friction stir welds of aluminium alloy AA5083-H321, which were created on a fully instrumented friction welding machine. The residual stresses were determined non-destructively using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width and maximum of the residual stress profile show clear correlation with the heat input, and in particular feed rate, which was found to be the dominant parameter.
Izumi, K. H.; Thompson, J. L.; Groce, J. L.; Schwab, R. W.
1986-01-01
The design requirements for a 4D path definition algorithm are described. These requirements were developed for the NASA ATOPS as an extension of the Local Flow Management/Profile Descent algorithm. They specify the processing flow, functional and data architectures, and system input requirements, and recommended the addition of a broad path revision (reinitialization) function capability. The document also summarizes algorithm design enhancements and the implementation status of the algorithm on an in-house PDP-11/70 computer. Finally, the requirements for the pilot-computer interfaces, the lateral path processor, and guidance and steering function are described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-06-01
The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues
Welding Robot Collision-Free Path Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuewu Wang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Reasonable welding path has a significant impact on welding efficiency, and a collision-free path should be considered first in the process of welding robot path planning. The shortest path length is considered as an optimization objective, and obstacle avoidance is considered as the constraint condition in this paper. First, a grid method is used as a modeling method after the optimization objective is analyzed. For local collision-free path planning, an ant colony algorithm is selected as the search strategy. Then, to overcome the shortcomings of the ant colony algorithm, a secondary optimization is presented to improve the optimization performance. Finally, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to realize global path planning. Simulation results show that the desired welding path can be obtained based on the optimization strategy.
Edwards, James P.; Gerber, Urs; Schubert, Christian; Trejo, Maria Anabel; Weber, Axel
2018-04-01
We introduce two integral transforms of the quantum mechanical transition kernel that represent physical information about the path integral. These transforms can be interpreted as probability distributions on particle trajectories measuring respectively the relative contribution to the path integral from paths crossing a given spatial point (the hit function) and the likelihood of values of the line integral of the potential along a path in the ensemble (the path-averaged potential).
Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals
Dittrich, Walter
2017-01-01
Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)
1997-04-01
Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).
Integrated assignment and path planning
Murphey, Robert A.
2005-11-01
A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact
Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jungang Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.
Designing with residual materials
Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.
2013-01-01
Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies
Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path: Re-Examining the Case of Nokia
Wang, Jens; Hedman, Jonas; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina
2016-01-01
The explanation of how and why firms succeed or fail is a recurrent research challenge. This is particularly important in the context of technological innovations. We focus on the role of historical events and decisions in explaining such success and failure. Using a case study of Nokia, we develop and extend a multi-layer path dependence framework. We identify four layers of path dependence: technical, strategic and leadership, organizational, and external collaboration. We show how path dep...
Rainbow paths with prescribed ends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alishahi, Meysam; Taherkhani, Ali; Thomassen, Carsten
2011-01-01
vertices. We also prove that every connected graph with atleast one edge has a proper k-coloring (for some k) such that every vertex of color i has a neighbor of color i + 1 (mod k). C-5 shows that k may have to be greater than the chromatic number. However, if the graph is connected, infinite and locally...... finite, and has finite chromatic number, then the k-coloring exists for every k >= chi(G). In fact, the k-coloring can be chosen such that every vertex is a starting vertex of an infinite path such that the color increases by 1 (mod k) along each edge. The method is based on the circular chromatic number...... chi(c)(G). In particular, we verify the above conjecture for all connected graphs whose circular chromatic number equals the chromatic number....
Counting paths with Schur transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2016-10-15
In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.
Beam profile measurements on RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connolly, R.; Michnoff, R.; Moore, T.; Shea, T.; Tepikian, S.
2000-01-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab was commissioned during the summer of 1999. Transverse beam profiles on RHIC are measured with ionization profile monitors (IPMs). An IPM measures beam profiles by collecting the electrons liberated by residual gas ionization by the beam. The detector is placed in the gap of a dipole magnet to force the electrons to travel in straight lines from the beamline center to the collector. One IPM was tested and it measured the profiles of a single gold bunch containing 10 8 ions on consecutive turns. We show an example of one of these profiles giving transverse emittance. Also several profiles are combined into a mountain-range plot which shows betatron oscillations at injection
Strategic Team AI Path Plans: Probabilistic Pathfinding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tng C. H. John
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method to generate strategic team AI pathfinding plans for computer games and simulations using probabilistic pathfinding. This method is inspired by genetic algorithms (Russell and Norvig, 2002, in that, a fitness function is used to test the quality of the path plans. The method generates high-quality path plans by eliminating the low-quality ones. The path plans are generated by probabilistic pathfinding, and the elimination is done by a fitness test of the path plans. This path plan generation method has the ability to generate variation or different high-quality paths, which is desired for games to increase replay values. This work is an extension of our earlier work on team AI: probabilistic pathfinding (John et al., 2006. We explore ways to combine probabilistic pathfinding and genetic algorithm to create a new method to generate strategic team AI pathfinding plans.
Tool path in torus tool CNC machining
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XU Ying
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.
Design of Active N-path Filters
Darvishi, M.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Nauta, Bram
2013-01-01
A design methodology for synthesis of active N-path bandpass filters is introduced. Based on this methodology, a 0.1-to-1.2 GHz tunable 6th-order N-path channel-select filter in 65 nm LP CMOS is introduced. It is based on coupling N-path filters with gyrators, achieving a “flat‿ passband shape and
Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yen, H.J.; Lin, M.C.C.; Chen, L.J.
1996-01-01
Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively
Residual stress in a thick section high strength T-butt weld
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearce, S.V.; Linton, V.M.; Oliver, E.C.
2008-01-01
Residual stresses in a structure are generated as a result of the various fabrication and welding processes used to make the component. Being able to quantify these residual stresses is a key step in determining the continuing integrity of a structure in service. In this work, the residual stresses around a high strength, quenched and tempered steel T-butt web to curved plate weld have been measured using neutron strain scanning. The results show that the residual stresses near the weld were dominated by the welding residual stresses, while the stresses further from the weld were dominated by the bending residual stresses. The results suggest that the combination of welding-induced residual stress and significant pre-welding residual stress, as in the case of a thick bent section of plate can significantly alter the residual stress profile from that in a flat plate
Path integrals and geometry of trajectories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blau, M.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Niemi, A.J.
1990-01-01
A geometrical interpretation of path integrals is developed in the space of trajectories. This yields a supersymmetric formulation of a generic path integral, with the supersymmetry resembling the BRST supersymmetry of a first class constrained system. If the classical equation of motion is a Killing vector field in the space of trajectories, the supersymmetry localizes the path integral to classical trajectories and the WKB approximation becomes exact. This can be viewed as a path integral generalization of the Duistermaat-Heckman theorem, which states the conditions for the exactness of the WKB approximation for integrals in a compact phase space. (orig.)
Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, L.A.R. de.
1980-01-01
Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author) [pt
Techniques and applications of path integration
Schulman, L S
2005-01-01
A book of techniques and applications, this text defines the path integral and illustrates its uses by example. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics; its sole prerequisite is a first course in quantum mechanics. For applications requiring specialized knowledge, the author supplies background material.The first part of the book develops the techniques of path integration. Topics include probability amplitudes for paths and the correspondence limit for the path integral; vector potentials; the Ito integral and gauge transformations; free particle and quadra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina
2014-01-01
We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...... execution tree that characterizes the execution paths covered during symbolic execution. The new extension can be tailored to the needs of subsequent analyses/processing facilities, and we demonstrate this by presenting SPF-Visualizer, which is a tool for customizable visualization of the symbolic execution...
Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9
Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy
2011-01-01
This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco
2016-01-01
Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
2010-01-01
A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according to spatio...
Hladíková, Radka
2010-01-01
Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...
Decision paths in complex tasks
Galanter, Eugene
1991-01-01
Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.
Practicality of diversion path analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphey, W.M.; Schleter, J.C.
1974-07-01
One can define the safeguards system for nuclear material as the set of all protective actions taken to prevent or to deter attempts to divert nuclear material to unauthorized use. Maintenance of effective safeguards requires a program for routine assessment of plant safeguards systems in terms of their capabilities to satisfy safeguards aims. Plant internal control systems provide capabilities for detection of unprevented diversion and can provide assurance that diversion has not occurred. A procedure called Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) enables routine assessment of the capabilities of internal control systems in this regard and identification of safeguards problem areas in a plant. A framework for safeguards system design is also provided which will allow flexibility to accommodate individual plant circumstances while maintaining acceptable diversion detection capability. The steps of the procedure are described and the practicality of the analytical method is shown by referring to a demonstration test for a high throughput process where plant personnel were major participants. The boundary conditions for the demonstration case are given, along with some conclusions about the general procedure. (U.S.)
Inked Careers: Tattooing Professional Paths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela DeLuca
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of career has an interdisciplinary and historical constitution, which includes persons, groups, organizations and society. Given that, we aim to deepen the interactionist notion of career from the understanding of a deviant path, supported by a theory and a method appropriated to the cited call for interdisciplinary approaches. Dilemmas (Hughes, 1958 and conflicts (Hughes, 1937 emerged as important analytical categories. Although necessary, these two concepts were not sufficient to contemplate analyses in their entirety. For this reason we conceptualized a third possibility of controversy during a career: the inquiries. The study followed the Narrative method to analyze objective and subjective changes during a tattoo artist’s career through interviews and informal conversations carried out over 22 months. The discussion presents three main contributions. Theoretically, a new understanding of the concept of careers, linking past, present and future and the idea of non-linearity of experienced and envisioned careers. Methodologically, suggesting orientations for future career studies such as the use of turning points as a methodological tool and the investigation of deviant fields. Finally, our defense of the interactionist perspective as suitable for career studies, since it allows the investigation of deviant elements.
Two Generations of Path Dependence in Economics?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Mogens Ove
2010-01-01
Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences – primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...
Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning
McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David
2005-06-01
The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.
Evaluation of Calcine Disposition Path Forward
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birrer, S.A.; Heiser, M.B.
2003-01-01
This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward
Generalized measures and the Feynman path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.
1976-01-01
Generalizations are obtained for the earlier results by the authors concerning the inclusion of the Feynmann path integral in the momentum representation into the general integration theory. Feynmann path integrals are considered which do not represent T-products. Generalized Feynmann measure in the configuration representation is introduced
Approximate Shortest Homotopic Paths in Weighted Regions
Cheng, Siu-Wing; Jin, Jiongxin; Vigneron, Antoine; Wang, Yajun
2010-01-01
Let P be a path between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions. Given a relative error tolerance ε ∈(0,1), we present the first algorithm to compute a path between s and t that can be deformed to P
Paths and cycles in colored graphs
Li, Xueliang; Zhang, Shenggui; Hurink, Johann L.; Pickl, Stefan; Broersma, Haitze J.; Faigle, U.
2001-01-01
Let G be an (edge-)colored graph. A path (cycle) is called monochromatic if all the edges of it have the same color, and is called heterochromatic if all the edges of it have different colors. In this note, some sufficient conditions for the existence of monochromatic and heterochromatic paths and
Path Minima Queries in Dynamic Weighted Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao
2011-01-01
In the path minima problem on a tree, each edge is assigned a weight and a query asks for the edge with minimum weight on a path between two nodes. For the dynamic version of the problem, where the edge weights can be updated, we give data structures that achieve optimal query time\\todo{what about...
Approximate shortest homotopic paths in weighted regions
Cheng, Siuwing; Jin, Jiongxin; Vigneron, Antoine E.; Wang, Yajun
2012-01-01
A path P between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions defines a class of paths that can be deformed to P without passing over any obstacle. We present the first algorithm that, given P and a relative
from synchronic variation to a grammaticalization path
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Kate H
Abstract. The authors argue that the synchronic variation of cognate objects of weather verbs exhibited in six African languages of South Africa (Sepedi, Sesotho, Tshivenda, isiXhosa, Xitsonga, and. isiZulu) has a diachronic explanation, and may be represented as a grammaticalization path. This path gradually leads from ...
Optimization of educational paths for higher education
Tarasyev, Alexandr A.; Agarkov, Gavriil; Medvedev, Aleksandr
2017-11-01
In our research, we combine the theory of economic behavior and the methodology of increasing efficiency of the human capital to estimate the optimal educational paths. We provide an optimization model for higher education process to analyze possible educational paths for each rational individual. The preferences of each rational individual are compared to the best economically possible educational path. The main factor of the individual choice, which is formed by the formation of optimal educational path, deals with higher salaries level in the chosen economic sector after graduation. Another factor that influences on the economic profit is the reduction of educational costs or the possibility of the budget support for the student. The main outcome of this research consists in correction of the governmental policy of investment in human capital based on the results of educational paths optimal control.
Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.
2016-09-01
Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.
Machine for compacting solid residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herzog, J.
1981-11-01
Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr
Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics
Wright, Steve
2016-01-01
This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.
Specifically Prescribed Dynamic Thermodynamic Paths and Resolidification Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, J; Orlikowski, D; Streitz, F; Holmes, N; Moriarty, J
2003-11-01
We describe here a series of dynamic compression experiments using impactors with specifically prescribed density profiles. Building upon previous impactor designs, we compose our functionally graded density impactors of materials whose densities vary from about 0.1 g/cc to more than 15 g/cc. These impactors, whose density profiles are not restricted to be monotonic, can be used to generate prescribed thermodynamic paths in the targets. These paths include quasi-isentropes as well as combinations of shock, rarefraction, and quasi-isentropic compression waves. The time-scale of these experiments ranges from nanoseconds to several microseconds. Strain-rates in the quasi-isentropic compression experiments vary from approximately 10 4 s -1 to 10 6 s -1 . We applied this quasi-isentropic compression technique to resolidify water where ice is at a higher temperature than the initial water sample. The particle velocity of quasi-isentropically compressed water exhibits a two-wave structure and sample thickness scales consistently with water-ice phase transition time. Experiments on resolidification of molten bismuth are also promising
Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf
2006-01-01
psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...
Transport through hybrid superconducting/ferromagnetic double-path junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facio, T.J.S. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Orellana, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Av. Vicuña Mackenna, 3939, Santiago (Chile); Jurelo, A.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa – UEPG, 84030-000, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Figueira, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Siqueira, E.C., E-mail: ecosta@utfpr.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR, 84016-210, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)
2017-02-05
In this paper we study a double-path junction formed by a ferromagnetic and a superconductor lead. The first path connects the superconductor and ferromagnet directly while the second path connects these metals through a quantum dot. The whole system works as an Aharonov–Bohm interferometer allowing the study of the interference between these two paths under the presence of spin imbalance and Andreev bound states. We considered the effect of Fano interference on the electronic transmittance through the quantum dot and observed two regimes of conduction depending on the strength of the direct coupling. For the weak coupling regime, the transmittance presented the usual four resonances due to the Andreev bound states whereas for the strong coupling regime the profile was inverted and resonances became anti-resonances. However, even in the strong coupling regime it was possible to observe a central resonance due to the interference between the Andreev bound states. We have also studied the signatures of Fano interference on the average occupation within the quantum dot. The spin accumulation was analyzed and how it depends on the direct coupling and an external magnetic field applied to the system. The results obtained may be used in a possible experimental implementation of this system in order to probe spin related effects in ferromagnetic superconductor nanostructures. - Highlights: • An Aharonov–Bohm interferometer composed by a quantum-dot coupled to a superconductor and ferromagnetic lead is studied. • The transmittance through the QD is determined by the interplay between Andreev and Fano interference. • Spin accumulation within the quantum dot is studied as a function of bias/gate voltages and an external magnetic flux.
Residue preference mapping of ligand fragments in the Protein Data Bank.
Wang, Lirong; Xie, Zhaojun; Wipf, Peter; Xie, Xiang-Qun
2011-04-25
The interaction between small molecules and proteins is one of the major concerns for structure-based drug design because the principles of protein-ligand interactions and molecular recognition are not thoroughly understood. Fortunately, the analysis of protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) enables unprecedented possibilities for new insights. Herein, we applied molecule-fragmentation algorithms to split the ligands extracted from PDB crystal structures into small fragments. Subsequently, we have developed a ligand fragment and residue preference mapping (LigFrag-RPM) algorithm to map the profiles of the interactions between these fragments and the 20 proteinogenic amino acid residues. A total of 4032 fragments were generated from 71 798 PDB ligands by a ring cleavage (RC) algorithm. Among these ligand fragments, 315 unique fragments were characterized with the corresponding fragment-residue interaction profiles by counting residues close to these fragments. The interaction profiles revealed that these fragments have specific preferences for certain types of residues. The applications of these interaction profiles were also explored and evaluated in case studies, showing great potential for the study of protein-ligand interactions and drug design. Our studies demonstrated that the fragment-residue interaction profiles generated from the PDB ligand fragments can be used to detect whether these fragments are in their favorable or unfavorable environments. The algorithm for a ligand fragment and residue preference mapping (LigFrag-RPM) developed here also has the potential to guide lead chemistry modifications as well as binding residues predictions.
A Numerical Model for Prediction of Residual Stress Using Rayleigh Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Mao Dan; Kang, To; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin
2011-01-01
In this work, a numerical model is proposed for the relation between the magnitudes and the depth residual stress with the velocity of Rayleigh wave. Three cases, stress-free, uniform stress and layered stress, are investigated for the change tendency of the Rayleigh wave speed. Using the simulated signal with variation of residual stress magnitude and depth, investigation of the parameters for fitting residual stress and velocity change are performed. The speed change of Rayleigh wave shows a linear relation with the magnitude and an exponential relation with the depth of residual stress. The combination of these two effects could be used for the depth profile evaluation of the residual stress
Waste vinegar residue as substrate for phytase production.
Wang, Zhi-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Tong, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Shang-Zhong
2011-12-01
Waste vinegar residue, the by-product of vinegar processing, was used as substrate for phytase production from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 in solid-state fermentation to investigate the potential for the efficient re-utilization or recycling of waste vinegar residue. Statistical designs were applied in the processing of phytase production. First, a Plackett-Burman (PB) design was used to evaluate eleven parameters: glucose, starch, wheat bran, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NH(4)NO(3), tryptone, soybean meal, MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, CaCl(2)·7H(2)O, FeSO(4)·7H(2)O, incubation time. The PB experiments showed that there were three significant factors: glucose, soybean meal and incubation time. The closest values to the optimum point were then derived by steepest ascent path. Finally, a mathematical model was created and validated to explain the behavioural process after these three significant factors were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The best phytase activity was attained using the following conditions: glucose (7.2%), soybean meal (5.1%), and incubation time (271 h). The phytase activity was 7.34-fold higher due to optimization by PB design, steepest ascent path design and RSM. The phytase activity was enhanced 0.26-fold in comparison with the results by the second step of steepest ascent path design. The results indicate that with waste vinegar residue as a substrate higher production of phytase from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 could be obtained through an optimization process and that this method might be applied to an integrated system for recycling of the waste vinegar residue.
Multi-AGV path planning with double-path constraints by using an improved genetic algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zengliang Han
Full Text Available This paper investigates an improved genetic algorithm on multiple automated guided vehicle (multi-AGV path planning. The innovations embody in two aspects. First, three-exchange crossover heuristic operators are used to produce more optimal offsprings for getting more information than with the traditional two-exchange crossover heuristic operators in the improved genetic algorithm. Second, double-path constraints of both minimizing the total path distance of all AGVs and minimizing single path distances of each AGV are exerted, gaining the optimal shortest total path distance. The simulation results show that the total path distance of all AGVs and the longest single AGV path distance are shortened by using the improved genetic algorithm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)
1998-05-01
The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)
Integrated path towards geological storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchard, R.; Delaytermoz, A.
2004-01-01
Among solutions to contribute to CO 2 emissions mitigation, sequestration is a promising path that presents the main advantage of being able to cope with the large volume at stake when considering the growing energy demand. Of particular importance, geological storage has widely been seen as an effective solution for large CO 2 sources like power plants or refineries. Many R and D projects have been initiated, whereby research institutes, government agencies and end-users achieve an effective collaboration. So far, progress has been made towards reinjection of CO 2 , in understanding and then predicting the phenomenon and fluid dynamics inside the geological target, while monitoring the expansion of the CO 2 bubble in the case of demonstration projects. A question arises however when talking about sequestration, namely the time scale to be taken into account. Time is indeed of the essence, and points out the need to understand leakage as well as trapping mechanisms. It is therefore of prime importance to be able to predict the fate of the injected fluids, in an accurate manner and over a relevant period of time. On the grounds of geology, four items are involved in geological storage reliability: the matrix itself, which is the recipient of the injected fluids; the seal, that is the mechanistic trap preventing the injected fluids to flow upward and escape; the lower part of the concerned structure, usually an aquifer, that can be a migration way for dissolved fluids; and the man- made injecting hole, the well, whose characteristics should be as good as the geological formation itself. These issues call for specific competencies such as reservoir engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, mineral chemistry, geomechanics, and well engineering. These competencies, even if put to use to a large extent in the oil industry, have never been connected with the reliability of geological storage as ultimate goal. This paper aims at providing an introduction to these
Improvement and Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modelling Procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens; Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K.
2009-06-01
The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used
Improvement and Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modelling Procedure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K. (Center for Welded Structures Research, Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))
2009-06-15
The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used
Residual health status after Guillain-Barre syndrome
Bernsen, RAJAM; Jacobs, HM; deJager, AEJ; vanderMeche, FGA
To study the extent to which patients experience residual problems in daily functioning several years after having Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) a survey of 123 patients who had had Guillain-Barre syndrome three to six years previously was performed, using the sickness impact profile (SIP) for
Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.
Path integral for relativistic particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.
1990-06-01
An action for a relativistic spinning particle interacting with external electromagnetic field is considered in reparametrization and local supergauge invariant form. It is shown that various path integral representations derived for the causal Green function correspond to the different forms of the relativistic particle action. The analogy of the path integral derived with the Lagrangian path integral of the field theory is discussed. It is shown that to obtain the causal propagator, the integration over the null mode of the Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the reparametrization invariance, has to be performed in the (0,+infinity) limits. (author). 23 refs
Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan; Majidi, Majid; Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi
2015-01-01
The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
1975-04-01
Leadership and Turnover Among Managers ," Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 10(1973), pp. 184-200; R. J. House, "A Path-Goal Theory of...of Leadership ." 6R. J. House and G. Dessler, "Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " R. M. Stqg- dill. Managers , Employees, Organization (Ohio State...of Control." 23 R. J. House, "Notes on the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " (University of Toronto, Faculty of Management Studies, May 1974). 24 R
Path integral representations on the complex sphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grosche, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2007-08-15
In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S{sub 3C}. The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)
Path probabilities of continuous time random walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eule, Stephan; Friedrich, Rudolf
2014-01-01
Employing the path integral formulation of a broad class of anomalous diffusion processes, we derive the exact relations for the path probability densities of these processes. In particular, we obtain a closed analytical solution for the path probability distribution of a Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) process. This solution is given in terms of its waiting time distribution and short time propagator of the corresponding random walk as a solution of a Dyson equation. Applying our analytical solution we derive generalized Feynman–Kac formulae. (paper)
Path integral representations on the complex sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.
2007-08-01
In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S 3C . The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)
Positroids Induced by Rational Dyck Paths
Gotti, Felix
2017-01-01
A rational Dyck path of type $(m,d)$ is an increasing unit-step lattice path from $(0,0)$ to $(m,d) \\in \\mathbb{Z}^2$ that never goes above the diagonal line $y = (d/m)x$. On the other hand, a positroid of rank $d$ on the ground set $[d+m]$ is a special type of matroid coming from the totally nonnegative Grassmannian. In this paper we describe how to naturally assign a rank $d$ positroid on the ground set $[d+m]$, which we name rational Dyck positroid, to each rational Dyck path of type $(m,d...
Unusual bond paths in organolithium compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachrach, S.M.; Ritchie, J.P.
1986-01-01
We have applied the topological method to a number of organolithium compounds. The wavefunctions were determined with GAUSSIAN-82 using 3-21G basis set and fully optimized geometries. Gradient paths were obtained using the RHODER package and critical points were located using EXTREME. These results indicate the unusual nature of organolithium compounds. The strange bond paths arise mainly from the ionic nature of the C-Li interaction. We suggest that the term ''bond path'' may best be suited for covalent bonds. 4 figs., 1 tab
New framework for the Feynman path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaharir, M.Z.
1986-01-01
The well-known Fourier integral solution of the free diffusion equation in an arbitrary Euclidean space is reduced to Feynmannian integrals using the method partly contained in the formulation of the Fresnelian integral. By replacing the standard Hilbert space underlying the present mathematical formulation of the Feynman path integral by a new Hilbert space, the space of classical paths on the tangent bundle to the Euclidean space (and more general to an arbitrary Riemannian manifold) equipped with a natural inner product, we show that our Feynmannian integral is in better agreement with the qualitative features of the original Feynman path integral than the previous formulations of the integral
Realizing spaces as path-component spaces
Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy
2018-01-01
The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2010-07-01
Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)
Lu, Yaqing; Hui, Hu; Gong, Jianguo
2018-05-01
Austenitic stainless steel is widely used in pressure vessels for the storage and transportation of liquid gases such as liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid hydrogen. Cryogenic pressure vessel manufacturing uses cold stretching technology, which relies heavily on welding joint performance, to construct lightweight and thin-walled vessels. Residual stress from welding is a primary factor in cases of austenitic stainless steel pressure vessel failure. In this paper, on the basis of Visual Environment 10.0 finite element simulation technology, the residual stress resulting from different welding strength matching coefficients (0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.4) for two S30408 plates welded with three-pass butt welds is calculated according to thermal elastoplastic theory. In addition, the stress field was calculated under a loading as high as 410 MPa and after the load was released. Path 1 was set to analyze stress along the welding line, and path 2 was set to analyze stress normal to the welding line. The welding strength matching coefficient strongly affected both the longitudinal residual stress (center of path 1) and the transverse residual stress (both ends of path 1) after the welding was completed. However, the coefficient had little effect on the longitudinal and transverse residual stress of path 2. Under the loading of 410 MPa, the longitudinal and transverse stress decreased and the stress distribution, with different welding strength matching coefficients, was less diverse. After the load was released, longitudinal and transverse stress distribution for both path 1 and path 2 decreased to a low level. Cold stretching could reduce the effect of residual stress to various degrees. Transverse strain along the stretching direction was also taken into consideration. The experimental results validated the reliability of the partial simulation.
Barbosa, Tiago M.; Costa, Mário J.; Morais, Jorge E; Moreira, Marc; Silva, António J.; Marinho, Daniel A.
2012-01-01
The aim of this research was to develop a path-flow analysis model to highlight the relationships between buoyancy and prone gliding tests and some selected anthropometrical and biomechanical variables. Thirty-eight young male swimmers (12.97 ± 1.05 years old) with several competitive levels were evaluated. It were assessed the body mass, height, fat mass, body surface area, vertical buoyancy, prone gliding after wall push-off, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity after a maximal 25 [m] swim. The confirmatory model included the body mass, height, fat mass, prone gliding test, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity. All theoretical paths were verified except for the vertical buoyancy test that did not present any relationship with anthropometrical and biomechanical variables nor with the prone gliding test. The good-of-fit from the confirmatory path-flow model, assessed with the standardized root mean square residuals (SRMR), is considered as being close to the cut-off value, but even so not suitable of the theory (SRMR = 0.11). As a conclusion, vertical buoyancy and prone gliding tests are not the best techniques to assess the swimmer’s hydrostatic and hydrodynamic profile, respectively. PMID:23486528
The Invisible Path of Karma in a Himalayan Purificatory Rite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arik Moran
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Indic rites of purification aim to negate the law of karma by removing the residues of malignant past actions from their patrons. This principle is exemplified in the Kahika Mela, a rarely studied religious festival of the West Himalayan highlands (Himachal Pradesh, India, wherein a ritual specialist assumes karmic residues from large publics and then sacrificed to their presiding deity. British officials who had ‘discovered’ this purificatory rite at the turn of the twentieth century interpreted it as a variant of the universal ‘scapegoat’ rituals that were then being popularized by James Frazer and found it loosely connected to ancient Tantric practises. The However, observing a recent performance of the ritual significantly complicated this view. This paper proposes a novel reading of the Kahika Mela through the prism of karmic transference. Tracing the path of karmas from participants to ritual specialist and beyond, it delineates the logic behind the rite, revealing that the culminating act of human sacrifice is, in fact, secondary to the mysterious force that impels its acceptance.
Euclidean shortest paths exact or approximate algorithms
Li, Fajie
2014-01-01
This book reviews algorithms for the exact or approximate solution of shortest-path problems, with a specific focus on a class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms. The coverage includes mathematical proofs for many of the given statements.
Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117
California Natural Resource Agency — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...
Ductility behavior of irradiated path B alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, W.J.S.; Hamilton, M.L.
1983-01-01
The objective of this study was to assess the practicality of using five Path B alloys in their current form as structural materials in the Fusion First-Wall/Blanket by evaluating both their postirradiation ductility and the corresponding microstructures
AEDT sensor path methods using BADA4
2017-06-01
This report documents the development and use of sensor path data processing in the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAAs) Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). The methods are primarily intended to assist analysts with using AEDT to determ...
Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuen-Yih Chen
2009-04-01
Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.
Search Path Evaluation Incorporating Object Placement Structure
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Baylog, John G; Wettergren, Thomas A
2007-01-01
This report describes a computationally robust approach to search path performance evaluation where the objects of search interest exhibit structure in the way in which they occur within the search space...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria José Marques
2013-06-01
minimized by performing post-weld stress relief heat treatments. The samples analyzed in this study were made of carbon steel plates, coated by submerged arc welding two types of stainless steel filler metals. For the first layer was used one EN 12 072 - S 2 U 23 12 electrode, while for the second and third layers were used an EN 12 072 - 19 12 3 S L electrode. After cladding, the samples were submitted to a post-weld heat treatment for 1 hour at 620ºC. The residual stress profiles obtained by neutron diffraction evidence the relaxation of residual stress given by the heat treatment.
Multiagent path-finding in strategic games
Mihevc, Simon
2014-01-01
In this thesis I worked on creating, comparing and improving algorithms for multi-agent path planning on a domain typical for real-time strategy games. I implemented and compared Multiagent pathfinding using clearance and Multiagent pathfinding using independence detection and operator decomposition. I discovered that they had problems maintaining group compactness and took too long to calculate the path. I considerably improved the efficiency of both algorithms.
Diversion Path Analysis Handbook. Volume 1. Methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodwin, K.E.; Schleter, J.C.; Maltese, M.D.K.
1978-11-01
Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a safeguards evaluation tool which is used to determine the vulnerability of the Material Control and Material Accounting (MC and MA) Subsystems to the threat of theft of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) by a knowledgeable Insider. The DPA team should consist of two individuals who have technical backgrounds. The implementation of DPA is divided into five basic steps: Information and Data Gathering, Process Characterization, Analysis of Diversion Paths, Results and Findings, and Documentation
Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vu Trieu Minh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.
A career path in clinical pathways.
Bower, K A
1998-03-01
Much like the development of a clinical path, the creation of a career path requires knowledge of patterns of behavior, needs for standardized education and skill development, along with variance analysis and individualized care. This nationally known nursing entrepreneur tells the story of her involvement in the development of case management and clinical pathways and how she turned that into a successful business that has changed how patient care is managed nationally and internationally.
Acquisition Path Analysis as a Collaborative Activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakao, A.; Grundule, R.; Gushchyn, K.; El Gebaly, A.; Higgy, R.; Tsvetkov, I.; Mandl, W.
2015-01-01
In the International Atomic Energy Agency, acquisition path analysis (APA) is indispensable to safeguards implementation. It is an integral part of both State evaluation process and the development of State level safeguards approaches, all performed through ongoing collaborative analysis of all available safeguards relevant information by State evaluation groups (SEG) with participation of other contributors, as required. To perform comprehensive State evaluation, to develop and revise State-level safeguards approaches, and to prepare annual implementation plans, the SEG in its collaborative analysis follows accepted safeguards methodology and guidance. In particular, the guide ''Performing Acquisition Path Analysis for the Development of a State-level Safeguards Approach for a State with a CSA'' is used. This guide identifies four major steps of the APA process: 1. Consolidating information about the State's past, present and planned nuclear fuel cycle-related capabilities and infrastructure; 2. Identifying and visually presenting technically plausible acquisition paths for the State; 3. Assessing acquisition path steps (State's technical capabilities and possible actions) along the identified acquisition paths; and 4. Assessing the time needed to accomplish each identified technically plausible acquisition path for the State. The paper reports on SEG members' and other contributors' experience with APA when following the above steps, including the identification of plausible acquisition pathways, estimation of time frames for all identified steps and determination of the time needed to accomplish each acquisition path. The difficulties that the SEG encountered during the process of performing the APA are also addressed. Feedback in the form of practical suggestions for improving the clarity of the acquisition path step assessment forms and a proposal for software support are also included. (author)
Lattice Paths and the Constant Term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brak, R; Essam, J; Osborn, J; Owczarek, A L; Rechnitzer, A
2006-01-01
We firstly review the constant term method (CTM), illustrating its combinatorial connections and show how it can be used to solve a certain class of lattice path problems. We show the connection between the CTM, the transfer matrix method (eigenvectors and eigenvalues), partial difference equations, the Bethe Ansatz and orthogonal polynomials. Secondly, we solve a lattice path problem first posed in 1971. The model stated in 1971 was only solved for a special case - we solve the full model
Computing Diffeomorphic Paths for Large Motion Interpolation.
Seo, Dohyung; Jeffrey, Ho; Vemuri, Baba C
2013-06-01
In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for computing a path of diffeomorphisms between a pair of input diffeomorphisms. Direct computation of a geodesic path on the space of diffeomorphisms Diff (Ω) is difficult, and it can be attributed mainly to the infinite dimensionality of Diff (Ω). Our proposed framework, to some degree, bypasses this difficulty using the quotient map of Diff (Ω) to the quotient space Diff ( M )/ Diff ( M ) μ obtained by quotienting out the subgroup of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms Diff ( M ) μ . This quotient space was recently identified as the unit sphere in a Hilbert space in mathematics literature, a space with well-known geometric properties. Our framework leverages this recent result by computing the diffeomorphic path in two stages. First, we project the given diffeomorphism pair onto this sphere and then compute the geodesic path between these projected points. Second, we lift the geodesic on the sphere back to the space of diffeomerphisms, by solving a quadratic programming problem with bilinear constraints using the augmented Lagrangian technique with penalty terms. In this way, we can estimate the path of diffeomorphisms, first, staying in the space of diffeomorphisms, and second, preserving shapes/volumes in the deformed images along the path as much as possible. We have applied our framework to interpolate intermediate frames of frame-sub-sampled video sequences. In the reported experiments, our approach compares favorably with the popular Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping framework (LDDMM).
Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chew, Geoffrey F.
2002-01-01
Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''
Solar array deployment analysis considering path-dependent behavior of a tape spring hinge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Young Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Solar array deployment analysis is conducted considering the path-dependent nonlinear behavior of tape spring hinge. Such hinges offer many advantages over rigid hinges; they are self-deployable, self-locking, lightweight, and simple. However, they show strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to rotation angle, making deployment analysis difficult. To accurately consider the characteristics of tape spring hinges for deployment analysis, a path-dependent path identification (PI) method for tracing the previous path of the moment is introduced. To analyze the deployment motion, the governing equation for solar array deployment is derived within the framework of Kane's dynamic equation for three deployable solar panels. The numerical solution is compared with the Recurdyn's multi-body dynamics analysis solution using experimentally measured moment-rotation profiles. Solar array deployment analysis is conducted by considering and not considering the path-dependent PI method. This simulation example shows that the proposed path-dependent PI method is very effective for accurately predicting the deployment motion.
Immobilization of acid digestion residue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.
1983-01-01
Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio
The importance of the electron mean free path for superconducting radio-frequency cavities
Maniscalco, J. T.; Gonnella, D.; Liepe, M.
2017-01-01
Impurity-doping of niobium is an exciting new technology in the field of superconducting radio-frequency accelerators, producing cavities with record-high quality factor Q0 and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer surface resistance that decreases with increasing radio-frequency field. Recent theoretical work has offered a promising explanation for this so-called "anti-Q-slope," but the link between the decreasing surface resistance and the shortened electron mean free path of doped cavities has remained elusive. In this work, we investigate this link, finding that the magnitude of this decrease varies directly with the mean free path: shorter mean free paths correspond to stronger anti-Q-slopes. We draw a theoretical connection between the mean free path and the overheating of the quasiparticles, which leads to the reduction of the anti-Q-slope towards the normal Q-slope of long-mean-free-path cavities. We also investigate the sensitivity of the residual resistance to trapped magnetic flux, a property that is greatly enhanced for doped cavities, and calculate an optimal doping regime for a given amount of trapped flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Chang-Young; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Young-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Beum
2013-01-01
To investigate the applicability of existing methods to estimate stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses, comparisons with finite element (FE) solutions are made for two types of generic welding residual stress profiles, generated by simulating repair welds. It is found that fitting residual stresses over the crack depth using third-order polynomials gives good estimates of stress intensity factors but fitting over the entire thickness can result in inaccurate estimates even with fourth-order polynomials. Noting that welding residual stresses are often determined from FE analyses, linearization of residual stresses to estimate stress intensity factors is proposed. Comparison with FE solutions shows good agreements. -- Highlights: ► Applicability of K estimation methods is investigated for welding residual stresses. ► Two types of generic residual stress profiles with repair welds are considered. ► Fitting residual stresses over the crack depth gives good estimates of K. ► A method to estimate K by linearising residual stress profiles is proposed
Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9
Monastyrskyy, Bohdan
2011-01-01
This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-31
The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-31
The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)
Landfilling of waste incineration residues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi
2002-01-01
Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...
Forces in Motzkin paths in a wedge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janse van Rensburg, E J
2006-01-01
Entropic forces in models of Motzkin paths in a wedge geometry are considered as models of forces in polymers in confined geometries. A Motzkin path in the square lattice is a path from the origin to a point in the line Y = X while it never visits sites below this line, and it is constrained to give unit length steps only in the north and east directions and steps of length √2 in the north-east direction. Motzkin path models may be generalized to ensembles of NE-oriented paths above the line Y = rX, where r > 0 is an irrational number. These are paths giving east, north and north-east steps from the origin in the square lattice, and confined to the r-wedge formed by the Y-axis and the line Y = rX. The generating function g r of these paths is not known, but if r > 1, then I determine its radius of convergence to be t r = min (r-1)/r≤y≤r/(r+1) [y y (1-r(1-y)) 1-r(1-y) (r(1-y)-y) r(1-y)-y ] and if r is an element of (0, 1), then t r = 1/3. The entropic force the path exerts on the line Y rX may be computed from this. An asymptotic expression for the force for large values of r is given by F(r) = log(2r)/r 2 - (1+2log(2r))/2r 3 + O (log(2r)/r 4 ). In terms of the vertex angle α of the r-wedge, the moment of the force about the origin has leading terms F(α) log(2/α) - (α/2)(1+2log(2/α)) + O(α 2 log(2/α)) as α → 0 + and F(α) = 0 if α is element of [π/4, π/2]. Moreover, numerical integration of the force shows that the total work done by closing the wedge is 1.085 07... lattice units. An alternative ensemble of NE-oriented paths may be defined by slightly changing the generating function g r . In this model, it is possible to determine closed-form expressions for the limiting free energy and the force. The leading term in an asymptotic expansions for this force agrees with the leading term in the asymptotic expansion of the above model, and the subleading term only differs by a factor of 2
Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoqing Hu
Full Text Available In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N. However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009. From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012, one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9% was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%, but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9% and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile.
Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem.
Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Xiao; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; Wu, Yeye; Cui, Jiehua; Sun, Ci; Zhang, Xudong
2015-01-01
In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile.
The formal path integral and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson-Freyd, Theo
2010-01-01
Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on R d and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by 'Feynman diagrams', although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a 'Fubini theorem' expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by 'cutting and pasting' and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic 'formal path integral' for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.
Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2011-01-01
To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.
Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals
Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2011-05-01
To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongjiang ZHANG; Jinhua CHENG; Yuhu SHI; Yun CHENG
2007-01-01
To study the characteristics of the distribution of the preferential paths and the affecting factors in the Three Gorges area, four soil profiles were dug to observe the distribution of preferential paths in the Quxi watershed in the Yangtze River basin. The Morisita exponential test method was used to examine the distribution type of preferential paths. The physical properties and infiltration characteristics of the soil were also measured to evaluate their relationship to preferential paths. The results showed that in this area, preferential paths clustered and mainly distributed in the 80-100 cm soil layer, and along the interface between the weathered layer and semi-weathered layer. There were more non-capillary pores in the 83-110 cm layer than in the other layers. It can be derived that most non-capillary pores in this layer were preferential paths caused by geological processes and rotten plant roots. The percentage of coarse soil particles increased with the depth of the soil layer. In the deeper soil layer, the coarse soil particles helped the formation of preferential paths. The fastest steady infiltration rate was observed in the of 83-110cm layer, which is inferred to be due to the greater number of preferential paths.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian
2003-01-01
In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....
Statistical inference on residual life
Jeong, Jong-Hyeon
2014-01-01
This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.
TRI-VADO: Three Speeds for a Requalification Path
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Merelli
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Our proposal, a project to give new life to an abandoned segment of the highway, was focused on the creation of a lane not used as bypass for Vado, equipped with sports facilities for those who in recent years had already been spontaneously using this area, extending and closing it as a ring. The project profits from what already exists, with a linearity and affordability that make it feasible. We thought of a promenade with custom speed for each type of user: from the hare to the tortoise ... everyone has their own pace! The portal points out the presence of access to the planned path. It is an “invitation”, with a shrinkage followed by an opening element inredcolor. Eventhebenchesinparkingareashavethesame profile and color, which all characterize the entire project. The same material and formal concept is designed for the totem, a book-shaped structure that marks the kilometers covered, and for the street lights.
The effect of residual stress on polymer pipe lifetime
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hutař, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Frank, A.; Náhlík, Luboš; Kučera, J.; Pinter, G.
2013-01-01
Roč. 108, SI (2013), s. 98-108 ISSN 0013-7944. [Crack paths 2012. Gaeta, 19.09.2012-21.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual stress * Linear elastic fracture mechanics * Lifetime estimation * Polyethylene pipes * Slow crack growth Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2013
Petrov, L.
2017-12-01
Processing satellite altimetry data requires the computation of path delayin the neutral atmosphere that is used for correcting ranges. The path delayis computed using numerical weather models and the accuracy of its computationdepends on the accuracy of numerical weather models. Accuracy of numerical modelsof numerical weather models over Antarctica and Greenland where there is a very sparse network of ground stations, is not well known. I used the dataset of GPS RO L1 data, computed predicted path delay for ROobservations using the numerical whether model GEOS-FPIT, formed the differences with observed path delay and used these differences for computationof the corrections to the a priori refractivity profile. These profiles wereused for computing corrections to the a priori zenith path delay. The systematic patter of these corrections are used for de-biasing of the the satellite altimetry results and for characterization of the systematic errorscaused by mismodeling atmosphere.
Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B.; Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M.
2010-01-01
Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin 2 Ψ method. (author)
Paths to Licensure: Things Physicists Should Know
Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John
2016-03-01
The path to licensure can be quite complicated, and can thwart a physics department's efforts to produce more and better prepared high school physics teachers. Each state has different pathways to licensure. Acronyms like CAEP and SPA are not within the normal physicist's vocabulary. Some understanding of this topic can allow physics faculty advisers to help our students so that fewer are derailed on their path to the classroom, or take a path that will leave them less well prepared if they do find themselves there. Examples of different approaches that work within state licensure systems from two different states will be presented. Physics teacher preparation efforts in both Arkansas and West Virginia have been supported in part by the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC).
A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.
2004-12-23
W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.
Path integral solution of the Dirichlet problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaChapelle, J.
1997-01-01
A scheme for functional integration developed by Cartier/DeWitt-Morette is first reviewed and then employed to construct the path integral representation for the solution of the Dirichlet problem in terms of first exit time. The path integral solution is then applied to calculate the fixed-energy point-to-point transition amplitude both in configuration and phase space. The path integral solution can also be derived using physical principles based on Feynman close-quote s original reasoning. We check that the Fourier transform in energy of the fixed-energy point-to-point transition amplitude gives the well known time-dependent transition amplitude, and calculate the WKB approximation. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc
Reaction path simulations in multicomponent materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seifert, H.J.
1999-01-01
The CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method is used in combination with selected experimental investigations to derive reaction paths in multicomponent systems. The method is illustrated by applying computerized thermodynamic databases and suitable software to explain quantitatively the thermal degradation of precursor-derived Si-C-N ceramics and the nitridation of titanium carbide. Reaction sequences in the Si 3 N 4 -SiC-TiC x N l-x -C-N system are illustrated by graphical representation of compatibility regions and indicated reaction paths. From these results the experimentally known microstructure development of TiC reinforced Si 3 N 4 ceramics is explained and quantitative information is provided to optimize the microstructure of such materials. The concept of reaction paths for the understanding of rapid solidification processes is shown by the example of AZ type Mg casting alloys. (orig.)
Approximate Shortest Homotopic Paths in Weighted Regions
Cheng, Siu-Wing
2010-01-01
Let P be a path between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions. Given a relative error tolerance ε ∈(0,1), we present the first algorithm to compute a path between s and t that can be deformed to P without passing over any obstacle and the path cost is within a factor 1 + ε of the optimum. The running time is O(h 3/ε2 kn polylog(k, n, 1/ε)), where k is the number of segments in P and h and n are the numbers of obstacles and vertices in T, respectively. The constant in the running time of our algorithm depends on some geometric parameters and the ratio of the maximum region weight to the minimum region weight. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Approximate shortest homotopic paths in weighted regions
Cheng, Siuwing
2012-02-01
A path P between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions defines a class of paths that can be deformed to P without passing over any obstacle. We present the first algorithm that, given P and a relative error tolerance ε (0, 1), computes a path from this class with cost at most 1 + ε times the optimum. The running time is O(h 3/ε 2kn polylog (k,n,1/ε)), where k is the number of segments in P and h and n are the numbers of obstacles and vertices in T, respectively. The constant in the running time of our algorithm depends on some geometric parameters and the ratio of the maximum region weight to the minimum region weight. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulch, R.N.E.; Butcher, E.C.
1984-01-01
The solar and lunar variations in the phase path, group path and amplitude of a fixed frequency transmission were obtained at the September equinox over a slightly oblique path. The phase of the lunar semi-diurnal tide in the phase path and amplitude were similar, the maxima occurring near 0200 lunar time, whereas the group path had a maximum near 0800 lunar time. These results were compared with other results obtained near the same location. The results suggest a complex situation in the E-region, where the height of the lunar current depends on season, and also suggest that the location and distribution of the solar and lunar currents may be different. (author)
Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James B Elsner
Full Text Available The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93 [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.
Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.
Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J
2014-01-01
The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.
Which coordinate system for modelling path integration?
Vickerstaff, Robert J; Cheung, Allen
2010-03-21
Path integration is a navigation strategy widely observed in nature where an animal maintains a running estimate, called the home vector, of its location during an excursion. Evidence suggests it is both ancient and ubiquitous in nature, and has been studied for over a century. In that time, canonical and neural network models have flourished, based on a wide range of assumptions, justifications and supporting data. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, consensus and unifying principles appear lacking. A fundamental issue is the neural representation of space needed for biological path integration. This paper presents a scheme to classify path integration systems on the basis of the way the home vector records and updates the spatial relationship between the animal and its home location. Four extended classes of coordinate systems are used to unify and review both canonical and neural network models of path integration, from the arthropod and mammalian literature. This scheme demonstrates analytical equivalence between models which may otherwise appear unrelated, and distinguishes between models which may superficially appear similar. A thorough analysis is carried out of the equational forms of important facets of path integration including updating, steering, searching and systematic errors, using each of the four coordinate systems. The type of available directional cue, namely allothetic or idiothetic, is also considered. It is shown that on balance, the class of home vectors which includes the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system, appears to be the most robust for biological systems. A key conclusion is that deducing computational structure from behavioural data alone will be difficult or impossible, at least in the absence of an analysis of random errors. Consequently it is likely that further theoretical insights into path integration will require an in-depth study of the effect of noise on the four classes of home vectors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd
The transformation techniques in path integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inomata, A.
1989-01-01
In this paper general remarks are made concerning the time transformation techniques in path integration and their implementations. Time transformations may be divided into two classes: global (integrable) time transformations and local (nonintegrable) time transformations. Although a brief account of global time transformations is given, attention is focused on local transformations. First, time transformations in the classical Kepler problem are reviewed. Then, problems encountered in implementing a local time transformation in quantum mechanics are analyzed. A several propositions pertinent to the implementation of local time transformations, particularly basic to the local time rescaling trick in a discretized path integral, are presented
Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-09-01
The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.
Canonical transformations and hamiltonian path integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhorov, L.V.
1982-01-01
Behaviour of the Hamiltonian path integrals under canonical transformations produced by a generator, is investigated. An exact form is determined for the kernel of the unitary operator realizing the corresponding quantum transformation. Equivalence rules are found (the Hamiltonian formalism, one-dimensional case) enabling one to exclude non-standard terms from the action. It is shown that the Hamiltonian path integral changes its form under cononical transformations: in the transformed expression besides the classical Hamiltonian function there appear some non-classical terms
Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-09-01
The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented
Field theory a path integral approach
Das, Ashok
2006-01-01
This unique book describes quantum field theory completely within the context of path integrals. With its utility in a variety of fields in physics, the subject matter is primarily developed within the context of quantum mechanics before going into specialized areas.Adding new material keenly requested by readers, this second edition is an important expansion of the popular first edition. Two extra chapters cover path integral quantization of gauge theories and anomalies, and a new section extends the supersymmetry chapter, where singular potentials in supersymmetric systems are described.
Graphs with not all possible path-kernels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aldred, Robert; Thomassen, Carsten
2004-01-01
The Path Partition Conjecture states that the vertices of a graph G with longest path of length c may be partitioned into two parts X and Y such that the longest path in the subgraph of G induced by X has length at most a and the longest path in the subgraph of G induced by Y has length at most b...
Residual stress by repair welds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao
2003-01-01
Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)
Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile, ... cheaper alternative source for good quality protein for dietary purposes, we evaluated Detarium ... Whole seed residue, DDS seed flour and control diets (soybeans) were ...
Springback effects during single point incremental forming: Optimization of the tool path
Giraud-Moreau, Laurence; Belchior, Jérémy; Lafon, Pascal; Lotoing, Lionel; Cherouat, Abel; Courtielle, Eric; Guines, Dominique; Maurine, Patrick
2018-05-01
Incremental sheet forming is an emerging process to manufacture sheet metal parts. This process is more flexible than conventional one and well suited for small batch production or prototyping. During the process, the sheet metal blank is clamped by a blank-holder and a small-size smooth-end hemispherical tool moves along a user-specified path to deform the sheet incrementally. Classical three-axis CNC milling machines, dedicated structure or serial robots can be used to perform the forming operation. Whatever the considered machine, large deviations between the theoretical shape and the real shape can be observed after the part unclamping. These deviations are due to both the lack of stiffness of the machine and residual stresses in the part at the end of the forming stage. In this paper, an optimization strategy of the tool path is proposed in order to minimize the elastic springback induced by residual stresses after unclamping. A finite element model of the SPIF process allowing the shape prediction of the formed part with a good accuracy is defined. This model, based on appropriated assumptions, leads to calculation times which remain compatible with an optimization procedure. The proposed optimization method is based on an iterative correction of the tool path. The efficiency of the method is shown by an improvement of the final shape.
Walking path-planning method for multiple radiation areas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yong-kuo; Li, Meng-kun; Peng, Min-jun; Xie, Chun-li; Yuan, Cheng-qian; Wang, Shuang-yu; Chao, Nan
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Radiation environment modeling method is designed. • Path-evaluating method and segmented path-planning method are proposed. • Path-planning simulation platform for radiation environment is built. • The method avoids to be misled by minimum dose path in single area. - Abstract: Based on minimum dose path-searching method, walking path-planning method for multiple radiation areas was designed to solve minimum dose path problem in single area and find minimum dose path in the whole space in this paper. Path-planning simulation platform was built using C# programming language and DirectX engine. The simulation platform was used in simulations dealing with virtual nuclear facilities. Simulation results indicated that the walking-path planning method is effective in providing safety for people walking in nuclear facilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ciro Antonio Rosolem
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of N fertilization and residues of pearl millet, black oats and oilseed radish on pH and Ca, Mg, K, NO3-, and NH4+ distribution within the profile of a Distroferric Red Latosol. The equivalent of 8 t ha-1 of plant residues were placed on soil surface. Lime was applied on the soil surface and nitrogen was applied over the straw at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg kg-1, as ammonium nitrate. Corn was grown for 57 days. Calcium contents and pH in the soil profile were decreased by Pearl millet residue, while black oat and oilseed radish increased Ca contents and these effects are not related with Ca contents in residue tissue. However, the presence of plant residues increased nitrate, ammonium, and potassium contents in the deeper layers of the pots.
RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...
This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.
Modeling Residual NAPL in Water-Wet Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.J. Lenhard
2002-06-01
Full Text Available A model is outlined that predicts NAPL which is held in pore wedges and as films or lenses on solid and water surfaces and contributes negligibly to NAPL advection. This is conceptually referred to as residual NAPL. Since residual NAPL is immobile, it remains in the vadose zone after all free NAPL has drained. Residual NAPL is very important because it is a long-term source for groundwater contamination. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that current models for predicting subsurface NAPL behavior are inadequate because they do not correctly predict residual NAPL. The main reason for the failure is a deficiency in the current constitutive theories for multiphase flow that are used in numerical simulators. Multiphase constitutive theory governs the relations among relative permeability, saturation, and pressure for fluid systems (i.e., air, NAPL, water. In this paper, we outline a model describing relations between fluid saturations and pressures that can be combined with existing multiphase constitutive theory to predict residual NAPL. We test the revised constitutive theory by applying it to a scenario involving NAPL imbibition and drainage, as well as water imbibition and drainage. The results suggest that the revised constitutive theory is able to predict the distribution of residual NAPL in the vadose zone as a function of saturation-path history. The revised model describing relations between fluid saturation and pressures will help toward developing or improving numerical multiphase flow simulators.
Identification of mannose interacting residues using local composition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandhya Agarwal
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose binding proteins (MBPs play a vital role in several biological functions such as defense mechanisms. These proteins bind to mannose on the surface of a wide range of pathogens and help in eliminating these pathogens from our body. Thus, it is important to identify mannose interacting residues (MIRs in order to understand mechanism of recognition of pathogens by MBPs. RESULTS: This paper describes modules developed for predicting MIRs in a protein. Support vector machine (SVM based models have been developed on 120 mannose binding protein chains, where no two chains have more than 25% sequence similarity. SVM models were developed on two types of datasets: 1 main dataset consists of 1029 mannose interacting and 1029 non-interacting residues, 2 realistic dataset consists of 1029 mannose interacting and 10320 non-interacting residues. In this study, firstly, we developed standard modules using binary and PSSM profile of patterns and got maximum MCC around 0.32. Secondly, we developed SVM modules using composition profile of patterns and achieved maximum MCC around 0.74 with accuracy 86.64% on main dataset. Thirdly, we developed a model on a realistic dataset and achieved maximum MCC of 0.62 with accuracy 93.08%. Based on this study, a standalone program and web server have been developed for predicting mannose interacting residues in proteins (http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/premier/. CONCLUSIONS: Compositional analysis of mannose interacting and non-interacting residues shows that certain types of residues are preferred in mannose interaction. It was also observed that residues around mannose interacting residues have a preference for certain types of residues. Composition of patterns/peptide/segment has been used for predicting MIRs and achieved reasonable high accuracy. It is possible that this novel strategy may be effective to predict other types of interacting residues. This study will be useful in annotating the function
On the structure of path-like trees
Muntaner Batle, Francesc Antoni; Rius Font, Miquel
2007-01-01
We study the structure of path-like trees. In order to do this, we introduce a set of trees that we call expandable trees. In this paper we also generalize the concept of path-like trees and we call such generalization generalized path-like trees. As in the case of path-like trees, generalized path-like trees, have very nice labeling properties.
Du, Tianchuan; Liao, Li; Wu, Cathy H; Sun, Bilin
2016-11-01
Protein-protein interactions play essential roles in many biological processes. Acquiring knowledge of the residue-residue contact information of two interacting proteins is not only helpful in annotating functions for proteins, but also critical for structure-based drug design. The prediction of the protein residue-residue contact matrix of the interfacial regions is challenging. In this work, we introduced deep learning techniques (specifically, stacked autoencoders) to build deep neural network models to tackled the residue-residue contact prediction problem. In tandem with interaction profile Hidden Markov Models, which was used first to extract Fisher score features from protein sequences, stacked autoencoders were deployed to extract and learn hidden abstract features. The deep learning model showed significant improvement over the traditional machine learning model, Support Vector Machines (SVM), with the overall accuracy increased by 15% from 65.40% to 80.82%. We showed that the stacked autoencoders could extract novel features, which can be utilized by deep neural networks and other classifiers to enhance learning, out of the Fisher score features. It is further shown that deep neural networks have significant advantages over SVM in making use of the newly extracted features. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Propagation Effects in Space/Earth Paths.
1980-08-01
0 h In both integrals ds is a differential of curved ray path and includes refractive bending. In either integral, the factor aTar is, by the Rayleigh...interference. Ionospheric modification may also result from the emission of exhaust effluents from HLLV’s. The associated changes in ionospherio chemistry can
Learning to improve path planning performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Pang C.
1995-04-01
In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful
Gender Differences in Career Paths in Banking.
Morgan, Sandra; And Others
1993-01-01
Analyzed career paths of middle managers in bank. Study of matched pairs found that men (n=25) advanced faster and reached middle management through fewer promotions and positions than did women (n=25). Men had significantly more work experience outside of banking. In banking careers, men held more jobs in lending, whereas women occupied more…
Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization
Kemper, Edward
Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.
Taking a Technological Path to Poetry Prewriting.
Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth
2002-01-01
Offers a strong rationale for the idea that the journey of writing good poetry begins on a path that infuses technology into the first stage of the writing process. Presents several ideas of ways to incorporate technology into the prewriting poetry experience. Concludes that by making technology an ingredient, the true potential for synergy…
Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path: Can it Cause Illusory Forward and Backward Motion? Anuj Bhatnagar. Classroom Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 387-392 ...
Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizrahi, M.M.
1975-01-01
The subject of this investigation is Feynman's path integral quantization scheme, which is a powerful global formalism with great intuitive appeal. It stems from the simple idea that a probability amplitude for a system to make a transition between two states is the ''sum'' of the amplitudes for all the possible ways the transition can take place
Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varadarajan, Madhavan
2004-01-01
Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard 'Wick rotations' of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory
Feature based omnidirectional sparse visual path following
Goedemé, Toon; Tuytelaars, Tinne; Van Gool, Luc; Vanacker, Gerolf; Nuttin, Marnix
2005-01-01
Goedemé T., Tuytelaars T., Van Gool L., Vanacker G., Nuttin M., ''Feature based omnidirectional sparse visual path following'', Proceedings IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems - IROS2005, pp. 1003-1008, August 2-6, 2005, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Certified higher-order recursive path ordering
Koprowski, A.; Pfenning, F.
2006-01-01
The paper reports on a formalization of a proof of wellfoundedness of the higher-order recursive path ordering (HORPO) in the proof checker Coq. The development is axiom-free and fully constructive. Three substantive parts that could be used also in other developments are the formalizations of the
Path-breaking books in regional science
Waldorf, BS
This article presents a collection of regional science books that long-standing members of the Regional Science Association International (RSAI) identified as path-breaking books. The most frequently nominated books include the "classics" by Isard, the seminal books in urban economics by Alonso,
Covariant path integrals on hyperbolic surfaces
Schaefer, Joe
1997-11-01
DeWitt's covariant formulation of path integration [B. De Witt, "Dynamical theory in curved spaces. I. A review of the classical and quantum action principles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 377-397 (1957)] has two practical advantages over the traditional methods of "lattice approximations;" there is no ordering problem, and classical symmetries are manifestly preserved at the quantum level. Applying the spectral theorem for unbounded self-adjoint operators, we provide a rigorous proof of the convergence of certain path integrals on Riemann surfaces of constant curvature -1. The Pauli-DeWitt curvature correction term arises, as in DeWitt's work. Introducing a Fuchsian group Γ of the first kind, and a continuous, bounded, Γ-automorphic potential V, we obtain a Feynman-Kac formula for the automorphic Schrödinger equation on the Riemann surface ΓH. We analyze the Wick rotation and prove the strong convergence of the so-called Feynman maps [K. D. Elworthy, Path Integration on Manifolds, Mathematical Aspects of Superspace, edited by Seifert, Clarke, and Rosenblum (Reidel, Boston, 1983), pp. 47-90] on a dense set of states. Finally, we give a new proof of some results in C. Grosche and F. Steiner, "The path integral on the Poincare upper half plane and for Liouville quantum mechanics," Phys. Lett. A 123, 319-328 (1987).
Directed paths in a layered environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, J; Janse van Rensburg, E J
2008-01-01
A polymer in a layered environment is modeled as a directed path in a layered square lattice composed of alternating A-layers of width w a and B-layers of width w b . In this paper we consider general cases of this model, where edges in the path interact with the layers, and vertices in the path interact with interfaces between adjacent layers. The phase diagram exhibits different regimes. In particular, we found that the path may be localized to one layer, be adsorbed on an interface between two layers or be delocalized across layers. We examine special aspects of the model in detail: the asymptotic regimes of the models are examined, and entropic forces on the interfaces are determined. We focus on several different cases, including models with layers of equal or similar width. More general models of layers with different but finite widths, or with one layer of infinite width, are also examined in detail. Several of these models exhibit phase behavior which relate to well-studied polymer phase behavior such as adsorption at an impenetrable wall, pinning at an interface between two immiscible solvents, steric stabilization of colloidal particles and sensitized flocculation of colloidal particles by polymers
Random paths with curvature dependent action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.
1986-11-01
We study discretized random paths with a curvature dependent action. The scaling limits of the corresponding statistical mechanical models can be constructed explicitly and are either usual Brownian motion or a theory where the correlations of tangents are nonzero and described by diffusion on the unit sphere. In the latter case the two point function has an anomalous dimension η = 1. (orig.)
Meisner, Jan; Markmeyer, Max N; Bohner, Matthias U; Kästner, Johannes
2017-08-30
Atom tunneling in the hydrogen atom transfer reaction of the 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl radical to 3,5-di-tert-butylneophyl, which has a short but strongly curved reaction path, was investigated using instanton theory. We found the tunneling path to deviate qualitatively from the classical intrinsic reaction coordinate, the steepest-descent path in mass-weighted Cartesian coordinates. To perform that comparison, we implemented a new variant of the predictor-corrector algorithm for the calculation of the intrinsic reaction coordinate. We used the reaction force analysis method as a means to decompose the reaction barrier into structural and electronic components. Due to the narrow energy barrier, atom tunneling is important in the abovementioned reaction, even above room temperature. Our calculated rate constants between 350 K and 100 K agree well with experimental values. We found a H/D kinetic isotope effect of almost 10 6 at 100 K. Tunneling dominates the protium transfer below 400 K and the deuterium transfer below 300 K. We compared the lengths of the tunneling path and the classical path for the hydrogen atom transfer in the reaction HCl + Cl and quantified the corner cutting in this reaction. At low temperature, the tunneling path is about 40% shorter than the classical path.
The Microwave Temperature Profiler (PERF)
Lim, Boon; Mahoney, Michael; Haggerty, Julie; Denning, Richard
2013-01-01
The JPL developed Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) has recently participated in GloPac, HIPPO (I to V) and TORERO, and the ongoing ATTREX campaigns. The MTP is now capable of supporting the NASA Global Hawk and a new canister version supports the NCAR G-V. The primary product from the MTP is remote measurements of the atmospheric temperature at, above and below the flight path, providing for the vertical state of the atmosphere. The NCAR-MTP has demonstrated unprecedented instrument performance and calibration with plus or minus 0.2 degrees Kelvin flight level temperature error. Derived products include curtain plots, isentropes, lapse rate, cold point height and tropopause height.
Vehicle Parameter Identification and its Use in Control for Safe Path Following
HONG, SANGHYUN
2014-01-01
This thesis develops vehicle parameter identification algorithms, and applies identified parameters to a controller designed for safe path following.A tire-road friction coefficient is estimated using an in-tire accelerometer to measure acceleration signals directly from the tires. The proposed algorithm first determines a tire-road contact patch with a radial acceleration profile.The estimation algorithm is based on tire lateral deflections obtained from lateral acceleration measurements onl...
Nitrogen availability of biogas residues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Sayed Fouda, Sara
2011-09-07
The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Júlio C. U. Coelho
Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?
Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.
2013-01-01
Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...
Americium recovery from reduction residues
Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.
1973-12-25
A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)
Modeling of CMUTs with Multiple Anisotropic Layers and Residual Stress
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engholm, Mathias; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
2014-01-01
Usually the analytical approach for modeling CMUTs uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. A highly accurate model is developed for analytical characterization of CMUTs taking an arbitrary number of layers...... and residual stress into account. Based on the stress-strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular...... clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress. From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated and by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method the natural frequency is estimated....
Modeling of plates with multiple anisotropic layers and residual stress
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engholm, Mathias; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
2016-01-01
Usually the analytical approach for modeling of plates uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. Based on the stress–strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general...... multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress.From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated......, and an excellent agreement between the two models is seen with a relative difference of less than 2% for all calculations. The model was also used to extract the cell capacitance, the parasitic capacitance and the residual stress of a pressure sensor composed of a multilayered plate of silicon and silicon oxide...
Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.
1986-01-01
The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.
Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10
Monastyrskyy, Bohdan
2013-08-31
We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frutos, E.; Multigner, M.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.
2010-01-01
This research addresses the determination of residual stresses in sandblasted austenitic steel by ultramicroindentation techniques using a sharp indenter, of which the sensitivity to residual stress effects is said to be inferior to that of spherical ones. The introduction of an angular correction in the model of Wang et al. which relates variations in the maximum load to the presence of residual stresses is proposed. Similarly, the contribution to the hardness of grain size refinement and work hardening, developed as a consequence of the severe plastic deformation during blasting, is determined in order to avoid overestimation of the residual stresses. Measurements were performed on polished cross sections along a length of several microns, thus obtaining a profile of the residual stresses. Results show good agreement with those obtained by synchrotron radiation on the same specimens, which validates the method and demonstrates that microindentation using sharp indenters may be sensitive to the residual stress effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frutos, E. [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain)] [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Multigner, M. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L., E-mail: jlg@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain)
2010-07-15
This research addresses the determination of residual stresses in sandblasted austenitic steel by ultramicroindentation techniques using a sharp indenter, of which the sensitivity to residual stress effects is said to be inferior to that of spherical ones. The introduction of an angular correction in the model of Wang et al. which relates variations in the maximum load to the presence of residual stresses is proposed. Similarly, the contribution to the hardness of grain size refinement and work hardening, developed as a consequence of the severe plastic deformation during blasting, is determined in order to avoid overestimation of the residual stresses. Measurements were performed on polished cross sections along a length of several microns, thus obtaining a profile of the residual stresses. Results show good agreement with those obtained by synchrotron radiation on the same specimens, which validates the method and demonstrates that microindentation using sharp indenters may be sensitive to the residual stress effect.
Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louko, Jorma
2007-01-01
Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a
The effect of tensioning and sectioning on residual stresses in aluminium AA7749 friction stir welds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altenkirch, J.; Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.; Richards, D.G.; Withers, P.J.
2008-01-01
Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction the residual stress distribution has been measured in a series of AA7449-W51 aluminium friction stir welds that had been tensioned to different loads during welding. By modifying the stress accumulation path, the application of a tensioning stress has reduced the tensile magnitude of the final residual weld stresses. In the present case the residual stresses were minimised when the applied load is ∼35% of the room temperature yield stress of the parent material. Subsequent sectioning of the weld into shorter test lengths, as might be necessary for weld testing, resulted in a progressive and significant relaxation of the residual stress field. The effect of tensioning on the weld component distortion also has been investigated
Moments of inertia and the shapes of Brownian paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fougere, F.; Desbois, J.
1993-01-01
The joint probability law of the principal moments of inertia of Brownian paths (open or closed) is computed, using constrained path integrals and Random Matrix Theory. The case of two-dimensional paths is discussed in detail. In particular, it is shown that the ratio of the average values of the largest and smallest moments is equal to 4.99 (open paths) and 3.07 (closed paths). Results of numerical simulations are also presented, which include investigation of the relationships between the moments of inertia and the arithmetic area enclosed by a path. (authors) 28 refs., 2 figs
How to solve path integrals in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.
1994-10-01
A systematic classification of Feynman path integrals in quantum mechanics is presented and a table of solvable path integrals is given which reflects the progress made during the last 15 years, including, of course, the main contributions since the invention of the path integral by Feynman in 1942. An outline of the general theory is given which will serve as a quick reference for solving path integrals. Explicit formulae for the so-called basic path integrals are presented on which our general scheme to classify and calculate path integrals in quantum mechanics is based. (orig.)
Epidemic extinction paths in complex networks
Hindes, Jason; Schwartz, Ira B.
2017-05-01
We study the extinction of long-lived epidemics on finite complex networks induced by intrinsic noise. Applying analytical techniques to the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we predict the distribution of large fluctuations, the most probable or optimal path through a network that leads to a disease-free state from an endemic state, and the average extinction time in general configurations. Our predictions agree with Monte Carlo simulations on several networks, including synthetic weighted and degree-distributed networks with degree correlations, and an empirical high school contact network. In addition, our approach quantifies characteristic scaling patterns for the optimal path and distribution of large fluctuations, both near and away from the epidemic threshold, in networks with heterogeneous eigenvector centrality and degree distributions.
Technological opportunities and paths of development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plichta, Kirsten
1993-01-01
the outcome of different firms development effort may also help shape a path at the industry level. This may be because the criteria by which the market selects between the different product may to some extent be anticipated by the developing firms or because the criteria by which the market select betwee...... technological knowledge, their production, development and other routines as well prior investments in products and production equipment play an important role with regard to the technological opportunities that firms' identify and select for development. 3) Because history matters and because firms are bounded...... in the industry. 6) It is argued that such paths of incremental improvement at the industry level may be an outcome of a) the dynamics that produce the technological opportunities; b) the institutions that govern decisions and expectations and c) the criteria by which the chooses between different firms...
Dynamic Path Exploration on Mobile Devices
Birsak, Michael
2017-03-31
We present a novel framework for visualizing routes on mobile devices. Our framework is suitable for helping users explore their environment. First, given a starting point and a maximum route length, the system retrieves nearby points of interest (POIs). Second, we automatically compute an attractive walking path through the environment trying to pass by as many highly ranked POIs as possible. Third, we automatically compute a route visualization that shows the current user position, POI locations via pins, and detail lenses for more information about the POIs. The visualization is an animation of an orthographic map view that follows the current user position. We propose an optimization based on a binary integer program (BIP) that models multiple requirements for an effective placement of detail lenses. We show that our path computation method outperforms recently proposed methods and we evaluate the overall impact of our framework in two user studies.
Solidification paths of multicomponent monotectic aluminum alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de
2008-10-15
Solidification paths of three ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, are studied using thermodynamic calculations, both for the pertinent phase diagrams and also for specific details concerning the solidification of selected alloy compositions. The coupled composition variation in two different liquids is quantitatively given. Various ternary monotectic four-phase reactions are encountered during solidification, as opposed to the simple binary monotectic, L' {yields} L'' + solid. These intricacies are reflected in the solidification microstructures, as demonstrated for these three aluminum alloy systems, selected in view of their distinctive features. This examination of solidification paths and microstructure formation may be relevant for advanced solidification processing of multicomponent monotectic alloys.
An alternative path integral for quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krishnan, Chethan; Kumar, K.V. Pavan; Raju, Avinash [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)
2016-10-10
We define a (semi-classical) path integral for gravity with Neumann boundary conditions in D dimensions, and show how to relate this new partition function to the usual picture of Euclidean quantum gravity. We also write down the action in ADM Hamiltonian formulation and use it to reproduce the entropy of black holes and cosmological horizons. A comparison between the (background-subtracted) covariant and Hamiltonian ways of semi-classically evaluating this path integral in flat space reproduces the generalized Smarr formula and the first law. This “Neumann ensemble” perspective on gravitational thermodynamics is parallel to the canonical (Dirichlet) ensemble of Gibbons-Hawking and the microcanonical approach of Brown-York.
Secure Path Selection under Random Fading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Furqan Jameel
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Application-oriented Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs promises to be one of the most useful technologies of this century. However, secure communication between nodes in WSNs is still an unresolved issue. In this context, we propose two protocols (i.e. Optimal Secure Path (OSP and Sub-optimal Secure Path (SSP to minimize the outage probability of secrecy capacity in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. We consider dissimilar fading at the main and wiretap link and provide detailed evaluation of the impact of Nakagami-m and Rician-K factors on the secrecy performance of WSNs. Extensive simulations are performed to validate our findings. Although the optimal scheme ensures more security, yet the sub-optimal scheme proves to be a more practical approach to secure wireless links.
Rapidly converging path integral formalism. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, I.; Gromes, D.; Marquard, U.
1990-01-01
The action to be used in the path integral formalism is expanded in a systematic way in powers of the time spacing ε in order to optimize the convergence to the continuum limit. This modifies and extends the usual formalism in a transparent way. The path integral approximation to the Green function obtained by this method approaches the continuum Green function with a higher power of ε than the usual one. The general theoretical derivations are exemplified analytically for the harmonic oscillator and by Monte Carlo methods for the anharmonic oscillator. We also show how curvilinear coordinates and curved spaces can naturally be treated within this formalism. Work on field theory is in progress. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyeong Y.; Nikbin, Kamran M.; O'Dowd, Noel P.
2005-01-01
A review of through thickness transverse residual stress distribution measurements in a number of components, manufactured from a range of steels, has been carried out. Residual stresses introduced by welding and mechanical deformation have been considered. The geometries consisted of welded T-plate joints, pipe butt joints, tube-on-plate joints, tubular Y-joints and tubular T-joints as well as cold bent tubes and repair welds. In addition, the collected data cover a range of engineering steels including ferritic, austenitic, C-Mn and Cr-Mo steels. The methods used to measure the residual stresses also varied. These included neutron diffraction, X-ray diffraction and deep hole drilling techniques. Measured residual stress data, normalised by their respective yield stress have shown an inverse linear correlation versus the normalised depth of the region containing the residual stress (up to 0.5 of the component thickness). A simplified generic residual stress profile based on a linear fit to the data is proposed for the case of a transverse residual tensile stress field. Whereas the profiles in assessment procedures are case specific the proposed linear profile can be varied to produce a combination of membrane and bending stress distributions to give lower or higher levels of conservatism on stress intensity factors, depending on the amount of case specific data available or the degree of safety required
Separation of zeros for source signature identification under reverberant path conditions.
Hasegawa, Tomomi; Tohyama, Mikio
2011-10-01
This paper presents an approach to distinguishing the zeros representing a sound source from those representing the transfer function on the basis of Lyon's residue-sign model. In machinery noise diagnostics, the source signature must be separated from observation records under reverberant path conditions. In numerical examples and an experimental piano-string vibration analysis, the modal responses could be synthesized by using clustered line-spectrum modeling. The modeling error represented the source signature subject to the source characteristics being given by a finite impulse response. The modeling error can be interpreted as a remainder function necessary for the zeros representing the source signature. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.
1995-01-01
Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility
Spreading paths in partially observed social networks
Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.
2012-01-01
Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using a static, s...
Anomaly extraction from the path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christos, G.A.
1983-01-01
Fujikawa's recently proposed derivation of the anomaly from the path integral is examined. It is attempted to give a better understanding of his work. In particular, evasions of his result are discussed; for example it is shown how chiral U(1) axial invariance can be maintained by employing a gauge variant regularization prescription. A brief connection with the point-splitting method is also made. (orig.)
On path hypercompositions in graphs and automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massouros Christos G.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paths in graphs define hypercompositions in the set of their vertices and therefore it is feasible to associate hypercompositional structures to each graph. Similarly, the strings of letters from their alphabet, define hypercompositions in the automata, which in turn define the associated hypergroups to the automata. The study of the associated hypercompositional structures gives results in both, graphs and automata theory.
Depolarization on Earth-space paths
1981-01-01
Sources of depolarization effects on the propagation paths of orthogonally-polarized information channels are considered. The main sources of depolarization at millimeter wave frequencies are hydrometeor absorption and scattering in the troposphere. Terms are defined. Mathematical formulations for the effects of the propagation medium characteristics and antenna performance on signals in dual polarization Earth-space links are presented. Techniques for modeling rain and ice depolarization are discussed.
Path integral measure for gravitational interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuo Fujikawa
1983-10-01
Full Text Available It is pointed out that the path-integral variables as well as the local measure for gravitational interactions are uniquely specified if one imposes the anomaly-free condition on the Becchi-Rouet-Stora supersymmetry associated with general coordinate transformations. This prescription is briefly illustrated for the Einstein gravity and supergravity in four space-time dimensions and the relativistic string theory in two dimensions.
Path dependence and independent utility regulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge
2007-01-01
The establishment of the Danish independent regulatory authorities for the energy and telecommunications sectors was based upon EU directives as part of their liberalisation process. Following the concepts of transaction costs and path dependency this article analyses differences in independence...... between the two authorities - the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority (Energitilsynet) and the National IT and Telecommunications Agency (IT- og Telestyrelsen) respectively. We find that the state's negligible interest in the energy sector until the 1970s formed the basis for strong energy companies...
Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment
Nadja FURLAN ŠTANTE
2016-01-01
The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm o...
Civil Society and Paths to Abolition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seymour DRESCHER
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Through a comparative analysis, this article aims to present an overview of British, French, Russian, American and Brazilian abolitionist action, between the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century. Indicating the struggles of pro-abolition civil associations, the paths taken in Britain, France, the US and Brazil are presented in parallel - either to emphasize approaches, either to highlight the undeniable peculiarities - revealing the marks of violence and negotiation present in the emancipation process.
Critical crack path assessments in failure investigations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert D. Caligiuri
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a case study in which identification of the controlling crack path was critical to identifying the root cause of the failure. The case involves the rupture of a 30-inch (0.76 m natural gas pipeline in 2010 that tragically led to the destruction of a number of homes and the loss of life. The segment of the pipeline that ruptured was installed in 1956. The longitudinal seam of the segment that ruptured was supposed to have been fabricated by double submerged arc welding. Unfortunately, portions of the segment only received a single submerged arc weld on the outside, leaving unwelded areas on the inside diameter. Post-failure examination of the segment revealed that the rupture originated at one of these unwelded areas. Examination also revealed three additional crack paths or zones emanating from the unwelded area: a zone of ductile tearing, a zone of fatigue, and a zone of cleavage fracture, in that sequence. Initial investigators ignored the ductile tear, assumed the critical crack path was the fatigue component, and (incorrectly concluded that the root cause of the incident was the failure of the operator to hydrotest the segment after it was installed in 1956. However, as discussed in this paper, the critical path or mechanism was the ductile tear. Furthermore, it was determined that the ductile tear was created during the hydrotest at installation by a mechanism known as pressure reversal. Thus the correct root cause of the rupture was the hydrotest the operator subjected the segment to at installation, helping to increase the awareness of operators and regulators about the potential problems associated with hydrotesting.
Covariant path integrals on hyperbolic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, J.
1997-01-01
DeWitt close-quote s covariant formulation of path integration [B. De Witt, open-quotes Dynamical theory in curved spaces. I. A review of the classical and quantum action principles,close quotes Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 377 endash 397 (1957)] has two practical advantages over the traditional methods of open-quotes lattice approximations;close quotes there is no ordering problem, and classical symmetries are manifestly preserved at the quantum level. Applying the spectral theorem for unbounded self-adjoint operators, we provide a rigorous proof of the convergence of certain path integrals on Riemann surfaces of constant curvature -1. The Pauli endash DeWitt curvature correction term arises, as in DeWitt close-quote s work. Introducing a Fuchsian group Γ of the first kind, and a continuous, bounded, Γ-automorphic potential V, we obtain a Feynman endash Kac formula for the automorphic Schroedinger equation on the Riemann surface Γ backslash H. We analyze the Wick rotation and prove the strong convergence of the so-called Feynman maps [K. D. Elworthy, Path Integration on Manifolds, Mathematical Aspects of Superspace, edited by Seifert, Clarke, and Rosenblum (Reidel, Boston, 1983), pp. 47 endash 90] on a dense set of states. Finally, we give a new proof of some results in C. Grosche and F. Steiner, open-quotes The path integral on the Poincare upper half plane and for Liouville quantum mechanics,close quotes Phys. Lett. A 123, 319 endash 328 (1987). copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
All new custom path photo book creation
Wang, Wiley; Muzzolini, Russ
2012-03-01
In this paper, we present an all new custom path to allow consumers to have full control to their photos and the format of their books, while providing them with guidance to make their creation fast and easy. The users can choose to fully automate the initial creation, and then customize every page. The system manage many design themes along with numerous design elements, such as layouts, backgrounds, embellishments and pattern bands. The users can also utilize photos from multiple sources including their computers, Shutterfly accounts, Shutterfly Share sites and Facebook. The users can also use a photo as background, add, move and resize photos and text - putting what they want where they want instead of being confined to templates. The new path allows users to add embellishments anywhere in the book, and the high-performance platform can support up to 1,000 photos per book and up to 25 pictures per page. The path offers either Smart Autofill or Storyboard features allowing customers to populate their books with photos so they can add captions and customize the pages.
Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.
Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G
2012-06-01
These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.
Creep analysis by the path function method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akin, J.E.; Pardue, R.M.
1977-01-01
The finite element method has become a common analysis procedure for the creep analysis of structures. The most recent programs are designed to handle a general class of material properties and are able to calculate elastic, plastic, and creep components of strain under general loading histories. The constant stress approach is too crude a model to accurately represent the actual behaviour of the stress for large time steps. The true path of a point in the effective stress-effective strain (sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c)) plane is often one in which the slope is rapidly changing. Thus the stress level quickly moves away from the initial stress level and then gradually approaches the final one. The result is that the assumed constant stress level quickly becomes inaccurate. What is required is a better method of approximation of the true path in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. The method described here is called the path function approach because it employs an assumed function to estimate the motion of points in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. (Auth.)
Accelerating cleanup. Paths to closure Hanford Site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, C.
1998-01-01
This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE's national strategy, the Richland Operations Office's Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established
Path-integral computation of superfluid densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollock, E.L.; Ceperley, D.M.
1987-01-01
The normal and superfluid densities are defined by the response of a liquid to sample boundary motion. The free-energy change due to uniform boundary motion can be calculated by path-integral methods from the distribution of the winding number of the paths around a periodic cell. This provides a conceptually and computationally simple way of calculating the superfluid density for any Bose system. The linear-response formulation relates the superfluid density to the momentum-density correlation function, which has a short-ranged part related to the normal density and, in the case of a superfluid, a long-ranged part whose strength is proportional to the superfluid density. These facts are discussed in the context of path-integral computations and demonstrated for liquid 4 He along the saturated vapor-pressure curve. Below the experimental superfluid transition temperature the computed superfluid fractions agree with the experimental values to within the statistical uncertainties of a few percent in the computations. The computed transition is broadened by finite-sample-size effects
Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanja Bänziger
Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.
Zeng, Qiang; Yao, Zhihong; Liu, Lei
2011-03-01
Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form which has become more and more popular. The combination of these two is very necessary and promising. Using XML tags instead of numeric labels in DICOM files will effectively increase the readability and enhance the clear hierarchical structure of DICOM files. However, due to the fact that the XML tags rely heavily on the orders of the tags, the strong data dependency has a lot of influence on the flexibility of inserting and exchanging data. In order to improve the extensibility and sharing of DICOM files, this paper introduces XML Path-Tag to DICOM. When a DICOM file is converted to XML format, adding simple Path-Tag into the DICOM file in place of complex tags will keep the flexibility of a DICOM file while inserting data elements and give full play to the advantages of the structure and readability of an XML file. Our method can solve the weak readability problem of DICOM files and the tedious work of inserting data into an XML file. In addition, we set up a conversion engine that can transform among traditional DICOM files, XML-DCM and XML-DCM files involving XML Path-Tag efficiently.
Designing the Alluvial Riverbeds in Curved Paths
Macura, Viliam; Škrinár, Andrej; Štefunková, Zuzana; Muchová, Zlatica; Majorošová, Martina
2017-10-01
The paper presents the method of determining the shape of the riverbed in curves of the watercourse, which is based on the method of Ikeda (1975) developed for a slightly curved path in sandy riverbed. Regulated rivers have essentially slightly and smoothly curved paths; therefore, this methodology provides the appropriate basis for river restoration. Based on the research in the experimental reach of the Holeška Brook and several alluvial mountain streams the methodology was adjusted. The method also takes into account other important characteristics of bottom material - the shape and orientation of the particles, settling velocity and drag coefficients. Thus, the method is mainly meant for the natural sand-gravel material, which is heterogeneous and the particle shape of the bottom material is very different from spherical. The calculation of the river channel in the curved path provides the basis for the design of optimal habitat, but also for the design of foundations of armouring of the bankside of the channel. The input data is adapted to the conditions of design practice.
Path integral for gauge theories with fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, K.
1980-01-01
The Atiyah-Singer index theorem indicates that a naive unitary transformation of basis vectors for fermions interacting with gauge fields is not allowed in general. On the basis of this observation, it was previously shown that the path-integral measure of a gauge-invariant fermion theory is transformed nontrivially under the chiral transformation, and thus leads to a simple derivation of ''anomalous'' chiral Ward-Takahashi identities. We here clarify some of the technical aspects associated with the discussion. It is shown that the Jacobian factor in the path-integral measure, which corresponds to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, is independent of any smooth regularization procedure of large eigenvalues of D in Euclidean theory; this property holds in any even-dimensional space-time and also for the gravitational anomaly. The appearance of the anomaly and its connection with the index theorem are thus related to the fact that the primary importance is attached to the Lorentz-covariant ''energy'' operator D and that D and γ 5 do not commute. The abnormal behavior of the path-integral measure at the zero-frequency sector in the presence of instantons and its connection with spontaneous symmetry breaking is also clarified. We comment on several other problems associated with the anomaly and on the Pauli-Villars regularization method
Path integration on space times with symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low, S.G.
1985-01-01
Path integration on space times with symmetry is investigated using a definition of path integration of Gaussian integrators. Gaussian integrators, systematically developed using the theory of projective distributions, may be defined in terms of a Jacobi operator Green function. This definition of the path integral yields a semiclassical expansion of the propagator which is valid on caustics. The semiclassical approximation to the free particle propagator on symmetric and reductive homogeneous spaces is computed in terms of the complete solution of the Jacobi equation. The results are used to test the validity of using the Schwinger-DeWitt transform to compute an approximation to the coincidence limit of a field theory Green function from a WKB propagator. The method is found not to be valid except for certain special cases. These cases include manifolds constructed from the direct product of flat space and group manifolds, on which the free particle WKB approximation is exact and two sphere. The multiple geodesic contribution to 2 > on Schwarzschild in the neighborhood of rho = 3M is computed using the transform
Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.
Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X
2013-11-01
As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Residual stress analysis of drive shafts after induction hardening
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos, Guilherme Vieira Braga; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes, E-mail: lemos_gl@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Algre, RS (Brazil); Hirsch, Thomas Karl [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (IWT), Bremen (Germany)
2014-08-15
Typically, for automotive shafts, shape distortion manifests itself in most cases after the induction hardening by an effect known as bending. The distortion results in a boost of costs, especially due to machining parts in the hardened state to fabricate its final tolerances. In the present study, residual stress measurements were carried out on automotive drive shafts made of DIN 38B3 steel. The samples were selected in consequence of their different distortion properties by an industrial manufacturing line. One tested shaft was straightened, because of the considerable dimensional variation and the other one not. Firstly, the residual stress measurements were carried out by using a portable diffractometer, in order to avoid cutting the shafts and evaluate the original state of the stresses, and afterwards a more detailed analysis was realized by a conventional stationary diffractometer. The obtained results presented an overview of the surface residual stress profiles after induction hardening and displayed the influence of the straightening process on the redistribution of residual stresses. They also indicated that the effects of the straightening in the residual stresses cannot be neglected. (author)
A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W.
1997-01-01
Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM's). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests
Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandovil, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5 MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H - ions and residual nitrogen in the vacuum chamber cause the nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented. (Author) 5 refs., 7 figs
Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandoval, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5-MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H-ions and residual nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam-profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented
A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W. [and others
1997-07-01
Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM`s). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests.
Measurement of residual stress in textured Al alloy by neutron diffraction method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okido, S.; Hayashi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Akiniwa, Y.; Minakawa, N.; Morii, Y.
1999-01-01
Residual stress generated in a shrunken aluminum alloy specimen, which was prepared for the round robin test conducted by VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) TWA-20 organized for the purpose of standardizing residual stress measurement methods, was evaluated by a neutron diffraction method. The main purpose of the round robin test was to assess the reproducibility of data obtained with the measurement facilities of the participants. The general standard of the Residual Stress Analyzer (RESA) constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was verified from the measured residual strains, which were equivalent to the values calculated by FEM and values measured by the research facilities in North America. Residual stress was calculated from residual strain in three perpendicular directions. The diffraction intensities were dependent on measurement directions since the prepared specimen possessed texture. Diffraction profiles in directions having a weak diffraction intensity caused an inaccurate evaluation of the residual stress. To solve this problem, a new method for evaluating residual stress with respect to diffraction plane dependency of the elastic constant was applied. The diffraction plane giving the highest intensity among 110, 200, and 220 diffraction was used to evaluate the residual strain in each of three directions. The residual strain obtained on the used diffraction plane was converted to the equivalent strain for the defined diffraction plane using the ratio of elastic constants of these two planes. The developed evaluation method achieved highly accurate measurement and remarkable efficiency in the measurement process. (author)
Re-evaluation of P-T paths across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust
Catlos, E. J.; Harrison, M.; Kelly, E. D.; Ashley, K.; Lovera, O. M.; Etzel, T.; Lizzadro-McPherson, D. J.
2016-12-01
The Main Central Thrust (MCT) is the dominant crustal thickening structure in the Himalayas, juxtaposing high-grade Greater Himalayan Crystalline rocks over the lower-grade Lesser Himalaya Formations. The fault is underlain by a 2 to 12-km-thick sequence of deformed rocks characterized by an apparent inverted metamorphic gradient, termed the MCT shear zone. Garnet-bearing rocks sampled from across the MCT along the Marysandi River in central Nepal contain monazite that decrease in age from Early Miocene (ca. 20 Ma) in the hanging wall to Late Miocene-Pliocene (ca. 7 Ma and 3 Ma) towards structurally lower levels in the shear zone. We obtained high-resolution garnet-zoning pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from 11 of the same rocks used for monazite geochronology using a recently-developed semi-automated Gibbs-free-energy-minimization technique. Quartz-in-garnet Raman barometry refined the locations of the paths. Diffusional re-equilibration of garnet zoning in hanging wall samples prevented accurate path determinations from most Greater Himalayan Crystalline samples, but one that shows a bell-shaped Mn zoning profile shows a slight decrease in P (from 8.2 to 7.6kbar) with increase in T (from 590 to 640ºC). Three MCT shear zone samples were modeled: one yields a simple path increasing in both P and T (6 to 7kbar, 540 to 580ºC); the others yield N-shaped paths that occupy similar P-T space (4 to 5.5 kbar, 500 to 560ºC). Five lower lesser Himalaya garnet-bearing rocks were modeled. One yields a path increasing in both P-T (6 to 7 kbar, 525 to 550ºC) but others show either sharp compression/decompression or N-shape paths (within 4.5-6 kbar and 530-580ºC). The lowermost sample decreases in P (5.5 to 5 kbar) over increasing T (540 to 580°C). No progressive change is seen from one type of path to another within the Lesser Himalayan Formations to the MCT zone. The results using the modeling approach yield lower P-T conditions compared to the Gibbs method and lower
Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.
1984-01-01
A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed
Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.
1985-05-01
We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed
Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)
1997-11-01
One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.
Analysis of Residual Stress and Deformation of Rolling Strengthen Crankshaft Fillet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Shaojun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of crankshaft fillet rolling process, used ANSYS finite element analysis software to conduct the elastic-plastic mechanical simulation of crankshaft rolling process, and gained the variation law of the residual stress and plastic deformation in the radial path of the fillet under different rolling laps and rolling pressure. Established the relationship between the rolling pressure and the plastic deformation and residual stress of the fillet, and provided theoretical support for the evaluation and detection of the crankshaft rolling quality.
Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.
2011-01-01
The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...
Carbaryl residues in maize products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.
1976-01-01
The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)
Combinatorial construction of toric residues
Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan
2004-01-01
The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...
Astronomers Trace Microquasar's Path Back in Time
2003-01-01
Astronomers have traced the orbit through our Milky Way Galaxy of a voracious neutron star and a companion star it is cannibalizing, and conclude that the pair joined more than 30 million years ago and probably were catapulted out of a cluster of stars far from the Galaxy's center. Path of Microquasar and Sun Path of Microquasar (red) and Sun (yellow) through the Milky Way Galaxy for the past 230 million years. Animations: GIF Version MPEG Version CREDIT: Mirabel & Rodrigues, NRAO/AUI/NSF The pair of stars, called Scorpius X-1, form a "microquasar," in which material sucked from the "normal" star forms a rapidly-rotating disk around the superdense neutron star. The disk becomes so hot it emits X-rays, and also spits out "jets" of subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light. Using precise positional data from the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and from optical telescopes, Felix Mirabel, an astrophysicist at the Institute for Astronomy and Space Physics of Argentina and French Atomic Energy Commission, and Irapuan Rodrigues, also of the French Atomic Energy Commission, calculated that Scorpius X-1 is not orbiting the Milky Way's center in step with most other stars, but instead follows an eccentric path far above and below the Galaxy's plane. Scorpius X-1, discovered with a rocket-borne X-ray telescope in 1962, is about 9,000 light-years from Earth. It is the brightest continuous source of X-rays beyond the Solar System. The 1962 discovery and associated work earned a share of the 2002 Nobel Prize in physics for Riccardo Giacconi. Mirabel and Rodrigues used a number of published observations to calculate the path of Scorpius X-1 over the past few million years. "This is the most accurate determination we have made of the path of an X-ray binary," said Mirabel. By tracing the object's path backward in time, the scientists were able to conclude that the neutron star and its companion have been traveling together for more than 30
Technology Paths in Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Jesper; Lund Sørensen, Runa Cecilie
2015-01-01
Various tehcnology paths and regimes, Building codes and standards in energy, eco and sustainable housing......Various tehcnology paths and regimes, Building codes and standards in energy, eco and sustainable housing...
comparative analysis and implementation of dijkstra's shortest path
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
path problem requires finding a single shortest-path between given vertices s and t; ... Bridge in 1735, [5 – 10]. This problem led to the .... their advancements from new design paradigms, data structures ..... .
Shortest Path Problems in a Stochastic and Dynamic Environment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cho, Jae
2003-01-01
.... Particularly, we develop a variety of algorithms to solve the expected shortest path problem in addition to techniques for computing the total travel time distribution along a path in the network...
Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment
Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.
1997-01-01
Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.
Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling
Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.
2010-01-01
Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…
Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle
2006-01-01
a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...
Path integral discussion for Smorodinsky-Winternitz potentials. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sissakian, A.N.
1994-02-01
Path integral formulations for the Smorodinsky-Winternitz potentials in two- and three-dimensional Euclidean space are presented. We mention all coordinate systems which separate the Smorodinsky-Winternitz potentials and state the corresponding path integral formulations. Whereas in many coordinate systems an explicit path integralformulation is not possible, we list in all soluble cases the path integral evaluations explicity in terms of the propagators and the spectral expansions into the wave-functions. (orig.)
Path probability of stochastic motion: A functional approach
Hattori, Masayuki; Abe, Sumiyoshi
2016-06-01
The path probability of a particle undergoing stochastic motion is studied by the use of functional technique, and the general formula is derived for the path probability distribution functional. The probability of finding paths inside a tube/band, the center of which is stipulated by a given path, is analytically evaluated in a way analogous to continuous measurements in quantum mechanics. Then, the formalism developed here is applied to the stochastic dynamics of stock price in finance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schafler, E.; Steiner, G.; KEXrber, M.; Zehetbauer, M.J.; Korznikova, E.
2005-01-01
Full text: Cu rods have been deformed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) up to shear strains γ ∼ 5 while applying various deformation paths A, B c and C. ECAP processed materials show a microstructure with grain sizes in the nanometer range and a high density of lattice defects. X-ray Bragg Profile Analyses (XPA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as well as Residual Electrical Resistivity (RER) measurements have been performed, in order to detect the densities of various deformation induced lattice defects and/or their arrangements. The results have been analyzed in terms of annealing of deformation induced dislocations and vacancies (vacancy agglomerates). Compared to conventional cold work procedures, deformation by ECAP achieves a strongly enhanced concentration of vacancy type defects. (author)
Path integral measure for first-order and metric gravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aros, Rodrigo; Contreras, Mauricio; Zanelli, Jorge
2003-01-01
The equivalence between the path integrals for first-order gravity and the standard torsion-free, metric gravity in 3 + 1 dimensions is analysed. Starting with the path integral for first-order gravity, the correct measure for the path integral of the metric theory is obtained
28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones, and...
76 FR 17064 - Shared Use Path Accessibility Guidelines
2011-03-28
...] RIN 3014-AA41 Shared Use Path Accessibility Guidelines AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation... (ANPRM) to develop accessibility guidelines for shared use paths. Shared use paths are designed for both... users. The guidelines will include technical provisions for making newly constructed and altered shared...
Generating Approximative Minimum Length Paths in 3D for UAVs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schøler, Flemming; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bisgaard, Morten
2012-01-01
We consider the challenge of planning a minimum length path from an initial position to a desired position for a rotorcraft. The path is found in a 3-dimensional Euclidean space containing a geometric obstacle. We base our approach on visibility graphs which have been used extensively for path pl...
A Path Space Extension for Robust Light Transport Simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hachisuka, Toshiya; Pantaleoni, Jacopo; Jensen, Henrik Wann
2012-01-01
We present a new sampling space for light transport paths that makes it possible to describe Monte Carlo path integration and photon density estimation in the same framework. A key contribution of our paper is the introduction of vertex perturbations, which extends the space of paths with loosely...
Extremal and Degree Conditions for Path Extendability in Digraphs
Zhang, Zan-Bo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Broersma, Hajo; Lou, Dingjun
2017-01-01
In the study of cycles and paths, the meta-conjecture of Bondy that sufficient conditions for Hamiltonicity often imply pancyclicity has motivated research on the existence of cycles and paths of many lengths. Hendry further introduced the stronger concepts of cycle extendability and path
Special cases of the quadratic shortest path problem
Sotirov, Renata; Hu, Hao
2017-01-01
The quadratic shortest path problem (QSPP) is the problem of finding a path with prespecified start vertex s and end vertex t in a digraph such that the sum of weights of arcs and the sum of interaction costs over all pairs of arcs on the path is minimized. We first consider a variant of the QSPP
A focussed dynamic path finding algorithm with constraints
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Leenen, L
2013-11-01
Full Text Available heuristic to focus the search for an optimal path. Existing approaches to solving path planning problems tend to combine path costs with various other criteria such as obstacle avoidance in the objective function which is being optimised. The authors...
Path integration on the upper half-plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, Reijiro.
1987-06-01
Feynman's path integral is considered on the Poincare upper half-plane. It is shown that the fundamental solution to the heat equation δf/δt = Δ H f can be expressed in terms of a path integral. A simple relation between the path integral and the Selberg trace formula is discussed briefly. (author)
Path Integration on the Upper Half-Plane
Reijiro, KUBO; Research Institute for Theoretical Physics Hiroshima University
1987-01-01
Feynman's path integral is considered on the Poincare upper half-plane. It is shown that the fundamental solution to the heat equation ∂f/∂t=Δ_Hf can be expressed in terms of a path integral. A simple relation between the path integral and the Selberg trace formula is discussed briefly.
Numerical and Experimental Study on the Residual Stresses in the Nitrided Steel
Song, X.; Zhang, Zhi-Qian; Narayanaswamy, S.; Huang, Y. Z.; Zarinejad, M.
2016-09-01
In the present work, residual stresses distribution in the gas nitrided AISI 4140 sample has been studied using finite element (FE) simulation. The nitrogen concentration profile is obtained from the diffusion-controlled compound layer growth model, and nitrogen concentration controls the material volume change through phase transformation and lattice interstitials which results in residual stresses. Such model is validated through residual stress measurement technique—micro-ring-core method, which is applied to the nitriding process to obtain the residual stresses profiles in both the compound and diffusion layer. The numerical and experimental results are in good agreement with each other; they both indicate significant stress variation in the compound layer, which was not captured in previous research works due to the resolution limit of the traditional methods.
Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moat, R.J.; Pinkerton, A.J.; Li, L.; Withers, P.J.; Preuss, M.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Neutron diffraction and the contour method show good agreement. → Tensile stresses found parallel to the surfaces. → Compressive stresses within the bulk of the structures. → Residual stress weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters. → Maximum tensile residual stress unaffected across range of pulse parameters used. - Abstract: This paper reports a study into the effect of laser pulse length and duty cycle on the residual stress distributions in multi-track laser direct metal deposits of Waspaloy onto an Inconel 718 substrate. The residual stresses have been evaluated using neutron diffraction and the contour method, while electron microscopy and micro hardness indentation have been used to map the concomitant microstructural variation. In all cases, near the tops of the deposited walls, the longitudinal stresses are tensile towards the mid-length of the wall, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are negligible. By contrast near the base of the walls, the stresses along the direction of deposition are small, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are compressive at the centre and tensile towards the ends. Consistent with previous observations, the stresses parallel to free surfaces are tensile, balanced by compressive stresses in the interior (an inverse quench stress profile). These profiles have been found to be weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters, most notably an increase in tensile stress gradient with increasing duty cycle, but the maximum residual stresses are largely unaffected. Furthermore, microstructural analysis has shown that the effect of laser pulse parameters on grain morphology in multi-track thick walls is less marked than previously reported for single-track wall structures.
Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moat, R.J., E-mail: richard.moat@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Pinkerton, A.J.; Li, L. [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J.; Preuss, M. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)
2011-03-15
Research highlights: {yields} Neutron diffraction and the contour method show good agreement. {yields} Tensile stresses found parallel to the surfaces. {yields} Compressive stresses within the bulk of the structures. {yields} Residual stress weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters. {yields} Maximum tensile residual stress unaffected across range of pulse parameters used. - Abstract: This paper reports a study into the effect of laser pulse length and duty cycle on the residual stress distributions in multi-track laser direct metal deposits of Waspaloy onto an Inconel 718 substrate. The residual stresses have been evaluated using neutron diffraction and the contour method, while electron microscopy and micro hardness indentation have been used to map the concomitant microstructural variation. In all cases, near the tops of the deposited walls, the longitudinal stresses are tensile towards the mid-length of the wall, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are negligible. By contrast near the base of the walls, the stresses along the direction of deposition are small, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are compressive at the centre and tensile towards the ends. Consistent with previous observations, the stresses parallel to free surfaces are tensile, balanced by compressive stresses in the interior (an inverse quench stress profile). These profiles have been found to be weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters, most notably an increase in tensile stress gradient with increasing duty cycle, but the maximum residual stresses are largely unaffected. Furthermore, microstructural analysis has shown that the effect of laser pulse parameters on grain morphology in multi-track thick walls is less marked than previously reported for single-track wall structures.
Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)
1993-12-31
Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.
Residual stress in polyethylene pipes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš
2016-01-01
Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016
Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista
2014-01-01
We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...
Solidification process for sludge residue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearce, K.L.
1998-01-01
This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria
Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.
2016-01-01
We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.
Pedestrian paths: why path-dependence theory leaves health policy analysis lost in space.
Brown, Lawrence D
2010-08-01
Path dependence, a model first advanced to explain puzzles in the diffusion of technology, has lately won allegiance among analysts of the politics of public policy, including health care policy. Though the central premise of the model--that past events and decisions shape options for innovation in the present and future--is indisputable (indeed path dependence is, so to speak, too shallow to be false), the approach, at least as applied to health policy, suffers from ambiguities that undercut its claims to illuminate policy projects such as managed care, on which this article focuses. Because path dependence adds little more than marginal value to familiar images of the politics of policy--incrementalism, for one--analysts might do well to put it on the back burner and pursue instead "thick descriptions" that help them to distinguish different degrees of openness to exogenous change among diverse policy arenas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Bin Loo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Current network simulators abstract out wireless propagation models due to the high computation requirements for realistic modeling. As such, there is still a large gap between the results obtained from simulators and real world scenario. In this paper, we present a framework for improved path loss simulation built on top of an existing network simulation software, NS-3. Different from the conventional disk model, the proposed simulation also considers the diffraction loss computed using Epstein and Peterson’s model through the use of actual terrain elevation data to give an accurate estimate of path loss between a transmitter and a receiver. The drawback of high computation requirements is relaxed by offloading the computationally intensive components onto an inexpensive off-the-shelf parallel coprocessor, which is a NVIDIA GPU. Experiments are performed using actual terrain elevation data provided from United States Geological Survey. As compared to the conventional CPU architecture, the experimental result shows that a speedup of 20x to 42x is achieved by exploiting the parallel processing of GPU to compute the path loss between two nodes using terrain elevation data. The result shows that the path losses between two nodes are greatly affected by the terrain profile between these two nodes. Besides this, the result also suggests that the common strategy to place the transmitter in the highest position may not always work.
Noncommutative quantum electrodynamics in path integral framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourouaine, S; Benslama, A [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria)
2005-08-19
In this paper, the dynamics of a relativistic particle of spin 1/2, interacting with an external electromagnetic field in noncommutative space, is studied in the path integral framework. By adopting the Fradkin-Gitman formulation, the exact Green's function in noncommutative space (NCGF) for the quadratic case of a constant electromagnetic field is computed, and it is shown that its form is similar to its counterpart given in commutative space. In addition, it is deduced that the effect of noncommutativity has the same effect as an additional constant field depending on a noncommutative {theta} matrix.
Noncommutative quantum electrodynamics in path integral framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourouaine, S; Benslama, A
2005-01-01
In this paper, the dynamics of a relativistic particle of spin 1/2, interacting with an external electromagnetic field in noncommutative space, is studied in the path integral framework. By adopting the Fradkin-Gitman formulation, the exact Green's function in noncommutative space (NCGF) for the quadratic case of a constant electromagnetic field is computed, and it is shown that its form is similar to its counterpart given in commutative space. In addition, it is deduced that the effect of noncommutativity has the same effect as an additional constant field depending on a noncommutative θ matrix
Feynman path integral and the interaction picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pugh, R.E.
1986-01-01
The role of interaction-picture fields in the construction of coherent states and in the derivation of the Feynman path integral for interacting scalar quantum fields is examined. Special attention is paid to the dependence of the integrand on the intermediate times and it is shown that the Feynman rules are valid prior to taking the limit wherein the number of intermediate times goes to infinity; thus, this number does not act as a cutoff in divergent amplitudes. Specific normalization factors are determined
Technical Development Path for Gas Foil Bearings
Dellacorte, Christopher
2016-01-01
Foil gas bearings are in widespread commercial use in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and microturbine generators and are emerging in more challenging applications such as turbochargers, auxiliary power units and propulsion gas turbines. Though not well known, foil bearing technology is well over fifty years old. Recent technological developments indicate that their full potential has yet to be realized. This paper investigates the key technological developments that have characterized foil bearing advances. It is expected that a better understanding of foil gas bearing development path will aid in future development and progress towards more advanced applications.
Ductile Damage Evolution and Strain Path Dependency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tasan, C. C.; Hoefnagels, J. M. P.; Peerlings, R. H. J.; Geers, M. G. D.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Vegter, H.
2007-01-01
Forming limit diagrams are commonly used in sheet metal industry to define the safe forming regions. These diagrams are built to define the necking strains of sheet metals. However, with the rise in the popularity of advance high strength steels, ductile fracture through damage evolution has also emerged as an important parameter in the determination of limit strains. In this work, damage evolution in two different steels used in the automotive industry is examined to observe the relationship between damage evolution and the strain path that is followed during the forming operation
Brexit na perspectiva do Path Dependency
Giorgio Romano Schutte
2018-01-01
Esta pesquisa analisou o Brexit em uma perspectiva histórica, focando a conturbada relação entre a Europa continental e o Reino Unido ao longo do século XX, com ênfase no período pós Segunda Guerra Mundial. Foi utilizado o conceito de path dependency para argumentar sobre o papel de fatores históricos e decisões do passado, embora tomados em outras circunstâncias, ainda com força para influenciar o presente, para entender o Brexit. A premissa básica que será apresentada no ensaio é que o Rein...
On the simplified path integral on spheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastianelli, Fiorenzo [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany); Corradini, Olindo [Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Modena (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany)
2017-11-15
We have recently studied a simplified version of the path integral for a particle on a sphere, and more generally on maximally symmetric spaces, and proved that Riemann normal coordinates allow the use of a quadratic kinetic term in the particle action. The emerging linear sigma model contains a scalar effective potential that reproduces the effects of the curvature. We present here further details of the construction, and extend its perturbative evaluation to orders high enough to read off the type-A trace anomalies of a conformal scalar in dimensions d = 14 and d = 16. (orig.)
Evaluation of Shortest Paths in Road Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farrukh Shehzad
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Optimization is a key factor in almost all the topics of operations research / management science and economics.The road networks can be optimized within different constraints like time, distance, cost and traffic running onthe roads.This study is based on optimization of real road network by means of distances. Two main objectives arepursued in this research: 1 road distances among different routes are composed in detail; 2 two standardalgorithms (Dijkstra and Floyd-Warshall algoritms are applied to optimize/minimize these distances for bothsingle-source and all-pairs shortest path problems.
Path integral for multi-field inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Postech, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Min-Seok [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science, 34051 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shiu, Gary [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Physics & Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)
2016-07-20
We develop the path integral formalism for studying cosmological perturbations in multi-field inflation, which is particularly well suited to study quantum theories with gauge symmetries such as diffeomorphism invariance. We formulate the gauge fixing conditions based on the Poisson brackets of the constraints, from which we derive two convenient gauges that are appropriate for multi-field inflation. We then adopt the in-in formalism to derive the most general expression for the power spectrum of the curvature perturbation including the corrections from the interactions of the curvature mode with other light degrees of freedom. We also discuss the contributions of the interactions to the bispectrum.
Kaspers, O. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Amelink, A.
2008-01-01
We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 mu m to 1000 mu m. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering
Line-of-Sight Path Following for Dubins Paths with Adaptive Sideslip Compensation of Drift Forces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fossen, Thor Inge; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Galeazzi, Roberto
2015-01-01
guidance law is intended for maneuvering in the horizontal-plane at given speeds and typical applications are marine craft, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as well as other vehicles and craft where the goal is to follow a predefined parametrized curve without time......-sight (LOS) guidance principle used by ancient navigators, which is here extended to path following of Dubins paths. The unknown sideslip angle is treated as a constant parameter, which is estimated using an adaptation law. The equilibrium points of the cross-track and parameter estimation errors are proven...
Radioactive material in residues of health services residues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.
2006-01-01
The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)
Analysis of construction dynamic plan using fuzzy critical path method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurij Kazimir V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Critical Path Method (CPM technique has become widely recognized as valuable tool for the planning and scheduling large construction projects. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical method for finding the Critical Path in the precedence network diagram where the duration of each activity is represented by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. This Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM uses a defuzzification formula for trapezoidal fuzzy number and applies it on the total float (slack time for each activity in the fuzzy precedence network to find the critical path. The method presented in this paper is very effective in determining the critical activities and finding the critical paths.
Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt; Jónsson, Hannes
2014-01-01
A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used
Automated path length and M56 measurements at Jefferson Lab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardy, D.; Tang, J.; Legg, R.
1997-01-01
Accurate measurement of path length and path length changes versus momentum (M 56 ) are critical for maintaining minimum beam energy spread in the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The relative path length for each circuit of the beam (1256m) must be equal within 1.5 degrees of 1497 MHz RF phase. A relative path length measurement is made by measuring the relative phases of RF signals from a cavity that is separately excited for each pass of a 4.2 μs pulsed beam. This method distinguishes the path length to less than 0.5 path length error. The development of a VME based automated measurement system for path length and M 56 has contributed to faster machine setup time and has the potential for use as a feedback parameter for automated control
Path Dependency of High Pressure Phase Transformations
Cerreta, Ellen
2017-06-01
At high pressures titanium and zirconium are known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP), alpha-phase to the simple-hexagonal, omega-phase. Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega-phase can be retained upon release. It has been shown that temperature, peak shock stress, and texture can influence the transformation. Moreover, under these same loading conditions, plastic processes of slip and twinning are also affected by similar differences in the loading path. To understand this path dependency, in-situ velocimetry measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to qualitatively understand the kinetics of transformation, quantify volume fraction of retained omega-phase and characterize the shocked alpha and omega-phases. Together the work described here can be utilized to map the non-equilibrium phase diagram for these metals and lend insight into the partitioning of plastic processes between phases during high pressure transformation. In collaboration with: Frank Addesssio, Curt Bronkhorst, Donald Brown, David Jones, Turab Lookman, Benjamin Morrow, Carl Trujillo, Los Alamos National Lab.; Juan Pablo Escobedo-Diaz, University of New South Wales; Paulo Rigg, Washington State University.
Diversion path analysis handbook. Volume I. Methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maltese, M.D.K.; Goodwin, K.E.; Schleter, J.C.
1976-10-01
Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a procedure for analyzing internal controls of a facility in order to identify vulnerabilities to successful diversion of material by an adversary. The internal covert threat is addressed but the results are also applicable to the external overt threat. The diversion paths are identified. Complexity parameters include records alteration or falsification, multiple removals of sub-threshold quantities, collusion, and access authorization of the individual. Indicators, or data elements and information of significance to detection of unprevented theft, are identified by means of DPA. Indicator sensitivity is developed in terms of the threshold quantity, the elapsed time between removal and indication and the degree of localization of facility area and personnel given by the indicator. Evaluation of facility internal controls in light of these sensitivities defines the capability of interrupting identified adversary action sequences related to acquisition of material at fixed sites associated with the identified potential vulnerabilities. Corrective measures can, in many cases, also be prescribed for management consideration and action. DPA theory and concepts have been developing over the last several years, and initial field testing proved both the feasibility and practicality of the procedure. Follow-on implementation testing verified the ability of facility personnel to perform DPA
Data Science in Radiology: A Path Forward.
Aerts, Hugo J W L
2018-02-01
Artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning, has the potential to fundamentally alter clinical radiology. AI algorithms, which excel in quantifying complex patterns in data, have shown remarkable progress in applications ranging from self-driving cars to speech recognition. The AI application within radiology, known as radiomics, can provide detailed quantifications of the radiographic characteristics of underlying tissues. This information can be used throughout the clinical care path to improve diagnosis and treatment planning, as well as assess treatment response. This tremendous potential for clinical translation has led to a vast increase in the number of research studies being conducted in the field, a number that is expected to rise sharply in the future. Many studies have reported robust and meaningful findings; however, a growing number also suffer from flawed experimental or analytic designs. Such errors could not only result in invalid discoveries, but also may lead others to perpetuate similar flaws in their own work. This perspective article aims to increase awareness of the issue, identify potential reasons why this is happening, and provide a path forward. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 532-4. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Robotic Online Path Planning on Point Cloud.
Liu, Ming
2016-05-01
This paper deals with the path-planning problem for mobile wheeled- or tracked-robot which drive in 2.5-D environments, where the traversable surface is usually considered as a 2-D-manifold embedded in a 3-D ambient space. Specially, we aim at solving the 2.5-D navigation problem using raw point cloud as input. The proposed method is independent of traditional surface parametrization or reconstruction methods, such as a meshing process, which generally has high-computational complexity. Instead, we utilize the output of 3-D tensor voting framework on the raw point clouds. The computation of tensor voting is accelerated by optimized implementation on graphics computation unit. Based on the tensor voting results, a novel local Riemannian metric is defined using the saliency components, which helps the modeling of the latent traversable surface. Using the proposed metric, we prove that the geodesic in the 3-D tensor space leads to rational path-planning results by experiments. Compared to traditional methods, the results reveal the advantages of the proposed method in terms of smoothing the robot maneuver while considering the minimum travel distance.
Gibbon travel paths are goal oriented.
Asensio, Norberto; Brockelman, Warren Y; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Reichard, Ulrich H
2011-05-01
Remembering locations of food resources is critical for animal survival. Gibbons are territorial primates which regularly travel through small and stable home ranges in search of preferred, limited and patchily distributed resources (primarily ripe fruit). They are predicted to profit from an ability to memorize the spatial characteristics of their home range and may increase their foraging efficiency by using a 'cognitive map' either with Euclidean or with topological properties. We collected ranging and feeding data from 11 gibbon groups (Hylobates lar) to test their navigation skills and to better understand gibbons' 'spatial intelligence'. We calculated the locations at which significant travel direction changes occurred using the change-point direction test and found that these locations primarily coincided with preferred fruit sources. Within the limits of biologically realistic visibility distances observed, gibbon travel paths were more efficient in detecting known preferred food sources than a heuristic travel model based on straight travel paths in random directions. Because consecutive travel change-points were far from the gibbons' sight, planned movement between preferred food sources was the most parsimonious explanation for the observed travel patterns. Gibbon travel appears to connect preferred food sources as expected under the assumption of a good mental representation of the most relevant sources in a large-scale space.
Flexible integration of path-planning capabilities
Stobie, Iain C.; Tambe, Milind; Rosenbloom, Paul S.
1993-05-01
Robots pursuing complex goals must plan paths according to several criteria of quality, including shortness, safety, speed and planning time. Many sources and kinds of knowledge, such as maps, procedures and perception, may be available or required. Both the quality criteria and sources of knowledge may vary widely over time, and in general they will interact. One approach to address this problem is to express all criteria and goals numerically in a single weighted graph, and then to search this graph to determine a path. Since this is problematic with symbolic or uncertain data and interacting criteria, we propose that what is needed instead is an integration of many kinds of planning capabilities. We describe a hybrid approach to integration, based on experiments with building simulated mobile robots using Soar, an integrated problem-solving and learning system. For flexibility, we have implemented a combination of internal planning, reactive capabilities and specialized tools. We illustrate how these components can complement each other's limitations and produce plans which integrate geometric and task knowledge.
Laser enrichment: a new path to proliferation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casper, B.M.
1977-01-01
The use of lasers to obtain enriched uranium is an easier and cheaper method than methods currently in use. The immediate concern is that it could promote easy access to nuclear weapons by countries that do not presently have them. Mr. Casper feels that the U.S. government is working against itself; while the State Department is seeking to block one path to proliferation, ERDA laboratories are developing new technology that could open another. The proliferation implications have not been factored in a serious way into the decisions to proceed with this research. It is also clear that the United States does not now have a comprehensive policy that deals with all potentially important paths to proliferation, including laser enrichment. Mr. Casper states that there is still time to stop and consider whether laser enrichment should be developed, in light of its broader consequences. But this will not happen if the decisions are left exclusively in the hands of those promoting the technology, the author says. It is just this sort of situation that prompted the creation of several government institutions to provide independent assessments of new technologies. The Office of Technology Assessment, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency all have the authority to intervene. Laser enrichment provides a good test of these institutions and of the viability of the concept of technology assessment. The status, benefits and risks, and the policy needed on laser research are discussed
Quantum gravitation. The Feynman path integral approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamber, Herbert W.
2009-01-01
The book covers the theory of Quantum Gravitation from the point of view of Feynman path integrals. These provide a manifestly covariant approach in which fundamental quantum aspects of the theory such as radiative corrections and the renormalization group can be systematically and consistently addressed. The path integral method is suitable for both perturbative as well as non-perturbative studies, and is known to already provide a framework of choice for the theoretical investigation of non-abelian gauge theories, the basis for three of the four known fundamental forces in nature. The book thus provides a coherent outline of the present status of the theory gravity based on Feynman's formulation, with an emphasis on quantitative results. Topics are organized in such a way that the correspondence to similar methods and results in modern gauge theories becomes apparent. Covariant perturbation theory are developed using the full machinery of Feynman rules, gauge fixing, background methods and ghosts. The renormalization group for gravity and the existence of non-trivial ultraviolet fixed points are investigated, stressing a close correspondence with well understood statistical field theory models. Later the lattice formulation of gravity is presented as an essential tool towards an understanding of key features of the non-perturbative vacuum. The book ends with a discussion of contemporary issues in quantum cosmology such as scale dependent gravitational constants and quantum effects in the early universe. (orig.)
HMMEditor: a visual editing tool for profile hidden Markov model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Jianlin
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Profile Hidden Markov Model (HMM is a powerful statistical model to represent a family of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences. Profile HMM has been widely used in bioinformatics research such as sequence alignment, gene structure prediction, motif identification, protein structure prediction, and biological database search. However, few comprehensive, visual editing tools for profile HMM are publicly available. Results We develop a visual editor for profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMEditor. HMMEditor can visualize the profile HMM architecture, transition probabilities, and emission probabilities. Moreover, it provides functions to edit and save HMM and parameters. Furthermore, HMMEditor allows users to align a sequence against the profile HMM and to visualize the corresponding Viterbi path. Conclusion HMMEditor provides a set of unique functions to visualize and edit a profile HMM. It is a useful tool for biological sequence analysis and modeling. Both HMMEditor software and web service are freely available.
Measurements of three dimensional residual stress distribution on laser irradiated spot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Hirotomo; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi; Sano, Yuji; Naito, Hideki
2004-01-01
Three dimensional residual stress distributions on laser irradiated spots were measured using synchrotron radiation to study the basic mechanism of laser peening. A water-immersed sample of high tensile strength steel was irradiated with Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The residual stress depth profile of the sample was obtained by alternately repeating the measurement and surface layer removal by electrolytic polishing. Tensile residual stresses were observed on the surface of all irradiated spots, whereas residual stress changed to compressive just beneath the surface. The depth of compressive residual stress imparted by laser irradiation and plastic deformation zone increased with increasing the number of laser pulses irradiated on the same spot. (author)
A Note on the Inverse Reconstruction of Residual Fields in Surface Peened Plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ali Faghidian
Full Text Available Abstract A modified stress function approach is developed here to reconstruct induced stress, residual stress and eigenstrain fields from limited experimental measurements. The present approach is successfully applied to three experimental measurements set in surface peened plates with shallow shot peening affected zone. The well-rehearsed advantage of the proposed approach is that it not only minimizes the deviation of measurements from its approximations but also will result in an inverse solution satisfying a full range of continuum mechanics requirements. Also, the effect of component thickness as a geometric parameter influencing the residual stress state is comprehensively studied. A key finding of present study is that the plate thickness has no influence on the maximum magnitude of eigenstrain profile and compressive residual stresses within the shot peening affected zone while having a great influence on the magnitude of tensile residual stress and the gradient of linear residual stresses present in deeper regions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2008-08-15
In nuclear power plants, ferritic low alloy steel nozzle was connected with austenitic stainless steel piping system through alloy 82/182 butt weld. Accurate estimation of residual stress for weldment is important in the sense that alloy 82/182 is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. There are many results which predict residual stress distribution for alloy 82/182 weld between nozzle and pipe. However, nozzle and piping system usually connected through safe end which has short length. In this paper, residual stress distribution for pressurizer nozzle of Kori nuclear power plant was predicted using FE analysis, which considered safe end. As a result, existing residual stress profile was redistributed and residual stress of inner surface was decreased specially. It means that safe end should be considered to reduce conservatism when estimating the piping system.
Model Checking Real Time Java Using Java PathFinder
Lindstrom, Gary; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Visser, Willem
2005-01-01
The Real Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) is an augmentation of Java for real time applications of various degrees of hardness. The central features of RTSJ are real time threads; user defined schedulers; asynchronous events, handlers, and control transfers; a priority inheritance based default scheduler; non-heap memory areas such as immortal and scoped, and non-heap real time threads whose execution is not impeded by garbage collection. The Robust Software Systems group at NASA Ames Research Center has JAVA PATHFINDER (JPF) under development, a Java model checker. JPF at its core is a state exploring JVM which can examine alternative paths in a Java program (e.g., via backtracking) by trying all nondeterministic choices, including thread scheduling order. This paper describes our implementation of an RTSJ profile (subset) in JPF, including requirements, design decisions, and current implementation status. Two examples are analyzed: jobs on a multiprogramming operating system, and a complex resource contention example involving autonomous vehicles crossing an intersection. The utility of JPF in finding logic and timing errors is illustrated, and the remaining challenges in supporting all of RTSJ are assessed.
Residual stress in sprayed Ni+5%Al coatings determined by neutron diffraction
Matejicek, J; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Prask, H J
2002-01-01
Coatings of nickel-based alloys are used in numerous high-performance applications. Their properties and lifetimes are influenced by factors such as residual stress. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for nondestructive residual stress determination. In this study, through-thickness residual stress profiles in Ni+5%Al coatings on steel substrates were determined. Two examples of significantly different spraying techniques - plasma spraying and cold spraying - are highlighted. Different stress-generation mechanisms are discussed with respect to process parameters and material properties. (orig.)
Validation of Tilt Gain under Realistic Path Loss Model and Network Scenario
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nguyen, Huan Cong; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard
2013-01-01
Despite being a simple and commonly-applied radio optimization technique, the impact on practical network performance from base station antenna downtilt is not well understood. Most published studies based on empirical path loss models report tilt angles and performance gains that are far higher...... than practical experience suggests. We motivate in this paper, based on a practical LTE scenario, that the discrepancy partly lies in the path loss model, and shows that a more detailed semi-deterministic model leads to both lower gains in terms of SINR, outage probability and downlink throughput...... settings, including the use of electrical and/or mechanical antenna downtilt, and therefore it is possible to find multiple optimum tilt profiles in a practical case. A broader implication of this study is that care must be taken when using the 3GPP model to evaluate advanced adaptive antenna techniques...
Two-dimensional velocity models for paths from Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walck, M.C.; Phillips, J.S.
1990-11-01
Vertical acceleration recordings of 21 underground nuclear explosions recorded at stations at Yucca Mountain provide the data for development of three two-dimensional crystal velocity profiles for portions of the Nevada Test Site. Paths from Area 19, Area 20 (both Pahute Mesa), and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain have been modeled using asymptotic ray theory travel time and synthetic seismogram techniques. Significant travel time differences exist between the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa source areas; relative amplitude patterns at Yucca Mountain also shift with changing source azimuth. The three models, UNEPM1, UNEPM2, and UNEYF1, successfully predict the travel time and amplitude data for all three paths. 24 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs
Degenerated graphite nodules influence on fatigue crack paths in a ferritic ductile cast iron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Iacoviello
2015-10-01
Full Text Available ferritic to a completely pearlitic matrix, and they are widely used for many applications (e.g. wheels, gears, crankshafts in cars, exhaust manifolds, valves, flywheels, boxes bearings, hubs, shafts, valves, flanges, pipelines .... Considering the graphite elements, their morphology can be considered as degenerated when its nodularity is too low and this can be due to different causes (e.g., a partially failed nodularization process or a wrong inoculant. In this work, a ferritic DCI with degenerated nodules was obtained by means of an annealing treatment and the fatigue crack propagation resistance was investigated by means of fatigue crack propagation tests performed according to ASTM E647, focusing on the influence of degenerated graphite nodules on the fatigue crack paths. This analysis was performed both analysing the crack path profile by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM and by means of a SEM fracture surfaces analysis
Mitrinović, Dragoslav S
1993-01-01
Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...
Calcination/dissolution residue treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.
1994-09-01
Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination
Residue management at Rocky Flats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olencz, J.
1995-01-01
Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes
Residual life management. Maintenance improvement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.
1995-01-01
The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)
Quantum circuit dynamics via path integrals: Is there a classical action for discrete-time paths?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penney, Mark D; Koh, Dax Enshan; Spekkens, Robert W
2017-01-01
It is straightforward to compute the transition amplitudes of a quantum circuit using the sum-over-paths methodology when the gates in the circuit are balanced, where a balanced gate is one for which all non-zero transition amplitudes are of equal magnitude. Here we consider the question of whether, for such circuits, the relative phases of different discrete-time paths through the configuration space can be defined in terms of a classical action, as they are for continuous-time paths. We show how to do so for certain kinds of quantum circuits, namely, Clifford circuits where the elementary systems are continuous-variable systems or discrete systems of odd-prime dimension. These types of circuit are distinguished by having phase-space representations that serve to define their classical counterparts. For discrete systems, the phase-space coordinates are also discrete variables. We show that for each gate in the generating set, one can associate a symplectomorphism on the phase-space and to each of these one can associate a generating function, defined on two copies of the configuration space. For discrete systems, the latter association is achieved using tools from algebraic geometry. Finally, we show that if the action functional for a discrete-time path through a sequence of gates is defined using the sum of the corresponding generating functions, then it yields the correct relative phases for the path-sum expression. These results are likely to be relevant for quantizing physical theories where time is fundamentally discrete, characterizing the classical limit of discrete-time quantum dynamics, and proving complexity results for quantum circuits. (paper)
Quantum circuit dynamics via path integrals: Is there a classical action for discrete-time paths?
Penney, Mark D.; Enshan Koh, Dax; Spekkens, Robert W.
2017-07-01
It is straightforward to compute the transition amplitudes of a quantum circuit using the sum-over-paths methodology when the gates in the circuit are balanced, where a balanced gate is one for which all non-zero transition amplitudes are of equal magnitude. Here we consider the question of whether, for such circuits, the relative phases of different discrete-time paths through the configuration space can be defined in terms of a classical action, as they are for continuous-time paths. We show how to do so for certain kinds of quantum circuits, namely, Clifford circuits where the elementary systems are continuous-variable systems or discrete systems of odd-prime dimension. These types of circuit are distinguished by having phase-space representations that serve to define their classical counterparts. For discrete systems, the phase-space coordinates are also discrete variables. We show that for each gate in the generating set, one can associate a symplectomorphism on the phase-space and to each of these one can associate a generating function, defined on two copies of the configuration space. For discrete systems, the latter association is achieved using tools from algebraic geometry. Finally, we show that if the action functional for a discrete-time path through a sequence of gates is defined using the sum of the corresponding generating functions, then it yields the correct relative phases for the path-sum expression. These results are likely to be relevant for quantizing physical theories where time is fundamentally discrete, characterizing the classical limit of discrete-time quantum dynamics, and proving complexity results for quantum circuits.
Residual stress measurement in veneering ceramic by hole-drilling.
Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J
2011-05-01
Mismatch in thermal expansion properties between veneering ceramic and metallic or high-strength ceramic cores can induce residual stresses and initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. Knowledge of the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic is a key factor for understanding and predicting chipping failures, which are well-known problems with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objectives of this study are to develop a method for measuring the stress profile in veneering ceramics and to compare ceramic-fused-to-metal compounds to veneered Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal ceramic. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. Because of the high sensitivity needed in comparison with industrial applications, a high sensitivity electrical measurement chain was developed. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth and becoming tensile at 0.5-1.0mm from the surface, and then becoming slightly compressive again. The zirconia samples exhibited a stress depth profile of larger magnitude. The hole drilling method was shown be a practical tool for measuring residual stresses in veneering ceramics. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis Of Economic Motivation When Individuals Choose An Educational Path
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viktor Anatolyevich Koksharov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The authors consider the economic motivations when individuals choose an educational path. This line of research is relevant from both, the point of view of science — research of economic behavior of an individual, and the point of view of practice — allows to increase efficiency of investments in a human capital. The authors have developed the economic and mathematical model of choice of optimum educational paths by individuals. The model is realized in the software and approved on real data on more than 5,5 thousand students. For the analysis of the importance of rational economic expectations when an educational path has to be chosen, the paths chosen by students is compared and the educational paths optimum from the point of view of economic rationality are calculated. The analysis of the results has showed that mainly, the choice of educational paths happens according to the economic motivations. On the considered selection, 66 % of prospective students have chosen an optimum path from the point of view of economic preferences. The most significant factor providing development of optimum educational paths is an expectation of higher income upon completion of education — 22 % of all educational paths, and a possibility of cost-cutting of educating or state-subsidized education — 12 %. In our opinion, one of the most important practical results of the research of optimum educational path is the need to consider expectations of students and prospective student when developing a state policy of investment in human capital.
Webb, Ryan W.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Gooseff, Michael N.
2018-01-01
In many mountainous regions around the world, snow and soil moisture are key components of the hydrologic cycle. Preferential flow paths of snowmelt water through snow have been known to occur for years with few studies observing the effect on soil moisture. In this study, statistical analysis of the topographical and hydrological controls on the spatiotemporal variability of snow water equivalent (SWE) and soil moisture during snowmelt was undertaken at a subalpine forested setting with north, south, and flat aspects as a seasonally persistent snowpack melts. We investigated if evidence of preferential flow paths in snow can be observed and the effect on soil moisture through measurements of snow water equivalent and near-surface soil moisture, observing how SWE and near-surface soil moisture vary on hillslopes relative to the toes of hillslopes and flat areas. We then compared snowmelt infiltration beyond the near-surface soil between flat and sloping terrain during the entire snowmelt season using soil moisture sensor profiles. This study was conducted during varying snowmelt seasons representing above-normal, relatively normal, and below-normal snow seasons in northern Colorado. Evidence is presented of preferential meltwater flow paths at the snow-soil interface on the north-facing slope causing increases in SWE downslope and less infiltration into the soil at 20 cm depth; less association is observed in the near-surface soil moisture (top 7 cm). We present a conceptualization of the meltwater flow paths that develop based on slope aspect and soil properties. The resulting flow paths are shown to divert at least 4 % of snowmelt laterally, accumulating along the length of the slope, to increase the snow water equivalent by as much as 170 % at the base of a north-facing hillslope. Results from this study show that snow acts as an extension of the vadose zone during spring snowmelt and future hydrologic investigations will benefit from studying the snow and soil
The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robinson, J.S., E-mail: jeremy.robinson@ul.ie [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); Redington, W. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)
2015-07-15
The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin{sup 2}ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling.
Wang, Xiaojuan; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A; Tang, Caixian
2017-06-01
Residues differing in quality and carbon (C) chemistry are presumed to contribute differently to soil pH change and long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) pools. This study examined the liming effect of different crop residues (canola, chickpea and wheat) down the soil profile (0-30cm) in two sandy soils differing in initial pH as well as the long-term stability of SOC at the amended layer (0-10cm) using mid-infrared (MIR) and solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A field column experiment was conducted for 48months. Chickpea- and canola-residue amendments increased soil pH at 0-10cm in the Podzol by up to 0.47 and 0.36units, and in the Cambisol by 0.31 and 0.18units, respectively, at 48months when compared with the non-residue-amended control. The decomposition of crop residues was greatly retarded in the Podzol with lower initial soil pH during the first 9months. The MIR-predicted particulate organic C (POC) acted as the major C sink for residue-derived C in the Podzol. In contrast, depletion of POC and recovery of residue C in MIR-predicted humic organic C (HOC) were detected in the Cambisol within 3months. Residue types showed little impact on total SOC and its chemical composition in the Cambisol at 48months, in contrast to the Podzol. The final HOC and resistant organic C (ROC) pools in the Podzol amended with canola and chickpea residues were about 25% lower than the control. This apparent priming effect might be related to the greater liming effect of these two residues in the Podzol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.
Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G
2018-02-01
Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...
Superconducting materials - the path to applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evetts, J E; Glowacki, B A [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity and Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)
2000-05-01
As the application of high-temperature superconductivity gradually becomes a reality it is clear that painstaking incremental progress in the development of materials is the key to success. Superconducting materials can only be applied against an engineering specification that has to be determined for each particular application from the design requirements for economic viability and for operation and safety margins in service. As a consequence the type of research activity appropriate for the development and optimization of a conductor processing route varies depending on the maturity of the technology. In this overview the evolution of research activity will be followed from near market industry driven design and development of fully engineered conductors through to research on basic and enabling science for materials processing that is largely academic and curiosity driven. The most effective path to applications depends on a considered balance of research that is different for each conductor family depending on the state of maturity of the conductor processing route. (author)
Structural equation models from paths to networks
Westland, J Christopher
2015-01-01
This compact reference surveys the full range of available structural equation modeling (SEM) methodologies. It reviews applications in a broad range of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences where many key concepts are not directly observable. This is the first book to present SEM’s development in its proper historical context–essential to understanding the application, strengths and weaknesses of each particular method. This book also surveys the emerging path and network approaches that complement and enhance SEM, and that will grow in importance in the near future. SEM’s ability to accommodate unobservable theory constructs through latent variables is of significant importance to social scientists. Latent variable theory and application are comprehensively explained, and methods are presented for extending their power, including guidelines for data preparation, sample size calculation, and the special treatment of Likert scale data. Tables of software, methodologies and fit st...
Path integral approach to multidimensional quantum tunnelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balantekin, A.B.; Takigawa, N.
1985-01-01
Path integral formulation of the coupled channel problem in the case of multidimensional quantum tunneling is presented and two-time influence functionals are introduced. The two-time influence functionals are calculated explicitly for the three simplest cases: Harmonic oscillators linearly or quadratically coupled to the translational motion and a system with finite number of equidistant energy levels linearly coupled to the translational motion. The effects of these couplings on the transmission probability are studied for two limiting cases, adiabatic case and when the internal system has a degenerate energy spectrum. The condition for the transmission probability to show a resonant structure is discussed and exemplified. Finally, the properties of the dissipation factor in the adiabatic limit and its correlation with the friction coefficient in the classically accessible region are studied
Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadja FURLAN ŠTANTE
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm of mindfulness. This paper carries out a theoretical analysis of the possibility of integrating the paradigm of mindfulness with the paradigm of feminist spirituality. In this view, the paradigm shift toward integrating spiritual and social justice and ecological balance is examined. It also examines possibility of transformation of negative gender stereotypes with the help of mindfulness, loving kindness, compassion and ethics. From this point of view, the application of mindfulness in education (especially childhood, primary and secondary schools is considered.
Estimation of network path segment delays
Nichols, Kathleen Marie
2018-05-01
A method for estimation of a network path segment delay includes determining a scaled time stamp for each packet of a plurality of packets by scaling a time stamp for each respective packet to minimize a difference of at least one of a frequency and a frequency drift between a transport protocol clock of a host and a monitoring point. The time stamp for each packet is provided by the transport protocol clock of the host. A corrected time stamp for each packet is determined by removing from the scaled time stamp for each respective packet, a temporal offset between the transport protocol clock and the monitoring clock by minimizing a temporal delay variation of the plurality of packets traversing a segment between the host and the monitoring point.
Simulation of car movement along circular path
Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.
2017-10-01
Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.
Hot gas path component cooling system
Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael
2014-02-18
A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.
Search for minimal paths in modified networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, W.-C.
2002-01-01
The problem of searching for all minimal paths (MPs) in a network obtained by modifying the original network, e.g. for network expansion or reinforcement, is discussed and solved in this study. The existing best-known method to solve this problem was a straightforward approach. It needed extensive comparison and verification, and failed to solve some special but important cases. Therefore, a more efficient, intuitive and generalized method to search for all MPs without an extensive research procedure is proposed. In this presentation, first we develop an intuitive algorithm based upon the reformation of all MPs in the original network to search for all MPs in a modified network. Next, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and compared with the existing methods. Finally, examples illustrate how all MPs are generated in a modified network based upon the reformation of all of the MPs in the corresponding original network
Parallel paths to improve heart failure outcomes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albert, Nancy M.
2013-01-01
-based, heart failure guidelines improves clinical outcomes. Thus, nurses and patients are on parallel paths related to setting the foundation for improved self-care adherence in advanced heart failure. Through research, we found that nurses were not adequately prepared as heart failure educators...... and that patients did not believe they were able to control heart failure. In 2 educational intervention studies that aimed to help patients understand that they could control fluid management and follow a strict daily fluid limit, patients had improved clinical outcomes. Thus, misperceptions about heart failure......Gaps and disparities in delivery of heart failure education by nurses and performance in accomplishing self-care behaviors by patients with advanced heart failure may be factors in clinical decompensation and unplanned consumption of health care. Is nurse-led education effectively delivered before...
Nanotechnology - A path forward for developing nations
Shah, S. Ismat; Powers, Thomas M.
2015-10-01
One of the major issues with technology in general, and nanotechnology in particular, is that it could exacerbate the divide between developed and developing nations. If the benefits of the research do not flow beyond the national and geographical borders of the traditional major bastions of R&D, these benefits will not be equally and globally available. The consequence is that the technological divide becomes wider at the expense of mutual reliance. As much as developed nations need to rethink the strategy and the policy to bring nanotechnology products to market with the goal of global prosperity, developing nations cannot afford to simply wait for the lead from the developed nations. In the spirit of collaboration and collegiality, we describe issues with the current practices in nanotechnology R&D in the developing world and suggest a path for nanotechnology research in energy, water and the environment that developing nations could follow in order to become contributors rather than simply consumers.
Measuring Oscillating Walking Paths with a LIDAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordi Palacín
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This work describes the analysis of different walking paths registered using a Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR laser range sensor in order to measure oscillating trajectories during unsupervised walking. The estimate of the gait and trajectory parameters were obtained with a terrestrial LIDAR placed 100 mm above the ground with the scanning plane parallel to the floor to measure the trajectory of the legs without attaching any markers or modifying the floor. Three different large walking experiments were performed to test the proposed measurement system with straight and oscillating trajectories. The main advantages of the proposed system are the possibility to measure several steps and obtain average gait parameters and the minimum infrastructure required. This measurement system enables the development of new ambulatory applications based on the analysis of the gait and the trajectory during a walk.
Superconducting materials - the path to applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evetts, J.E.; Glowacki, B.A.
2000-01-01
As the application of high-temperature superconductivity gradually becomes a reality it is clear that painstaking incremental progress in the development of materials is the key to success. Superconducting materials can only be applied against an engineering specification that has to be determined for each particular application from the design requirements for economic viability and for operation and safety margins in service. As a consequence the type of research activity appropriate for the development and optimization of a conductor processing route varies depending on the maturity of the technology. In this overview the evolution of research activity will be followed from near market industry driven design and development of fully engineered conductors through to research on basic and enabling science for materials processing that is largely academic and curiosity driven. The most effective path to applications depends on a considered balance of research that is different for each conductor family depending on the state of maturity of the conductor processing route. (author)
Random path formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roncadelli, M.
1993-01-01
Quantum amplitudes satisfy (almost) the same calculus that probabilities obey in the theory of classical stochastic diffusion processes. As a consequence of this structural analogy, a new formulation of (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics naturally arises as the quantum counterpart of the Langevin description of (classical) stochastic diffusion processes. Quantum fluctuations are simulated here by a Fresnel white noise (FWN), which is a (real) white noise with imaginary diffusion constant, whose functional (pseudo) measure yields the amplitude distribution for its configurations. Central to this approach is the idea that classical dynamical trajectories in configuration space are perturbed by the FWN. Hence, a single (arbitrary) classical dynamical path gets replaced by a family of quantum random paths (QRPs) - one for each FWN sample - all originating from the same space-time point (x', t'). The QRPs are the basic objects of the present formulation and are given by a Langevin equation with the FWN, whose drift is controlled by a (arbitrary) solution to the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation. So, our approach is manifestly based on classical dynamics. Now, a transition amplitude is associated with each QRP: it gives the amplitude that a particle starting from (x', t') will reach (x'', t'') by travelling just along the considered QRP. The quantum mechanical propagator (x'', t'' modul x', t') then emerges as the FWN average of the transition amplitude along a QRP. Thus, quantum mechanics looks like classical mechanics as perturbed by the FWN. The general structure of this formulation is discussed in detail, along with some practical and conceptual implications. (author). 14 refs
Critical incidents in headteachers’ professional paths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jurema Silvia de Souza Alves
2015-11-01
Full Text Available School management is considered one of the greatest challenges in achieving quality standards in contemporary education. Understanding the path of its main protagonist, the manager, living in a time and context that is different from those in which he/she acts, is essential to guide continued career management as well as to re-advise the initial career of teachersand future managers. In order to contribute to this knowledge, we present the result of a biographical-narrative research project that seeks to identify the critical incidents present in the professional lives of school managers from a medium-sized municipality in São Paulo state, Brazil. The answers to a questionnaire made it possible to characterize 25 managers, 32 of which being from school units in the city, and to select nine for interview. The interviews, which were transcribed and organized into biograms, showed that these professionals, mostly women, unlike the men surveyed, did not direct their careers to a role in management. Most of the regular critical incidents on their professional paths refer to the influence of supervisors who recommended them or encouraged them to study for admission tests related to management; the birth of their children, which motivated them to progress in their careers and/or promoting a break for future investment; their initial training, for many the Faculty of Education, was considered by participants as being insufficient for a role in management. It is considered that the career in management must be intensified as a continued career and be revised/altered from its initial background, so that managing activities correspond to the objectives of a high quality education.